Cape Cod Waterways Face Pollution Crisis

1. 1 2. 1 In August, the problem of excess nitrogen in Cape Cod waterways is sometimes seen before it is smelled. A. True B. False Without remediation, excess nitrogen could decimate shellfish beds and lead to widespread summer [A]__________.

3. The algae of the waterways bakes under the hot sun, and produces a foul [1]__________. 1 1 4. Though they know it's a big problem, environmentalists don't think the Cape Cod pollution is that big of a problem. A. True
5. 1 A. Leach fields B. Specialized wastewater pipes 6. 1

B. False
C. D. Septic systems Sewers

Cape Cod towns chose not to install what items when the government helped subsidize them?

Why have many Cape Cod towns have not been very successful in fixing their polluted waterways?

7. More than ____ ponds, the article says, have been choked by algae and seaweed. 1 A. 10 B. 5 C. 60 D. 21

8. Residents are angry with this problem. Some feel that everyone should pitch in financially and 1 help, while others think that only those citizens with [1]_____________ need to pay. 9. In Falmouth, some areas have been closed to [1]____________ for years. 1
1 10. According to Mggie Geist of the Association to Preserve Cape Cod, what is the biggest environmental issue the cape has ever faced?

11. Rising ________ levels are suffocating the vegetation and marine life. 1 A. Oxygen B. Nitrogen C. D. Sulfur All of the above

12. Some residents in Orleans say the town should put into effect a ____________ plan. 1 A. $950,000 B. $1,000,000 C. D. $456,000 $150 milllion

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13. Rising [A]__________ levels are suffocating vegetation and marine life in saltwater ponds and estuaries on Cape Cod. If left uncheck, this will threaten the [B]__________ industry, the [C]__________ economy and the [D]__________. 14. Because of rising sulfur levels, the beaches are being threatened.

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A. True

B. False

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15. More than ______ ponds and estuaries on the cape and a few elsewhere in the region have been choked out. A. 60 B. 55 C. D. 47 63

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16. In Barnstable, voters will decide in November whether to finance $265 million in new [A]__________ with a tax increase. 17. Why is the nitrogen problem in Cape Cod more severe in protected bays and saltwater ponds on the cape's southern side?

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18. In the 1960s and '70s, what could have been done by Cape Cod towns to prevent their current environmental problem and why did they not do it? What was faulty in their reasoning?

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19. Cape Cod officials and towns are preparing for the possibility of a lawsuit from an environmental group that is exploring its options under the [A]_______________. 20. Wastewater is a mixture of what? Mark all correct answers.

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A. Water B. Fecal matter

C. D.

Urine Salt

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21. The root of the excess nitrogen problem in Cape Cod waterways lies in the popularity and unchecked growth of Cape Cod over the last 50 years. A. True B. False

22. Why might the excess nitrogen problem in Cape Cod waterways drive away tourists? 1 A. Tourists are environmentally conscious B. The waterways look "dead" C. D. 1 Under a hot sun, the algae in the water produces a foul odor Algae clumps prevent swimming

23. According to Lindsey B Counsell, executive director of The Bays Preservation, towns in Cape Cod have their capacity for the [A]__________. They are a victim of their own [B]__________.

24. The Cape Cod pollution crisis has largely remained a hidden problem. 1
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A. True

B. False

25. Choosing individual septic systems rather than installing sewers to get rid of waste with the influx of new residents during the last 30 years has led to the [A]__________ having reached its capacity. 26. True or False: The (excess nitrogen) problem in Cape Cod waterways is always immediately apparent.

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A. True

B. False

27. Rising nitrogen levels are doing what to the aquatic plants in Cape Cod? 1 A. Suffocating them B. Nourishing them
A. True

C. Changing their colors D. None of the above.
B. False

28. Algae and seaweed choke oxygen needed by vegetation and marine species. 1

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-329. Cape Cod towns have spent years trying to fix their waterways. 1
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A. True

B. False

30. Cleaning up Cape Cods environmental problem is going to be very expensive. In the town of Orleans the estimated cost is $[A]__________ million. In the town of Barnestable the estimated cost is $265 million. In the town of Falmouth the clean up plan is estimated to cost $[B]__________ million and will take [C]__________ years . This is more than 8 times the cost of any Falmouth town project ever undertaken! 31. So far, most of the efforts to create plans to clean up the wastewater in Cape Cod's waterways have been hindered by what? Mark all correct answers. A. Many people insist there is no problem with the current health of the waterways B. Disputes over science C. D. Environmental activists Disputes over who should pay for such a sprawling and expensive public works project

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32. Rising [A]__________ levels are suffocating the vegetation and marine life in saltwater ponds and estuaries on Cape Cod. 33. Why is it said that in August you can smell Cape Cod's environmental problem before you see it?

1 34. To much nitrogen in a saltwater pond can cause the pond to be choked with [A]__________ and [B]__________. 1

35. [1]__________ in the Cape Cod have got to work together to fix this problem. 1 1
1 38. Excess nitrogen in waterways of Cape Cod can cause excess seaweed growth. What happens to the seaweed in the summer that causes environmental concern and affects property values?

36. To some towns, this massive rehabilitation of Cape Cod would be the largest [1]____________ project they have ever undertaken.
37. What is the root of the massive environmental problem that many towns of Cape Cod are facing?

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39. Will the removal of septic systems immediately solve the environmental problem in Cape Cod? Explain. 1 40. Towns on Cape Cod are united in their quest for cleaner water. 1 A. True 41. Seaweed is a type of [A]__________. 1 1 42. Rising carbon dioxide levels are suffocating the vegetation and marine life in saltwater ponds and estuaries on Cape Cod. A. True 1 B. False B. False

43. Residents in Cape Cod towns disagree on who should pay for fixing their environmental problem. One group says that entire [A]__________ should pay for it. The other group says that only [B]__________________________. should pay for it.

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-444. If some of the pond in Cape Cod like pristine, what is the problem? 1

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45. In the Falmouth area of Cape Cod, you will not find [A]__________ because excess algae and seaweed have killed [B]__________ which is the habitat for this prized shellfish. 46. Because the cape's soil is so [A]__________ and [B]__________, the wastewater is eventually deposited into bays.

2 47. Cape Cod towns have spent years creating plans to clean up the wastewater in their waterways. 1 A. True B. False

48. Popularity of the Cape Cod region helped to contribute to the increased pollution. 1
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A. True

B. False

49. Cape Cod towns are faced with a federal mandate to fix their polluted waterways. How are they attempting to fix the problem?

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50. Because Cape Cod's soil is so [A]__________ and [B]__________, the wastewater deposited in leach fields is eventually deposited into bays. 51. Why are septic systems a problem in Cape Cod?

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52. If rising nitrogen levels in Cape Cod waterways are left unchecked, what could happen? Mark all correct answers. 1 A. Beaches will be threatened B. Fish kills will decrease C. D. The shellfishing industry will be threatened The tourist economy will be threatened

53. Even after septic systems are removed, wastewater already in the soil will still be leaking. 1 A. True B. False

54. Ponds and estuaries on the cape have been choked by ________ and __________. 1 A. algae B. trash C. D. seaweed all of the above

55. The root of the problem lies in the checked growth of Cape Cod. 1 A. True B. False

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56. What may a possible lawsuit, by an environmental group, against fiercely independent towns in the Cape Cod area force town decision makers and authorities to do?

57. Septic systems deposit wastewater, a mixture of [A]__________ and [B]__________, into a leach field. 2 58. Septic systems deposit wastewater into a [A]___________. 1 59. The algae and seaweed kill [A]__________ grass where prized bay scallops grow. 1

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-560. Which industries will the depletion of vegetation and marine life affect? 1 A. Shellfish industry B. Tourism C. D. Boating industry Grocery industry

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61. Much of the nitrogen leaches out of what -- percolating rapidly through the sandy soil, and polluting the waters of the estuaries. A. Animal Waste B. Nitrogen Bombs at the Naval Base in Norfolk C. Bags of Fertilizer D. Septic Systems

62. If this nitrogen problem is left unchecked, it could seriously hurt what industry? 1 A. Ship-building B. Whaling C. Shellfishing D. Roofing

63. Cape Cod towns are faced with a _________ ___________ to fix their polluted waterways. 1 A. State Order B. Federal Mandate C. EPA Lawsuit D. CIA Writ

64. How is much of the nitrogen that is causing problems in the saltwater ponds and estuaries of Cape Cod getting there? 1

65. So far, most of their efforts have paid off. 1 A. True B. False

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