Folklore and Tradition in Javanese Society Author(s): Justus M.

van der Kroef Source: The Journal of American Folklore, Vol. 68, No. 267 (Jan. - Mar., 1955), pp. 25-33 Published by: American Folklore Society Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/537108 . Accessed: 30/06/2011 06:46
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held political authority beyond the courts. or wine tapper had a color." I-6. many of its unique concepts of social organization and of the individual's place in it are still retained. Juynboll. and the dance taught the proper facial expressions. 25 . Recent investigations indicate however that the Javanesehad an autochthonous culture older than Hinduism. and a personality trait. tural forces than any other Indonesians.1 Pre-Hindu traditions survive in the dance. G. van der Kroef. for the shadow and puppet play. aristocrats. Leyden. and aristocracy. Islam.XI (1951). have perhaps been influenced and other outside and 1See J. but he regarded the aristocrat'smode of living as the epitome of refinement and chivalry. and modes of address of the cultural ideal. Eenige beschouwingen den ouden Aziatischen Handel betreffende D. I938). H. 307. a color. and sculpture. and a direction of the wind. governing by common consent. which were (diss. correct posture. van Leur. Far 2 HE HTmoreJavanese. I. (1949). Hinduism especially was once believed to have been the chief intellectual force in early Java and responsible for the high civilization reached there before the Westerners came and the colonial era began. Burger. wayang. VAN DER KROEF culby Hinduism.2 The identification of the knightly culture with music. aristocratic. Knowledge of classical Javaneseliterature and the theater was regarded as indispensable to a well-developed personality. Traditional Javanese society is paternal. I7-30. C. 1934)." EasternQuarterly."Structuurveranderingen Javaanse in de III Indonesie. JavaanseVolksvertoningen(Batavia. the theater. the theater. merchant. Middelburg. with most of the people living in villages which supported the courts and nobility. In many ways. and peasants lived in a highly integrated order. samenleving. The peasant's social horizon was limited by the traditions and unwritten legal precepts of his community. Kings. which is also evident in the fivefold division of society. II4-I36. Every peasant. the Javanese knight's culture was also part of the peasant's life. in which the dominant cultural ideals were the customs and traditions of the villagers and the code of chivalry and etiquette of the Javanese knights.and stratified. Muslim law and Western technology and culture traits have left permanent reminders. and the dance is a measure of the integration of the traditional Javanese world view. P. J. "The Hinduization of Indonesia Reconsidered. H. pp. the Javanese noble whom the village rendered service. in which each division was believed to be closely connected with a higher cosmic unity and identified with a trade or profession. Th. Pigeaud. 1932). the largest ethnic subdivision of Indonesia. De Batikkunstin Nederlandsch-lndieen haar geschiedenis (The Hague.which represented royal control.to a satisfactoryeducation and to the art of refined and restrainedliving.FOLKLOREAND TRADITION IN JAVANESE SOCIETY BY JUSTUS M. Christianity. M. music. a lucky day of the five-day week. a metal. Rouffaerand H. Hereditary village elders. 503. Hindu and Buddhist literature and symbolism.

H." etc. (Groningen. A day is lucky for any activity identified with a specific profession. Kliwon. The following table gives the divisions and their associations:3 I Wind Directions Color Metal Days Personality Profession Attributes East white silver Legi understanding peasant food garden house wind water cool favorable II South red brass Pahing avaricious trader money god Gana mosque mountain speedy change III West yellow gold Pon boastful palm wine maker alcohol weak kitchen misfortune sickly IV North black iron Wage serious. a Javaneseused to count the inner abutments of his roof on the basis of the attributesof each division: garden.5 3 J. When a household object is lost. Rassers. "A peasant is white. in this case the kitchen. this indicates that the thief is probably a butcher or meat dealer. where the lost object must be sought. 4W. calm butcher meat broken stable fire flame V Center multicolored mixture Kliwon eloquent king. Shri. use iron and own a stable. dukun. Leyden. hence the best time to tap palm wine is Pon." "South is a trader.4 Thus the Javanese says. Gana. "Javaansche wichelarijen classificatie." Bijdragen tot de Taal-Land-enVolkenkundevan NederLXXXVIII I93I). The accuracy of this system of determining theft depends upon the normative force of environment. That is. C (1938). For example. hence a southerly wind is interpreted as conducive to trade. De Pandji Roman (diss. Legi. The particular attributes of each division play a primary role in divination and fortune telling. and probably has a stable of livestock." landsch-lndiie. If the last abutment coincides with "weak. finds something black when it was last seen. is fond of fire and of iron. weak. 43Iff. broken. has a calm or serious disposition. 3d ed. not all butchers wear black. Antwerp. . Djakarta. if a missing object is believed to be stolen and the medicine man or medicine woman. Pigeaud. H.""Eloquence is a king." the division in which this word occurs determines the locale. I946). 1922) and his "Over den oorsprong van het JavaanscheToneel. to be coronated." Bijdragen tot de Taal-Land-enVolkenkunde van NederlandschIndie. Inleiding tot de Ethnologie van de Indische Archipel. 117. also Th. 387-389. noble goddess Shri house earth steady The various attributes are regarded not only as symbolic but as completely identified with each division. p. A wind direction is believed to be sacred and propitious if it correspondsto a specific profession. 5See W. Duyvendak. Ph.26 Journal of American Folklore believed to be completely merged with his being. Rassers. Each of the five social divisions has its magical and mystical representationswhich determine the future of an individual in that division. to plant.. but most butchers and meat dealers traditionally seek to acquire these characteristicsto identify themselves with their social division. "Kebajan.

usuallyblack.This conceptrecurs the wayang. the Pandawasto the other.in a huge or curiously even in the royaljewelsof a king or an aristocrat at rock near it. less frequently.The puppetsrepresenting Kaulong are rawas. is "male"and "female" a of which the Chineseyang and yin principlerepresenting A dualismalso existsin many good example. 6 See my "StructuralChange in Indonesian Society. I2-20. the fivewhile West and fold order. in a social divisionis probably remnantof the old tribalorganization prevalent Indonesia.(In Minangkabau WesternSumatra on The the Amboynain EasternIndonesia traditionof such divisionsis still preserved.the divinePandawasto the heavenly belong and varietiesof realm.and in which East and South aregroupedtogether especially bethe oppositeWest and North.. The Hague. 1897). an irrational In the Javanese component sets the orderedintegrationof societyis animism. I. p. and possessextraordinary shamanism(the ritualof attempting possessanotherpersonby a spirit).which unitedthe dual eloquence. 39ff.8 Everythingin naturehas a soul which can leave its habitatto roam at will and influencemen's lives. goddessShri.spiritism(the invocation the soulsof the dead).Such "systems correspondences. van Hien. dark. for the Kaurawas to the netherregions. male-female areasin Indonesia. Pt. 7 See also R. 1948)." Pandawas. A. I 8." Economic Development and Cultural Change.East and South belong as one unit to the underworld.Althoughdiof of vergentdatamakeconstruction the classification the animaland plantkingdoms of a completeorderingprobably existed. Javanese to in spiritsare calledhyangor yang 'deity.each dividedin turn into certainaspectsof two clansor moietieswhich establish asymmetric an connumbium. 8 For data in this and subsequentparagraphs.which is In additionto this fivefolddivisionthe Javanese evidentin the wayang. mostimportant amongthe (from sembah.Most vegetables meat belong eitherin the first (peasant)or fourth (butcher)division.are of coursewidespread. those depictingthe are calm and phlegmatic. (Batavia. De Javaansche I Geestenwereld(Samarang.27 have a dual socialorder.which includedthe king and the aristocracy. Kaurawas the to the first half. the court or administrative II Feestbundel van het BataviaschGenootschapvan Kunsten en Wetenschappen.I (I952). and in which areagainevidentin the wayang. Periodicallythe village spirits require a feast.who yang the shaped may residein a large." impossible. Of the two conflicting partiesportrayed. Samenlevingen Adatrechtsvorming (diss. in the secondunit. North.) the fifth social division. by In that they stoodfor the highercosmicunity whichearthlysocietyreflected. prayer innumerable are the danyangdesa.toto tentrem. and literaturecited therein. so on. were the "third" divisionsand gave them meaning.shadytreeoverlooking village. Animism and in dynamismare not often carefullyseparated this view. I929) and Duyvendak. Leyden.Social stabilityand love for peace and order in in who were "divine" harmony.6in which a tribe is dividedinto exogamoushalves. pp. have relied on H.multicolored. generallypaintedwhite and red. Van Dijk.7 which the peoplebelieveupworld view. Connectedwith animism are forms of fetishism (the worshipof certainconcretematerialobjectsbelievedto of powers). in Folkloreand Tradition Javanese Society . and element.'termswhich are reflected the dailyMuslim The calledsembahyang 'reverence').Animal and plant life also have their place. belongto the upperworld.who are avaricious. center. 216-228. or.were thus represented the highborn. the village gods and guardianspirits.The dual who are "serious.

the ghost of the seas. Any important building. A kunti anak is portrayed as a beautiful. who invented the kris. for all fortune or misfortune in a community depends on their disposition. who frightens children by shaking trees in which he dwells and by throwing sand. . especially the kris. for they too have powers to assist or to inflict their wrath on society. Old spirits familiar to the Javanese are sewan and serap. who create ambition and devour heavenly bodies during eclipses. The Hindu celestial nymphs. a few previously. and the wood spirit. jin or setan. Raden Pandji. the dance. and the wayang.9 Misfortunes and upheavals which destroy the smooth functioning of society are ascribed to evil spirits. kramat. and secondly with the veneration of sacred graves. "the Queen of the Southern Ocean. Djakarta. Jealous and revengeful. Many of the numerous legends about the kris originated during the Hindu-Javanese period. who cause convulsions and children's diseases. widadari. and the founder of the village. or have merged their spirits with those of the Javanese. personal ambition and greed to advance beyond one's station in life. As she fears brooms and cannot stand onions or knives. which originally was part of any warrior's equipment and indispensable to anyone when en grand tenue. the noisy. a popular mythological hero. The influence of the spirit world is reflected in various traditional weapons. danyang desa. West Java. is surrounded by intricate fetishism and ritual. kunti anak. The wewe. they are often placed near the bed of a woman in labor to drive this spirit away. A festive meal is often served simultaneously to the village guardian spirit. The phosphorescent ghosts. and the Islamic spirits and devils. long-haired woman. pp. even the cultivation of rice. chakal desa. like Pandji. who causes floods and dropsy. and King Sakutram of the Hindu epoch are generally revered as inventors of the kris. The worship of the dead is connected primarily with the annual memorial ritual for the original founder of the village. or market also possesses a deity. chakal bakal desa. (Groningen. de Jong. hantu. include the house spirit. a tall witchlike woman. large house. and the first Sultan of Demak in Central Java. Hinduism and Islam have added several supernaturalbeings to the Javanese spirit world. The most important graves worshipped are those of the first apostles of Islam in Java. Other Javanese spirits include the gendruwo. Court etiquette. lampor. The greater the power of the deceased during his lifetime. the greater the fear and respect for him. The name of these spirits. with a huge opening in her back which goes through her body. some of whom have special names and are prominent in mythology and the wayang. hantu alas. Other souls which inspire particular reverence and awe are those of women who have died in childbirth. and Nyai Loro Kidul. whom she hides under her breasts. the staple crop. and who constantly bursts into shrill laughter. hantu laut. and have been robbed of motherhood. also lives in the woods and steals children. 1948). a monstrous figure with bulging eyes. meaning death from childbirth. who first cleared the land on which the community came into being. hantu omah. are easily identified in the popular mind with indigenous deities." are still revered even among nominal Muslims. is probably derived from mati anak. War and dacoity. Het Geesteslevender volken van Indonesii 35-43. Certain heroes. they are believed ready to attack women in labor to make them share their lot. give the kris 9 J. and all illnesses are caused by bad village spirits. hantu kaju.28 Journal of American Folklore selametan. the forest spirit. butas or giants. notably Sjeh Ibn Maulana in Cheribon.

and meteorites. mustika. guna. "On the Javanese Kris. provide amulets. which so decisively interferes with ordered creation and social stability the Javanese believes he has discovered ngelmu. The purification. are attributed to the tukang tenung or controller of spirits. Musical instruments especially the gamelan. as in the past. By his magic and exorcism. Some krisses are said to bring good fortune. They classify maladies as either "hot" or "cold" and are said to be particularly adept in treating festering wounds with a poultice of copper sulphate. Makers of the kris. however. Though these practitionersare usually revered. Rassers. and meditation before fashioning a new kris. and predict the future. pidjet and urut. sometimes symbolic. is close to yoga. formulas and incantations of Indonesian. rapal. detect thieves. called empu. especially epilepsy. and are said to be possessed by spirits.' A recalcitrantheart can be won through the ngelmu with the assistanceof a medicine man or woman who casts a spell. 'army'. and a short cylindrical one. at the spirit's discretion. They act as mediums or assist medicinemen who require much magic and many incantations. archaic for sewu. performs an indispensable function in Javanese society. identified with the divine guidance of the cosmos. 'thousand') and loosens a magical army of "a thousand spirits"upon one's opponent in battle and thus insures victory. others to be especially effective against robbers or wild animals. 503ff. which goes with a transferredkris for good or evil. for they interfere with the divinely 10On the origin and mythology of the kris see W. troesi. in the ngelmu is called bala srewu (bala. In a separate class is the jimat. certain precious stones. of whom the more popular are more self-denying practitionerswho help in sickness and in birth. not always evil. who unleashes the disease. are generally revered and called kesurupan or kerangingan. tapa. Medicinemen with special powers attract a nation-wide clientele. abstinence. The feebleminded and insane are regarded as permanently under the control of spirits. emanating from a spirit. for a small fee. and are held in almost religious esteem. the knowledge of how to communicate with and control the spirit world. magic and sorcery do not. Among the aristocracytoday. who behave insanely. In this fearful spirit world. interpret dreams. the medicine man or woman. particularly in connection with amulets. is still widespread in Java. Its potency determines the price. Hindu. ngelmu. Persons. They practice the ancient art of massage.10Every kris is believed to possess a special power. . place. or Arabian origin.'" Bijdragen tot de Taal-Land-enVolkenkunde van Nederlandsch-lndie. or a son conceived. meet with open social approval.' have special power and are inhabited or controlled by spirits. One magic formula. Most Javanese dukuns are women. To lose or sell such an heirloom invited chaos and death. and bewitches the loved one. pusaka. which consists of an archaic mixture of philosophical and theological concepts. to dispel muscular weariness. require long calculations.in Folkloreand Tradition Javanese Society 29 an important. and in alleviating a patient of gas. Another controller must be called in to drive the disease away. Incurable diseases. enables life to be prolonged. for with it left divine protection. of which most villages have at least one. pipisan. srewu. in which the family shared through the kris. a written amulet in corrupt Arabic. H. which is made and sold usually by hadjis.XCIX (1940). masoek angin. The medicine man can also lift the spell. Their special stones for grinding herbs-a long rectangular stone. the kris is frequently an heirloom. An unfaithful wife may be brought back by the formula of puter geling 'to turn around. untuh 'teeth of lightning. usually women. Fetishism. an enemy defeated. gandik-are buried with them.

Javanese cannotfind an outlet scious society. who seeks to controlanother's or wishesfor riches. 12 (Batavia.his frustration of view him as a genuinelytragicfigure. 50-67.is one of the few waysin whichan individual breakthroughthe tight confinedand unperan inflexible."Indonesie. Japan wint den oorlog.2Sudden loss of self-control for the amok maker. pp. Meyer. 1931).for whomsocietyhasbecomean object hatred The elementof tragedyis amplifiedby the fact and ratherthan reverence adherence. ever this must remainas yet a supposition. Effects of Western Civilization on Indonesian Society (New York.The forand forcein Java.Perhapsfor this reason.Javanese perlife son. Documenten over Java (Maastricht.and the same author's "Over het bendewezen op Java. 1950).or over an unworthy deed which the communityhas punished. have createdtraumatic undermodernurbaninfluences Amok. van Wulfften Palthe. leads to death.whichis commonlyunderstood to be the berserkfury which seizes an individualand leads him to fight and and everyonein sight until he is exhausted killed.and coming of the first Muslims and Europeans. Stutterheim. MededeelingenVI. F.'4 only ground. .althoughsomeof its concepts mer is no longera powerfulcultural life with the basicmotifsof Javanese long beforethe were closelyinterwoven symbols Islam retainsits hold. disturbances.notablyHinduismand Islam. Wertheim. F.I946).He is someor destroyeverything times believedto have been seized by an evil spirit.it has had. 96To5. 22-30.perhapsa buta.but no approval. pp. 13 On the sociological function of the Javanesedacoit band and its role in recent years see D. of that amok is a transgression the traditional knightlyideal of utmostself-control. CCLXXII (5 Sept.and the wayang integration villagelife and the disappearance tradition. There is latent sympathy kaprawiran. of the bondsof his communityand the rigid divisionsand prescriptions his classconand amok is the result. "Geestesstoornis Gemeenschapsstructuur.Journal of American Folklore toleratethe passionate ambitious and plannednaturalcourseof events.A third constitutethe basisof most of Javanese archy factoris the influenceof the world religions. boundsof his stratified Apparently finds unbearable for when an individual is missiveenvironment the essenceof amok.l1This berserkbehavior. I78ff. M. of of folklore."Publicatiesvan het Bureau van de Onderwijsraad. H."Iets over de cultuurbasis onzer leerlingen. As the sociologicalimportance of certainfolkloristic aspects Islamin Javawill herebe noted. environment. ethos are understandable only against an Islamic backmany aspectsof Javanese of Islam has alreadybeen analyzed. however.but make him awareof the final reckoningwith the higher unity of which all living creatures part and are which does not long toleratewillful interference with its laws. it should theremust be thoseon whom the amok be emphasized. The influence the spiritworldon societyis alsoevidentin the Javanese of explanation aboutsuch extra-social patternsof behavioras amok. 12 W.The phenomenonhas recentlyoccurredin and force those areaswith a strongcounter-accultural such as Westernization village Amok was rife in PasarMinggu.maloe.a connectionwith the traditionaland ancient organized dacoity13 and gangsterism Howwhich were potentin the nihilisticnationalist upsurgeduring the revolution. 14 See W. 2438. 30 11P. and Animism and the fourfoldclan divisionwith its classdistinctions socialhierfolkloreand socialtradition. can old in Java. I9-27. as an institution. a village near Djakartawheredisreorganization.Psychologically amok has beenexplainedas resultingfromshameoverthe loss of face. III (1949). requiressocialparticipation: maker can inflicthis wrath." en KeesingsHistorisch Archief. 1936).

The wayang and the gamelan which are to some extent cultural products of the HinduJavanese periods are incorporatedinto Islamic feasts. Hindu influence in Indonesian Islam is also apparent in the mystic Islamic schools such as the Sjatariah. 56-57. In some areas the ashes of a burned Koran are eaten. During this Mohammedan "All souls" month of 29 days. and revere mosque officials and hadjis. Early Muslim leaders apparently deliberatelyintroduced gamelans (because of their past popularity) at the sacred feast of the Prophet's birth. During the period of veneration of the dead. Puasa. Islam has been adapted to existing traditions and its doctrinal requirements have been strangely applied. Hari Besar (literally 'great day') or Garebeg Puasa. M. Hindu-Indian influence extends even to the architectureof some Indonesian mosques. the differences between fikh schools. The average Indonesian Muslim reverences not only Allah and the Prophet. 244-250. Daroesman and . Musa. and ancient class distinctions have blended their precepts with Islam. and the Nagsjabandiah which were influenced by Hindu mysticism. pp. submit at least overtly to the five fundamental requirements of the faith and to Islamic laws of marriage and inheritance. At the end of the thirty day Puasa month comes Lebaran Puasa. "Wat is Sekaten?. Animism and the spirit world have not lost their influence through Islam. 2. J. but especially the Muslim. Ruwah. the graves of parents and ancestors are visited and cleaned. But for the rest. Ford and M. Because his realization that he is a Muslim is then perhaps most acute. ritual meals are dedicated not only to ancestors but to the Islamic prophets-offerings are made to Joseph. W. such as various feastdays most of which are Muslim in origin. and to Moses. "De Islam in Indonesie" in IndonesiersSpreken. M. fikh. tjandi. but also traditional deities and spirits. the roofs of which resemble the layered stone on the roof of the Hindu temple. hadith. also known as Hari Rajah. Lebaran Puasa. Hinduism. so it is said. This 15Noto Soeroto. I947). Sekaten. bathes. plural of ruh. Hinduism.in Folkloreand Tradition Javanese Society 3I The Javanese is not so much a Muslim as Muslim minded. Animism." Indonesi. Ruwah. in order to draw people. and doctrine of duty. for beautiful children. and Islam. so that the revelation may descend. everyone. begins. the intricacies of tradition. Prayers to Allah are made at traditional sacred places-graves of Hindu kings or under big banyan trees where village spirits reside. padusan.l Thus the Javanese'sidentification with Islam is not so much in its religious doctrines but in a demonstrative participation in such cultural aspects which blend animism. Suleman. or soul. Djalal.the Quadariah. because. many of Hindu origin. and even the major passages of the Koran may be unfamiliar to him. for renown in courage and wisdom. Because on the day before the fasting and religious retreat. The chief feast days in the Islamic calendar are: x. which is usually in the eighth month of the Islamic year. the godhead (Allah or the Hindu Batara Guru?) thus enters one. Though nominally a Shafiite. According to Javanese tradition the month of Puasa brings forgiveness more or less for all law violations. many Javaneseregularly attend their mosque. eds. the Javanese call it bathing day. In the evening lights are lit in the front yard. for a rise in rank. During the five holy nights (kadar nights or "the descent of the revelation") religious meals or maleman (from the Javanese malem or night) are served in all villages. his observance of them will be noted. 29 Ruwah. Nevertheless. madhabs. Lennep (The Hague. the Javanese name for the Arabic month Sjaban. the eighth month of the Islamic year is derived from the Arabic arwah. Jusup. M. to Solomon. Ford-van V (I95I).

12 Maulud. relics of the Hindu-Javanese epoch. The holy night of the month Rajab. for through the centuries their Islam has become identified with their unique way of life. Feasts are modest. Islam has become a matter of nationality. In memory of this occasion recitations are given at the mosques and pious legends about the ascension are widely told. Mohammed. Javaneseunions have called strikes to force employers to pay special Lebaran premiums. a folk characteristic that distinguishes them from other ethnic groups in the islands. Because participationin Lebaran Puasa is a religious obligation for which money must be obtained. bubur sura. the grandson of the Prophet who. Although schoolmen and religious leaders have a profound understanding of Islam. visited Jerusalem and thence proceeded directly to heaven. Feasts are held. 43. friends. 5. for example. The sacred gamelans sekati.Journal of American Folklore 32 feast day falls on the first of Sawal. and combines feast and sacrifice. Burak. from the persistH. Government officials as well as Javanese princes participate or attend special ceremonies held at court where a huge feast is given. which falls on the twenty-seventh.16Yet it is abundantly clear that Islam in Indonesia has meaning primarily for the masses in terms of its adaptation to ancient pre-Islamic folkways. and Surakarta and Djokjakarta have a more elaborate commemoration." Early in the morning. revolted against the Omiyah Caliphs and became a martyr on this day. the seventh of the Muslim year. p. it is sometimes erroneously called "Javanesenew year. They do not. The tenth Muharram or Sura is a day for the commemoration of Husin. 16 . Bouman. Because of the gamelans the feast is called Sekaten. law. masjid ageng. and in special festive garments visit parents. All villages hold feasts. pawned articles are redeemed if only for this day and much money is borrowed for the festivities. This day gained slow recognition in Islamic countries. and commemoration. Because Javanese generally believe the month Zulhijjah to be a period of good fortune. Seven days before the birthday a fair is held in the great square of each city. however. as the legitimate head of the Muslim congregation. on this night. Enige Beschouwingenover de ontwikkeling van het IndonesischNationalisme op Sumatra'sWestkust (Groningen. as is clear. imam. the participation of most Javanese in the precepts of the faith is limited to these few outward aspects of ritual."where all gather for the last judgment. In the third month. Rabi'ul-awal. This falls on the tenth day of the month Zulhijjah. the twelfth month of the Islamic year. Asjurah o1 Muharram. Lebaran Hadji. According to tradition. 4. are played on platforms erected in front of the great mosque. the night of the ascension or vision. I949).the birthday of the Prophet is celebrated.Small cattle are sacrificed according to Muslim law. but its popularity is growing. pitrah. the sacrificedanimals serve the sacrificer as mount on "the plain of resurrection. consisting of rice porridge with side dishes. family rites. Those who have not as yet distributed their obligatory charity gifts. 3. accompanied by the Angel Gabriel on the winged horse. particularlymarriage and circumcision or a pilgrimage to Mecca are. the ninth month of the Arabian year. begun or held on this day. do so now. 6. in villages and cities people pray in mosques or at local sacred places. take Islam lightly. as far as possible. 27 Rajab. and superiors to ask forgiveness for offenses committed. commemorates the ascension of the Prophet and is called Lailat al Mi'raj. According to Muslim belief.

in het bijzonder op Java (Amsterdam."American SociologicalReview. striking concepts express example is thedevelopment thewayang. hasrecently in whichthe plotandthe puppets longer no tradideveloped.there acculturation still whichutiis lizes traditional culture to modern A influences." But in theinterior muchof theold order lives. 44-47. behavior. XVII 17 See (1952).. airplane Lieutenant Governor-General Mook.l8 Javanese The staticsubordinate character society partlybeenreplaced a dynamic has of by modernization by bourgeois and individualism whichare in partthe resultof nanationalist of and by imposed Western principles political democracy "social justice. well continue exhibit to established Java Contemporary may socialtechniques patterns behavior sometimeto come.the negotiations strugglewith the Van and Dutchand so on.. 18 See my "Patternsof Western Influence in Indonesia. 1947).in Folkloreand Tradition Javanese 33 Society enceof ancestor veneration Islamhas mixedwith the worship Islam"saints. cooperation socially integrative whichhavecharacterized sincepre-Hindu timesarestressed. contemporary persons occursuchas revolutionary President the ences. of indexof thetraditions Javanese a unique of always In and calledwayang suluh. Mellema. self-discipline social and and and cohesion become have political dogma in the new Indonesia.exin Elsewhere Java.particularly the nineteenth century. traditional worldview has beensubjected various to Western influences. represent tionalevents heroes theJavanese and of but and drama. PP. L. 421-430. tionalism. . Soekarno. soldiers. in profoundly Sincethe advent colonial of since the times. The puppets resemble thoseof the wayang kulitof the past. Significantly. "Structuurveranderingen. Dutch attacks.. De Islam in Indonesie."'7 of the influenced development anti-Dutch of nationalism Java. havebeenmadeto traditional subordination individual of interest Appeals to state society. and of for StateCollege Michigan EastLansing. p. I o. Central Eastern todaya formof wayang. Michigan R. Many areas in Java appear to be in a state of flux.l9 ceptthattheyareclothed modern hasbeenapparent lateis designed strengthen social of to rural and economy increase traditional and production. village in a revival which dress. Javanese society village The goalis harmonious socialdevelopment to collectivist according pronounced patternsof economic behavior sanctioned familytiesandconcepts mutual and of asby sistance. Past traditions have been 19 Burger. Java society.