You are on page 1of 30

3rd STAKEHOLDER CONFERENCE OF THE SEA-EU-NET PROJECT Bhudapest, November 2010

R&D Efforts for Sustainable and Renewable Biomass Feedstock

S.S.Chen Environmental Technology Research Centre

THEMATIC SESSION ON BIO-BASED MATERIALS


Flow of Presentation

Biomass Resources in Malaysia


Palm biomass: Trunks and Fronds Biogas from Palm Oil Mill Effluents (POME) Other potential biomass resources: Sago Palm

Potential Uses: Bioenergy vs Biochemicals Biomass Life Cycle Assessment Biomass Sustainability Assessment

Malaysia

Population about 28 million Location: 2o 30 N, 112o 30 E Land Area : 330,252 km2 Climate : Tropical with average temperature 25o C to 35o C
SIRIM Berhad We Make Businesses Compete Better Through Quality and Technology Innovations

Corporatised as a wholly-owned company of the Government of Malaysia under the Ministry of Finance Incorporated A knowledge organisation responsible for the development of the local industrial /manufacturing sector

ROLES
Machinery for Research, Technology Development and Innovation Vehicle for Technology Transfer Champion for Quality
We make businesses compete better through quality and technology innovations

Land Area Utilisation


TOTAL LAND AREA of MALAYSIA: 33 million ha
Non-forested area (agriculture, housing, industrial activities ) 26%

Other three crops area (oil palm, rubber, cocoa, coconut) 15%

Forested Area 59%

Source: Statistics on Commodities 2007, Ministry Plantation Industries and Commodities


SIRIM Berhad We Make Businesses Compete Better Through Quality and Technology Innovations

Cropland Distribution
TOTAL CROPLAND of MALAYSIA: 6.3 million ha

Coconut 2% Cocoa 1%

Paddy 11%

Sugar cane 0,25% Pineapple Others 0,25% 0,48%

Rubber 20%

Oil Palm 66%

Source: Statistics on Commodities 2007, Ministry Plantation Industries and Commodities


SIRIM Berhad We Make Businesses Compete Better Through Quality and Technology Innovations

Palm Biomass
Accumulative biomass yield (dry weight) of one oil palm at point of felling after 25 fruiting years:
0.10 ton fronds at felling 1.86 ton pruned fronds 0.54 ton trunk 0.27 ton EFB 0.29 ton fibre 0.17 ton shell 2.5 m3 POME 70 m3 biogas
Ref: Adapted from (i) Astimar Abdul Aziz, Loh Soh Kheang, et. al., 2009 Int. Conf on Oil Palm and the Environment, Serdang, Aug. 2009 (ii) Min. Plantation Industries and Commodites, Statistics on Commodities 2007
SIRIM Berhad We Make Businesses Compete Better Through Quality and Technology Innovations

0.62 ton CPO 0.075 ton PKO 0.085 ton PKC

Palm Biomass
Biomass availability based on replanting regime of 1.8% total oil palm planted area of 4.5 million hectare in 2008
1.16 million ton fronds 6.07 million ton trunk

Palm Felling Pruning & Mill Residue

46 million ton pruned fronds 6.81 million ton EFB 7.16 million ton fibre 4.13 million ton shell

Ref: Astimar A.A., Loh S.K., Nasrin A.B. et al., 2009 Int Conf Oil Palm and the Environment, Sepang, Aug 2009
SIRIM Berhad We Make Businesses Compete Better Through Quality and Technology Innovations

Palm Biomass
Annual Potential Palm Biomass Energy from Plantation and Mill Residue
Felled Area 11 %

Total Energy 1.14 million TJ

27,162 ktoe

Fruiting Area 89 %

Ref: * Estimated based on Loh et al., 2010, MOSTI Technofund Project on Renewable Energy Resource Mapping Astimar A.A., Loh S.K., Nasrin A.B. et al., 2009 Int Conf Oil Palm and the Environment, Sepang, Aug 2009
SIRIM Berhad We Make Businesses Compete Better Through Quality and Technology Innovations

Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) as a Renewable Energy Source


1 m3 of completely digested POME produces 28 m3 biogas Biogas is made up of 54-80% CH4 and 20-46% CO2. 2007-67 million m3 POME ~15 Nm3-CH4/m3-POME Recovered energy: >1 billion Nm3 CH4 or > 830 ktoe

CH4 CO2 CO2

CH4

CO2

CH4

SIRIM Berhad We Make Businesses Compete Better Through Quality and Technology Innovations

Pilot Plant of RABR ANAEROBIC DIGESTER (Developed by SIRIM-GHP-EBARA-U.Tohuku)

SIRIM Berhad We Make Businesses Compete Better Through Quality and Technology Innovations

Lab-scale biofilter system (0.04m3)

Lab-scale biofilter waste gas treatment

SIRIM Berhad We Make Businesses Compete Better Through Quality and Technology Innovations

Sago Palm (Metroxylon sagu)

Thrives in harsh swampy peat environment Sago palm produces an erect trunk that may reach up to15 m in height and average girth of 120 cm Pith core of the Sago palm contains 20 40% starch, 0.2 0.9% phenolic compounds, 1022% lignin Yield of 15 25 ton of air-dried starch/ha at the end of the 8 year growth cycle Vegetative phase of sago palm lasts from 7 15 years
Source: A.T. Pei-Lang et al. / Carbohydrate Polymers 63 (2006) 283286

Photo: W. McClatchey http://www.traditionaltree.org / SIRIM Berhad We Make Businesses Compete Better Through Quality and Technology Innovations

Sago Palm (Metroxylon sagu)

Non-food use
Biodegradable plastics Extender in urea formaldehyde adhesives Finishing agent in paper making Sizing in textile making Component of glue for plywood manufacturing

Source: http://www.traditionaltree.org/ Photo: W. McClatchey

Biotechnological fermentation to produce biochemicals e.g. bioethanol, cyclodextrin and lactic acid
Source: A.A. Karim, A. Pei-Lang Tie, D.M.A. Manan, and I.S.M. Zaidul. Vol. 7, 2008COMPREHENSIVE REVIEWS IN FOOD SCIENCE AND FOOD SAFETY

SIRIM Berhad We Make Businesses Compete Better Through Quality and Technology Innovations

Potential Applications of Biomass Resources in Malaysia


Biomass Resources

FEEDSTOCK

Palm Biomass

Sago Palm

Agro Residues/ Animal Manure

Forestry Residues

Municipal Solid Waste

Bioenergy

Biochemicals

SIRIM Berhad We Make Businesses Compete Better Through Quality and Technology Innovations

SCREENING PROCESS FOR BIOMASS UTILIZATION


Energy -ve Find alternative non-energy use - Biochemicals Proof of Concept: Biomass Resource Application Proposal Characterisation Establish energy balance to determine apt applications Energy +ve Develop the complete value chain for commercialized production of the biomass energy
Physical pretreatment Desizing Drying

Conversion to energy carrier Use: Off grid Grid connected BTL

SIRIM Berhad We Make Businesses Compete Better Through Quality and Technology Innovations

Life Cycle Considerations in Support of Biomass Utilisation


System boundaries Characterisation factors Off-sets Biogenic carbon

Life Cycle Assessment of Biomass Utilisation for Bioenergy or Biochemicals


Air emission Electricity Fuel Water Chemicals Natural Produce Distribution Coproducts Agriculture Processing feedstock Conversion Use Main Product (Bioenergy/ Biochemical)

Wastewater Solid waste

SIRIM Berhad We Make Businesses Compete Better Through Quality and Technology Innovations

LCA FOR PRODUCTION & USE OF PALM BASED BIODIESEL for FUEL & GRID-CONNECTED ELECTRIC POWER
Air Emissions

Recycled resin Electricity Diesel Poly bags

Oil Palm Agriculture


Landuse

Palm Oil Milling

Power Generation

Off set grid electric

Other systems

Product flows

Seed Preparation Nursery

Palm Oil Refinery

Use in passenger & heavy vehicles

Chemicals: - Urea - Ammonium nitrate - Phosphate - Methanol - Bleaching earth

Water Supply

Plantation
Transport

Biodiesel Plant

Agro-wastes

Wastewater Discharge

SIRIM Berhad We Make Businesses Compete Better Through Quality and Technology Innovations

LIFE CYCLE INVENTORY ANALYSIS of AGRICULTURE PRODUCE/PRODUCTS


-Focus on Green House Gas EmissionThe agriculture activities and practices that are contributors to the GHG inventory in the production of biomass resources: Land-use change (LUC) forest land to cropland (only from logged over forest land) grassland to cropland LUC cropland of one type of crop to another type applicable to high organic carbon soil to cropland oil palm planting cropland remaining cropland Land fertilisation especially synthetic fertilisers Emission from residue degradation in the field Emission from soil
.
SIRIM Berhad We Make Businesses Compete Better Through Quality and Technology Innovations

Release of N2O from Land Fertilisation

SOURCES OF & PATHWAYS OF N THAT RESULT IN THE N2O EMISSIONS FROM SOIL & WATER Global Warming Potential (GWP) of N2O is 298 times that of CO2

Ref: 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Chapter 11.
SIRIM Berhad We Make Businesses Compete Better Through Quality and Technology Innovations

N fertiliser Manure/ Compost, Residue (mulching) N from mineralisation of soil organic matter

Oil Palm Agriculture Land

Emission from N-inputs 1% (0.3 3%) of N-applied

N2O

ESTIMATION of DIRECT N2O from MANAGED SOILS

Oil Palm Emission from drained/ managed soils Agriculture N2O Land -1

8 ( 0 24) kg N2O N ha

(N% in soil)

Oil Palm Agriculture Land

Emission from urine and dung of cattle 2% (0.7 6%) of N deposited

N2O

SIRIM Berhad We Make Businesses Compete Better Through Quality and Technology Innovations

(a) N fertiliser (b) Manure/ Compost, (c) Residue (mulching) (a) Volatisation of 10% (3 30%) N-inputs

NH3

Oil Palm (b) & (c) Volatisation of 20%(5-50%) N-inputs Agriculture Land Redeposition of (a),(b),(c)

1% (0.2 5%) of N-NH3 N fertiliser Manure/ Compost, Leaching/ run-off Oil Palm Agriculture 30% (10 80%) of N deposited Land EFB (mulching) Urine & dung Emission from N leaching/ run-off N from mineralisation of soil organic matter 0.75% (0.05 2.5%) of N deposited

N2O

N2O

ESTIMATION of INDIRECT N2O from MANAGED SOILS


SIRIM Berhad We Make Businesses Compete Better Through Quality and Technology Innovations

Sequestration at growth

Emission at clearing (for replanting)

Carbon storage for ?? years

Biomass Utilisation Biogenic carbon


SIRIM Berhad We Make Businesses Compete Better Through Quality and Technology Innovations

Sustainability Assessment for Biomass Utilisation -An East Asia Initiative-

Sustainability Assessment of Biomass Utilisation in East Asia


An ERIAAIST Funded Research on Assessment Methods of Biomass Utilisation Environmental Impact Life Cycle Approach
Environment

Social Impact UNDP Human Development Index Integration of the Three Indicators
SIRIM Berhad We Make Businesses Compete Better Through Quality and Technology Innovations

Economy

Economic Impact Economic Contributions Indicators


Social

Sustainable Biomass Utilisation in East Asia


-A Collaborative Effort for Ris and IHLs from Six CountriesIndia: Social Implications of Biomass Energy in India Malaysia: Life Cycle Assessment of Biomass Derived Fuel in Malaysia Philippines: Economic Impact-Case of The Philippines Thailand: Analysis and Proposal for Effective Use of Biomass in Northern Thailand: Societal Costs of Biofuels-Case of Thailand Japan, Singapore
SIRIM Berhad We Make Businesses Compete Better Through Quality and Technology Innovations

R&D An Important Component of the Biomass Resource Value Chain


Policy makers & regulators

Feedstock supplier Logistic

Producers Logistic Technology supplier Investors/ Financing

Users

R&D

SIRIM Berhad We Make Businesses Compete Better Through Quality and Technology Innovations

Summary of Biomass R&D and Technology Development Needs


Biomass Resources Applications Specific Technologies and Disciplines Common Technologies and Disciplines

Palm Biomass
AgroResidues

Biofuels

Processing & Conversion Catalytic & Chemical Processing Fractionation & Separation Fermentation & Hydrolysis

Product Use & Distribution Utilisation & Properties Distribution

Feedstock Production Plant Physiology Biotechnology Genetic Engineering Agronomic Practices Feedstock Distribution Processing & Conversion Biorefinery concept Thermochemicals Conversion Bioconversion Enabling Technologies

MSW Biogas Energy Crops


Biobased Co-products Biopower

Processing & Conversion Gasification Anaerobic Fermentation Modular Systems Co-firing Direct Combustion Pyrolysis & Gasification Processing & Conversion Catalytic & Chemical Processing Fractionation & Separation Biomass Fermentation & Hydrolysis

Product Uses & Distribution Biorefinery Development Demonstration Projects Technical Supports Standards and codes Environmental performance evaluation Resource mapping Labelling e.g. Carbon Footprint

SIRIM Berhad We Make Businesses Compete Better Through Quality and Technology Innovations

www.sirim.my