You are on page 1of 41

2

myanmar NEWS
'dkhwm0efta&;oHk;yg;
jynfaxmifpkrNydKuGJa&;
wdik ;f &if;om;pnf;vH;k nDnw
G rf rI NyKd uaJG &;
tcsKyftjcmtmPm wnfwHUcdkifNrJa&;

'dkhta&;
'dkhta&;
'dkhta&;

-

jynfolhoabmxm;
jynfytm;udk;ykqdef½dk; tqdk;jrif0g'Drsm;tm; qefhusifMu/
Ekid if aH wmfwnfNird af t;csr;f a&;ESiUf Ekid if aH wmfw;kd wufa&;udk aESmif,
U u
S zf suq
f ;D olrsm;tm; qefu
h siMf u/
EkdifiHawmf\jynfwGif;a&;udk 0ifa&mufpGufzufaESmifU,SufaomjynfyEkdifiHrsm;tm; qefhusifMu/
jynfwGif;jynfytzsuform;rsm;tm; bHk&efoltjzpf owfrSwfacsrIef;Mu/

-

EdkifiHa&;OD;wnfcsuf(4)&yf
EdkifiHawmfwnfNidrfa&;? &yf&Gmat;csrf;om,ma&;ESifU w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;a&;/
trsKd;om;pnf;vkH;nDnGwfrI cdkifrma&;/
pnf;urf;jynfU0aom 'Drdkua&pDpepf &Sifoefcdkifrmatmif wnfaqmufa&;/
zGJYpnf;ykHtajccHOya'ESifUtnD acwfrDzGHY NzdK;wdk;wufaom EdkifiHawmfopfwnfaqmufa&;/

-

pD;yGm;a&;OD;wnfcsuf(4)&yf
pdkufysKd;a&;udk ydkrdkzGHY NzdK;wdk;wufatmifaqmif&GufNyD; acwfrDpufrIEdkifiHxlaxmifa&;ESifU tjcm;
pD;yGm;a&;u@rsm;udkvnf; bufpkHzGHY NzdK;wkd;wufatmif wnfaqmufa&;/
aps;uGufpD;yGm;a&;pepf yDjyifpGmjzpfay:vma&;/
jynfwGif;jynfyrS twwfynmESifU t&if;tESD;rsm;zdwfac:í pD;yGm;a&; zGHY NzdK;wdk;wufatmif
wnfaqmufa&;/
EdkifiHawmf\pD;yGm;a&;wpf&yfvHk;udk zefwD;EdkifrIpGrf;tm;onf EdkifiHawmfESifUwdkif;&if;om;jynfol
wdkh\vuf0,fwGif&Sda&;/

vlrIa&;OD;wnfcsuf(4)&yf
- wpfrsKd;om;vHk;\ pdwf"mwfESifU tusifUpm&dwåjrifUrm;a&;/
- trsKd;*kPf Zmwd*kPfjrifUrm;a&;ESifU ,Ofaus;rItarGtESpfrsm;? trsKd;om;a&;vu©Pmrsm;
raysmufysufatmif xdef;odrf;apmifUa&Smufa&;/
- ppfrSefaomrsKd;cspfpdwf"mwfjzpfonfU jynfaxmifpkpdwf"mwf&Sifoefxufjrufa&;/
- wpfrsKd;om;vHk; usef;rmMuHUcdkifa&;ESifU ynm&nfjrifUrm;a&;/

rsufESmzHk;owif; ]1994 ckESpfrS
pwifí w&m;0ifwifoGif;cGifUydwf
xm;onfU tcsKdrIefhtygt0if pm;
aomufukeftcsKd h? pD;u&ufESifU
t&ufbD,mrsm;w&m;0ifjyefvnf
wifoGif;cGifUjyKrnf}rStquf
1994 ckESpfrSpí taMumif;
trsKd;rsKd;aMumifhydwfyifxm;onfh
tcsKdrIefY? t&uf? pD;u&uf? bD
,m? tcsKd&nf? acgufqGJajcmuf?
pnfoGwfbl;? opfoD;tpdk ponf
jzifh ukepf nfrsm;tm; w&m;0ifjyef
vnfwifoiG ;f cGijhf yKrnfjzpfaMumif;
owif;&&Sdygonf/
,cktcgwGif tcsKdrIefY? pnf
oGwb
f ;l ? t&uf? pD;u&uf? acguf
qGJajcmuftygt0if 1994 ckESpf
u ydwfxm;cJhaom ukefpnftcsKdU
udk w&m;r0ifwifoGif;a&mif;cs
t,f'DwmcsKyf

aejcif;rsKd;jzpfNyD; tcGefrJhwifoGif;
onfhtaetxm;jzpfaMumif;od&
onf/
wifoGif;cGifhjyKonfhtwGuf
jynfwGif; tao;pm; tvwfpm;
vkyif ef;&Sirf sm;\aps;uGuaf 0pkavsmh
usNyD; tao;pm; tvwfpm;vkyf
ief;rsm;xdcdkufEdkifonf[kqdkaomf
vnf; txdef;tuGyfrJh wifoGif;
jcif;rsKd;cGifhrjyKbJ tuefYtowf
pnf;urf;csurf sm;jzifo
h mwifoiG ;f
cGiahf y;rnfyh pkH jH zpfaMumif;od&onf/
pm;aomufuek q
f ykd gu jrefrm
EdkifiH tpm;taomufESifhaq;0g;
uGyfuJa&;XmerS pdppfcGifhjyKonfh
ukepf nfrsm;udo
k m wifoiG ;f cGijhf yK
&efpnf;urf;csufxm;&Sdjcif;rsKd;
jzifh uefYowfay;xm;rnfjzpf
aMumif; od&onf/
a0NzdK;

trIaqmift,f'Dwm

oef;aZmfxGef;

tBuD;wef;t,f'Dwm

aZmfaZmfatmif? ti,faxG;? atmifpnf[def;?
rmefol&Sdef? [def;rif;vwf? jzLEk? aexGef;Ekdif?
ausmfaZ,s? aZ0if;aemif? pkd;xufckdif

tBuD;wef;owif;axmuf

rsufESmzkH;'DZkdif;
twGif;pmrsufESmzGJYpnf;rI
aMumfjimrefae*sm

tda&Tpif0if;? vif;vif;ckdif? oDwm0if;?
,kvGifpkd;? &wemOD;? od*Ðausmf? ausmfxif?
a0,HNzdK;OD;? 0if;jrifUausmf? rif;oD[aZmf?
arolausmf? pnfolatmif? csrf;ajrUol
jrifUarmifausmf
ELEVEN MEDIA GROUP

oEåmatmif

rEåav;½kH;cGJ
wm0efcH

ql;iSuf

aejynfawmfysOf;rem;½kH;cGJ
wm0efcH

ae½dik ;f

okdh 400528? 400524?
401411 zkef;eHygwfrsm;tjyif Weekly Eleven News *sme,fESifU
Biweekly Eleven News *sme,f t,f'w
D mtzGYJ 09 73055446?
aMumfjimXme - 09 73055443? jzefch sda&;Xme - 01 706510 ESiUf PDG
- 09 73055445 zke;f eHygwfrsm;okv
hd nf; wdu
k ½f u
kd q
f ufo,
G Ef idk yf gonf/
ELEVEN MEDIA GROUP

rpöwma&mUpf'efuavtrI tNyD;owf pD&ifcsufcs
urm&GwfNrdKUe,f w&m;½Hk;
wGif yk'fr 318? 341? 323? 352?
jrefrmEdkifiH vl0ifrIBuD;Muyfa&;
vwfwavmjy|mef;csufrsm;tuf
Oya'yk'fr 13(1)rsm;jzifh trI&if
qd k i f a e&aom jref r mwd k i f ; (rf )
*sme,f\t,f'w
D mcsKyfMopaMw;
vsEikd if o
H m;rpöwma&mhp'f efuav
\trItwGut
f NyD;owfp&D ifcsuf
udk ZGefv 30 &uf rGef;vGJydkif;u
csrSwfcJhaMumif; owif;&&Sdonf/
rpöwma&mhpf'efuav tae
jzifh pGJqdkxm;jcif;cH&aomtrIrsm;
teuf jrefrmEdkifiHvl0ifrIBuD;Muyf
a&;vwfwavmjy|mef;csufrsm;
tufOya' yk'fr 13(1)t& 'Pf
aiG 1 odef; odkYr[kwf axmif'Pf
ajcmufvESiyhf 'k rf 323 t& axmif
'PfwpfvcsrSwfjcif;cHcJh&onf/
odkYaomf a&mhpf'efuavtaejzifh
trI&ifqikd pf OfucsKyf&uf 45 &uf
&SdcJhNyD;jzpfaomaMumifh yk'fr 323
t&pD&ifjcif;cH&aom axmif'Pf
jynfwiG ;f tao;pm; tvwf
pm;vkyfief;rsm;tay: xdcdkufrI&Sd
rvmap&eftwGuf tao;pm;
tvwfpm;vkyfief;rsm;udkvnf;
t&nftaoG;aumif;? aps;EIef;
oifhwifhonfh ukefpnfrsm;xkwf
vkyv
f mEdik Nf yD; aps;uGuaf vsmhusrI
r&Sdap&ef axmufyhHrI? yHhydk;rIrsm;
jyKvkyfoGm;rnfjzpfaMumif;vnf;
od&onf/
jrefrmEdkifiH\ pufrIvkyfief;
ta&twGuf pkpkaygif;\ 65 &m
ckdifEIef;rSm pm;aomufukefvkyfief;
vkyfukdifonfh pufrIvkyfief;rsm;
jzpfaMumif;? xdYktwGupf m;aomuf
ukefvkyfief;rsm; &SifoefEkdif&ef
twGuv
f nf;xnfo
h iG ;f pOf;pm;&ef
vdktyfaMumif; vkyfief;&Sifrsm;u
oHk;oyfMuygonf/
]]tcsKdreI Yf ? pnfow
G b
f ;l ? bDp
uGwf? opfoD;? t&uf? bD,m?
tcsKd&nfrsKd;pHk? pD;u&ufeJY yDau
vdk tpm;taomufukefpnf pkpk
aygif; 14rsKd;? 15 rsKd;avmufudk
w&m;0ifwifoGif;cGifhjyKzdkYqHk;jzwf
xm;wm&Sdw,f/ 'gayr,fh t&uf
eJYpD;u&ufuawmh ygcsifvnf;yg
r,faemufrS jzpf&ifvnf;jzpfr,f/
tcsKdrIefYeJYpm;aomufukefawGu
awmhwifoiG ;f cGiahf y;rSmaygh/ udwf
rkefYvnf; wifoGif;ay;r,fh txJ
rSmygw,f}} [kjynfaxmifpo
k r®w
jrefrmEdkifiHukefonfrsm;ESifhpufrI
vufrv
I yk if ef;&Sirf sm;toif;csKyfrS
wm0ef&o
dS w
l pfO;D uajymjycJo
h nf/
]]vuf&rdS mS a':vmaps;usvdYk
ydkYukefu aES;oGm;w,f/ tajccH
ukefpnfjzpfwJh pyg;? yJ? ig; aps;
awGvnf; usw,f/ tvkyfu
rwGifawmhbl;/ a':vmaps;jyef
wufrSjzpfr,f/ 'DvdkwifoGif;cGifh
ay;vdkuf&ifawmh a':vmaps;u
tenf;eJYtrsm;awmh jyefwufEdkif
ovdk ydkYukefvnf;jyefNyD; touf
0ifvmr,fvdkYxifygw,f/ 'gay
r,fh uRefawmfwdkYqDrSmtckvnf;
jynfwGif;rSm jynfyupnfoGwf
bl;? tcsKdreI Yf ? acgufqaJG jcmufawG

wpfvudk uscH&awmhrnfr[kwf
ovdk? jrefrmEdkifiHvl0ifrIBuD;Muyf
a&; vwfwavmjy|mef;csufrsm;
tufOya'yk'fr13(1)t& csrSwf
jcif;cH&aom aiG'Pf odkYr[kwf
axmif'PfwiG af iG'Pfuakd y;aqmif
rnfjzpfaomaMumifh tusO;f usc&H
jcif;r&Sdawmh[k od&Sd&ygonf/
rpöwma&mhp'f efuav\ trI

tm; ,ckuJhodkYpD&ifcsufcsrSwfcJh
jcif;ESifhywfoufNyD; ]]EdkifiHwGif;rSm
rSeu
f efww
hJ &m;pD&ifa&;pepf xGe;f
um;apcsifygw,f/ bmyJjzpfjzpf
rpöwm 'efuav tckvdkjyefvnf
vGwfajrmufvmwJhtwGuf 0rf;
omygw,f/ jrefrmowif;*sme,f
wpfacwfrmS Pioneer wpfa,muf
taeeJY tckvdk jrefrmowif;rD'D

,mavmurSm quf&SdEdkifawmhrSm
jzpfwJhtwGufvnf; 0rf;omp&m
owif;aumif;wpfcyk g}}[k Eleven
Media Group \ Chairman &
CEO a'gufwmoef;xG#fatmif
u ajymMum;cJhygonf/
owif;pmq&m armif0o
H u
vnf; ]]oljzpfwJhudpu
ö owif;eJY
oufqikd w
f hJ udpaö wmh r[kwb
f ;l /
'gayr,fo
h wif;orm;wpfa,muf?
t,f'DwmcsKyfwpfa,mufjzpfae
w,f/ olYu'kd t
D rIjzpfpOfrmS w&m;
Oya'twdkif; qHk;jzwfvdkufw,f
vdkY,HkMunfw,f/ 'DtwGuf 0rf;
omovdk 'Dq;kH jzwfru
I v
kd nf; BudK
qd k y gw,f / owif ;orm;wpf
a,mufjzpfvdkY iJhn§mvdkufw,fvdkY
awmhr,lqygbl;/ Oya'twdkif;
vkyo
f mG ;w,fvYkd ,MkH unfygw,f}}
[k ajymMum;cJhygonf/
rpöwma&mhp'f efuavu trI
udk t,lcHqufvuf0ifoGm;rnf
jzpfaMumif; od&onf/

&efukefNrdKY&Sd plygrm;uwfwpfckwGif a&mif;csvsuf&Sdaom pm;aomufukefypönf;tcsKdYukdawGY&pOf

txdef;tuGyfrJU wifoGif;jcif;rsKd;cGifUrjyKbJ tuefhtowf
pnf;urf;csufrsm;jzifUom wifoGif;cGifUay;rnfUyHkpHjzpfaMumif;
od&onf/
a&mif;aewmyJ/ 'gawGu w&m;
r0ifwifoGif;NyD; a&mif;aewm/
atmuf v rf ; uoG i f ; &if tcG e f
raqmif&ovdt
k &nftaoG;nHw
h myJ
jzpfjzpf? oufwrf;vGefcgeD;jzpf
jzpf pm;aomufukefawGudk wpf
zufuaps;aygaygeJYwifoiG ;f a&mif;
csvdkY&wJhtwGuf tusKd;tjrwf
rsm;Muw,f/ tck w&m;0ifwif
oGif;cGifhay;w,fqdkayr,fh tcGef
ay;&r,f? tEÅ&m,fuif;&Si;f aMumif;
tppfcH&r,fqdk&if ukefusp&dwf
rsm;r,f/ jynfyuae aps;jrifhwJh
t&nftaoG;&Sw
d phJ m;aomufuek yf J
oGi;f &awmhr,fq&kd iftusK;d tjrwf
enf;oGm;rSmav/ 'Dawmhw&m;0if
wifoGif;cGifhay;ayr,fh w&m;0if
wifoGif;rIrjyKbJ 'DvdkyJ atmuf
vrf ; u quf o G i f ; aeEd k i f a o;
w,f/ w&m;r0if wifoGif;wm
awGudkwpfu,fydwfEdkifNyD; vkyf
r,fqdk&ifawmh ydkaumif;w,f/
'DvdkcGifhjyKay;wmawGtwGufawmh
BudKqdkygw,f}}[k pm;aomufukef
vkyfief;&SifwpfOD;u oHk;oyfajym

Mum;cJhonf/
]]aumif;usKd;ubmvJ/ qdk;
usK;d bm&Sv
d mEkid o
f vJ 'gudyk w
J u
G f
&r,fvYkd ajymcsifygw,f/ aumif;
usKd;u 'gawGudk w&m;0ifwif
oGi;f cGiahf y;vdu
k w
f t
hJ wGuf jynfy
ydkYukefu&wJh aiGaps; Earning vdk
tyfcsufjrifhwufvmNyD; tenf;eJY
trsm;wefzdk;wufvmEdkifw,f/
aemufwpfcsufu jynfyuoGif;
wJh ukefpnfeJY jynfwGif;uxkwf
vkyfwJhukefpnfNydKifqdkifvkyfukdif
a&mif;csjcif;&JUtusKd;quftjzpf
jynfwGif;xkwfukefawG tqifht
wef;jrifv
h mEdik w
f ,f/ aumif;usKd;
u'g&Sdw,f/ xdckdufEdkifwmbm&Sd
vJqdk&ifawmh atmufvrf;uyJ
qufoGif;r,f? enf;enf;udkyJ w
&m;0ifwifoiG ;f wmjyNyD;usew
f mudk
atmufvrf;uyJ oGif;r,fqdk&if
earning aps;vnf; wufrvm?
EdkifiHawmftcGefvnf;r&wJhtjyif
jynfwGif;u tao;pm;tvwf
pm;vkyif ef;&Siaf wGvnf; aps;uGuf
r,SOfNydKifEdkifwJhtwGuf vJNydKukef

vdrfhr,f/ 'gudkcsdefqzdkYawmhvdkyg
w,f}}[k pm;aomufuek x
f w
k v
f yk f
olvyk if ef;&Siw
f pfO;D uvnf;&Si;f jy
cJhonf/
]]w&m;r0ifwifoGif;aewm
awG u d k wu,f w m;qD ; Ed k i f & if
aumif;ygw,f/ w&m;r0ifwif
oGif;vmwJhukefpnfeJY ,SOfNydKif&
r,fqdk&ifawmh tckvnf; jynfy
uaps;aygaygpm;aomufukefawG
yJ a ps;uG u f a 0pk & xm;wmav/
w&m;0ifcGifh jyKvdkuf&if w&m;0if
ukepf nfjzpfomG ;NyD; emrnft& w
&m;0ifukefpnf? oGif;vmwmus
awmhatmufvrf;uqdk&ifawmh
jynf w G i f ; uk e f x k w f v k y f o l a wG
b,fvrkd ,
S OS Ef ikd rf mS r[kwyf gbl;/
jynfwGif;ukefxkwf vkyfolawGu
tcGeftrsKd;rsKd;ay;aqmifNyD; vkyf
udkif&wmyg}} [k pm;aomufukef
xkwfvkyfol vkyfief;&SifwpfOD;u
&Sif;jycJhonf/
jrefrmEdkifiHwGif pm;aomuf
ukefxkwfvkyfaeonfh vkyfief;
aygif;rSm rSwyf w
kH ifxm;onft
h a&
twGuft&yif 26000 eD;yg;&SdNyD;
tqdkyg pm;aomufukefvkyfief;
26000 wGif 24000 0ef;usifrSm
tao;pm;ESifh tvwfpm;vkyfief;
rsm;jzpfaMumif; od&onf/
rmefol&Sdef?
csrf;ajrUol

3

myanmar NEWS

EdkfifiHU0efxrf;rsm;\ yifpifvpmrsm;ESifU EdkifiHa&;yifpifvpmrsm; wdk;jr§ifUowfrSwfaMumif; aMunm
EdkifiHh0efxrf;rsm;\ yifpif
vpmrsm;ESifh EdkifiHa&;yifpifvpm
rsm;udk wdk;jr§ifhowfrSwfaMumif;
jynfaxmifpo
k r®wjrefrmEdik if aH wmf
tpdk;& b@ma&;ESifhtcGef0efBuD;
Xme 0efBuD;½k;H \trdeYf aMumfjimpm
rsm;jzifh aMunmcJhygonf/
jynfaxmifpkor®w jrefrm
EdkifiHawmftpdk;& b@ma&;ESifh
tcGe0f efBuD;Xme 0efBuD;½k;H aejynf
awmf\ trdefYaMumfjimpmtrSwf
106^2011 udk 2011 ckESpf ZGefv
30 &ufaeY &ufpjJG zifx
h w
k jf yefcNhJ yD;
taMumif;t&mrSm Edik if 0hH efxrf;rsm;
\yifpifvpmrsm;tm;wd;k jr§io
hf wf
rSwfjcif; jzpfonf/
jynfaxmifpkor®wjrefrm
Edik if aH wmf jynfaxmifpt
k pd;k &tzGUJ
\ 2011 ckESpf ZGefv 30&ufaeY
wGif usif;yonfh tpnf;ta0;
12^2011rStNird ;f pm;0efxrf;rsm;\
pm;0wfaea&; oufomrI&Sdap&ef
twGuf tNidrf;pm;0efxrf;rsm;\
yifpifvpmudk wkd;jr§ifhay;&ef qHk;
jzwfcJhaMumif; od&onf/
xd k Y aMumif h jynf a xmif p k
or®wjrefrmEdkifiHawmftwGif; ae
xdkifMuonfh 2010 jynfhESpf Zefe
0g&Dv 1 &ufaeYrwdkifrD tNidrf;
pm;vpmcHpm;vsuf&Sdonfh yifpif
pm;rsm;\yifpifcpH m;cGiu
hf kd vuf&dS
wm0efxrf;aqmifvsuf&Sdaom
0efxrf;rsm; tNidr;f pm;,lygu &&Sd
rnfh yifpifcHpm;cGifhtwdkif; 2011
ckESpf Zlvdkifv yifpifvpmrSpNyD;
wdk;jr§ifhcHpm;cGifh jyKvkdufaMumif;
od&onf/
wd;k jr§iyhf ifpifvpmtm; yifpif
pm;\tNidr;f pm;,lcahJ omaemufq;kH
&mxl;csed Ef eI ;f vpmESiu
hf u
kd n
f o
D nfh
2009 ckESpf 'DZifbmv 31 &uf
aeYpyJG g b@ma&;ESihf tcGe0f efBuD;
Xme? 0efBuD;½kH;\ trdefYaMumfjim
pmtrSwf 184^2009 t& owf
rS w f a om vpmEI e f ; xm;rsm;
tay: tajcjyKNyD; yifpifenf;
Oya'ESit
hf nD wGucf sufowfrw
S f
ay;oGm;rnfjzpfaMumif;od&onf/
xdkYjyif jynfaxmifpkor®w
jrefrmEdkifiHawmftpdk;& b@ma&;
ESifhtcGef0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD;½kH;
aejynfawmf\ trdefYaMumfjimpm
trSwf 107^2011 udkvnf;
2011 ckESpf ZGefv 30 &ufaeY
&ufpjJG zifh xkwjf yefcNJh yD; taMumif;
t&mrSm EdkifiHa&;yifpifvpmrsm;
wdk;jr§ifhowfrSwfjcif;jzpfonf/
jynfaxmifpkor®w jrefrm
Edik if aH wmf jynfaxmifpt
k pd;k &tzGUJ
\ 2011 ckESpf ZGefv 30&ufaeY
wGif usif;yonfhtpnf;ta0;
12^2011 rS EdkifiHa&;yifpifpm;
rsm;\ pm;0wfaea&;oufomrI&Sd
ap&eftwGuf Edik if aH &;yifpifvpm
udk wk;d jr§iahf y;&efq;kH jzwfcahJ Mumif;
od&onf/
xdkYaMumifh EkdifiHa&;wm0ef
xrf;aqmifcJhMuNyD; jynfaxmifpk
or®w jrefrmEdkifiHawmftwGif;
aexdik Mf uonfh 2006 ckEpS f {NyDv
1 &ufaeYrwkid rf u
D Edik if aH &;yifpif
pm;rsm;\ yifpifvpmrsm;tm;

2009 ckESpf 'DZifbmv 31 &uf
aeYpGJyg b@ma&;ESifhtcGef0efBuD;
Xme 0efBuD;½k;H \trdeYf aMumfjimpm
trSwf 184^2009 jzifh owfrSwf
aom NrdKUjyvpmEIe;f xm;ESihf n§Ed iId ;f
wGufcsuf&&Sdrnfh EdkifiHa&;yifpif
vpmodYk 2011 ckEpS f Zlvikd v
f vpm
rSpNyD;wd;k jr§ichf pH m;cGijhf yKvu
kd af Mumif;
od&onf/
vuf&Sd&&Sdaeaom EkdifiHa&;
yifpifvpmonf usyf wpfodef;
wpfaomif;xuf ydkrsm;aeygu
vuf&t
dS wdik ;f om cHpm;oGm;&efjzpf
aMumif; od&onf/
EdkifiHh0efxrf; yifpifpm;rsm;
onf wkd;jr§ifhyifpifvpmxkwf,l
cGifh&&Sda&;twGuf wdk;jr§ifhyifpif

(c) jynf e ,f ^ wd k i f ; a'oBuD ;
tqifh - wdkif;a'oBuD;ESifhjynf
e,f taxG a xG t k y f c sKyf a &;
OD;pD;Xme
(*) jynfolYvTwfawmfudk,fpm;
vS,f - vTwfawmf½kH;
(C) A[kt
d mPmydik t
f qif-h ouf
qdik &f mtmPmydik t
f zGUJ ½k;H rsm;(Edik if H
awmfor®w½k;H ? jynfaxmifpt
k pd;k &
tzGJU½kH;ESifh A[kdtmPmydkiftzGJU
tpnf;½kH;rsm;)odkY udk,fwdkiftjref
qHk;oGm;a&mufowif;ydkYMu&rnf
jzpfaMumif; b@ma&;ESifhtcGef
0efBuD;Xmeu owif;xkwfjyefEdI;
aqmfxm;aMumif; od&ygonf/
,if;uJhodkY EdkifiHh0efxrf;rsm;
\ yifpifvpmrsm;ESifh EdkifiHa&;

yifpifvpm 375 usyf&w,f/ bPfu pma&;rawGu
oem;vdx
Yk ifygw,f/ 500 jynfaU tmifay;w,f/ toufuBu;D Ny;D
roGm;Edkif rvmEdkifrdkh wuúpDeJhoGm;&ygw,f/ toGm;tjyef usyf
5000 ukew
f ,f/ 'gayr,fU Edik if aH wmfuay;wJyU u
kd q
f rH hkd *kP,
f pl mG
eJYyJ vwdkif;oGm;xkwfygw,f/ &wJh ydkufqHudk xDxdk;ygw,f/
ESpfapmif&wmaygh/ tckvdk yifpifvpmawGudk wdk;ay;vdkufwJU
twGuf 0rf;omygw,f/
vpm awmif;cHvTmyHkpHrsm;tm;
oufqdkif&mrdcifXmersm;ESifh eD;
pyf&m yifpifOD;pD;Xme ½kH;csKyf^½Hk;cJG
rsm;wGif &,ljznfhpGufNyD; yifpif
vpm pmtkyfESifh ,cifyifpifvpm
cGijhf yKcJo
h nft
h rdeYf pmrsm; ,laqmif
NyD; rdrdwdkY\rdcifXme ½kH;csKyf^
½k;H cGrJ sm;okYd ud,
k w
f ikd t
f jrefq;kH oGm;
a&mufowif;ydYkMu&rnfjzpfonf/
EdkifiHa&;yifpifpm;rsm;rSmrl
wdk;jr§ifhyifpifvpm xkwf,lcGifh&&Sd
a&;twGuf wkd;jr§ifhyifpifvpm
awmif;cHvmT yHpk rH sm;tm; oufqikd f
&mrdcifXmersm;ESifh eD;pyf&myifpif
OD;pD;Xme½kH;csKyf^½kH;cGJrsm;wGif &,l
jznfhpGufNyD; yifpifvpmpmtkyfESifh
,cifyifpifvpmcGijhf yKco
hJ nft
h rdeYf
pmrsm;,laqmifum
(u) &yfuGuf aus;&Gm^NrdKUe,f
tqif-h NrdKUe,ftaxGaxGtyk cf sKyf
a&;OD;pD;Xme

yifpifvpmrsm;udk wdk;jr§ifhvdkuf
onft
h ay: tNidr;f pm;0efxrf;rsm;
u 0rf;omBudKqdkaMumif; ajymqdk
cJhMuonf/
]]tckvkd yifpifvpm wd;k w,f
Mum;awmh awmfawmfyJ 0rf;omyg
w,f/ yifpif,lawmh 1989 ckESpf
rSm/ vuf&Sd&aewJh yifpifvpmu
usyf 2510 jym; 70 yg/ tck
acwf ukeaf ps;EIe;f eJYawmh b,fvkd
rSr[efbl;aygh/ om;orD;awG
axmufyHhvdkYomtajctae rysuf
ae&wmyg/ tckawmh touf½SL
acsmif w maygh / tod r d w f a qG
tNidrf;pm;0efxrf;awGvnf; 0rf;
omaeMuw,f/ wcsKdUqkd wpfv
usyf 400 avmufeJY toGm;tjyef
um;cavmufawmif r&Sb
d J yifpif
xkwfaeMuwm/ udk,fhvpmav;
qdkawmh b,favmufyJ jzpfjzpf
wefz;kd xm;Muwm/ tckvw
kd ;kd vdu
k f

awmh pdwfat;at;aevdkY &NyDvdkY
ajymEkdifwmaygh/ aemufrdkYqkd [dk
twGufyl? 'DtwGufyleJY jzpfae&
wmyg}}[k &efukefNrdKUrS touf
82 ESpf&Sd tajccHynmOD;pD;XmerS
tNidr;f pm;nTeMf um;a&;rSL;OD;oef;a&T
u ajymygonf/
]]yifpifvpm wkd;vdkufwmu
awmh tifrwefaumif;wmaygh
av/ tck&aewJh yifpifvpmu
usyf 900 eD;yg;yg/ tNidrf;pm;
0efxrf;awGu udk,fwm0efuswJh
ae&mrSm wm0efausyeG cf MhJ uwmyJ/
'gayr,fx
h rif;wpfeyfpmavmufyJ
&SdwJhyifpifvpmav;eJY onf;cHNyD;
aeaeMu&w,f / om;axmuf
orD;cHom r&Sd&if rvG,fbl;/
tbwdkYaewJh &efuif;bufrSmqdk
trIxrf;a[mif;awG aeMuwm
aygh/ 'DrSm tckqdk rl&if;aecJhwJh
vlawG 80 &mcdkifEIef;avmufu
a&mif;NyD; NrdKUpGeaf wGukd ajymif;oGm;
MuNyD}}[k 1979 ckESpfwGif tm;
upm;ESihf um,ynmOD;pD;XmerS
enf;pepfrSL;&mxl;jzifh tNidrf;pm;
,lcJhol touf 91 ESpf&Sd OD;xif
atmifu qdkygonf/
]]yifpifvpm 375 usyf&
w,f/ bPfu pma&;rawGu
oem;vdkY xifygw,f/ 500 jynfh
atmifay;w,f/ toufuBuD;NyD;
roGm;Edkif rvmEdkifrdkY wuúpDeJY
oGm;&ygw,f/ toGm;tjyef usyf
5000 ukefw,f/ 'gayr,fh EdkifiH
awmfuay;wJhydkufqHrdkY *kPf,lpGm
eJYyJ vwdkif;oGm;xkwfygw,f/
&wJh ydkufqHudk xDxdk;ygw,f/ ESpf
apmif&wmaygh/ tckvdk yifpifv
pmawGudk wdk;ay;vdkufwJh twGuf
0rf;omygw,f}}[k touf 92
ESp&f dS Ekid if *hH P
k &f nf 'kw,
d tqif&h
0rf;tdk0rf;ausmf0if;armifu ajym
ygonf/
]]1991 ckESpfrSm yifpif,l
w,f/ yifpmvpmu usyf 560
ausmf &w,f/ tckb,favmuf
&rvJ qdw
k mawmh rodb;l / tckvkd
wdk;wJhtwGuf aysmfygw,f/ usef;
rma&;twGuf aq;ukop&dwf&

wmaygh}}[k awmifilNrdKUrS rD;owf
pcef;rSL;&mxl;jzifh tNidrf;pm;,l
cJhol touf 83 ESpf&Sd OD;bdkpdefu
ajymMum;cJhonf/
]]yifpifvpmu usyf 740
yg/ yifpifvpm wdk;ay;vdkufwJh
twGuf usyf 25000 avmuf
&vdrfhr,fvdkY xifygw,f/ ESpf
aygif;rsm;pGm arQmfvihfaecJh&orQ
'Dowif;Mum;vdkuf&awmh t&rf;
udk 0rf;omoGm;w,f/ vpmaiGeJY
vrf;p&dwfrrQvdkY yifpifvpm vm
rxkww
f o
hJ al wGq&kd ifb,favmuf
0rf;omMurvJrodbl;}}[k yJcl;
NrdKUrS 1985 ckESpfwGif ausmif;tkyf
q&mBuD;&mxl;jzifh tNidrf;pm;,lcJh
onfh touf 87 ESpf&Sd OD;xGef;oD

u ajymMum;cJhonf/
]]b,fvdkyJjzpfjzpf wdk;vm
awmh enf;enf;awmh ydak umif;wm
aygh/ touf 60 jynfh yifpif,l
wm 1980 avmufuyg/ yifpif
vpm ESprf sK;d &NyD; wpfrsK;d u omref
0efxrf;yifpifeJY wpfrsKd;uawmh
EdkifiHa&;yifpifac:wmaygh/ EdkifihH
*kP&f nfqu
k t*Fvyd af cwf? *syef
acwfawmfveS af &;vkyw
f v
hJ w
G v
f yf
a&;armfuGef;0ifawG? txl;ojzifh
1300 jynfhta&;awmfyHkuaepNyD;
1948 rwdik rf D vGwv
f yfa&;wdu
k yf JG
awGrSmygwJholawGudk tqifhawG
cGNJ yD;ay;cJw
h m/ Edik if *hH P
k &f nf yifpif
rl&if;uwpfvudk usyf 300 &
w,f/ omref0efxrf;yifpif usyf
800 udk vkyfouf 15 ESpfeJY wGuf
csufvdkufawmh oluvnf; usyf
300 ywfvnfavmufyJ&w,f/
aemufydkif; ESpfwdk;awG bmawGeJY
qdkawmh ESpfckaygif;udktckwpfv
wpfaomif;omomavmuf&w,f/
wd;k wmu ESpcf g? oH;k cgavmuf&NdS yD/
tMurf;tm;jzifhawmh yifpifvpm
awGwdk;wm 0rf;omwmayghav/
tcktoufu 92 ESpf&SdNyD/ tJ'D
awmh raocif rsm;rsm;pm;pm;
av;&oGm;vdkY auseyf&wmygyJ/
tckwdk;vmwJhtcg t&ifuxuf
av; ig;qavmufawmh tMurf;
zsif;&SdrSmaygh/ wpfodef;rausmf
&bl;vdkYajymxm;wm/ olYaMunm
csufxJrSmygw,fav/ yifpifrdefY
awGbmawG,o
l mG ;NyD; bPf(2) rSm
ukd,fwdkifoGm;xkwfEdkifao;oa&GU
udk,fwkdif oGm;xkwfygw,f}}[k
rEÅav;NrdKUrS touf 92 ESpf &Sd
OD;atmifol (c) oHrPdarmifarmif
u ajymMum;cJhonf/

ESpEf ikd if q
H ufqaH &;ESiUf yl;aygi;f aqmif&u
G af &;
jri§ w
Uf if&ef MopaMw;vsEikd if jH cm;a&;0efBu;D Xme
0efBuD; jrefrmEdkifiHodkh vma&muf
ESpfEdkifiHqufqHa&;ESifh yl;
aygif;aqmif&Gufa&; jr§ifhwif&ef
MopaMw;vsEikd if jH cm;a&;0efBuD;Xme
0efBuD; The Honourable Kevin
Rudd MP onf jrefrmEdkifiHodkY
a&muf&SdvmcJhonf/
EdkifiHawmfor®w OD;odef;pdef
onf MopaMw;vsEdkifiH EdkifiHjcm;
a&;0ef B uD ; Xme 0ef B uD ; The
Honourable Kevin Rudd MP OD;
aqmifaomud,
k pf m;vS,t
f zGUJ tm;
Zlvdkifv 1 &ufaeYwGif aejynf
awmf&Sd EdkifiHawmfor®w½kH; {nfh
cef;rü vufcHawGUqkHcJhonf/
xdkYjyif MopaMw;vsEdkifiHjcm;
a&;0efBuD;Xme0efBuD; OD;aqmif
onfh udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJUonf ae
jynfawmf&Sd vTwfawmftaqmuf
ttkHodkY Zlvdkifv 1 &ufaeYu
oGm;a&mufNyD; jynfaxmifpkvTwf
awmfem,u OD;cifatmifjrifhtm;
awGUqkHcJhonf/
MopaMw;vsEdik if jH cm;a&; 0ef
BuD;Xme 0efBuD;onf Edik if jH cm;a&;
0efBuD;Xme jynfaxmifpk0efBuD;

OD;0PÖarmifviG t
f m; aejynfawmf
&Sd EdkifiHjcm;a&;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD;
½k;H ü oGm;a&mufawGUqkNH yD; ESpEf ikd if H
qufqHa&;ESifh yl;aygif;aqmif
&Gufa&; jr§ifhwif&ef aqG;aEG;cJhMu
aMumif; od&onf/
MopaMw;vsEikd if H Edik if jH cm;a&;
0efBu;D Xme0efBu;D The Honourable
Kevin Rudd MP OD;aqmifaom
udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJUwGif atmuf
vT w f a wmf t rwf Ms. Janelle
Saffin vnf; vdkufygvmaMumif;
od&onf/
,ckc&D;pOfonf jrefrm Edik if H
\ jyKjyifajymif;vJa&;ESifhzGHUNzdK;
wdk;wufrIrsm;tm; MopaMw;vs
Edik if t
H aejzifyh yhH ;kd Edik rf nfeh nf;vrf;
rsm;udk aqG;aEG;&ef jrefrmEdkifiHokdY
vma&mufjcif;jzpfaMumif;? Mop
aMw;vs Edik if jH cm;a&;0efBuD;wpfO;D
taejzifh 2002 ckESpfaemufydkif;
jrefrmEdkifiHodkY yxrqkH;tBudrf
vma&mufjcif;jzpfaMumif; Mop
aMw;vsEdkifiH EdkifiHjcm;a&;0efBuD;
Xmeu owif;xkwfjyefonf/

4
rsufESmzHk; ]jyifya&Ttaygifqdkifrsm;
twdk;EIef; oHk;usyfrS ESpfusyfodkh
avQmUcs . . . } owif;rStquf
vGefcJhonfhESpfESpfu a&Twdk;
EIef;uk d taygifqdkifrsm;rS ig;
usyfEIef;rS okH;usyfEeI ;f odYk avQmhchJ
NyD; ,cktcgwGif a&Twdk;EIef;tm;
taygifqikd t
f csKdUrS ESpfusyfEeI ;f odYk
xyfraH vQmch s xkwaf cs;ay;jcif;rsm;
jyKvkyv
f maMumif; od&onf/
yk*v
¾ du taygifqdkifrsm;t
wGuf a&Ttaygiftwdk;EIef;xm;
rsm;udk 2009 ckESpfoBuFefrwdkifrD
umvrsm;u av;usyfrS ig;usyf
EIe;f twGi;f ,lum a&TtaygifcaH vh
&SdNyD; 2009 ckESpfoBuFeftNyD;rS
pwifum a&Ttwd;k EIe;f xm;udk oH;k
usyfEeI ;f odYk avQmh,u
l m taygifcH
jcif;jzpfonf/ ,ck 2011 ckEpS f ar
vaESmif;ydik ;f rSpwifívnf; yk*v
¾ u
d
taygifqdkiftcsKdUwGif a&Ttaygif
twd;k EIe;f xm;udk ESpu
f syEf eI ;f owf
rSwu
f m taygifcrH rI sm; &Sv
d monf/
]]uRefrwdkY&yfuGufxJrSm t
aygifqikd af wG awmfawmfrsm;rsm; &Sd
ovdk taygifqikd t
f rsm;pkuvnf;
a&Ttwdk;EIef;udk oHk;usyfEIef; ,lNyD;
taygifcHygw,f/ a&TtaygifcHrI
tay: taygifqikd t
f rsm;pku aiG
wGufcsufay;wJhtcgrSmvnf; t
&ifwek ;f uvdk oH;k yHw
k pfyakH vmufyJ
ray;awmhbJ tckq&kd if umvwef
zdk;&JU tenf;qHk; xuf0ufaiGudk
&Si;f ay;NyD; trsm;pkuawmh umv
wefz;kd &JUoH;k yHEk pS yf ekH ;D yg;txd aiGukd
wGucf suaf y;ygw,f/ tcktaygif

cover NEWS
acs;&ef jyifqifxm;onfh vkyif ef;
&Sifrsm; &SdvmaMumif; od&onf/
]]b@mtcGe0f efBu;D Xmeu ZGef
v 30 &ufaeY&ufpeJG YJ ESpaf ygif;
rsm;pGmu jyifqifrrI jyKcJw
h hJ yifpif
vpmcHpm;cGifhudk jyifqifay;vdkuf
NyD/ jynfwGif;tcGefrSmvnf; tdrf
jcHajr oufomavQmah yghciG jhf yKxm;
wmudv
k nf; xyfNyD; oufwrf;wd;k
wmrsKd; rvkyb
f ;l vdYk vnf; Mum;od
ae&w,f/ 'gu jyifqifrItydkif;

xifygw,f/ bPfwcsKUd u tJ'v
D kd
xkwaf cs;ay;zdYt
k wGut
f &ifuwnf;
jyifqifxm;NyD;om; cGijhf yKwmeJYvyk f
vdYk&atmif jyifqifxm;wmvdYk ajym
vdYkyg}}[k ydYkuek v
f yk if ef;&Siw
f pfO;D u
vnf;&Si;f jycJo
h nf/
&yfuu
G rf sm;twGi;f tdraf ygif
ESHjcif;rsm;? ajr*&efaygifESHjcif;rsm;
udk jyKvkyMf ujcif;rsm;&SMd u&m tqdk
ygaygifESHrItwGuf twdk;EIef;udk
ckepfusyfEIef;rS 12 usyfEIef;txd

rsufESmzHk;owif;]EdkifiHykdif puf½Hk
tvky½f akH jruGurf sm;tm; usyo
f ef;
aygif;rsm;pGm . . .}rStquf
yk*¾vduydkifjyKvkyfa&;aumf
r&Sifu Zefe0g&D 21 &ufESifh 22
&ufaeYxkwf owif;pmrsm;wGif
aMunma&mif;csonfEh ikd if yH ikd pf uf½kH
tvkyf½HkajruGufrsm;ESifh EdkifiHykdif
odr;f qnf;xm;aomypön;f rsm;pDrH
cefYcrJG aI umfrwDrS azazmf0g&Dv 13
&ufaeYxkwf owif;pmrsm;wGif
aMunma&mif;cscJhaom ajrESifh
taqmufttH?k wdu
k cf ef;ajruGuf
rsm; 0,f,cl iG &hf &So
d nfh vkyif ef;&Sif
rsm;xJwGif aiGroGif;Edkifítrnf
ysufpm&if;oGif;cH&oltcsKdU&Sdvm
aMumif; pHk;prf;od&Sd&ygonf/
EdkifiHydkifpuf½Hk? tvkyf½Hk? ajr
uGufrsm;udk 0,f,l&mwGif rMum;
zl;onfhaps;EIef;? rwefwqrsm;
jym;aeonfh aiGyrmPrsm;jzifh

ygw,f/ 'gayr,fh bPfawGu
pdkufxkwfacs;ay;xm;wJhtwGuf
ay;oGif;EdkifcJhwJhvkyfief;&SifwcsKdU
&Sdygw,f/ bPfawGom rul&if
awmhtrnfysufpm&if; 0ifomG ;rSm
aygh/ trnfysufpm&if;oGif;w,f
qdkwmuawmh avvHqGJwkef;u
pnf;urf;csufpm&GufxJrSm ygwJh
twkdif;yJ owfrSwfxm;wJhtcsdef
rSmwefzdk;udk taMutvnfray;
oGif;wm? avvHatmifNyD; aiG
roGif;awmhbJ xm;wJholawGudk
trnfysufpm&if;oGif;wmaygh}}[k
avvHq0JG ,f,pl Ofuyg0ifco
hJ nf
vkyif ef;&Siw
f pfO;D u&Si;f jycJyh gonf/
,cktcgwGif avvHqGJ0,f
,lxm;onfh wefz;kd aiGay;oGi;f NyD;
tcGeEf eI ;f ay;oGi;f rIrjyK&ao;onfh
vkyfief;&Sifrsm;udk tcGefay;oGif;
&ef EdI;aqmfxm;aMumif;vnf;
od&Sd&ygonf/

tcsKdYvkyfief;&Sifrsm;rSmrl bPfrsm;rS pdkufxkwfacs;
ay;xm;onfUtwGuf owfrSwfyrmPudk ay;oGif;EdkifcJUNyD;
emrnfysufpm&if;wGif yg0ifjcif;r&SdcJUaMumif; . . .

awGyg/ Oyrm t&ifESpfawGu
rvkyaf wmhb;l xifxm;wJh Credit
uwfeYJo;kH wJph epfawGvnf; tckqkd
jyifqifNyD;oavmuf jzpfaeNyDav/
aemufxyfvkyfzdkYu bPfacs;aiG

a&TtaygifqdkifawG twdk;EIef;avQmU,lw,fqdkwmu
ol hywf0ef;usifu vlawGeJhudkufnDatmif olu ,l&wm/
'DawmU jrefrmjynfolawGeJY udkufnDwJU
bPfpepfudkvnf; ajymif;rSjzpfrSm . . .
qdik w
f csKdUu twd;k udk xyfNyD; ESpf
usyw
f ;kd txd avQm,
h v
l mygw,f}}
[k prf;acsmif;NrdKUe,fwiG f aexdik o
f l
wpfO;D u ajymygonf/
vwfwavm b@ma&;ESifh
tcGef0efBuD;Xme\ jyifqifrIrsm;?
yk*v
¾ u
d bPfrsm;\ jyifqifvmrI
rsm;udk tajccHum bPfwdk;EIef;
avsmu
h sNyD; bPfwiG f aiGxw
k af cs;
omonft
h ajctaersm;jrifawGUvm
&aMumif;ESit
hf wd;k EIe;f avsmu
h sum
aiGxkwfacs;omonfh tajctae
a&mufonfEiS hf bPfwiG af iGxw
k f

bPfpepfawGtjyif vkyfief;jyNyD;
aiGxw
k af cs;cGi&hf wmeJY xkwaf cs;ay;
r,fhtpDtpOfawGyg jyifqifxm;
w,fvYkd od&w,f/ olwYkd jyifqif
w,fqw
kd mtJ'v
D v
kd yk u
f ikd cf iG &hf r,f
xifvdkY EkdifiHjcm;bPfynm&Sifudk
cefYwmvdYk jrifw,f/ NyD;awmh jyify
u a&Ttaygifqikd af wG twd;k EIe;f
avQm,
h w
l ,fqw
kd mu olYywf0ef;
usifu vlawGeYJ uu
kd n
f Datmif ol
u ,l&wm/ 'Dawmh jrefrmjynfol

twd;k EIe;f eJY bPfrmS xkwaf cs;wJh
tcg taygifypön;f rygbJ vkyif ef;
eJY? ukefypönf;eJYjyNyD; acs;vdkY&wJh
pepfrsKd;txd avQmhcszdYk yJ vdak wmh
wmvdYk jrifygw,f/ A[db
k Pft
aeeJY 'gawGukd jyifqifaew,fvYkd
,lq&wJhtydkif;uvnf; &Sif;yg
w,f/ yk*v
¾ u
d bPfopfawGrmS t
ckqkd Edik if jH cm;u bPfynm&Siaf wG
awmif cefYxm;NyD; bPfqw
kd v
hJ yk f
xH;k vkyef nf; tjynft
h 0toH;k csciG hf
&wmeJY apmapmuajymwJh uwf
pepf? EdkifiHjcm;ukefoG,frItwGuf

awGeYJ udu
k n
f w
D b
hJ Pfpepfuv
kd nf;
ajymif;rSjzpfrmS / tckvb
kd @mtcGef
0efBuD;Xmeuvnf; pNyD;ajymif;vJ
aeNyDav/ tJ't
D ay:rSm tajccHNyD;
uRefawmfwdkYvkyfief;&SifawGvnf;
bPfw;kd EIe;f avQmch say;r,ft
h csed f
udk apmifah ewm/ twnfjzpfwmeJY
xkwfacs;zdkY jyifqifaewm/ tck
twd;k EIe;f u uReaf wmfv
h yk if ef;eJYqkd
jrifw
h ,fav/ uRefawmfxifw,f
wpfusyfw;kd avmuftxd avQmhcs
ay;vmvdrrfh ,fvYkd xifygw,f}}[k
ukex
f w
k v
f yk if ef;&Siw
f pfO;D uvnf;
okH;oyfajymMum;cJo
h nf/
]]bPfrmS aiGxw
k af cs;wJt
h cg
,HMk unfr?I ,HMk unf&wJv
h yk if ef;&Sif
qdNk yD; Ekid if w
H umrSm xkwaf cs;wJh
twdik ;f xkwaf cs;vmvdrrhf ,fvYkx
d if
ygw,f/ bPfuxkwaf cs;wJt
h cg
rSmvnf; Oyrm ydYk uek yf Ykd awmhr,fh
qJqJ ukefypönf;u qdyfurf;rSm
tppfcaH eNy?D vkyif ef;&Siu
f aiGvt
kd yf
aeNyD/ tJ't
D cgrSm qdyu
f rf;ydYk awmh
r,fq
h q
J u
J ek yf pön;f rsKd;udk twdik ;f
twmwpfckxdaiGxkwfacs;wmrsKd;
vnf; aemufydkif;&Sdvmvdrrhf ,fvYkd

,lMuNyD; tdru
f mvwefz;kd \ wpf
0ufe;D yg;txd aiGxw
k af cs;ay;rI&dS
aMumif; od&onf/
]]uRefawmfwdkY&yfuGufxJrSm
uawmh tdraf ygifwmwdYk? *&efaygif
wmwdYk q&kd if todoufaoac:NyD;
ta&mif;t0,fpmcsKyef YJcsKyNf yD; aygif
&w,f/ aygifvw
kd o
hJ u
l taygifcH
wJo
h u
l kd taygifoufwrf; twd
tusajymNyD; pmcsKyfcsKyfaygif &
w,f/ taygifoufwrf;umv
ukev
f Ykd aygifwo
hJ u
l aiG&iS q
f rD mS
jyefa&G;Edik &f if a&G;? ra&G;Edik v
f Ykd w
jcm;olut
kd jywfa&mif;NyD; qyfr,f
qd&k ifvnf; taygifcx
H m;wJo
h &l JU
a&SUrSmyJ a&mif;csNyD; pmcsKyfeJYtod
oufaoawGa&SUrSm taygifcx
H m;
wJo
h u
l kd aiGwu
G cf suNf yD;jyef&iS ;f ay;
&w,f/ bPfrSmu *&ef&SdwJhtdrf
rSaygifvdkY&ovdk tvG,fwul
vnf;xkwfacs;zdkYrvG,fao;awmh
*&efr&Sw
d o
hJ al wGu 'Dvykd t
J jyifrmS
twdk;EIef;jrifhjrifheJYaygif&wmaygh}}
[k '*HNk rdKUopfawmifyikd ;f 72 &yf
uGufwGifaexdkifolwpfOD;u qdk
ygonf/ rmefol&Sdef? &wemOD;

0,f,o
l mG ;onftxd &Scd ahJ Mumif;?
odkYaomf 0,f,lcGifh&&SdNyD;aemuf
ueOD;ay;oGif;&efowfrSwfxm;
onfyh rmP? aemufyikd ;f ay;oGi;f
&ef owfrSwfxm;onfhyrmP
rsm;udk ay;oGif;jcif;r&SdcJhonfh
vkyfief;&SiftcsKdU&SdvmaMumif;
od&onf/
]]uRefawmfwdkY yk*¾vduydkif
jyKvkyfa&;eJY EdkifiHykdifodrf;qnf;
xm;wJhypönf;pDrHcefYcGJrIaumfrwD
½Hk;u wm0ef&SdolawGudk quf
oG,af r;jref;wmrSm avvHq0JG ,f
,lxm;wJh vkyfief;&SifwcsKdU ray;
oGif;vdkY trnfysufpm&if;rSm
yg0ifaewm &Sdygw,f/ avm
avmq,f pdppfqJjzpfvdkY twd
tusxkwfjyefvdkY r&ao;wmvdkY
od&w,f}}[k yk*v
¾ u
d ydik jf yKvyk &f m
wGif avvHqGJcJholwpfOD;uajym
jycJhonf/
tcsKdUvkyfief;&Sifrsm;rSmrl
bPfrsm;rS pdkufxkwfacs;ay;xm;
onfhtwGuf owfrSwfyrmPudk
ay;oGi;f Edik cf NhJ yD;emrnfysufpm&if;
wGif yg0ifjcif;r&SdcJhaMumif;vnf;
vkyfief;&Sifrsm;u qdkonf/
]]wcsKdUvkyfief;&SifawGvnf;
wu,fawmh ay;oGif;EdkifzdkY cuf

]]avvHatmifNyD;om; owf
rSwfxm;wJhwefzdk;ay;oGif;NyD;om;
vkyfief;&SifawGxJrSm tcGefray;
oGif;&ao;wJhvkyfief;&SifawGqDudk
tcGeaf y;oGi;f zdYk Ed;I aqmfpmoabm
rsKd;taMumif;Mum;xm;wmyg}}[k
EdkifiHydkifpuf½Hkwpf½Hktm; avvHqGJ
0,f,lcJhpOfu yg0ifcJholwpfOD;u
ajymMum;cJhonf/
]]roGif;Mubl;qdkwm&SdrSmyJ/
rwefwq wpfcgrS rMum;zl;wJh
aps;awGay;wJholawG&SdcJhw,fav/
uRefawmfod&oavmuf wcsKdU
aiGtqHk;cHNyD; qufroGif;wmrsKd;
awmif&Sdw,fvdkY od&w,f}}[k ydkY
ukefoGif;ukefvkyfief;&SifwpfOD;u
ajymMum;cJhonf/
]]rjzpfoifhwJhaps;ay;qGJNyD;
awmhrS roGif;wJhtwGuf tJ'Dae
&mudk wu,fvdktyfvdkY yHkrSefaps;
eJYavQmufxm;cJhwJholawGemw,f/
olvnf;r& udk,fvnf;r&/ tJ'D
vdv
k rl sKd;usawmh b,fvykd jJ zpf jzpf
jyeftyfw,fyJjzpfjzpf rjzpfjzpf
trnfysufpm&if;udk oGif;&r,f/
pnf;urf;csuft&vnf; NidpGef;
w,fav}}[kavvHqGJcJholwpfOD;
uvnf; &Sif;jycJhonf/
rmefol&Sdef? pdk;rif;xdkuf

jrefrmEdkifiHrS tqifUjrifUt&m&SdBuD;rsm;twGuf
jynfolha&;&mpDrHcefhcGJrItpDtpOf udk&D;,m;EkdifiHwGif zdwfac:usif;y
jrefrmEkdifiHrS tqihfjrifht&m
&SBd uD;rsm;twGuf jynfoYl a&;&mpDrH
cefYcrJG t
I pDtpOfuu
kd &kd ;D ,m;or®w
Ekid if w
H iG f usi;f yvsu&f adS Mumif; udk
&D;,m;tjynfjynfqkdif&myl;aygif;
aqmif&u
G af &;at*sifpD (KOICA)
rS owif;&&Syd gonf/
tqdyk g tpDtpOfonf uk&d ;D
,m;or®wEdkifiHwGif ESpfpOfzdwf
ac:usif;yaom oifwef;trsKd;t
pm;wpf&yfjzpfNyD; ud&k ;D ,m;rdwzf uf
Ekid if rH sm;\ OD;pm;ay;u@tvdu
k f
wpfEdkifiHcsif;pD oD;oefYpDpOf zdwf
Mum;jcif;jzpfum oifwef;umv

rSm ZGefv 26 &ufaeYrS Zlvdkifv 9
&ufaeYtxdMumjrihrf nf[o
k &d onf/
jrefrmEkid if rH S tqifjh rihf t&m
&SBd uD;rsm;twGuf jynfoYla&;&m pDrH
cefYcGJrItpDtpOf (Public Sector
Management for Myanmar Senior

wG i f
jynfaxmifpk &mxl;0eftzGJU? odyÜH
ESihf enf;ynm0efBuD;Xme? um
uG,fa&;0efBuD;Xme? trSwf(1)
pufrI0efBuD;Xme? trsKd;om;pDrH
udef;ESifh pD;yGm;a&;zGHUNzdK;wdk;wufrI
0efBuD;Xme? pD;yGm;a&;ESihf ul;oef;
a&mif;0,fa&;0efBuD;Xme? quf
Government Officials)

oG,af &;? pmwdu
k Ef iS fh aMu;eef;0ef
BuD;Xme? ydkYaqmifa&;0efBuD;Xme?
ynma&;0efBuD;Xme? b@ma&;
ESifh tcGef0efBuD;Xme ponfwdkYrS
tqifjh riht
f &m&Sd 25 OD;yg0ifwuf
a&mufaeonf[k od&&dS onf/
tpDtpOft& udk&D;,m;EkdifiH
\vlYprG ;f tm;t&if;tjrpfzUHG NzdK;wd;k
wufrIqdkif&mAsL[mrsm;? e-Government pepf?Eki
d if jH cm;a&;&mrl0g'?
pD;yGm;a&;zGUH NzdK;wk;d wufrt
I p&So
d nf
wdYkuadk vhvmEkid rf nfjzpfonft
h jyif
oifwef;ausmif;rsm;odYk avhvma&;
c&D;rsm;vnf; yg0ifrnfjzpfonf/

5

myanmar NEWS

jynfwGif;xkwfy&dabm*rsm; udk&D;,m;or®wEdkifiHodkh wifydkh&mwGif
taumufcGef &Spf&mcdkifEIef;owfrSwfxm;aomfvnf; FTA rS
cGifUjyKygu taumufcGef okn&mcdkifEIef;txdavQmhcsay;rnf
jrefrmEdkifiHrS xkwfvkyfonfh
y&dabm*rsm;udk udk&D;,m;or®w
Edik if o
H Ykd wifyYkd &mwGif taumufceG f
&Spf&mcdkifEIef;owfrSwfxm;aomf
vnf; tmqD,H-udk&D;,m;pifwm
FTA(Free Trade Agreement) \
cGijhf yKcsujf zifw
h ifyYkdygutaumuf
cGefudkokn&mcdkifEIef;txd avQmhcs
ay;oGm;rnfjzpfaMumif; Seminar
on Furniture Design Development and Quality Management

wGif udk&D;,m;EdkifiHrS wm0ef&Sdol
wpfOD;u ajymMum;cJhonf/
]]udk&D;,m;udk wifydkYwJh opf
om;y&dabm*tm;vH;k twGut
f cGef
owfrw
S cf suu
f &Sp&f mcdik Ef eI ;f jzpf
ygw,f/ 'DtxJrSmrD;zdkacsmifoHk;?
aq;½HkoHk;? ½Hk;cef;oHk;? tdyfcef;oHk;
y&dabm*awGtm;vHk; yg0ifyg
w,f/ 'gawGtm;vHk;eJYywfouf
NyD; tmqD,H-udk&D;,m;pifwm
FTA u cGijhf yK&ifawmh okn&mcdi
k f
EIef;txdcGifhjyKay;oGm;rSm jzpfyg
w,f}}[ktmqD,H-udk&D;,m;pif
wmrS rpö w muif a jrmif * Ref u
ajymMum;cJhonf/
FTA jzifh udk&D;,m;EdkifiHodkY
y&dabm*wifoGif;cGifhjyKxm;csuf
tcGefokn&mcdkifEIef;txd avQmh
csay;rIwGiftm;vHk;aomy&dabm*
rsm;yg0ifjcif;r[kwfbJ wifoGif;
onfhEdkifiHESifh owfrSwfxm;aom
rsufESmzHk;owif; ]EkdifiHjcm;aiGESifU
a&mif;&onfUtay:wGif ,cifu
ukefoG,fvkyfief;cGef . . .}rStquf
jynfyokdY ukefypönf;wifykdY
aeaomykYduek v
f yk if ef;&Sirf sm;\Ekid if H
jcm;aiGESifha&mif;&onfhtay:wGif
,cifu ukeo
f ,
G v
f yk if ef;cGet
f jzpf
&Spf&mckdifEIef;ay;aqmif&NyD; ,ck
tcg ig;&mckid Ef eI ;f omay;aqmif&
awmhrnfjzpfaMumif; pD;yGm;a&;
vkyfief;&Sifrsm;\ ajymjycsuft&
od&&dS onf/
]],cifumvwkef;u jynfy
ukd ukefypönf;wpfckwifykdYvdkY&Sd&if
tcGef 10 &mcdik Ef eI ;f aqmif&w,f/
tJ'DtxJrSm Commercial Tax u
&Spf&mckdifEIef;eJY Cooperative Tax
u ESpf &mcdkifEIef; pkpkaygif; 10
&mcdkifEIef; ay;aqmif&w,f/ tck
Commercial Tax udk &Spf&mcki
d Ef eI ;f
uae ig;&mcdkifEIef;txd avQmhcs
vdu
k af wmh pkpak ygif;uscrH u
I ckepf
&mckid Ef eI ;f yJ usc&H awmhrmS yg/ tcGef
ukdavQmhayghpOf;pm;ay;zdkY aqG;aEG;
aeMuwmMumygNyD/ tpk;d &opfjzpf
ay:vmNyD;aemufyidk ;f tcGefeJYywf
oufNyD; yxrOD;qH;k ajzavsmhay;rI
wpfckyg}}[k jynfaxmifpkor®w
jrefrmEkdifiHukefonfrsm;ESifhpufrI
vufrv
I yk if ef;&Sirf sm;toif;csKyfrS
wm0ef&o
dS w
l pfO;D u ajymjycJo
h nf/
,if;uJhokdY jyKvkyfjcif;rSm
jynfyEkdifiHrsm;okdY ykdYukefwkd;jr§ifh
wifyYdkEidk af &;twGuf &nf&,
G o
f nf
[k od&&dS onf/
]]ykYd uek v
f yk if ef;awG usqif;
aewm awmfawmfav;MumygNyD/

pnf;rsO;f rsm;udu
k n
f rD &I &dS ef vdt
k yf
aMumif;od&onf/ owfrSwfxm;
onfh pnf;rsOf;rsm;wGif tcsuf
av;csufyg0ifNyD; jrefrmrSukef
wifyYkdo^l ud&k ;D ,m;rSuek v
f ufco
H l
wdu
k ½f u
kd jf zpf&ef(wdu
k ½f u
kd f wifyYkdrI
&S&d rnf/ Mum;cHr&Sd&)? wifydkYonfh
uke(f Oyrm y&dabm*)rSm ukeaf csm
xGufonftxd ukefMurf;tqifh
qifw
h iG t
f oH;k jyK&onfyh pön;f rsm;rSm
tmqD,HtzGJU0ifEdkifiHrsm;ESifh udk&D;
,m;Edik if rH x
S u
G &f o
dS nf^h jyKvyk o
f nfh
ukefMurf;rsm;jzpf&efvdktyfjcif;?
wifyYkdonfu
h ek rf mS Finishing point
txdNyD;jywfrSom wifydkYEdkifjcif;
(tpdwt
f ydik ;f wpfcjk cif;pDwifyYkrd rI sK;d
rjzpf&)? wifyYkdonfu
h ek (f y&dabm*)
wGif jynfhpHkaMumif;wHqdyfyg&Sd&ef
vdktyfjcif; ponfhpnf;rsOf;rsm;
jzifh jynfhpHkrI&Sd&ef vdktyfaMumif;
od&onf/
]]jrefrmuaeESpfpOfuRef;opf
ukAwefcsdefESpfoef;avmuf urÇmh
aps;uGufudk wifydkYaew,fvdkYod&
w,f/ udk&D;,m;u xkwfvkyfrI
enf;ynmeJY 'DZdkif;rSm urÇmht
aumif;qHk;vdkYowfrSwfjcif;cH&vdkY
jrefrmeJYy;l aygif;r,fq&kd ifp;D yGm;a&;
ygwemaumif;awGjzpfEikd yf gw,f}}
[k tmqD,H-udk&D;,m;pifwmrS
taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL; Mr. Cho
Young Jai u ajymMum;cJy
h gonf/

jrefrm-tif'dkeD;&Sm; ESpfEkdifiHukefoG,frIyrmP tar&duefa':vm oef; 500 txd wdk;jr§ifUoGm;rnf
jrefrmESihf tif'ekd ;D &Sm;Ekid if w
H Ykd
tMum;ESpEf ikd if u
H ek o
f ,
G rf yI rmP
udk tar&duefa':vmoef; 500
xd wdk;jr§ifhoGm;rnfjzpfaMumif;
jrefrm-tif'ekd ;D &Sm; pD;yGm;a&;ukef
oG,frI tvm;tvmrsm;qkdif&m
aqG;aEG;yGw
J iG f owif;xkwjf yefrI
rsm;t& od&onf/
jrefrmEkdifiHqkdif&m tif'dkeD;
&Sm;Ekid if o
H ½H ;kH rS pDpOfusif;yonfh
jrefrm- tif'ekd ;D &Sm;pD;yGm;a&;ESihf
ukeo
f ,
G rf t
I vm;tvmrsm;tay:
aqG;aEG;yGu
J kd &efuek Nf rdKUukeo
f nf
BuD;rsm; [dkw,fwGif ZGefv 30
&ufaeYu usif;yjyKvkyfcJhonf/
aqG;aEG;yGw
J iG f tif'ekd ;D &Sm;Ekid if rH S
ukefoG,fa&;0efBuD;Xme 'kwd,
0efBuD;? pufru
I ek o
f ,
G af &;0efBuD;
XmeESifh qufoG,fa&;0efBuD;
Xme 'kwd,0efBuD;? tif'dkeD;&Sm;
EkdifiH ukefonfBuD;rsm;toif;
ESifh pufrIvkyfief;&Sifrsm;toif;
Ouú|wdYkwufa&mufaqG;aEG;cJMh u
NyD; jrefrmEkid if rH v
S nf; pD;yGm;a&;
ESiu
hf ;l oef;a&mif;0,fa&;0efBuD;
Xme 'kwd,0efBuD; a'gufwm
yGifhqef;? trsKd;om; pDrHudef;ESifh

tif'dkeD;&Sm;EkdifiH *sumwmNrdKY&Sd EkdifiHwumqdyfurf;twGif;ykdif;wpfae&mukdawGY&pOf
pD;yGm;a&;zGYHNzdK;wd;k wufr0I efBuD;Xme
'kwd,0efBuD; a'gufwmuHaZmf?
jynfaxmifpkor®wjrefrmEkdifiH
ukefonfrsm;ESifhpufrIvufrIvkyf
ief;&Sifrsm;toif;Ouú|ESifhwm0ef
&Sdolrsm;? pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;&Sifrsm;

jrefrm-tif'dkeD;&Sm; ESpfEdkifiH ukefoG,frI (tar&duefa':vm oef;)
ckESpf
2007-2008
2008-2009
2009-2010
2010-2011

ydkhukef
86 .576
28 .248
37 .430
41 .113

oGif;ukef
221 .216
210 .339
140 .074
275 .486

pkpkaygif;
307 .792
238 .587
177 .504
316 .599

wufa&muf aqG;aEG;cJhMuonf/
tif'dkeD;&Sm;EkdifiHonf jrefrm
Ekid if \
H t"du ukeo
f ,
G zf ufEidk if H
10 Ekid if x
H w
J iG f yg0ifaeaom Ekid if H
wpfckjzpfonf/ tif'dkeD;&Sm;EkdifiHrS
pm;tkef;qD? aqmufvkyfa&;oHk;
oHEiS hf oHrPdypön;f rsm;? tDvuf
x&Gef;epfypönf;rsm;? aq;ypönf;
rsm;? yvwfpwpfukefMurf;rsm;?
"mwkypönf;rsm;? puúLrsm;? armf
awmf,mOfypönf;rsm; ponfjzifh
wifoGif;rIrsm;&SdNyD; jrefrmEkdifiHrS
v,f,mxGufukef? om;ig;? opf

awm?owåKEiS phf ufrx
I w
k u
f ek rf sm;
wifyYkdvsu&f o
dS nf/ ESpEf idk if H ukef
oG,rf I yrmPwGif tif'ekd ;D &Sm;
Ekid if rH S wifoiG ;f vmrI rsm;jym;NyD;
jrefrmEkdifiHrS tif'dkeD;&Sm;EkdifiHodkY
xkwu
f ek rf sm; aps;uGuo
f pf&mS azG
wifyYkdEidk af &;? v,f,mxGuu
f ek f
ypön;f rsm; jynfyaps;uGu&f &Sad &;
twGufvnf; aqmif&Guf&rnf
[k tqkdygaqG;aEG;yGJodkY wuf
a&mufvmonfph ;D yGm;a&;vkyif ef;
&Siw
f pfO;D u qdo
k nf/
tda&Tpif0if;

2010-2011 b@ma&;ESpfwGif oGif;ukefrSaumufcH&&Sdaom
taumufcGefyrmP usyfoef; 54000 eD;yg;&Sd

jynfwGif;&Sd qdyfurf;wpfckwGif uGefwdefemukd
t"dutm;jzihaf ':vmaps;eJYjynfy
ykdYukefu&aiGaps;awG usqif;ae
wJhtwGuf tckvdk jzpfaewmyg/
tck Commercial Tax udk avQmhcs
ay;vdu
k w
f t
hJ wGuef nf;enf;awmh
cHomoGm;Edkifygw,f}}[k jynfyokYd
ukeyf pön;f wifyYdkaeaomykYduek v
f yk f
ief;&Siw
f pfO;D u ajymMum;cJo
h nf/
jrefrmEkdifiHü vuf&Sdtajc
taewGif tcGefaumufcHrIESihf
ywfoufygu taumufceG ?f ukef
oG,fcGef (Sale Tax/Commercial
Tax)? tjrwfce
G Ef iS hf yif&if;rSEw
k f
,lay;oGi;f &onft
h cGe(f Withholding
Tax) [lí av;rsK;d &SNd yD; taumuf
cGef(Customs Duties) rSm omref
tm;jzihf okn&mcdik Ef eI ;f rS 20 &mckid f
EIef;txd aumufcHavh&SdNyD; tm

X-rays

qD,EH idk if rH sm;ESihf ukeo
f ,
G &f mwGirf l
tmqD,HEkdifiHwdkY\ yif&if;a'o
xGufukefqdkygu vuf&Sdtajc
taewGio
f kn&mckid Ef eI ;f rSig;&mcdik f
EIef;txdom uscH&aMumif;ESifh
ypönf;trsKd;tpm; 80 &mcdkifEIef;
tusKH;0ifaMumif; od&Sd&onf/
vuf&SdjynfwGif;wGif tcGef
aumufcHonfhpepfrSm jynfwGif;
usyfaiGESihf 0ifaiG&&Sdonfh wpfOD;
csif;yk*dK¾ vfrsm;tay:ü tjrwfcGef
Oya't&vnf;aumif;? ukrP
Ü ED iS hf
tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;tay:üukrP
Ü rD sm;
Oya't&vnf;aumif;? 0ifaiGcGef
ukd usyfaiGjzihaf umufcv
H suf&NdS yD;
Ekid if jH cm;aiGjzih0f ifaiG&&Syd guwpfO;D
csif;yk*¾dKvfjzpfap? ukrÜPDjzpfap
0ifaiGcGefOya't&EkdifiHjcm;aiGjzihf

pufjzifU ppfaq;aepOf
aumufcv
H su&f adS Mumif;od&onf/
ukefoG,fa&;vkyfief;cGefESifh
ywfoufvQifrl tcGeEf eI ;f xm;rsm;
ukd ypönf;trsKd;tpm;tvkduf ukef
oG,fvkyfief;cGef ig;&mckdifEIef;rS
200 &mckdifEIef;txdyg&SdaMumif;?
rdrw
d YkdEidk if w
H iG rf vdt
k yfonfyh pön;f
rsm;ukd ykdrdkpnf;Muyfxm;aMumif;?
tcsKdUukad vQmhíaumufcu
H mtcsKdU
tm;uif;vGwfcGihfay;xm;aMumif;
rwfv 22 &ufaeYu aejynfawmf
wGifusif;yaom trsKd;om;vTwf
awmftpnf;ta0;wGif b@ma&;
ESifhtcGef0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD;u
ajymMum;cJah Mumif; Ekid if yH idk o
f wif;
pmrsm;wGif azmfjyxm;csurf sm;t&
od&onf/
ti,faxG;

2010-2011 b@ma&;ESpf
wGif oGi;f ukerf S Customs Duties
(taumufcGef)aumufcH&&Sdaom
yrmPrSm usyo
f ef; 54000 eD;yg;
&&SdcJhaMumif; owif;&&Sdygonf/
,cifESpfu oGif;ukeftay:
Customs Duties aumuf c H & &S d
onfyh rmPrSm usyfoef; 45500
ausmfjzpfonft
h wGuf ,ckEpS w
f iG f
usyfoef; 8400 ausmf ydkrdk&&SdcJh
aMumif;od&onf/ odYak omftaumuf
cGeaf umufc&H mwGif yHrk eS u
f ek o
f ,
G rf I
jzifhwifoGif;jcif;rSom ESpfpOfydkrdk
&&Sjd cif;jzpfNyD; e,fpyfuek o
f ,
G rf rI S
wifoiG ;f jcif;rSm ESpEf pS f qufwu
kd f
&&Srd I enf;yg;cJah Mumif; od&onf/
]]Customs Duties aumufcrH I
u&&SdrIu wufvmw,f qdkay
r,fh ig;ESpt
f wGi;f rSmawmif ESpq
f
rwufao;ygbl;/ wu,fawmh
oGi;f ukeu
f @taetxm;udMk unfh
&ifwufvmoifw
h ,fvYkdxifw,f/
vGefcJhwJh 2006-2007 ckESpfwkef;
uoGif;ukefyrmP pkpkaygif;u
e,fpyfa&m? yHrk eS af &m ESp&f yfaygif;
tar&duefa':vm 2936 oef;
ESpftvdkufukefypönf;wifoGif;rIrS
b@ma&;ESpf
2007-2008
2008-2009
2009-2010
2010-2011

yHkrSefukefoG,frI
28339 .4
36760 .9
33933 .9
42261 .8

ausmfz;kd &Sw
d ,f/ 2010-2011 rSm
jynfyu tar&duefa':vm 6414
oef;ausmfzdk;wifoGif;w,f/ wif
oGi;f Edik rf u
I ESpq
f ausmfwufvm
wJt
h wGuf taumufceG u
f vnf;
vGecf w
hJ hJ ig;ESpu
f xuf ESpq
f eD;yg;
&oifhw,faygh/ qdkvdkcsifwmu
arSmif&yd cf w
kd v
hJ yk if ef;&Siaf wGraysmuf
ao;bl;vdkYaxmufjycsifwmyg/
tJ'v
D t
kd aumufceG u
f kd enf;trsKd;
rsKd;a&SmifvkyfEdkifwJhvkyfief;&SifawG
rsm;vmwmuawmh trSefwu,f
tcGefay;vkyfudkifwJh vkyfief;&Sif
awGtay: 0efyad pw,f}}[k oGi;f
ukefvkyfief;&SifwpfOD;u oHk;oyf
ajymMum;cJo
h nf/
yHrk eS u
f ek o
f ,
G rf jI zifh ukepf nf
wifoGif;jcif;rS Customs Duties
ydrk &kd &So
d nf[q
k &kd mwGipf ufo;kH qD?
pm;oHk;qDrsm;wifoGif;rIjrifhwuf
vmjcif; tygt0if ukepf nfwif
oGif;rIrsm;jym;vmjcif;aMumifhjzpf
aMumif;? e,fpyfukefoG,frIydkif;
wGirf l t"dutm;jzifh xdik ;f Edik if jH zifh
ukeo
f ,
G rf yI ikd ;f usqif;cJjh cif;aMumifh
jzpfaMumif; od&onf/

Customs Duties aumufcH&&SdrIyrmP

e,fpyfukefoG,frI
8938 .5
48370 .8
11631 .0
11724 .1

(usyf?oef;)

pkpkaygif;
37277 .9
85131 .7
45564 .9
53985 .9

6

myanmar NEWS

pkdufysKd;ajrrsm;a&vTrf;rkd;rI umuG,fa&;ESifU pkdufysKd;ajrjyefvnfazmfxkwfa&;
vkyfief;aumfrwDukd EkdifiHawmfor®wuzGJYpnf;ay;
a&vTrf;rkd;vsuf pkdufysKd;ajrrsm;qkH;½IH;aerIukd wm;qD;EkdifrnfUtpDtrHrsm;avUvmwifjy&ef aumfrwDwGifwm0ef&SdaMumif;od&

yJcl;wdkif;a'oBuD;twGif; a&vQHaeaom v,fuGuftcsKdYtm; ZGefv 26 &ufaehu awGY&pOf

pkdufysKd;ajrrsm; a&vTrf;rkd;rI
umuG,af &;ESiphf u
dk yf sK;d ajrjyefvnf
azmfxkwfa&;vkyfief;aumfrwDukd
EkdifiHawmfor®wu zGJUpnf;ay;NyD;
jzpfaMumif;ESifh a&vTrf;rkd;vsuf
pku
d yf sK;d ajrrsm;qk;H ½I;H aerIuw
dk m;qD;
Ekdifrnfh tpDtrHrsm;avhvmwif
jy&efaumfrwDwiG w
f m0ef&adS Mumif;
jynfaxmifpo
k r®wjrefrmEkid if aH wmf
Ekid if aH wmfor®w½k;H \w&m;0ifxw
k f
jyefaMumfjimcsuft& od&onf/
EkdifiHawmf or®w½kH;onf
trdeYf aMumfjimpmtrSwf 31^2011
jzifh w&m;0ifxkwfjyefaMunmcJh
jcif;jzpfaMumif; od&onf/
jynfaxmifpkor®wjrefrm
EkdifiHtwGif; ESpfpOfa&vTrf;rkd;jcif;
aMumifh pdu
k yf sK;d ajrrsm;qk;H ½I;H aerI ukd
umuG,fwm;qD;Ekdifa&;ESifh ouf
qkid &f ma'otoD;oD;&Sad &eufuiG ;f
rsm;ü pkdufysKd;ajrrsm;azmfxkwfEkdif
a&;twGuf pl;prf;avhvmtaumif
txnfazmfaqmif&GufEkdif&ef ppf
awmif;jrpf0Srf;? jrpfrcjrpf0Srf;ESifh
qufpyfa'orsm; a&vTrf;rkd;rI

umuG,fa&;ESifh pkdufysKd;ajrazmf
xkwaf &;vkyif ef;aumfrwDudk ]pku
d f
ysK;d ajrrsm;a&vTr;f rk;d rIumuG,af &;
ESifh pkdufysKd;ajrjyefvnfazmfxkwf
a&;vkyfief;aumfrwD}tjzpf jyif
qifzGJYpnf;cJhjcif;jzpfaMumif; ,if;
trdefYaMumfjimpmwGif azmfjyxm;
ygonf/
pkdufysKd;ajrrsm; a&vTrf;rkd;
rIumuG,fa&;ESifh pkdufysKd;ajrjyef
vnfazmfxkwfa&;vkyfief;aumfr
wD\wm0efrsm;xJwiG jf ynfaxmifpk
or®wjrefrmEkdifiHtwGif; jrpf0Srf;
rsm;ESiq
hf ufpyfa'orsm;wGiEf pS pf Of
a&vTrf;rkd;vsuf pkdufysKd;ajrrsm;
qk;H ½I;H aerIudk umuG,w
f m;qD;Ekid f
rnfhtpDtrHrsm;avhvmwifjy&ef
[lonfw
h m0efwpf&yfyg0ifaeonf
ukd xkwjf yefaMunmcsuft&od&
onf/
jrpfaMumif;rsm;aumif;rGef
a&;ESifha&vTrf;rkd;rIavsmhyg;a&;t
wGuf a&vQHonfha'orsm;üwrH
rsm;wnfaqmufjcif;? a&0yfonfh
a'orsm;üa&xkwaf jrmif;rsm;azmuf

aiGaps;EIef;usqif;rIaMumifh jynfyokdh
a&xGufukefypönf; wifykdhrIrS &&SdaiGavsmhus
jynfwGif;usyfaiGESifh EkdifiH
jcm;aiGvv
J ,
S Ef eI ;f usqif;rIaMumifh
jynfyodkYa&xGufukefypönf;wifydkY
rIrS&&SdaiGrSm ,cifb@ma&;ESpf
tvm;wl umvwifyYkdrx
I ufavsmh
enf;&&Scd ahJ Mumif; owif;&&So
d nf/
]]vuf&Sdb@ma&;ESpf {NyDv
1 &ufuae ZGefv 26 &uftxd
a&xGufypönf;jynfywifykdYrIuae
tar&duefa':vm 103 'or
383 oef; &&Sdxm;ygw,f/ t&if
ESpf ZGefvukeftxdwifydkYrIuae
tar&duefa':vm 129 'or 279
oef;&&Scd w
hJ t
hJ wGuf tck&wmeJYEidI ;f
,SOf vkdufr,fqkd&if tar&duef
a':vm 25 oef;ausmfavsmhenf;
&&SdcJhwmukdawGU&ygw,f/ 'gay
r,fih g;&SOehf YJuPef;wifyYkdru
I &&Sw
d hJ
aiGyrmPuawmh rESpfutvm;
wlumvwifyYdkrx
I uf ykrd &dk &Sad ewm
awGY&ygw,f/ tckvuf&Sdusae
wmu a&csKid g;wifyYkdru
I ae&&Sad iG
yrmPuusqif;aewm jzpfyg
w,f}}[kig;vkyif ef;OD;pD;XmerS wm
0ef&o
dS w
l pfO;D u ajymMum;cJo
h nf/
a&xGufypönf;jynfywifydkYrI
taejzifh ykrH eS u
f ek o
f ,
G af &;rS tar
&d u ef a ':vm 62 oef ; ausmf ?
rlq,frS 12 oef;ausmf? aumh
aomif;rS av;oef;ausm?f ppfawGrS
ESpfoef;ausmf? NrdwfrS 21 oef;
ausm?f armifawmrS wpfoef;eD;yg;
wifyYdk rrI &S &Scd ahJ Mumif;od&onf/
]]tcka&xGufukef export us
aewm aiGaps;aMumifhvkdYajymvkdY&

vkyjf cif;? jrpfaMumif;twGi;f oJzYkd í
aumaeaomae&mrsm;üa&aMumif;
vrf;zGifhay;jcif;? jrpfaMumif; t
aumufrsm;ajzjcif;ponfh tpDtrH
rsm;avh v mazmf x k w f & ef [l í
vnf;aumif; ,if;okdYaqmif&Guf
oifhonfh tpDtrHrsm;? enf;vrf;
rsm;azmfxw
k Ef idk af &;twGuaf umif;
uif"mwfykH½kduful;jcif;? ajrjyif
wkdif;wmjcif;? jrpfacsmif;rsm;wkdif;
wmjcif;? a&aMumif;vrf;wkdif;
wmjcif;vkyif ef;rsm; pDraH qmif&u
G f
oG m ;&ef [l í vnf ; aumif ;
aumfrwD\vkyfief;wm0efrsm;xJ
wGifxnfhoGif;xm;ygonf/
xkYd jyif ,if;a'orsm;twGi;f
a&BuD;a&eufuGif;rsm;ü pkdufysKd;
ajrrsm;azmfxw
k af &;pDraH qmif&u
G f
&efEiS hf ,if;vkyif ef;rsm;ukv
d yk if ef;
pDrHcsufa&;qGJNyD; pDrHudef;umv
owfrSwfvsuf tjrefqkH;pwifí
vkyif ef;rsm;NyD;ajrmufatmifaqmif
&Guo
f mG ;&efEiS hf yPmravhvmawGY
&Srd t
I pD&ifcpH mESihf ykrH eS t
f pD&ifcpH m
rsm;wifjyoGm;&ef aumfrwDwGif

wm0ef&SdaMumif; od&onf/
aumfrwDwGif Ouú|rSmv,f
,mpkdufysKd;a&;ESifhqnfajrmif;0ef
BuD;Xme jynfaxmifp0k efBuD;jzpfNyD;
twGi;f a&;rSL;rSm v,f,mpku
d yf sKd;
a&;ES i f h q nf a jrmif ; 0ef B uD ; Xme
'k w d , 0ef B uD ; jzpf u m wG J z uf
twGif;a&;rSL;rSm aMu;wkdifESifhajr
pm&if;OD;pD;Xme nTefMum;a&;rSL;
csKyfwdkYjzpfaMumif; od&onf/
aumfrwD\ tzGJU0ifrsm;rSm
jynfxaJ &;0efBu;D Xme'kw,
d 0efBu;D ?
aqmufvyk af &;0efBuD;Xme 'kw,
d
0efBuD;? ydkYaqmifa&;0efBuD;Xme
'kw,
d 0efBuD;? arG;jrLa&;ESiahf &vkyf
ief;0efBuD;Xme 'kw,
d 0efBuD;? pku
d f
ysKd;a&;pDrHudef;OD;pD;Xme nTefMum;
a&;rSL;csKyf? opfawmOD;pD;XmenTef
Mum;a&;rSL;csKyfwkdYjzpfaMumif;od
&onf/ aumfrwDtaejzifh rlt&
qkH;jzwfcsif;rjyKEkdifaomudpörsm;
ay:aygufygu Ekid if aH wmfor®w½k;H
odYw
k ifjyaqmif&u
G &f rnfjzpfaMumif;
od&onf/
[def;rif;vwf? rif;oD[aZmf

b@ma&;ESpf
2006-2007
2007-2008
2008-2009
2009-2010
2010-2011

rsufESmzHk;owif; ]EkdifiHykdifrS yk*¾
vduodkh vTJajymif;a&mif;csrIrS &&Sd
aom aiGaMu;tcsKdY EkdifiHawmf
pDrHudef;rsm; . . .}rStquf
EkdifiHykdif puf½kHtvkyf½kHrsm;
ESihf tdrfjcHajrrsm;ukd yk*¾vdu
vuf0,fokdYvTJajymif;a&mif;csrIrS
&&SdvmaomaiGaMu;tcsKdUukd EkdifiH
awmfpDrHudef;rsm; wnfaqmuf
ay;cJhaom pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;tcsKdU
okdY aiGay;acsay;aejcif;aMumifh
e,fy,fpv
kH yk if ef;rsm;tokid ;f t0kid ;f
wGif aiGaMu;vnfywfrI yHkrSefjzpf
aeaMumif ; pD ; yG m ;a&;vk y f i ef ;
tokdif;t0kdif;xHrS pHkprf;od&Sd&yg
onf/
]]EkdifiHykdifuae yk*¾vduvTJ
ajymif;a&mif;cs&rIu&wJhaiGwcsKdU
ukd pDrHudef;taqmuftOD wnf
aqmufco
hJ w
l csKdUeJYpufypön;f 0,f
,lay;cJholwcsKdUukd ay;acsay;ae
wmaMumihf vkyfief;BuD;awGu
awmhaiGaMu;vnfywfraI wmfawmf
tqifajyvmygNyD/ vkyfief;BuD;
awGuwpfqifhvufcJGvkyfief;awG

ukd ay;p&m&Sdwm wcsKdUvnf; ay;
vmygw,f/ yk*¾vduvufxJukd
pD;0ifwmaMumihf twkdif;twm
wpfckxdawmh jyefvnfywfEkdifrSm
yg}}[k vkyfief;&SifwpfOD;u ajym
Mum;ygonf/
ygarmu© w pf O D ; uvnf ;
]]yk*¾vduukd vJTajymif;a&mif;csrI
awGaMumihf yk*¾vduykdifaiGaMu;
awGtpkd;&vufxJukd pD;xGufoGm;
w,f/ usyfaiGeJYay;&wJhtwGuf
yk*¾vduvufxJrSm usyfaiG&Sm;
oGm;w,f/ tJ'Dawmh tpkd;&u&
vmwJh yk*v
¾ duqDu aiGaMu;awG
ukd b,frmS jyefo;kH vJqw
dk m ta&;
BuD;ygw,f/ tckvkdta<u;qyf
wmyJjzpfjzpf? vkyfief;csay;wmyJ
jzpfjzpf? acs;aiGay;wmyJjzpfjzpf
aiGaMu;jyefxnhfay;wmaumif;
ygw,f/ vkyfief;BuD;awG qDukd
pD;0ifovkd vkyfief;i,fav;awG
qDukdvnf;pD;&if aiGaMu;vnf
ywfrItqifajyvmEkdifw,f}}[k
xifjrifcsufay;ygonf/
2008ckEpS rf S 2011 ckEpS t
f xd

EkdifiHykdifrS yk*¾vduykdif vTJajymif;
a&mif;csrItrsm;tjym; jyKvkyfcJhNyD;
aemufqHk;avvHypfcJhaom 2011
ckEpS f rwfvwGif ueOD;ay;oGi;f aiG
10 &mckdifEIef;tpm; 30 &mckdif
EIe;f ay;oGi;f &efowfrw
S cf NhJ yD; usef
yrmPuk d owf r S w f c sd e f r sm;
twkdif;ay;oGif;&ef owfrSwfxm;
onf/ ,cktcsdefwGif 2008 ckESpf
rS 2010 jynfhESpftwGif; jyKvkyfcJh
aom avvHyGJrSavvHatmifxm;
NyD;oltcsKdUESihfaemufqHk; jyKvkyfcJh
onhfavvHyJGrS avvHatmifol
rsm;rSví
GJ aiGrsm;jynhrf aD tmif ay;
oGif;NyD;jzpfaMumif; od&ygonf/
tqkdygaiGaMu;rsm;xJrS tcsKdUukd
Ekid if aH wmfprD u
H ed ;f rsm;wnfaqmuf
ay;cJhonfhvkyfief;tcsKdUESihf puf
ypönf;ud&d,mrsm; 0,f,lwif
oGi;f ay;oltcsKdUtm;ay;tyfcjhJ cif;
jzpfaMumif;od&ygonf/
xk d o k d Y pD r H u d e f ; taqmuf
tODrsm;wnfaqmufaom yk*¾vd
uvkyfief;tokdif;t0kdif;&Sd aiGay;
aiG,ludpötcsKdUwGif ta<u;pepf

b@ma&;ESpftvkduf jynfyokdh
a&xGufypönf;wifykdYrIrS0ifaiG&&SdrI
(tar&duefa':vmoef;)
trSef0ifaiG&&SdrI
466 .16
561 .02
483 .08
496 .59
555 .515

ygw,f/ aiGvJvS,fEIef;u usyf
800 ywf0ef;usirf mS &Sad ewJt
h wGuf
jynfywifyYdk oal wG ruku
d w
f t
hJ ae
txm;&Sdygw,f/ jynfywifydkYol
awGtaeeJYaiGvv
J ,
S Ef eI ;f utenf;
qk;H usyf 900 avmufjzpfrt
S vkyf
jzpfr,fhtaetxm; &Sdygw,f/
wcsKdUtat;cef;puf½aHk wGqdk ukef
r0,fbJ &yfxm;wmrsK;d awmif&adS e
ygw,f/ aemufwpfckxyfqkd;wm
u a':vmaps;eJY jynfyykdYukefu
&aiGaps;EIef;u rwdrf;r,drf;jzpf
aewmyg/ 'gu rjzpfoifw
h t
hJ ae
txm;yg/ jynfyykdYukefu &aiGu
10 &mckdifEIef;ay;&wJhtwGuf a':
vmaps;eJY earning aps;u 10 &m
ckdifEIef;uGmrS vkyfomukdifomjzpf
rSmyg}}[k a&xGufypönf;jynfy
wifykdYolvkyfief;&SifwpfOD;uajym
Mum;cJo
h nf/
jynfyokYdwifyYkdonfh a&xGuf
ukefrsm;xJwGif t"duwifydkYae
&onfhig;jrpfcsif;wifydkYrIusqif;
jcif;ESifhywfoufívnf; ]]ig;jrpf
csi;f ut"duta&SUtv,fyidk ;f Ekid if H
awGukdoGm;aewm/ 'gayr,fh tJ'D
u Ekid if o
H m;awG pm;wmr[kwb
f J
tvkyv
f mvkyw
f hJ b*FgvDvrl sK;d awG
tpm;rsm;wmjzpfygw,f/ 'Dvkd
aps;uGuu
f vnf; tuefYtowf&dS
w,f/ aps;EIef;uvnf; odyfr&
bl;/ 'ghtjyif t&nftaoG;ykid ;f wkYd
aiGaMu;EIe;f xm;tajymif;tvJawG
aMumifv
h nf; ig;jrpfcsi;f wifyYkdru
I
t&if ESpfpOfwkd;wufwifykdYaewJh
taetxm;uae rESpfupNyD;us
vmygw,f/ tckqdk&if jynfy
wifyYkdzYkdtwGuf ukrP
Ü aD wGu 0,f
wmat;aew,f/ tckawmh ig;arG;
jrLa&;orm;awGtaeeJY ig;xnfh
oGi;f arG;jrLrI avQmhah ew,fvYdk o&d
ygw,f}}[k jrefrmEkid if iH g;arG;jrL
a&;vkyif ef;&Sirf sm;toif;rSwm0ef
&So
d w
l pfO;D u ok;H oyfcyhJ gonf/
„
jzihf vnfywfrIrsm;jym;NyD; aiG&,l
Ekid &f ef yHrk eS t
f m;jzihf ESpv
f rS oH;k v
txdMumjrihfNyD; ajcmufv txd
apmifhqkdif;&onfhvkyfief;BuD;rsm;
&Sad Mumif;od&ygonf/ xko
d Ydk p;D yGm;
a&;vkyfief;BuD;tcsKdU? pDrHudef;
tcsKdU? [kdw,fBuD;tcsKdUwGif wyf
qiftoH;k jyKrnhf ukeyf pön;f rsm;ukd
ay;oGif;a&mif;cs&mwGif vkyfief;
oabmwlpmcsKyf&ufü 20-30
&mckdifEIef;0ef;usif? wyfqifNyD;pD;
onfh&ufwGif 70-80 &mckdifEIef;
0ef ; usif ? wyf q if t oH k ; jyKNyD ;
&ufrS wpfvtwGif; usefaiGtm;
vHk;ukday;acs&ef owfrSwfxm;
avh&SdaMumif;ESihfvkyfief;BuD;tcsKdU
rSm ta&mif;t0,fpmcsKyfcsKyfqdk
csdefwGif ay;tyf&rnfh&mckdifEIef;
wpfco
k may;acsavh&u
dS m usefaiG
rsm;&&ef oHk;vrSajcmufvtxd
apmifhqkdif;&NyD; a&mif;ol qkdaom
aps;jzifhom 0,f,lavh&Sd aMumif;
tqkdygtokdif;t0kdif;xHrS od&yg
onf/
pnfolatmif

CEO(B&W)
,ckESpf rkd;&GmoGef;rItaetxm;ay:rlwnfí
a&BuD;rItEå&m,fu owdjyKzG,fjzpfvm
,ck E S p f rd k ; &moD u mvt
wGi;f jrefrmEkid if aH 'otrsm;pkwiG f
rk d ; &G m oG e f ; rI a umif ; rG e f a ejcif ;
aMumifh jrpfBuD;? jrpfi,frsm;wGif
a&BuD;rItEÅ&m,frSm owdjyKzG,f
jzpfvmaMumif;owif;&&Syd gonf/
vuf&Sdumvonf rkd;v,f
umvZlvikd v
f odYk a&muf&adS eNyDjzpf
NyD; rkd;v,fumvonf ESpfpOfa&
BuD;rIudkpwifowdjyK&avh&Sdaom
umvvnf;jzpfonf[o
k &d onf/
]]a&BuD;rIudk ESpfpOfowdjyK
&avh&Sdwmuawmh jrpfi,fawGrSm
aygh/ 'DESpfvnf; jrpfi,fawGrSm
a&BuD;wmudk MuHKvm&w,f/ rd;k &m
oDumvwpfavQmufvkH; a&BuD;
wmudo
k wdjyK&rvm;qdw
k muawmh
rdk;&GmoGef;rIay:rlwnfaeygw,f/
rkd;&GmoGef;rIaumif;&ifawmh a&
BuD;wmu 'DESpfowdjyK&rSmygyJ/
&mcdkifEIef;tm;jzifhawmh 50? 50 pD
vdYk ajymvdYk &ygw,f}}[k Myanmar
Climate Change Watch rS a'guf
wmxGef;vGifu ajymMum;cJhonf/
2011 ckESpf rdk;&moDumv
twGi;f jrpfa&BuD;rIrsm;udk oHviG f
jrpfwGif pwifMuHKawGUvm&NyD; pdk;
&draf &rSwt
f xuf ausmv
f eG af &muf
&Sdum oHvGifjrpfurf;&Sd bm;tHNrdKU
ü&yfuu
G t
f csKdUodYk jrpfa&0ifa&muf
rIrsm;&SdcJhonf/
xdkYtwl aomif&if;jrpfwGif
vnf; rdk;onf;xefpGm&GmoGef;rI
aMumifh jr0wDNrdKUrS &yfuGuftcsKdU

ü a&vTrf;rdk;rIrsm;&SdcJhonf[k od&Sd
&onf/
rdk;OD;umv ZGefvv,fykdif;rS
pwifí vukefykdif;txd rkd;onf;
xefpGm &GmoGef;rIrsm;aMumifh ,if;
odkY a&BuD;a&vQHrIrsm;udk MuHKawGU
&ouJhodkY &effukefwdkif;a'oBuD;?
yJc;l wdik ;f a'oBu;D wdYw
k iG v
f nf; v,f
,mvkyfief;rsm; aESmifhaES;rIrsm;
vnf; jzpfay:cJhonf/
jrefrmEkid if t
H xufyidk ;f ucsif
jynfe,fwiG v
f nf; rk;d onf;xefrI
aMumifh pdkufcif;tcsKdUysufpD;rI&SdcJh
aMumif; od&Sd&onf/
jrpfBuD;rsm;taejzihfrl {&m0
wDjrpf? csi;f wGi;f jrpfwYdkonfvnf;
a&BuD;rIukd apmifhMunfh&aomjrpf
rsm;jzpfNyD; ,ckESpfwGif rnfonfh
pcef;(NrdKU)wGifrQ pdk;&drfa&rSwf0ef;
usiftxd a&muf&Sdjcif;r&Sdao;
aMumif; od&&dS onf/]]oHviG jf rpfu
awmh ESpfpOfESpfwdkif;a&BuD;rIudk
owdjyK&wJhjrpf jzpfygw,f}}[k
a'gufwmxGe;f vGiu
f qdyk gonf/
jrefrmEkdifiHwGif ysufpD;qkH;½IH;
rIrsm;pGmjzpfay:cJhonfh a&BuD;rI
onf 2004 ckESpfwGif jzpfay:cJhNyD;
{&m0wDjrpf½dk;wpfavQmuf&Sd jrpf
BuD;em;NrdKU? Aef;armfNrdKUtygt0if
NrdKUtcsKdUwGif pdk;&drfa&rSwfrsm;odkY
ausmv
f eG cf o
hJ nf/ {&m0wDjrpfwiG f
ESpfpOf jrpfa&jrihfwufrIudk Zlvdkif
vtwGif;a&muf&SdonfESifh MuHK
awGU&wwfonf/

Zlvdkifvv,fykdif;txd jrefrmEkdifiHatmufykdif;a'orsm;wGif rdk;&GmoGef;rI
qufvufaumif;rGefEkdifí pdkufysKd;a&;vkyfief;rsm; aESmifUaES;zG,f&Sdae
Zlvdkifvv,fykdif;txd jref
rmEdkifiHatmufykdif;a'owGif rkd;
&GmoGef;rIrsm;qufvufaumif;
rGefEkdifonfhtwGuf v,f,m
pdkufysKd;a&;vkyfief;rsm;ü aESmifh
aES;rIrsm; qufvufjzpfay:Ekdif
aMumif; owif;&&Sdygonf/
ZGefvv,fykdif;rSpwifum
vukefykdif;txd rkd;&GmoGef;rIrsm;
a'otoD;oD;wGif ykHrSefxuf
ykdrkdvmNyD; jrpftcsKdUwGif a&BuD;
a&vQHrIrsm;? a'otcsKdUü v,f
,majrrsm; a&vTrf;rkd;vsuf pdkuf
ysKd;a&;vkyif ef;rsm;aESmifah ES;rIMuHK
&jcif;rsm;&Sdvmonf/
]]ZGefv 28 &ufaeYuae
pNyD; 'Do;Hk ?av;&ufawmh rk;d enf;
enf;avsmhomG ;w,f/ a&vTr;f wJh
v,fawGtajctaeaumif;Ekdif
ygw,f/ 'gayr,fhZlvdkifv 5
&ufuae 12 &ufavmuft
wGif;rSmawmh rkd;wufvmEkdifwJh
twGuf vkyfief;ykdif;rSmaESmihfaES;
rIawGquf&EdS ikd yf gw,f}}[k Myanmar Climate Change Watch

rS a'gufwmxGef;vGifu ajym
Mum;onf/
jrefrmEkdifiH\ pdkufysKd;a&;
vkyfief;onf ,ckaemufydkif;ESpf
rsm;wGif &moDOwkajymif;vJrI
rsm;uk d &if q d k i f v k y f u k d i f a e&
onf/ &moDOwkajymif;vJrIrsm;
onf 2006 ckEpS af emufyikd ;f wGif

rdk;rsm;aomaMumifU {&m0wDwkdif;a'oBuD;&Sd a&epfjrKyfaeaom v,fajrtcsKdYudk ZGefv 29 &ufaehu awGY&pOf
odomvmNyD; rkd;enf;yg;jcif;rsm;?
rkwo
f 0Hk ifa&mufcsdeaf emufusjcif;
rsm;? rkwfokHtxGufapmrIrsm;? rkd;
&Gmyguvnf; jzefYa0rIypHk H aumif;
rGefjcif;r&SdbJae&muGuf rdk;BuD;rI
rsm; ponfwdkYudk ydkrdk&ifqdkifvm
&onf/
NyD;cJhonfh 2009 ckESpfü yl
jyif;ajcmufaoGUaom? rdk;enf;yg;
aom t,fvfeDndKESpfwpfESpfjzpfcJh
jcif;aMumiht
f csKUd aoma'orsm;wGif
pdkufysKd;a&twGufcufcJrIrsm; &SdcJh
onf/ 2010 jynfEh pS w
f iG rf &l efuek f
wdkif;a'oBuD;tygt0if {&m0wD
wdik ;f a'oBuD;uJo
h Ykdt"dupyg;pdu
k f

{&m0wDjrpful;wHwm;BuD;rsm;ESifU csdwfqufoGm;vm&rnfU ta&SY-taemuf
&xm;vrf;uGef&uf udk;ckESifU awmif-ajrmuf&xm;vrf;uGef&uf oHk;ckwdkhudk aqmif&Gufae

jrefrmEkid if w
H iG f wnfaqmuf
NyD; {&m0wDjrpful;wHwm;BuD;rsm;
ESifh topfxyfrH wnfaqmufae
onfh {&m0wDjrpful;wHwm;BuD;
rsm;ESifh csdwfqufoGm;vm&rnfh
rD;&xm;vrf;uGef&uf pDrHudef;
rsm;udk taumiftxnfazmfvsuf
&SdNyD; ta&SU-taemuf &xm;vrf;
uGef&uf udk;ck? awmif-ajrmuf
&xm;vrf;uGef,uf oHk;ckwdkYjzpf
aMumif; owif;&&Sdonf/
jrefrmEkdifiHwGif ta&SUrS t
aemufoYkd csw
d q
f ufaeonf&h xm;
vrf;uGe,
f ufu;kd ckrmS (1) Aef;armf
-uom 98 rkdif? (2) cifOD;-rHk&Gmacsmif;OD;-yckuúL 136 rdkif? (3)

ompnf-jrif;jcH 139 rkdif? (4)
usKdif;wHk- rdk;eJ- aysmfbG,f- ewf
armuf- rauG;- rif;bl;-trf;ppfawG 893 rkdif? (5) aejynf
awmf-qwfoGm; 67 rkdif? (6)
awmifil-jynf 120 rkdif? (7)
[oFmw- ykodrf 82 rkdif? (8)
vIid o
f m,m- bJ*&uf- ykord f 89
rkdif? (9) ppfawmif;-'dkufOD; 24
rkdifwkdYjzpfMuNyD; tpdk;&opfwm
0ef,o
l nfo
h ufwrf;umvtwGi;f
NyD;pD;atmif aqmif&GufoGm;&rnfh
pDru
H ed ;f rsm; jzpfaMumif;od&onf/
awmif-ajrmuf &xm;vrf;
uGe,
f uf pDru
H ed ;f oH;k ckrmS (1)jrpf
BuD;em;-rEÅav;-&efukef-armf

Pg-7

vNrd K if - a&;-xm;0,f - Nrd w f
1093 rkdif? (2) rEÅav;-yk*HawmifwGif;BuD;-jynf-&efukef
478 rkdif? (3)uav;-yckuúLMuHcif;-[oFmw-anmifwkef;vIdifom,m 694 rkdifwdkYjzpfonf/
qufvufwnfaqmufrnfU
{&m0wDjrpful;wHwm;BuD;rsm;
wHwm;trnf wkdif;a'oBuD;^jynfe,f
pif;cef;
ucsif
yckuLú
rauG;
(jrefrmEkdifiH\t&SnfqHk;wHwm;)
anmifwkef;
{&m0wD
rvGef
rauG;wdkif;
piful;-ausmufajrmif;
rEåav;

tqdkyg &xm;vrf; pDrHudef;
rsm;udk tydkif;tvdkuf taumift
xnfazmf aqmif&u
G v
f suf&NdS yD; t
opfazmufvyk v
f su&f adS om &xm;
vrf;opf pDrHudef;rsm;udk aejynf
awmfodkY A[dkjyKazmufvkyfvsuf
&Sdonf/
trsKd;om; rD;&xm;vrf;pDrH
udef;0if &xm;vrf;pDrHudef;rsm;
xJrS vuf&dS azmufvyk q
f jJ zpfaom
&xm;vrf;pDru
H ed ;f rsm;wGif yckuLú
-MuHcif; 320rkdif? rif;bl;-trf;
- ppfawG 257 rkdif? uom- Aef;
armf 98 rkdif? aysmfbG,f- ewf
armuf-rauG; 95 rdkif? rdk;eJusKdif;wHk 226 rkdif?xm;0,f-Nrdwf
(132)rkdif? ykodrf-bJ*&uf- vdIif
om,m 89 rkid ?f [oFmw-anmif
wkef; 48 rkdif? jynf-awmifil 120
rdkifwkdYjzpfMuaMumif; od&Sd&yg
onf/
tda&Tpif0if;
wnfaqmufNyD; {&m0wDjrpful;wHwm;BuD;rsm;
wHwm;trnf wkdif;a'oBuD;^jynfe,f
e0a';
yJcl;
rtlyif
{&m0wD
Avrif;xif
ucsif
AdkvfjrwfxGef;
{&m0wD
taemf&xm
rauG;
{&m0wD(rauG;)
rauG;
{&m0wD(a';'&J)
{&m0wD
{&m0wD(&wemyHk)
rEåav;

ysK;d &ma'orsm;üumv&SnMf umrd;k r&
&Scd o
hJ nfjh zpf&yf&cdS NhJ yD; v,f,mvkyf
ief;cGif0if&efaemufusonfha'o
tcsKdU&SdcJhonf[k od&Sd&onf/
2011 ckESpfwGifvnf; rwf
vtwGif;u rkd;onf;xefpGm&Gm
oGe;f rIaMumifh yJpu
kd cf if;rsm;ysupf ;D
rI? rdk;BudKumvwGifvnf; ykHrSef
xufykdrdkaom rdk;&GmoGef;rIrsm;
aMumifh aEGpyg;ysufpD;rIrsm;&Sdvm
onf/ vuf&SdwGifvnf; &efukef
wkdif;a'oBuD;? yJcl;wdkif;a'oBuD;
uJo
h Ykdaom a'orsm;wGif v,f,m
vkyfief;cGif0ifa&mufrI aemufus
onftxd v,f,mrsm;ü a&BuD;

a&vQHrIrsm;&Sdaeonf/
]]pdkufysKd;a&;vkyfief;u pDrH
cefYcGJrI ykdNyD;ta&;BuD;vmw,f/
'Dbufyidk ;f ESpaf wGrmS &moDOwku
rrSefawmh pdkufysKd;a&;u t"du
xd c d k u f v mw,f / vmr,f h r d k ;
v,fumv Mo*kwfveJY puf
wif b mv0ef ; usif a vmuf r S m
vnf; rkwo
f t
Hk m;jywfwmMuHKEkid f
w,f/ rkd;vGefumvrSmuawmh
rkd;rsm;&if &dwfodrf;csdefrSm pDrHcefY
cGJrIawG vdkvmEkdifygw,f}}[k
a'gufwmxGef;vGifu ajymMum;
cJhygonf/
jzLEk

oD&dr*Fvmaps;wGif tcsdefjynfU
vQyfppfrD;ay;&ef pDpOfaeaMumif;od&
oD&dr*Fvmaps;wGif vuf&Sd
tcsd e f ü tcsd e f y d k i f ; vQyf p pf r D ;
(vHjk cHKa&;rD;) udo
k mtm;xm;toH;k
jyKae&NyD; tcsdefjynfhvQyfppfrD;&&Sd
Edik &f ef pDpOfaeaMumif; oD&rd *Fvm
aps;&Syd ½JG rkH sm;rS pHpk rf;od&&dS onf/
]]vQyfppfrD;udk rMumcifrSm
tcsed jf ynfah y;Edik rf ,fvYkdaps;wm0ef
&SdolawGu ajymaewmMumygNyD/
ckxufxdawmh r&ao;ygbl;/ t
ckay;xm;wJh vHkjcHKa&;rD;uawmh
aps;½HkrsufESmusufrSm wdkuf½dkuf
oG,af y;xm;wmyg}}[k oD&rd *Fvm
aps;opf? aps;½H(k i)&So
d pfo;D yG½J kyH dkif
&SifwpfOD;u qdkonf/
vuf&t
dS csdew
f iG f vHkjcHKa&;rD;
rSmnydik ;f tcsed üf om&&Sad erIaMumifh
udk,fydkifrD;puf? tifAmwmESifh z
a,mif;wdik rf ;D rsm;udk t&efr;D tjzpf

tm;xm;toHk;jyKaeMuaMumif;
oD&dr*Fvmaps;wGif a&mif;csae
onfah ps;qdik cf ef;rsm;rS od&&dS onf/
oD&dr*Fvmaps;ü vQyfppfrD;
udk aps;½Hrk sm;üwdu
k ½f u
kd o
f ,
G w
f ef;
ay;xm;NyD; nae 7 em&DrS? reuf
7 em&Dtxd rD;vTwfay;aMumif;?
udk,fydkifqifhyGm;oG,f,l toHk;jyK
cGifhr&SdaMumif; od&onf/ rD;puf?
tifAmwmrsm; toHk;jyKvdkygu
vnf;ud,
k yf ikd rf ;D oD;rsm;udo
k ,
G w
f ef;
toH;k jyK&aMumif; od&onf/
vuf&t
dS csdew
f iG f tqdyk g vHk
jcHKa&;rD;rsm;twGuf rD;toHk;jyKc
twGuf wpfvvQif ig;ay? ig;ay
qdkifcef;wpfcef;udk usyf 500? 5
ay 12 ay qdik cf ef;wpfcef;udk usyf
1500 ay;aqmif&aMumif; od&
onf/

8

myanmar NEWS

tdE´d,a&ykdifeuftwGif; usL;ausmf0ifa&mufvmonfh a&vkyfom;rsm;ukd ,cifcsrSwfonfh jypf'Pfxuf
wkd;jr§ifh csrSwfawmhrnfjzpfojzifh od&SdEkdif&ef tdE´d,EkdifiHqkdif&mjrefrmoH½kH;u today;taMumif;Mum;
tdE,
d´ a&ykid ef uftwGi;f usL;
ausmf0ifa&mufvmonfh a&vkyf
om;rsm;ukd ,cifu axmif'Pf
ajcmufvrS 12 vtxdomjypf'Pf
csrSwfaomfvnf; ,cktcgwGif
axmif'Pf ESpfESpfrS &SpfESpftxd
wkd;jr§ifhcsrSwf&ef owfrSwfxm;
aMumif; jrefrmEkid if rH o
S &d EdS idk &f eft
wGuf tdE,
d´ Ekid if q
H idk &f m jrefrmoH
½kH;utoday;taMumif;Mum;xm;
onf[k jrefrmEkdifiHig;vkyfief;
tzGJUcsKyfrS owif;&&So
d nf/
taMumif;Mum;onfh txJ
wGif tdE,
d´ Ekid if üH avmavmq,f
jypf'PfuscaH e&ol jrefrmEkid if o
H m;
trsm;pkrmS a&vkyo
f m;jzpfaMumif;?
jrefrmESit
hf Ed ,
d´ a&ykid ef ufcsif; xd
pyfae&modvsufjzpfap? owdrjyK
rdbJjzpfap tdE´d,a&ykdifeufodkY
a&muf&Sdvmaom ig;zrf;avSrsm;
ESifha&vkyfom;rsm;onf wkd;jr§ifh
owfrSwfxm;onfh jypf'Pfrsm;
uscH&rnfjzpfaMumif;ESihf ,cifu
,if;odkYusL;ausmf0ifa&mufvm
vQif avSom;a&vkyfom; axmif
'PfajcmufvESiahf vSoBl uD;axmif
'Pf ajcmufvrS 12 vtxdom
jypf'PfcsrSwaf vh&adS Mumif; azmfjy
yg&So
d nf/

oD&dvuFmEkdifiHrS jyefvnfa&muf&SdvmonfU a&vkyfom;rsm;ukd ZGefv 9 &ufaehu awGY&pOf
jypf'Pfrsm; wkd;jr§ifhjcif;rSm
tdE´d,EkdifiH\ 1946 ckESpf EkdifiH
jcm;om;qkdif&mtufOya'ukd jyif
qifonfh The Foreigners (Amendment) Act,2004 t&jzpfNyD; yk'fr
14? yk'rf 14 (u)? yk'rf 14(c)wGif
azmfjyxm;onfrSm tdE´d,EkdifiHü
owfrSwfjynf0ifADZmumvxuf
ausmfveG af exkid jf cif;? jynf0ifAZD m
yg tcsut
f vufwpfcck u
k dk azmuf
zsufí tdE,
d´ Ekid if o
H Ydk usL;vGe0f if
a&mufjcif;? cGifhjyKcsufxuf &uf
ausmfveG af exkid jf cif;ponfh jypfrI

rsm;twGuf axmif'Pf ig;ESpfESifh
aiG'Pfuv
dk nf;aumif;? tdE,
d´ Ekid if H
twGi;f wm;jrpfxm;onfh e,fajr
twGi;f odYk usL;ausmfjcif; ponfh
jypfrrI sm;twGuf tenf;qk;H axmif
'PfESpfEpS rf S &SpfEpS t
f xdusc&H rnfh
tjyifaiG'Pf ½lyD; 10000 xuf
renf;ay;aqmif&efvnf;aumif;?
Ekid if u
H ;l vufrw
S t
f wkreS ;f odvsuf
ESihf ukid af qmifum tdE,
d´ Ekid if o
H dkY
0ifa&mufaexkid jf cif;ponfh usL;
vGefrItwGuf tenf;qkH;axmif
'PfESpfEpS rf S &SpfEpS t
f xdusc&H rnfh

&efukeftjynfjynfqdkif&mavqdyfwGif EdkifiHwumoGm;c&D;onfrsm;
tifwmeuftoHk;jyKEdkif&ef Wireless pepf jyefvnfwyfqif&efpDpOf
&efukeftjynfjynfqdkif&m
avqdyfwGif EdkifiHwumoGm;c&D;
onfrsm; tifwmeuftoH;k jyKEdik f
&ef Free Wireless pepfjyefvnf
wyfqifoGm;&ef pDpOfaqmif&Guf
vsuf&adS Mumif; owif;&&Sdonf/
&efukeftjynfjynfqdkif&m
avqdyw
f iG f 2008 ckEpS cf efYu av
qdyftwGif; tifwmeuftoHk;jyK
Edkif&ef WiFi pepfwyfqifcJhNyD;
aemufydkif;wGif tifwmeuftoHk;

jyKír&Edik af wmhaMumif;od&onf/
]]tckawmh avqdyx
f u
J Wireless
&Sw
d hJ qdik af wGrmS yJ tifwmeufo;kH
vdkY&aeygw,f}}[k &efukeftjynf
jynfqikd &f mavqdyrf w
S m0ef&o
dS u
l
qdo
k nf/
]]t&ifu zGichf w
hJ hJ Wireless
pepfrmS c&D;oGm;wifr[kwb
f J qdik f
awGuyg,lo;kH rI&ydS gw,f/ tcktif
wmeufoHk;zdkYjyefzGifh&if c&D;oGm;
awGyJ oD;oefYo;kH Edik w
f t
hJ aetxm;

tjyif 'Pf aiG½yl ;D 10000 usc&H ef
aiG'Pfukd ½lyD; 50000 txd wkd;
jr§ifhowfrSwfEkdif&efvnf; jyifqif
owfrw
S x
f m;aMumif; od&onf/
vuf&SdwGif jrefrmEkdifiHrS a&
vkyfom; 135 OD;rSm avjyif;'Pf
aMumifh usm;azmifrsm;arsmygNyD;
tdE´d,EkdifiH urf;ajcapmifhwyfrsm;
uu,fwifjcif;ukdcHcJh&aMumif;
ESijhf refrmEkid if o
H Ydk jyefyYkEd idk &f ef twGuf
ESpEf idk if n
H Ed§ idI ;f aqG;aEG;rI jyKvkyaf e
aMumif; od&onf/
rif;oD[aZmf

&efukef-*sumwm-bmvD wdkuf½dkufavaMumif;vdkif;
Edk0ifbmvwGif pwifajy;qGJrnf
jrefrmEkdifiHESifh tif'dkeD;&Sm;
Ekid if w
H Ykd tMum; ESpEf idk if H qufqrH I
wdk;jr§ifhonfhtaejzifh jrefrmEkdifiH
&efuek Nf rdKUrS tif'ekd ;D &Sm;Ekid if H *sum
wmNrdKUESihf bmvDuRef;wdYk oYkd wdu
k f
½du
k af vaMumif;vdik ;f c&D;pOfukd vm
rnfh Ek0d ifbmvwGif pwifajy;qGJ
oGm;rnfjzpfaMumif; jrefrm-tif'kd
eD;&Sm; pD;yGm;a&;ESiu
hf ek o
f ,
G rf q
I ikd f
&mtvm;tvmrsm;aqG;aEG;yGJwGif
tjynfjynfqkdif&m jrefrmh a v
aMumif;vkid ;f rS 'g½du
k w
f mOD;ndKjrifh
ESifh jrefrmEkdifiHqdkif&m tif'dkeD;&Sm;
or®wEkid if o
H t
H rwfBuD; H.E Mr.
Sebastianus Sumarsono wdkYu
w&m;0if ajymMum;oGm;cJhonf/
tif'dkeD;&Sm; or®wEkdifiHodkY
jynfaxmifpkor®wjrefrmEkdifiHrS
or®w OD;odef;pdef cspfMunfa&;
c&D;pOftjzpf 2011 ckESpf arv 5
&ufaeY *sumwm c&D;pOfrsm;
tNyD;wGif cspfMunfa&;c&D;pOf\
&v'ftjzpf ESpfEkdifiH pD;yGm;a&;ESifh
ukefoG,fa&;tvm;tvmrsm;udk
aqG ; aEG ; yG J usif ; yjyKvk y f c J h N yD ;
ESpEf idk if q
H ufqrH w
I ;kd jr§io
hf nft
h ae
jzifh &efuek -f *sumwm wku
d ½f u
kd f
avaMumif;vdkif; c&D;pOfudkvnf;
2011 ckESpf Ekd0ifbmvwGif pwif

ajy;qG&J ef aqmif&u
G Ef idk cf o
hJ nf[k
jrefrmEkdifiHqkdif&m tif'dkeD;&Sm;
or®wEkid if H oHtrwfBuD;u aqG;
aEG;yGJtzGifhrdefYcGef;wGif ajymMum;
oGm;cJo
h nf/
tif'dkeD;&Sm;EkdifiH taejzifh
jrefrmEkid if w
H iG f &if;ES;D jr§KyfErHS rI sm;udk
wd;k jr§iahf qmif&u
G o
f mG ;rnf jzpfNyD;
ESpEf idk if yH ;l aygif;aqmif&u
G rf w
I ;kd jr§ihf
onft
h aejzifh tjynfjynfqidk &f m
jrefrmhavaMumif;vdik ;f \ pDru
H ed ;f
wpfcjk zpfaom &efuek -f *sumwmbmvD wku
d ½f u
kd af vaMumif;vkid ;f
c&D;pOfudk vmrnfhEkd0ifbmwGif
pwifziG v
hf pS Ef idk rf nfjzpfonf/ ,if;
pDru
H ed ;f onf tjyeftvSet
f usKd;
&Sad prnfjzpfaMumif;vnf;oHtrwf
BuD;u ajymMum;oGm;cJhonf/
tjynfjynfqidk &f mjrefrmhav
aMumif;vkdif; (MAI) onf jrefrm
Ekid if rH S wdu
k ½f u
kd af vaMumif;vdik ;f
c&D;pOfrsm;udk wdk;csJYysHoef;Edkif&ef
pDpOfvsuf&SdNyD; &efukef-qD,rf&d?
&efuek -f uGru
f sK;d wdu
k ½f u
kd cf &D;pOf
rsm;udk vnf; 2011 ckEpS f ESpq
f ef;
ydik ;f wGif pwifysHoef;Ekid cf o
hJ nf/
vmrnfh Ekd0ifbmvwGif &efukef*sumwm-bmvD wku
d ½f u
kd cf &D;pOf
udk pwifyso
H ef;oGm;rnfjzpfonf/

yk*H-anmifOD;a'ookdh vma&mufvnfywfaom
urÇmvSnfUc&D;oGm;rsm;\ aiGaMu;okH;pGJrI avsmUusvm

wpfcu
k ykd OJ ;D qH;k vkyo
f mG ;r,fh tpD
tpOf&ydS gw,f}}[k tqdyk gwm0ef
&So
d u
l ajymjycJo
h nf/
vuf&dSü &efuek t
f jynfjynf
qdik &f mavqdy\
f 0efaqmifrrI sm;udk
Pioneer Aerodrome Services

ukrÜPDu vTJajymif;&,lxm;í
Wireless pepfwyfqifjcif;udk
jyKvkyf&ef avqdyfwm0ef&Sdolrsm;
ESifh yl;aygif;vkyfaqmifoGm;&ef&Sd
aMumif; od&Sd&ygonf/

ig;ESpw
f mumvtwGi;f jrefrmEdik if o
H ahkd vaMumif;jzifU c&D;onf0ifa&mufrI
wpfqcGJausmfwdk;wufvmNyD; xGufcGmrIESpfqausmf&Sd
ig;ESpfwmumtwGif; jrefrm
Ed k i f i H o d k Y c&D ; onf 0 if a &muf r I
wpf q cG J a usmf w d k ; wuf v mNyD ;
xGufcGmrI ESpfqausmf&SdaMumif;
avaMumif;nTefMum;rIOD;pD;Xme
(DCA) \ c&D;onft0iftxGuf
pm&if;t& od&Sd&ygonf/
2005 ckEpS w
f iG f jrefrmEdik if o
H Ykd
c&D;onf0ifa&mufrIrSm oHk;odef;
ausmf&SdcJhNyD; 2010 jynfhESpfwGifrl
ig;odef;ausmf wdk;wufcJhonf/
c&D;onfxu
G cf mG rIwiG v
f nf; 2005
ckESpfü oHk;odef;&Spfaomif;ausmf&Sd
cJu
h m 2010 jynfEh pS w
f iG rf l ajcmuf
odef;ausmf&SdcJhonf/ xdkYaMumifh
ig;ESpftwGif; c&D;onf0ifa&muf
rIrmS wpfqcGaJ usmEf iS fh xGucf mG rIrmS
ESpfqausmf jrifhwufrI&SdaMumif;
od&onf/
]]2005 eJY 2008 ckESpfrSm
c&D;onf t0ifa&m txGufa&m

enf;w,f/ 200 8rSm em*pfjzpf
awmhc&D;onft0if avsmhayr,fh
ukef0ifa&muf rIuwufcJhw,f}}
[kDCA rSwm0ef&Sdolu qdkonf/
jrefrmEdkifiHodkY vma&muf
aom c&D;oGm;rsm;wGif jyifopf?
*smref? ½k&Sm;? w½kwfvlrsKd;rsm;rSm
trsm;qH;k jzpfNyD; jrefrmEdik if rH S Edik if H
om;rsm; jynfyodkYxGufcGmrIwGif
befaumuf? pifumylEiS rhf av;&Sm;
wdkYrSm xdyfqHk;wGif&SdaeaMumif;
[dw
k ,fEiS chf &D;oGm;vma&;vkyif ef;

0efBuD;Xme\ xkwfjyefcsufrsm;
t& od&onf/
2011 ckESpf c&D;oGm;&moD
tpwGif jrefrmEkdifiHodkY c&D;oGm;
vma&mufvnfywfrIrSm ,cifESpf
rsm;xufyrkd o
kd nft
h aetxm;wGif
&Sv
d mcJNh yD; Package Tour rsm;? pif;
vHk;iSm;av,mOf c&D;pOfrsm;jzifh
vma&mufvnfywfrI &SdcJhonf/
vmrnfhyGihfvif;&moDwGifvnf;
c&D;oGm;vma&mufrIrsm;jym;&ef
arQmrf eS ;f rIrsm;&Sad eonf[o
k &d onf/

ig;ESpt
f wGi;f jrefrmEdik if o
H ahkd vaMumif;jzifU c&D;onf0ifa&mufrEI iS Uf xGucf mG rIjyZ,m;
ckEpS f
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010

c&D;onf
(t0if)
390753
405206
384523
468444
575485

c&D;onf
(txGuf)
434483
462647
440072
498612
635887

pkpkaygif;
(OD;a&)
825236
867853
824595
957056
1211372

ESpfpOfwdk;wufrI
(&mcdkifEIef;)
13 .69
5 .16
4 .98
16 .19
26 .54

yk*H-anmifOD;a'ookdY a&S;
a[mif;,Ofaus;rItarGtESpaf pwD
yk x k d ; rsm;avh v m&ef &nf & G , f
csufjzifh urÇmvSnfhc&D;oGm;{nfh
onfrsm; ESpfpOfvma&mufvnf
ywfvsuf&Sd&m c&D;oGm;0ifa&muf
onfhta&twGuf wpfESpfxuf
wpfEpS jf yefvnfjrifw
h ufvmaomf
vnf; ¤if;wkdY\aiGaMu;okH;pGJrIrSm
a'otwGif;üodompGmavsmhus
vmaMumif;a'ocHc&D;oGm;vkyif ef;
vkyu
f idk af eMuolrsm;xHro
S &d onf/
]]uRefawmfwkdY c&D;oGm;vkyf
ief;rSmvlwkdif;odwJh tokH;tEIef;
wpfc&k ydS gw,f/ iSuaf ysmoD; Tour
qkdwm {nfhonfu vnf½Hkouf
oufy/J bmrSvnf;r0,fb;l ? pm;
aomufqkdifaumif;aumif;vnf;
r0ifbl;/ iSufaysmoD;pm;r,f? a&
aomufr,f? vnfr,f'gyJ/ ck

aemufykdif;vmwJh {nfhonfawGu
iSufaysmoD;Tour rsm;w,f/ 'DESpf
c&D;oGm;&moDrSm0ifa&mufvmwJh
ta&twGufuawmh t&ifESpfawG
xufrsm;Edkifygw,f}}[k a'ocH
{nfhvrf;nTefwpfOD; ajymygonf/
c&D;oGm;{nfhonfrsm; aiGaMu;okH;
pG J r I enf ; yg;oG m ;aomaMumif h
trSww
f &ypön;f ta&mif;qkid rf sm;?
,Gef;xnfqkdifrsm;? yef;csDyef;yk
vuf r I x nf t a&mif ; qk d i f r sm;
ta&mif;xkdif;vsuf&SdaMumif; od&
onf/ ]]olwkdYqDu aiGaMu;usyf
wnf;rIvnf;ygrSmaygh/ uRefawmf
wkYd qu
D a':vmaps;uswmeJYvnf;
qkdifw,f/ t&ifu ESpfq,feJY
a&mif;wJhypönf;? tckqdkokH;q,f?
okH;q,fhig;rSr&&if ra&mif;Edkif
awmhbl;/ 'Dawmh {nfhonfu
r0,fEdkifMuawmhbl;/ NyD;cJhwJh

umvu {nfhonft0ifrsm;jyD;
ra&mif;&vkdY em;cJh&wJhqkdifwcsKdU
awmif&SdcJhw,f}}[k anmifOD;aps;
twGi;f trSww
f &ypön;f a&mif;ol
wpfOD;qkdygonf/ a'otwGif;
tcsKUd aomtrSww
f &ypön;f ta&mif;
qkid if ,frsm;rSmvnf; a&GUvsm;aps;
onfrsm;tjzpfajymif;vJMuaMumif;
od&onf/ c&D;oGm;vkyfief;vkyf
ukid af eolwpfO;D u]]c&D;oGm;vkyif ef;
oabmu {nf h o nf a wG t 0if
rsm;wkdif;vnf; aumif;wmr[kwf
ygbl;/ blwefEdkifiHqkd&if olwkdYqD
vmvnfr,f{h nfo
h nfudk Quality
eJYxdef;csKyfw,f? Quantity t"du
rxm;bl;/ xkdif;EdkifiHukdMunfh&if
c&D;oGm;ta&twGurf sm;oavmuf
&&SdwJh tusKd;tjrwfeJYay;qyf&wJh
yrmPrrQwbl;}}[k ol\tjrif
ajymygonf/
udkaemf (yk*H)

Pg-9
0ufem;&Gujf yma&m*g xde;f csKyrf t
I aejzifU
&efuek w
f idk ;f a'oBu;D okyhd cJ ;l wkid ;f ESi{Uf &m0wDwidk ;f
a'oBu;D rS0ufo,f,yl ahdk qmifr,
I m,Dyw
d yf ifxm;
&efukefwkdif;a'oBuD;twGif;
0ufem;&Gufjyma&m*g jyefvnf
rjzpfyGm;ap&ef xdef;csKyfrItae
jzifh yJcl;wkdif;a'oBuD;ESifh{&m0wD
wkid ;f a'oBu;D &SNd rKd Ye,fav;ckwYrkd 0S uf
0ifa&mufrI o,f,lykdYaqmifrIwkdY
uk d ,m,D y d w f y if x m;aMumif ;
jrefrmEkdifiHarG;jrLa&;vkyfief; tzGJY
csKyrf w
S m0ef&o
dS w
l pfO;D uajymonf/

&efukefukd 0ifaew,f}}[k tqkdyg
wm0ef&SdolwpfOD;u ajymonf/
0ufem;&Gufjyma&m*gpwif
jzpfyGm;cJhonfh rEÅav;wkdif;a'o
BuD;tygt0if rauG;wkdif;a'o
BuD;? aejynfawmfaumifpeD ,fajr?
yJcl;wkdif;a'oBuD;? &efukefwkdif;
a'oBuD;wkdYwGif vuf&Sdtajct
aewGif 0ufem;&Gufjyma&m*gjzpf

avmavmq,frSm {&m0wDwkdif;a'oBuD; ckeuydwfxm;wJU
NrdKYe,fav;ckuty usefwJUNrdKYe,fawGuae wpfywfukd
um;ig;pD;uae ckepfpD;Mum; &efukefukd0ifaew,f
]]0ufem;&Gujf yma&m*geJY ywf
oufNyD; &efukefwkdif;a'oBuD;xJ
ukd yJcl;wkdif;a'oBuD;u0uf0if
a&mufrrI &Sad tmifyw
d x
f m;ygw,f/
{&m0wDwkdif;a'oBuD;u 0uf0if
a&mufrI&Sdayr,fh ajrmif;jr? MuH
cif;?tdrrf eJ YJ usefwNhJ rdKYe,fwpfcu
k
0ufo,f,lykdYaqmifa&mif;csrIukd
ydwfxm;ygw,f/ avmavmq,f
rSm {&m0wDwkdif;a'oBuD; ckeu
ydwfxm;wJhNrdKYe,fav;ckuty
usefwJhNrdKYe,fawGuae wpfywf
ukd um;ig;pD;uae ckepfpD;Mum;

,ckESpf ZGefvtwGif; oHvGifjrpfa&csdefonf2008 ckESpf ZGefvtwGif;uxufydkrdkae
2008 ckESpftwGif; jrpfa&BuD;rIpHcsdefwifjzpfay:ch Jí ,ckESpfwGifvnf; jrpfa&BuD;rI jzpfay:Edkif

yGm;rIaMumifh 0ufaoqkH;rIrsm;r&Sd
awmhbJ xdef;csKyfEkdifNyDjzpfaMumif;
ESifh {&m0wDwkdif;a'oBuD;twGif;
wGifvnf; a&m*gapmifhMunfhavh
vma&;tzGJYrsm;xm;&SdNyD; aqmif
&Gufvsuf&Sd&m ,cktcgwGifxyfrH
ul;pufrrI &Sad wmhaMumif;od&onf/
aps;uGuftwGif; 0ufom;
aps;EIef;rSm wpfykdifwpfEkdifarG;jrL
xm;onfv
h idk ;f 0ufwpfyó
d mvQif
usyf 18000ef;usifESifharG;jrLa&;
0ufwpfyó
d mrSm usyf 2500 0ef;
usif&SdaMumif; od&Sd&onf/

vGefcJhonfh 2008 ckESpf ZGef
v aemufqHk;ywftwGif; oHvGif
jrpfa&csderf mS tjrifq
h ;kH 480 pifwD
rDwmwGif&SdcJhzl;um ,ckESpfZGefv
aemufq;kH tywfjrpfa&csed w
f ikd ;f xGm
csut
f & 759 pifwrD w
D mwGi&f adS e
NyD; jcm;em;csuft& ,ckESpfZGefv
wdik ;f xGmcsuo
f nf pifwrD w
D m 279
cefYydkrdkvsuf&SdaMumif; od&onf/
2008 ckEpS Mf o*kwv
f twGi;f
ü jrpfa&BuD;rI pHcsdefwifjzpfay:
rI&SdcJhonfhenf;wl ,ckESpfwGif
oHvGifjrpfoufa&muf&m bm;tH
NrdKUay:wGif jrpfa&BuD;rIjzpfay:
vmEdik pf &m tajctae&Sad eaMumif;

b*Fvm;yifv,fjyifwGif arsmaeaomqifwpfaumiftm;
wefhuJoabFmrSu,fwifcJUNyD; ppfawGqdyfurf;teD;wGif,m,Dxm;&Sd

b*Fvm;yifv,fjyiftwGif;
arsmaeaom qifwpfaumiftm;
b*Fvm;a'h&SfEkdifiHokdY oGm;a&muf
ig;a&mif;cJh&mrSjyefvmaom wefY
uJoabFmrSu,fwifumppfawG
odkYo,faqmifvmcJhaMumif;od&
onf/
qifrSmyifv,fxJokdYrawmf
wqa&muf&SdvmykH&NyD; rnfonfh
t&yfrq
S ifjzpfaMumif;ukd ynm&Sif
rsm;ESifh avhvmqef;ppf&rnfjzpf
aMumif;? ppfawGNrdKUta&SUbuf
qdyfurf;wnfaqmuf&mteD;wGif
qifukd ,m,Dapmihfa&Smufxm;
aMumif;vnf; od&Sd&ygonf/
tqkdygqifonf awm½kdif;
qifwpfaumif jzpfEkdifajc&SdNyD;
toufig;ESpfrS ckepfESpft&G,f
qifx;D av;jzpfaMumif;? ZGev
f 28
&ufaeY rGef;vGJ 2 em&DcefYwGif yif
v,fjyifüarsmaeaMumif; awGU&Scd hJ

&ojzihf APEI ukrP
Ü u
D NzdK;&wem
ausmf avS(wefYu)J rS u,fq,fcJh
jcif;jzpfaMumif;vnf;od&Sd&onf/
]]ppfawGeJYa&rkdif 22 rkdifcefY
tuGmavmufrSmyg/ ppfawGeJY
a&csrf;jyiftMum;avmufaygh/
yxrawmhyifv,fxJrSm opfwkH;
arsmaew,fxifvkdY wnfhwnfh
roGm;bJ ab;uaearmif;w,f/
tem;ukda&mufawmh ESmarmif;
axmifvmwmawGU&w,f/ 'Dawmh
qifukdu,fzkdY uRefawmfwkdYqkH;
jzwfvu
dk w
f ,f/avSom;awG tm;
vkH;uvnf; u,fzkdYoabmwlMu
w,f/ 'gaMumifh yxrqifqBD udK;
wpf acsmif;urf;vku
d af wmh qifu
ESmarmif;eJY&pfNyD; yg;pyfeJYvnf;
uku
d x
f m;wmukad wGUw,f/ aemuf
xyf BudK;uGif;BuD;wpfckurf;ay;
vkdufawmh qifuvufESpfzufukd
BudK;uGif;xJoGif;NyD; ukd,fukdcsnf

vkduf wmawGUw,f/ vlawG oif
xm;wJhtwkdif;ygyJAsm/'DvkdeJY BudK;
okH;av;yifavmuf ypfcsNyD;awmh
qifukdqJGMunhfw,f}}[k wefYuJ
oabFmrS yJheif;uajymygonf/
]]uRefawmfwkdYavSrSmu avS
om;tm;vk;H 15 OD;ygw,f/ olwYdk
tm;vk;H u tvSnu
fh sapmihaf &Smuf
ay;Muw,f/ ig;Mudrfavmuf em;
NyD;rSppfawGun
dk 11 em&Dx;dk aeNyD/
oufqkdif&mXmeawGukdvnf; t
aMumif;Mum;xm;NyD; qdycf w
H w
H m;
teD;rSm&SdwJh urf;pyfqDBudK;awG
tok;H jyKNyD;wifEidk cf w
hJ ,f}}[k tqkd
yg yJheif;u ajymMum;cJhygonf/
ppfawGwGif qiftm;tuJ
cwfEkdifolr&Sdao;ojzihf em;vnf
aom ynm&Sifrsm;tm;ac:,lxm;
NyDjzpfaMumif;? ZGefv29 &ufaeY
txdppfawGqyd u
f rf;teD;wGix
f m;
&SdaMumif;od&onf/ vdIif(ppfawG)

a'ocHrsm;\ oHk;oyfajymqdkcsuf
t& od&Sd&onf/
oHvGifjrpfa&oufa&muf&m
jrpfa&jrifw
h ufrt
I ajctaeudk avh
vmMunfyh gu 2008 ckEpS f Mo*kwf
7 &ufaeYwGif 790 pifwDrDwm?
Mo*kwfv 8 &ufaeYwGif 816 pif
wDrDwm? Mo*kwfv 9 &ufaeYwGif
865 pifwDrDwm? Mo*kwfv 10
&ufaeYwGif 901 pifwDrDwm? Mo
*kwfv 11 &ufaeYwGif 905 pif
wDrDwmESifh Mo*kwfv 12 &ufaeY
wGif 912 pifwDrDwmtxdpHcsdef
wifjrifw
h ufr&I cdS ahJ Mumif;od&onf/
jrpfa&BuD;rI yxrumv,ck

ESpf ZGefv 28 &uf aeYv,fydkif;
wdik ;f xGmcsut
f & oHviG jf rpfa&csed f
759 pifwDrDwmtxd a&muf&Sd
aejcif;aMumifh jrpfzsm;rdk;quf
vufaumif;rGeaf evQif jrpfa&BuD;
rI 'kwd,umvtwGif;ü a&BuD;
a&vQHrIrsKd; jzpfay:vmEdkifzG,f&Sd
aMumif; od&Sd&onf/
bm;tHNrdKUonf oHvGifjrpf
oufa&muf&m a'owpfckjzpfNyD;
pHcsdefwifjrpfa&jrifhwufrItaet
xm;rSm 2002 ckESpfwGifwpfBudrf?
2008 ckESpfwGifwpfBudrfjzpfay:cJh
zl;NyD; ,ckESpfwGifrl pHcsdefvGefjrpf
a&BuD;rIjzpfay:Edkifp&mtvm;t

vmrsm;&Sad eaMumif; NrdKUcHwpfO;D u
oHk;oyfajymqdkygonf/
]]oHviG jf rpfa& oufa&muf&m
bm;tHNrdKU taetxm;ajredrfh&yf
uGuaf wGrsm;w,f/ 'gaMumifh BudK
wifumuG,rf aI wGvyk x
f m;zdYk awmh
vdkygw,f/ a&BuD;rItaetxm;
u tv,ftvwfa&BuD;rIjzpfpOf
qdak yr,fh jrpfa&BuD;rIumv MuefY
Mumwwfw,f/ a&vTrf;{&d,m
vnf; us,fjyefYrI&Sdwwfw,f/
2008 ckEpS Mf o*kwv
f a&BuD;a&vQH
rIuMkd unf&h if a&vTr;f {&d,mvnf;
us,fjyefY? a&0ifepfjrKyfrIumv
vnf; &Snv
f sm;wJt
h wGuf pdu
k cf if;
qHk;½IH;rIawG bm;tH-armfvNrdKif(y
aumuf)vrf;ydkif;ysufpD;rIawG&SdcJh
zl;w,f}}[k¤if;uqufvufajym
ygonf/
oHvGifjrpfa&jrifhwufaerI
rSm ZGev
f twGi;f qufvuf&adS eNyD;
jrpfa&BuD;rI'w
k ,
d umvESihf wwd
,umvrsm;wGif txl;owdxm;
apmifMh unf&h ef vdt
k yfaMumif;NrdKUcH
rsm;oH;k oyfcsurf sm;t&od&onf/
oHviG jf rpfa&onf2011ckEpS f
Zlvkdifv 1&ufaeY rGef;vGJ 12;30
em&DwGifrl 755pifwDrDwmokdY jyef
vnfusqif;cJhonf/
pkd;pdk;(bm;tH)

P- 10
wpfEdkifiHvHk;ü bdk;bGm;&dyfom 65 cktxd wdk;vmaomfvnf;
apmifUa&Smufxm;onfU oufMuD;bdk;bGm;OD;a&rSm ESpfaxmifausmfom&Sd
jrefrmEdkifiH wpfEdkifiHvHk;ü
bdk;bGm;&dyfom 65 cktxdwdk;vm
aomfvnf; bd;k bGm;&dyo
f mrsm;wGif
apmihfa&Smufxm;onfh oufMuD;
bdk;bGm;OD;a&rSm ESpfaxmifausmf
om&SdaMumif; pHkprf;od&Sd&onf/
jrefrmEdkifiH&Sd vlOD;a&\ 5
'or 23 oef;onf oufMuD;
&G,ftkdbdk;bGm;rsm;jzpfjyD; tqdkyg
ouf B uD ; &G , f t k d r sm;ud k apmif h
a&SmufrItjzpf bdk;bGm;&dyfom
rsm;ESifh tmqD,H-ukd&D;,m;tdrf
wdkif&ma&muf apmifha&SmufrIpDrH
udef;t& NrdKUe,ftcsKdUwGif apmifh
a&Smufxm;ay;rIrsm; &SdaeaMumif;
od&onf/
bdk;bGm;&dyfomrsm;ü apmifh
a&SmufcHbdk;bGm;tjzpf vufcH&m
wGif owfrw
S x
f m;aompnf;urf;
csufrsm;bkd;bGm;&dyfomwpfckcsif;
pDtvdkuf&SdjyD; tqdkygpnf;urf;
rsm;ESifh udkufnDrSomvQif vufcH
apmifah &Smufay;xm;aMumif; od&&dS
ygonf/
]]wpfEdkifiHvHk; twdkif;twm
taeeJY bk;d bGm;&dyo
f mawG wk;d vm
ygw,f/ bkd;bGm;&dyfom wnf
axmifcsifvkdY wifxm;wmawG
vnf;&Sw
d ,f}}[k vlr0I efxrf;OD;pD;
XmerS wm0ef&o
dS w
l pfO;D u ajymjy
cJhygonf/
&efukefwkdif;a'oBuD; t
wGif;&Sd todtrSwfjyKbdk;bGm;&dyf
omrsm;rSm ESif;qDukef;bkd;bGm;
&dyfomBuD;? c&rf;bdk;bGm;&dyfom?
oDv&Sifuav;rsm; bdk;bGm;&dyf

om? a&ToHvGif bdk;bGm;&dyfom?
rdb*kPf bkd;bGm;&dyfom? OuúH
bkd;bGm;&dyfom? ausmufwef;bkd;
bGm;&dyfom? a';oaem bdk;bGm;
&dyfom? tarharwåmbkd;bGm;&dyf
omESifh vkrÁeDbdk;bGm;&dyfomwkdY
jzpfMuaMumif;? tqdkyg bkd;bGm;
&dyfomrsm;ü bdk;bGm;OD;a& 600
ausmfudk apmifha&Smufay;xm;
aMumif; od&onf/
]]vuf&Sd &dyfomrSm bdk;bGm;
OD;a& ESpf&meD;yg;udk apmifha&Smuf
xm;ygw,f / ES i f ; qD u k e f ; bd k ;

bGm;&dyfomMuD;taeeJY bdk;bGm;
OD;a& 240 avmufudkapmifha&Smuf
ay;zkdY rSef;xm;ygw,f/ &dyfom
rSmapmifha&Smufxm;wJh bdk;bGm;
awGxJrSm tbGm;OD;a& ydkrsm;jyD;
awmfawmfrsm;rsm;uawmh &efukef
u bkd;bGm;awGyJ jzpfygw,f}}[k
ESif;qDukef;bdk;bGm;&dyfomMuD;rS
wm0ef&o
dS w
l pfO;D u ajymMum;cJyh g
onf/
wpfEdkifiHvHk; twkdif;twm
taejzifh bkd;bGm;&dyfomzGifhvSpf
onfhta&twGuf ,cifuxuf

OD;pD;Xmetaejzifhvnf; owf
rSwfxm;onfh pnf;urf;rsm;ESifh
udkufnDrI&Sd? r&Sdudkppfaq;jyD; t
odtrSwfjyKay;aMumif;od&onf/
bdk;bGm;&dyfomrsm;&Sd apmifh
a&SmufcHbdk;bGm;rsm;wGif tbdk;
OD;a&xuf tbGm;OD;a&ydrk sm;onf
udkawGU&jyD; &efukefwkdif;a'o
MuD;twGi;f &St
d odtrSwjf yKbd;k bGm;
&dyo
f mrsm;wGiEf iS ;f qDuek ;f bd;k bGm;
&dyo
f mMuD;ütrsm;qH;k apmifah &Smuf
xm;aMumif; od&Sd&onf/
,OfrGefcdkif

2011 ckESpf *syefwuúodkvf
0ifcGifhpmar;yGJ 2011 Examination
for Japanese University Admission for International Students

udk Edk0if
bmv 13 &ufaeYwGif usif;y
oGm;rnfjzpf&m 0ifcGifhavQmufvTm
rsm;udk jrefrmEkdifiH *syefjyefynm
oifa[mif;rsm;toif;(MAJA)
½Hk;cef;wGif &,lEkdifNyDjzpfaMumif;
od&onf/
(EJU 2nd Session 2011 )

Japan Student Services Org
anization,Student Exchange
Department,Testing Division

rSusif;yonfh (EJU) 2nd Session
pmar;yGjJ zpfaMumif;? pmar;yGaJ jzqdk
atmifjrifolrsm;onf *syefEkdifiH&Sd
wuúov
kd rf sm;wGif ynmoif,El idk f
rnfjzpfum ynmoifqkrsm;&&Sd
EdkifaMumif; od&onf/
tqdkyg0ifcGifhpmar;yGJudk jref
rmEdkifiH*syefjyefynmoifa[mif;
rsm;toif;ESifh jrefrmEkdifiHqdkif&m
*syefEdkifiHoH½Hk;wdkY yl;aygif;usif;y
jcif;jzpfNyD; wpfESpfvQif ESpfBudrf
ZGev
f ESihf Ed0k ifbmvrsm;wGif usi;f
yvsuf&SdaMumif;? yxrtMudrf
(EJU) 1nd Session udk ,ckESpf
ZGefvtwGif;u usif;ycJhum 0if
a&mufajzqdkolrsm;teuf jrefrm
EdkifiHrS ynmoifqk&&Sdol okH;OD;
&SdcJYonf/
(EJU) 2nd Session pmar;yGJ
ajzqdck iG ahf vQmufvmT rsm;udk Zlvikd f
v 4 &ufaeYrS 29 &ufaeYtxd
MAJA ½Hk;cef;ü &,lavQmufxm;
EkdifaMumif; od&onf/

wpfEdkifiHvHk;wGif udk,fUtm;udk,fudk; roefpGrf;tzGJY i,f 20 ausmf&Sd
wpfEdkifiHvHk;wGif udk,fhtm;
udk,fudk; roefpGrf;tzGJUi,frsm;
20 ausmf&SdjyD; ,if;tzGJUi,frsm;
onfroefprG ;f olrsm;\b0jri§ w
hf if
a&;twGuf zGJUpnf;aqmif&Gufae
Mujcif;jzpfaMumif; od&onf/
roefprG ;f olrsm;ud,
k w
f idk f yg
0ifzGJUpnf;onfhudk,fhtm;udk,fudk;
tzGJUrsm;udk &efukefwkdif;a'oMuD;
twGif;&Sd vdIifom,mjrdKUe,f? a&T
jynfomjrdKUe,f? arSmfbDjrdKUe,f?
'vjrdKUe,fwYdkwiG f ud,
k t
hf m;ud,
k f
udk;roefpGrf;tzGJUi,frsm; zGJUpnf;
xm;MujyD;{&m0wDwkdif;a'oMuD;
ESifh tjcm;wkdif;a'oMuD;rsm;wGif

rsm;vmaomfvnf; bdk;bGm;&dyf
omrsm;wGif apmifha&Smufay;Edkif
onfh bkd;bGm;OD;a&rSmenf;yg;ae
ao;aMumif; oHk;oyfcsufrsm;t&
od&Sd&onf/
,ckaemufydkif;ü bdk;bGm;
&dyfomtopfrsm; wnfaxmif&ef
twGuf todtrSwfjyKwifonfh
bkd;bGm;&dyfomrsm;&SdjyD; todt
rS w f j yKwif & mwG i f v nf ; owf
rSwfxm;aom pnf;urf;csufrsm;
ESifhudkufnDygu todtrSwfjyK
avQmufxm;EkdifjyD; vlrI0efxrf;

*syefwuúodkvf0ifcGifU
pmar;yGJusif;yrnf

vnf;roefprG ;f tzGUJ i,frsm;zGUJ pnf;
xm;í roefpGrf;olrsm;ta&;udpö
&yfrsm;udk aqmif&GufaeMuonf/
]]tzGJUtaeeJY roefpGrf;ol
awG&SdwJhae&mawGoGm;jyD; ESpfodrfh
aqG;aEG;ay;wmawG? tawGUt
MuHKzvS,yf aJG v;awG usif;yay;yg
w,f/ jyD;awmh roefpGrf;olawG
eJYywfoufwJhtaMumif;udk udk,f
wufEdkifoavmuf vufurf;pm
apmifawG½kdufESdyfxkwfa0ygw,f}}
[kudk,fhtm;udk,fudk;tzGJUwpfckrS
wm0ef&o
dS w
l pfO;D uajymjycJo
h nf/
uk,
d t
hf m;uk,
d u
f ;kd tzGUJ i,frsm;
onf roefpGrf;olrsm;twGuf

aqmif&u
G af y;aeonft
h zGUJ tpnf;
MuD;rsm;ESifh csdwfqufyl;aygif;jyD;
aqmif&Gufaeonfrsm;&SdouJhodkY
tzGJU\ &efyHkaiG&&Sda&;twGuf
wpfEikd w
f pfyikd v
f yk if ef;rsm;vkyu
f ikd f
aqmif&Gufaeaom tzGJUi,frsm;
vnf;&Sdonf[k od&onf/
,if;tzGJUi,frsm;wGif udk,f
t*Fg? rsufpd? em;? ÓPf&nfrrDp
onfrh oefprG ;f trsKd;tpm;tm;vH;k
twGufzGJUpnf;xm;onfhtzGJUi,f
rsm;ESifh roefpGrf;trsKd;tpm;wpf
ckwnf;twGuf zGJUpnf;xm;onfh
tzGUJ rsm;&Sad Mumif;vnf;od&onf/
„

11
zke;f abvfpepfjzifh zek ;f ac:qckd ay;oGi;f rIjyKvyk af e&onfh
BudK;zkef;rsm;tygt0if rdkbdkif;zkef;tm;vkH;
tGefvdkif;rS aiGay;acsrIrsm; jyKvkyfedkifrnf
zkef;abvfpepfjzifh zkef;ac:
qdkcay;oGif;rIjyKvkyfae&onfh
BudK;zkef;rsm;tygt0if rdkbdkif;zkef;
tm;vHk; NrdKUe,fqufoG,fa&;½kH;
rsm;wGif oGm;a&mufaiGay;oGi;f &ef
rvdkawmhbJ tGefvdkif;rS aiGay;acs
rIrsm; jyKvkyfEdkifrnfjzpfaMumif;
tGefvdkif;w,fvDzkef;ac:qdkcay;
oGi;f rIqikd &f m&Si;f vif;yGw
J iG f jrefrmh
qufo,
G af &;vkyif ef;owif;tcsuf
tvufEiS hf enf;ynmXme tif*sif
eD,mcsKyOf ;D aZmfrif;OD;uajymonf/
vuf&w
dS iG f *sDtufpt
f rfzek ;f ?
CDMA 450 MHz ? WCDMA?
q,fvlvmzkef;ESifh BudK;zkef;rsm;
\ zkef;ac:qdkcrsm;udk oufqdkif
&mNrdKUe,f aiGpm&if;½k;H rsm;wGif zke;f
abvfpepfjzifah y;aqmif&aMumif;
od&onf/
]]jrefrmhqufoG,fa&;vkyf
ief;uaeaemufay;wJih g;ode;f zke;f
awGrSm prepaid pepfeYJ oGm;w,f/
'gayr,fh vdik ;f zke;f awGeYJ t&if 15
odef;zkef;awGu zkef;abvfpepfeJY
usefcJhw,f/ 'DvdkusefwJhzkef;awG
u NrdKUe,faiGoGif;½kH;awGrSm wef;
pDNyD; abvfxGufvmrS aiGaqmif
wJph epfjzpfaew,f/oH;k pGo
J u
l zke;f
abvfaqmifzYkd omG ;wef;pD&w,f/
Ny;D &ifbPfaiGoiG ;f &w,f?'DtwGuf
tcsdefwpfckay;ae&w,f/ wjcm;

rvdktyfwJh tydkaMu;ukefwmawG
vnf; &Sad ew,f/'gawGukd avQmch s
EdkifzdkY tGefvdkif;zkef;abvfpepfudk
rMumcifrSm jrefrmhpD;yGm;a&;bPf
eJYyl;aygif;aqmif&GufzdkY&Sdw,f}} [k
tqdkyg wm0ef&Sdolu qdkonf/
tGefvdkif;zkef;abvfpepfudk Zlvdkif
vtwGif;jrefrmhpD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;
rSpwif0efaqmifraI y;oGm;rnfjzpf
NyD;&wemyH0k ufay:w,frw
S pfqifh
vkyx
f ;kH vkyef nf;rsm;tvdu
k f tqdk
yg0efaqmifru
I kd tqifq
h ifah qmif
&GufEdkifrnfjzpfonf/
xdkodkY tGefvdkif;rS zkef;abvf
0efaqmifrIpepfudk toHk;jyKEdkif&ef
jrefrmhpD;yGm;a&;bPfü zkef;aiGay;
oGif;rIqdkif&m bPfpm&if;wpfck
zGifhvSpf&rnfjzpfaMumif;? bPf
pm&if;wpfczk iG v
hf pS &f eftwGuf aiG
usyf wpfaomif;ay;oGif;&rnf
jzpfNyD; tqdkygbPfpm&if;wpfck
wGif zkef;tvHk;a& 10vHk;twGuf
zke;f abvfay;oGi;f rIjyKvkyEf ikd rf nf
jzpfonf/tGefvdkif;zkef;abvfpepf
wGizf ek ;f ac:qdck rnfrQusoifo
h nf
qdo
k nfukd tcsderf a&G;jyefvnfppf
aq;Edik Nf yD; ay;oGi;f xm;onfh zke;f
ac:qdkcudkyg ppfaq;Edkifrnfjzpf
onf/jrefrmusyaf iGtjyifEikd if jH cm;
ac:qdkctjzpf FEC yg ay;oGif;
EdkifaMumif; od&onf/

NrdKYe,ftcsKdYwGif ajratmufa&ief"mwfaygufum
a&csKdrS aomufoHk;&efroifUonfUa&rsm;tjzpfodkh ajymif;vJ

&efukefwdkif;a'oBuD;twGif;&Sd ajratmufa&&&SdrItajctaejyajryHk
&efukefwdkif; a'oBuD;t ajrom;trsm;pkutenfusouf
wGif;&Sd rlva&csKdtjzpf&Sdaeaom wrf;EkajrawGyYkdcsxm;wJ{h &d,myg/
NrdKUe,ftcsKdUwGif ajratmufa& 'gaMumihpf ufa&wGi;f wl;&iftrsm;
tief"mwfaygufum aomufo;kH &ef tm;jzifha&&ygw,f/ tckaemuf
roifo
h nhf a&rsm;tjzpfoYkd ajymif; ydik ;f avhvmawGU&Scd sut
f &ajratmuf
vJrIjzpfay:vsuf&SdaMumif; ajr a&xkw,
f o
l ;kH pGzJ Ykdroihw
f ahJ e&mawG
atmufa&wl;azmfrI vkyfief;rsm;rS rSmajratmufa&xkw,
f o
l ;kH pGrJ rI sm;
owif;&&Syd gonf/
wJt
h wGurf v
l a&csK&d w
dS NhJ rdKUe,fawG
]]&ef u k e f w d k i f ; a'oBuD ; &J U rSma&atmif;vTmtief"mwfaygufNy;D

aejynfawmf? &efukefESifU rEÅav;wdkhwGif atmfwdkw,fvDzkef;vdkif;tiftm; 28000ausmf
One Stop Service tpDtpOfjzifU xyfrHcsxm;ay;rnfjzpfNyD; EkdifiHjcm;oHk;aiGjzifU
aumufcHonfU atmfwkdw,fvDzkef;wyfqifjcif;udk tar&duefa':vm 900odkh avQmUcsrnf

aomufoHk;zdkY roihfwJha&tjzpf
ajymif;oGm;ygw,f/ 'gaMumihf
wcsKYd NrdKUe,fawGrmS qdk a&csK&d w
dS ahJ e
&muae ydu
k v
f ikd ;f awGo,
G Nf yD; a&
ay;a0a&;udk pDrHcsufeJYvkyfaewm
awG&Sdygw,f}}[k OD;aomif;pdef
(tif*sifeD,m blrad A't&m&S)d u
&Si;f jycJo
h nf/
jr&myif Geotechnical Engi neeringCo.ltd \ &efukefNrdKUajr
atmufa& okawoejyKrSwfwrf;
rsm;t& vuf&Sdtaetxm;wGif
tvHk?Munhfjrifwdkif? prf;acsmif;?
tif;pdef(taemuf)? orkdif;? vrf;
rawmf? vom? ausmufwHwm;?
yef;bJwef;NrdKUe,frsm;&Sd pufa&
wGi;f rsm;rSxu
G &f adS oma&rsm;onf
t&nftcsif;jynhfrDrI&SdaMumif; od
&onf/ tif;pdefta&SUeHHYomukef;?
&efuek ef nf;ynmwuúov
kd af jrmuf
buf vlae&yfuu
G w
f YkdwiG f pufa&
wGi;f wl;yguausmufazmuf&onhf
twGufay260rS 280 0ef;usifxd
wl;azmf&NyD; a&xGuf&SdrIrSmvnf;
enf;yg;onf[k od&onf/
oefvsiNf rdKUay:ESifh r&rf;uke;f
(7)rdik jf ynfvrf; wpfzufwpfcsu?f
vdiI o
f m,mvl ae&yfuu
G Ef iS pfh ufrI
Zkef(1)?pufrZI ek f(2)? aumhrLS ;? uGr;f jcH
uke;f wdYkwiG fay 140 rS 200twGi;f
xGu&f adS om a&rSmoH"mwfrsm; yg0if
jcif;aMumihf aomufoHk;&efroihf

3D

armfeDwmESifh wDAGDvdkif;rsm;zrf;,lMunfh ½IEdkifonfh
LCD TV topfrsm;0ifa&muf

enf;ynmaps;uGut
f wGi;f odYk
ASUS VG236H 3D armfew
D m ESihf
Prolink LED Backlite LCD TV

aejynfawmf? &efukefESifh
rEÅav;wkYdwiG af tmfww
dk ,fvzD ek ;f
vdkif;tiftm; 28140 udk One
Stop Service tpDtpOfjzifhxyfrH
csxm;ay;rnfjzpfNyD; EkdifiHjcm;
oHk;aiGjzifhaumufcHaom atmfwdk
w,fvzD ek ;f wyfqifjcif;ukd tar
&duefa':vm900EIe;f odYk avQmhcs
rnf[k owif;&&Sdygonf/
aejynfawmf?&efuek ?f rEÅav;
wkdif;a'oBuD;ESihf jynfe,fESifh
wkdif; a'oBuD;rsm;&Sd NrdKUBuD;rsm;
wGif atmfwkdw,fvDzkef;ueOD;
wyfqifcEIef;xm;rsm;udk ,cif
usyf 10 odef; aumufcH&mrS
2011 ckESpf arv 23 &ufaeYrS
pwifum usyf 6 'or 5 odef;
odkY avQmhcsay;cJhNyD; EkdifiHjcm;oHk;
aiGjzifh aumufcHaom atmfwkd
w,fvzD ek ;f rsm;\ueOD;wyfqif
cukd ,cifutar&duef a':vm
1500aumufccH &hJ mrS 2011 ckEpS f
ZGev
f 27&ufaeYrpS wifum tar
&duefa':vm 900EIe;f odYk avQmhcs
aumufco
H mG ;rnf[k jrefrmhquf
oG,fa&;vkyfief;rS od&onf/
aejynfawmfwGif tdwfcsdef;
&Spfck? tdwfcsdef;cGJ 29 ckwkdYjzifh
atmfwkdw,fvDzkef;vdkif;tiftm;
35000 cefY wyfqifxm;NyD;jzpf

&m xyfrHtopfcsxm;ay;rnfh
vdkif;tiftm;rSm 9300 jzpfNyD; ae
jynfawmf('u©P
d oD&?d Owå&oD&?d
ZAÁLoD&)d NrdKUe,frsm;twGuf vdik ;f
tiftm; 3400? ykAÁoD&dNrdKUe,f
twGufvdkif;tiftm; 4800? ae
jynfawmfysOf;rem;NrdKUe,ftwGuf
vdkif;tiftm; 1100 vsmxm;
owfrSwfxm;aMumif;od&onf/

2200? yef;bJwef;NrdKUe,f twGuf
3600?tvHkNrdKUe,ftwGuf 1200?
[Hom0wDe,fajrtwGuf 800?
A[ef;^wmarGNrdKUe,ftwGu2f 200?
awmifOuúvmyNrdKUe,ftwGuf
800? bk&ifhaemife,fajrtwGuf
300? vdiI o
f m,mpufrZI ek t
f wGuf
200? r&rf;ukefNrdKUe,ftwGuf
1700? '*HkNrdKUopfajrmufydkif;NrdKU

atmfww
dk ,fvzD ek ;f ueOD; wyfqifcEIe;f xm;rsm;udk ,cif usyf
10 ode;f aumufc&H mrS 2011 ckEpS f arv 23 &ufaeYrS pwifum
usyf 6 'or 5 odef;odkh avQmUcsay;cJUNyD; EkdifiHjcm;oHk;aiGjzifU
aumufcaH om atmfww
dk ,fvzD ek ;f rsm;\ ueOD;wyfqifcukd ,cif
u tar&duef a':vm 1500 aumufcHcJU&mrS 2011 ckESpf ZGefv
27 &ufaehrSpwifum tar&duefa':vm 900 EIef;odkh avQmhcs
aumufcHoGm;rnf[k . . .
&efukefNrdKUawmfwGif tdwf
csdef;e,fajr 17 cktwGif; tdwf
csdef; 26 ck? tdwfcsdef;cGJ 118 ck
wkdYwGif atmfwkdw,fvDzkef;vdkif;
tiftm; 203500 cefYwyfqif
xm;&m xyfrHwyfqifay;Ekdifrnfh
vkid ;f vufuseftiftm;rSm 16300
jzpfNyD; e,fajrcGJwrf;taetxm;
rSm ykZGefawmifNrdKUe,ftwGuf

e,ftwGuf 100? '*HkNrdKUopf
awmifyikd ;f twGuf 1100? tif;pdef
NrdKUe,ftwGuf 200? ajrmufOuú
vmyNrdKUe,ftwGuf 300? a&T
ayguúH pufrIZkeftwGuf 200?
r*F v m'H k N rd K Ue,f t wG u f 500?
axmufMuefYe,fajrtwGuf 300?
a&TjynfompufrIZkeftwGuf 600
vsmxm; owfrSwfxm;aMumif;

od&Sd&ygonf/
,if;tjyif &efukefNrdKUvrf;
40 &Sd tif*sife,
D mcsKyf½;kH wGif t
xl; tpDtpOfjzifh atmfwkdw,f
vDzkef; vdkif;opfrsm;twGuf
avQmufvTmvufcHjcif;ESifhwyf
qifjcif;vkyif ef;udk tdwcf sed ;f 10
ckwGifOne Stop Service jzifhjyK
vkyf aqmif&Gufay;aeaMumif;
od&onf/
tqkdyg tdwfcsdef;rsm;rSm
ajrmuf^awmif '*Hktdwfcsdef;?
yef;bJwef;tdwfcsdef;? wmarG^
A[ef;tdwfcsdef;? oCFef;uRef;^
awmifOuúvmtdwfcsdef;? r&rf;
ukef;tdwfcsdef;?tvHktdwfcsdef;?
ykZGefawmiftdwfcsdef;? r*Fvm'Hk
tdwfcsdef;?ajrmufOuúvmtdwf
csdef;? [Hom0wDtdwfcsdef;wdkYjzpf
aMumif; od&onf/
aejynfawmfwGif atmfwkd
w,fvzD ek ;f vkid ;f opfrsm;twGuf
avQmufvTmvufcHjcif;ESihf wyf
qifay;jcif;vkyfief;udk ykAÁoD&d
tdwfcsdef;&Sd 'kwd,tif*sifeD,m
csKyf atmfwkdw,fvDzkef;XmerS
vuf c H a qmif & G u f a y;vsuf & S d
aMumif; od&onf/
aejynfawmfysOf;rem;
owif;tzGJU

aMumif; od&Sd&ygonf/
]]ajratmuf a&udx
k w
k ,
f w
l hJ
tcg a&vTm&JUyrmPay:rlwnf
NyD; xkw,
f o
l ;Hk pGo
J ihyf gw,f/ a&
atmufvTmawG&JUxkwfay;Edkiftm;
xufveG u
f NJ yD;xkw,
f rl &d if pufa&
wGi;f Mum&Snrf cHwm? wGi;f ydww
f m
jzpfNyD;ysufpD;ygw,f/ 'gtjyif
&efukefjrpfeJY vdIifjrpf&JUwpfzuf
wpfcsufrmS ajratmufa&xkw,
f l
r,fq&kd ifay 1000tuGmeJYurf;pyf
wdYkrmS rxkw,
f &l ygbl;/tJ'rD mS xkwf
,lrIyrmPrsm;wJhtwGuf a&ief
"mwfuuke;f wGi;f xdu;l pufvmNyD;
ajratmufa&atmif;vTmtiefayguf
NyD;a&csKdawGua&iefjzpfoGm;wm
yg/ tckq&kd if tvHNk rdKUe,fu wGi;f
tcsKdUrSm tief"mwfaygufaeNyD/
ykZeG af wmif? Adv
k w
f pfaxmif?tvHrk mS
a&iefwdk;0ifrI&Sdygw,f/ rlva&
aumif;jzpfwv
hJ iId o
f m,mpufrZI ek f
puf½HktcsKdUrSm tcka&iefwdk;0ifNyD;
wGif;ysufpD;wm&Sdw,f/ a&vTm
ysufpD;rIr&Sdatmifpufa&wGif;wl;
wJhtcgpepfwus xkwf,loihfyg
w,f/ tJ'DvdkrS[kwf&ifaemifrSm
&efuek Nf rdKU&JUajratmufa& t&nf
taoG;qkwf,kwfrIuydkqdk;vmEdkif
ygw,f}[k jr&myif Geotechnical
Engineering Co.ltd rS tkyc
f sKyfrI
'g½dkufwmu oHk;oyfajymMum;
onf/
oDwm0if;? &wemOD;

(2216TW) rsm;

aps;uG u f 0 if
a&mufvm aMumif;od&onf/,if;
ypönf;ESpfrsdK;wGif3D armfeDwmrSm
23vufrjrifuiG ;f us,f 3D TFT
LCD armfeDwmtrsdK;tpm;jzpfNyD;
NVIDIA 3D rsufrSefwpfck yg0if
onf[kod&onf/ NVIDIA 3D
Version ukdaxmufyahH y;NyD; DVID,
HDMI wdkYyg0ifonfhtjyif Audio twGuv
f nf; HDMI Port rS
wpfqifh em;qifEikd rf nfjzpfonf/
xdYk jyif Smart Contrast ation jzifh
Brightness/Contrast wdkYudk o
bm0twdkif; csdefnd§ay;Edkifonfh
tjyif Ultra-vivid Color ESiw
hf zJG uf
í Color Shine enf;ynmrsm;
vnf;yg0ifonf[o
k o
d nf/

Prolink LCD TV onf

uGef
ysLwmtaejzifhomru ½kyfoH
vdkif;rsm;ygzrf;,lMunfh&SKEdkifonfh
22 vufrt&G,f LCD TV trsdK;
tpm;jzpfonf/ yg;vTmonfh LED
Backlit Display Monitor jzpfNyD;
HDMI Port 2ck? MRTV,MRTV4
MWD ½kyfoHvdkif;rsm;tm;wdkuf
&du
k zf rf;,lMunf&hf EkS ikd &f efTV Tuner
wdYk yg0ifonft
h jyif DVD Player,
Family Box, Sky Net Box, Stallite
Box

rsm;ESifhwGJzufMunfh½IEdkif&ef

AV Input,Component Input,S-

rsm;yg0if onf /
tqdyk g ASUS VG236H 3D armfeD
wmukd a':vm 600 jzifhvnf;
aumif;? Prolink 2216 TW LCD
TV uk d usyfaiG 165,000 jzif h
vnf;aumif; 0,f,lEdkifaMumif;
od&onf/
video Input

ASUS 3D armfeDwmukd

prf;oyffMunfU½IpOf

12

myanmar NEWS

tajccHynmausmif;rsm;ü tcef;qHk;
vywfpmar;yGJrsm;udk ZGef 29 wGif pwifppfaq;
tajccH y nmausmif ; rsm;ü
tcef;qHk;vywfpmar;yGJrsm;udk
ZG e f v 29 &uf a eYrS p wif u m
oHk;&ufMum ppfaq;vsuf&Sdae
aMumif; od&Sd&ygonf/
,ckuJhokdY tcef;qHk;vywf
pmar;yGpJ pfaq;jcif;onf ,cifEpS f
rsm;u ppfaq;jcif; yHkpHjzpfaom
Chapter End Test pepfjzifh ppf
aq;jcif;yifjzpfaMumif; od&Sd&yg
onf/
odkYaomf wpfEkdifiHvHk;ü &SdMu
aom tajccHynmausmif;rsm;\
ppfaq;rIypkH rH mS wlnrD rI &SEd ikd af omf
vnf;wpfEpS v
f ;kH oifMum;xm;onfh
pmrsm; arhaysmufoGm;rI r&Sdap&ef
pOfqufrjywfppfaq;onfph mar;
yGJyHkpHtjzpf ppfaq;aeonf[k
trSwf (1) tajccHynm txuf
wef;ausmif; '*HkNrdKUe,frS ausmif;
tkyfBuD; a'gufwmatmifudkudku
ajymjycJhygonf/

]]tajccHynmausmif;awG&JU
pmar;yGJppfrIyHkpHawGu wlnDcsifrS
wlnDvdrfhr,f/ 'gayr,fh Chapter End Test (CET) yHkpHqdkwmu
awmh wpforwfwnf;ygyJ/ 'g
ayr,fh vydkif;rmwdumt& oif
Mum;rI &yfroGm;apcsifwmaMumifh
aemufvrSmppfaq;wJph mar;yGaJ wG
rSm oifNyD;om;pmawGxu
J rar;&
ao;wmawGudk jyefar;zdYk ppD Ofxm;
w,f/ 'grSuav;awG wpfESpfvHk;
pmudk rarhbJ jyefvyk jf zpfomG ;r,f}}
[k ausmif;tkyfBuD; a'gufwm
atmifudkudku ajymjycJhygonf/
tcef;qHk; pmar;yGJ ppfaq;
jcif;wGif oufqikd &f mrmwdumrsm;
tvkduf bmom&yfrsm; cGJjcm;xm;
um txufwef;ESifhtv,fwef;
rSm wpf&ufvQif ESpb
f momEIe;f jzifh
ajzqdkMu&um rlvwef;rsm;rSm
wpf&ufvQif oHk;bmomEIef;jzifh
ajzqdkMu&onf[k od&onf/

acgif;pGyfpGyfNyD; vlowfrIusK;vGefum wdrf;a&Smif
2011ckepf ZGev
f 27&ufaeYu
tif;pdefNrdKUe,f apmfbmG ;BuD;uke;f
&yfuGuf apmfbGm;BuD;ukef;yGJ½kHESifh
,mOf&yfem;pcef;0if;&Sd aMuGjym;t
a&mif;qkid fwpfqdkifü teufa&mif
acgif;pGypf yG Nf yD; vlowfrI usK;vGef
um xGufajy;wdrf;a&SmifrIwpfck
jzpfyGm;cJhaMumif; owif;&&So
d nf/
jzpfpOfrSm tqkdygta&mif;
qkid rf S 0efxrf; r---onf nDrjzpf
ol? refae*smwkYd EiS t
hf wl tdyaf ysmf
aepOf eHeuf 4 em&D0ef;usifwGif
tdyfcef;twGif; toHMum;í x
Munf&h m teufa&mif acgif;pGypf yG f
xm;aom trnfrod trsKd;om;
wpf O D ; tm; awG U &S d & í ¤if ; u

tqkdyg trsKd;om;tm; 0ifa&muf
vkH;axG;&m xGufajy;oGm;aMumif;
od&onf/ ,if;tcsdefwGif twl
aeolrsm;ESifh napmifhvkHjcHK a&;
wm0efusolwYdk vma&mufMunf½h I
&m r---\ ausmbuf 0Jvufjyif
ü t&Snif g;vufrcefU&Sd t½k;d ryg
pwD;"m; pku
d 0f ifaeonfudk awGU&Sd
&ojzifh tif;pdeaf q;½ko
H dYk ykYd aqmif
pOf aq;½kHta&mufwGif aoqkH;
oGm;aMumif; od&onf/
tqdyk gjzpfpOfEiS hf ywfoufí
tif;pde&f pJ cef;rS (y)1244^ 2011
jzihf trIzGifh aqmif&Gufvsuf&Sd
aMumif; od&Sd&onf/

usef;rma&;aq;ppfrIrsm;tm; jynfy&SSd "mwfcGJcef;rsm;odkh wkduf½dkufay;ydkhppfaq;vm

ta&;ygonfh usef;rma&;
aq;ppfrIrsm; jyKvkyf&mü jynfy
Ekid if rH sm;&Sd "mwfccJG ef;rsm;odYk wku
d f
½dkufay;ydkYppfaq;rI rsm;jym;vm
onf[k od&Sd&onf/
xdo
k Ykdppfaq;Mu&mü aoG;ESihf
tom;prsm;udk ay;ydkYppfaq;Mu
NyD; cE¨mud,
k t
f pdwt
f ydik ;f tpm;xk;d
vJvS,f&ef? tBuD;pm;cGJpdwfrIjyK
vky&f efEiS u
hf ifqma&m*gjzpfymG ;&mwGif
rnfonht
f qifah &muf&adS ejcif;udk
od&Sd&ef ay;ydkYppfaq;Muonf/
]]jynfyu aq;½Hak wGukd wku
d f
½du
k af y;ydYk ppfaq;wm 'Daemufyikd ;f
rsm;vmygw,f/ 'Dvdkppfaq;jcif;
tm;jzifh vlemudk,fwkdif oGm;zdkY

rsm;tm; vmrnfhpufwifbmv
ukew
f iG f tNyD;ajymif;a&TU&ef aqmif
&Guo
f mG ;rnf[k od&onf/
]]r[mAE¨Kvyef;jcH[m &ef
ukefNrdKU&JU usufoa&aqmif NrdKU
awmfcef;rrsufESmpmrSm wnf&SdwJh
tjyif trsm;jynfoltyef;ajz
tem;,lEikd zf Ydk &nf&,
G Nf yD; zGiv
hf pS f
xm;wmjzpfygw,f/ 'gaMumifh
yef;jcH[m jrifuiG ;f &Si;f zdYk ? oefY&iS ;f
pdr;f vef;zdYk qw
kd hJ tajctaeawGukd
ay;aqmif&rSmjzpfwJhtwGuf ywf
vnfu qdik cf ef;awGukd ZGev
f ukef

]]tarhtwGufvkdwJhausmuf
uyfwpfv;kH udt
k arhnrD u vSLr,f
qkdNyD; 'DrSm aq;ppfMunfhw,f/
vSLvkYd &w,fqNdk yD; tdE,
´d oGm;wm
[dak &mufawmh wpfoQL;u wlay
r,fh tpm;xdk;vJvS,f&avmuf
atmif rwlnb
D ;l / vSLvdYkr&bl;vdYk
ajymw,f/ 'geJY uRefrudpk pfaq;
Munfah wmhvLS vkY&d wmeJYtarhtwGuf
vSLvdu
k w
f ,f/ wu,fvYdk uRefr
omvku
d rf oGm;cJ&h if vSLr,fo
h &l rdS mS
r[kwyf gbl;/ wcsKUd u'DrmS aq;ppf
w,f/ [dka&mufawmh vGJaevkdY
tvSL&Siaf wGujkd yefvw
T ?f tvSL&Sif
xyf&mS &wJjh zpfpOfawGawGUzl;w,f/
'Daemufyikd ;f tvSL&Siaf &m? vlema&m

rdk;OD;&moDpm;usufajr aygrsm;vmjcif;aMumifh uRJ? EGm;usef;rma&;udk oufa&mufrIrsm;&SdvmEdkif
rdk;&moDpm;usufajrrsm; ayg
rsm;vmjcif;aMumifh tpm;tpm
rsm; yHrk eS x
f ufyrkd pkd m;oH;k ygu uRJ?
EGm;rsm;\ usef;rma&;udk ouf
a&mufrIrsm; &SdvmEdkifaMumif; arG;
jrLa&;ESihf ukoa&;OD;pD;XmerS wm
0ef&o
dS w
l pfO;D u ajymMum;cJo
h nf/
]]tckcsdefrSm jrufEkawG xGuf

r[mAE¨Kvyef;jcHywfvnf&Sd qdkifcef;rsm;tm; a&TYajymif;&ef pDpOfae
&efukefNrdKUv,f r[mAE¨Kv
yef;jcHywfvnf&Sd qdkifcef;rsm;tm;
a&TUajymif;&ef pDpOfvsuf&SdaMumif;
owif;&&So
d nf/
r[mAE¨Kvyef;jcHywfvnf
wGif qdik cf ef;ta&twGuf 14 cef;
&SNd yD; qdik cf ef;BuD;ig;qdik Ef iS hf qdik f
cef;ao; udk;qdkifwkdYjzpfaMumif;?
qdik cf ef;trsm;pkrmS rdwLå ul;ESiEhf Bkd wD
bmomjyefvkyfief;vkyfudkifaom
qdik rf sm;jzpfNyD; pm;aomufq
f ikd rf sm;
ESifh qHoqdkiftcsKdUvnf; yg0if
aMumif; od&&dS onf/ tqdyk gqdik f

rvdw
k t
hJ wGuf tcsed u
f ek o
f ufom
r,f? vlyifyef;wm oufomr,f/
av,mOfvufrw
S u
f tp ukeu
f s
p&dwo
f ufomr,f/ wpfc&k w
dS mu
a&m*gwkid ;f udak wmhay;ydYkppfaq;vkYd
r&bl;/ vlemygrSppfaq;vkYd &r,fh
a&m*gawGq&kd ifawmh vlemvku
d yf g
rS&rSmyg/ Oyrm "mwfrSef½dkufwm
awGuawmh vlemvkdufrS&rSmyg/
trsm;pku aoG;eJYtom;pppfaq;
wmrsm;Muw,f/ 'Daemufydkif;rSm
jynfwiG ;f uwpfqifh jynfyaq;½Hk
awGukd wdu
k ½f u
kd af y;ydYk ay;wJh 0ef
aqmifraI wGvnf;rsm;vmygw,f}}
[kCare ForeverrS a'gufwmydik pf ;dk
u &Si;f jycJyh gonf/

u tcsed rf ukeaf tmif ud,
k Nhf rdKUrSmu
wnf;u aq;ppfcsuaf wGukd jynfy
udak y;ydYk w,f/ tpm;xk;d vJv,
S zf Ydk
wlnDw,fqkdrS EkdifiHjcm;oGm;Mu
w,f/ [drk mS vnf;ydak ocsmatmif
aq;xyfppfMuw,f}}[k ausmuf
uyfvSL'gef;cJholwpfOD;u qkdyg
onf/
]}tom;pwpfcu
k kd ppfaq;vdYk
&wJhtajz[m tom;p pwif
xkw,
f cl sdeu
f ae aemufq;kH tajz
zwfwt
hJ xd tusKH;0ifaeygw,f/
"mwfccJG ef;aMumifh rSm;,Gi;f w,fvYkd
twdtusajymvdYrk &ygbl;/ tom;p
wpfckjzpfzkdY tom;pxkwf,lwJh
tcgrSm a&m*gtjzpfq;kH ae&muae
tom;pudjk zwf&w,f/ t&G,t
f pm;
ao;vGe;f vdYk a&m*gjzpfymG ;wJh ae&m
vGaJ e&ifvnf; a&m*grjzpfb;l vkYd
tajzxGuw
f wfw,f/ xkwv
f u
kd f
wJt
h om;pudk owfrw
S cf sed t
f wGi;f
aq;pdrfxm;zdkY? tcsdefrD"mwfcGJcef;
a&mufzYdk? vlem&JUa&m*gtao;pdwf
taetxm;awGeYJaemufq;kH &v'fukd
zwfwo
hJ &l UJ tjrifay:rSm rlwnfNyD;
&v'ftajz uGjJ ym;oGm;Ekid yf gw,f}}
[ktom;pppfaq;onf&h v'ftajz
rsm;ESihfywfoufí SLM "mwf
cGJcef;rSwm0ef&SdolwpfOD;u &Sif;jy
cJyh gonf/
yGifhjzKjzLvGif

rSmajymif;a&TUapa&;twGuf pDpOf
vdkuf&wmjzpfygw,f/ 'gayr,fh
qdik cf ef;ydik &f iS af wGuajymif;a&TU&r,fh
umvudk aemufqkwfay;zdkY to
em;cHpmwifwt
hJ wGuf pufwifbm
vukefudk a&TUqdkif;ay;vdkufyg
w,f/ yef;jcHywfvnfrmS tckziG hf
xm;wJh trsm;oHk;oefYpifcef;u
vGNJ yD; wjcm;qdik af wG &S&d awmhrmS
r[kwfygbl;}}[k &efukefNrdKUawmf
pnfyifom,ma&;aumfrwD? yef;
O,smOfESifh tm;upm;uGif;rsm;
XmerS wm0ef&Sdolu qdkygonf/

r[mAE¨Kvyef;jcHywfvnf&dS qdkifcef;tcsKdYudk awGY&pOf

vmNyD/ aEG&moDxuf tpm;tpm
aygvmawmh ud,
k u
hf RJ? EGm;udk 'Dt
wdik ;f pm;usuaf jrrSmvTwx
f m;r,f/
tpm;tpmudk tvGet
f uRH pm;oH;k
rdwJhtcg tpmtqdyfoifhwm jzpf
r,f/ nbuftdyf&ifvnf; wif;
ukyfrSm ajrovif;ay: 'Dtwdkif;
odyfr,fqdk&if zsm;emwm? tpmr

aMuwm? udk,fcHtm;usqif;NyD;
a&m*ga[mif;awG jyefay:wm? jyif
yu ul;pufa&m*g tvG,fwul
0ifa&mufwmawG jzpfymG ;Edik w
f ,f/
'Dtcg vkyfief;cGifrSmoHk;zdkYtwGuf
tcuftcJawG&Sdvmr,f/ aq;uk
p&dwaf wG&v
dS mr,f/ 'gaMumifh uRJ
EGm;awGudk pm;usufaygwdkif; t

vGeftuRH rpm;oHk;rdatmif? tdyf
&mcif;udkvnf; aEG;aEG;axG;axG;
jzpfatmif *½kpu
kd rf u
I kd ydjk yKvkyaf y;
zdYk vt
kd yfw,f/ awmifoal wGtae
eJY'Dudpöudk aocsm*½kpdkufapcsif
w,f}} [k arG;jrLa&;ESifhukoa&;
OD;pD;XmerS'kwd,nTefMum;a&;rSL;
csKyaf 'gufwmatmifBu;D uqdo
k nf/

jrpfacsmif;twGif; trdIufpGefhypfygu 'PfaiGokH;aomiff;txd ta&;,lrnf
&ef u k e f w d k i f ; a'oBuD ; t
wGif;&Sd jrpfacsmif;rsm;twGif;odkY
trdIufpGefYypfrIrsm;udk awGU&Sdygu
'PfaiGusyw
f pfaomif;rSo;Hk aomif;
txd ta&;,l o G m ;rnf j zpf
aMumif; owif;&&Sdonf/
rd k ; wG i f ; umvjzpf í jrpf
acsmif;rsm;twGi;f trdu
I rf sm; ydwf
qdkY r&Sdap&ef? trdIufrsm;aMumifh
jrpfacsmif;rsm; npfnrf;rIr&Sad p&ef

ESifh trdIufrsm;aMumifh jrpfacsmif;
rsm;twGif; oGm;vmaeaom avS
oAÁefrsm; wdrf;arSmufrI rjzpfyGm;
ap&ef &nf&,
G í
f ,ckuo
hJ Ydk ta&;
,l & jcif ; jzpf a Mumif ; od & S d & yg
onf/
jrpfacsmif;rsm;twGi;f trdu
I f
pGefYypfrIrsm;udk &efukefNrdKUawmf
pnf y if o m,ma&;aumf r wD u
vdkufvHppfaq;oGm;rnfjzpfNyD;

ntcsdef jrpfacsmif;rsm;twGif;
trdIufpGefYypfrIudkyg vdkufvHppf
aq;oGm;rnf[k od&onf/
jrpfacsmif;rsm;twGi;f trdu
I f
pGefYypfrIrsm;&SdaeaMumif; owif;
ay;ygu owif;ay;oltm; 'Pf
aMu;aiG\ wpf0uftm; qkaMu;
tjzpf jyefay;oGm;rnfjzpfaMumif;
vnf; xkwfjyefcsufrsm;t& od&Sd
&onf/

touft&G,ftvdkuf t*FvdyfpmoifMum;rI pwifrnf
uav;i,f r sm;ES i f h q,f
ausmfoufvli,frsm;twGuf t
ouft&G,t
f vdu
k f acwfEiS hf vdu
k f
avsmnDaxGonfh t*Fvyd pf moif
Mum;rItpDtpOfopfwpfckjzifh p
wifoifMum;oGm;rnfjzpfaMumif;
NAdwdoQaumifpDrS od&Sd&onf/
tqdkyg tpDtpOfopfwGif
yg0ifrnfo
h ifcef;pmrsm;onf t*F
vdyfpmbmompum;oifMum;ydkYcs
jcif;qdik &f m aemufq;kH ay:wd;k wuf
rIrsm;tay: tajccHxm;NyD;uav;
i,frsm;ESiq
hf ,fausmfoufvil ,f
rsm;twG u f touf t &G , f E S i f h

udkufnDoifhawmfrnfh pmtkyfrsm;
ESihf oifMum;a&;taxmuftuljyK
ypön;f rsm;udyk gtoH;k jyKíoifMum;
ay;oGm;rnfjzpfonf/
oifwef;rsm;udk toufcek pfEpS f
rSu;kd ESp?f touf 10 ESpfrS 12 ESpf?
13 ESprf S 15 ESp?f 16 ESprf S 17 ESpf
jzifh touft&G,ftvdkuftqifh
rsm; owfrSwfxm;NyD; pmoifESpf
wpfESpf (&ufowåywf 10 ywf
Mumrnfh oifwef;umvav;ck)
Mumjrifrh nfjzpfaMumif;ESio
hf ifwef;
umvwpfckNyD;qHk;wdkif; wdk;wuf
rIjytpD&ifcHpmudk&&SdNyD; pmoif

ESpfwpfESpf NyD;qHk;ygu oifwef;
qif;vufrSwf&&SdrnfjzpfaMumif;
ESihf twef;wpfwef;wGif oifwef;
om;OD;a& 18 OD;om vufcHoif
Mum;oGm;rnfjzpfaMumif; od&
onf/
,if;tpDtpOfopfudk 2011
ckESpf Zlvdkifv 18 &ufaeYrS pwif
oifMum;oGm;rnfjzpfNyD; oifwef;
wufa&mufvdkolrsm;twGuf t
&nftcsif;ppf pmar;yGJrsm;udkrl
Zlvdkifv 6 &ufrS 9 &ufaeYtxd
usi;f yoGm;rnfjzpfaMumif; od&yg
onf/

Thai Election Special Report

,ifvufcfwdkYEkdifvQifvnf; tmPmodrf;rnfr[kwfaMumif; xdkif;ppfOD;pD;csKyfajymMum;
Zlvkdifv 3 &ufaeYwGif xdkif;
a&G;aumufyGJrsm;wGif 0efBuD;csKyf
a[mif;oufqif&Sifem0yfx&m\

nDrjzpfo,
l ifvufc&f iS ef m0yfx&m
OD;aqmifonht
f wku
d t
f cHwYdktEdik &f
vQiv
f nf;tmPmodr;f rnfr[kwf

aMumif; xkid ;f ppfO;D pD;csKyfu ZGev
f
30 &ufaeYwGifajymMum;cJhonf/
od k Y a omf v nf ; tav;xm;

ZGefv 2 &ufaehu rJyHk;rsm;ESifUrJpm&Gufrsm;udkppfaeonfU wm0ef&Sdolrsm;

onfhbk&ifpepfudk uGJjym;rIjzpfap
rnfh Edik if aH &;y#duv
© yI &f mS ;rIukd ppf
wyfu qufvufErdS ef if;oGm;rnf
[kowday;cJhonf/
xkdif;ppfwyfu Mum;aernf
[kajymxm;aomfvnf; tmPm&
'Drdku&ufbufudk axmufcHonhf
oabmoufa&mufaom pum;
rsm;ajymcJhjcif;aMumihf ppfOD;pD;csKyf
y&m,kcseftdkcsmrSm a0zefcHae&
onf/ jzLxdkif;uom tpdk;&zGJYEkdif
ygu y&m,kukd &mxl;rS rz,f&mS ;qdk
aomuwdrsK;d ray;Ekid v
f Qif tmPm
odrf;cH&Ekdifonf[k owif;xGuf
ay:aeonf/ y&m,kurl ,if;odYk
aomoabmwlnrD t
I wGuf aqG;
aEG;jcif; (odUk r[kw)f tmPmodr;f
rIjyKjcif;wdkYaqmif&Gufrnf r[kwf
[ky,fcscJhNyD; ppfwyfonf Oya'
t&om&yfwnfoGm;rnf[k ajym
Mum;cJhonf/
Ref: AFP

13

'Drdku&ufygwDtom&apaom a&G;aumufyGJpepf
jzLxdkif;tom&aeaom aemufqHk;ppfwrf;

xkdif;EkdifiHa&;\t"duZmwfaqmifrsm;
bk&ifblrdabmt'lvsm'ufcsf (83 ESpf)
65 ESpaf usmfMum tkypf ;kd aeaombk&ifonf vuf&t
dS csdew
f iG f usef;rma&;raumif;aomaMumifh aq;½Hw
k if
xm;&onf/ odkY&mwGif xkdif;EkdifiH\tjrifhqHk;tmPmydkiftjzpfquf&dSaeqJjzpfonf/ EkdifiHa&;\txufwGif
&SdaeNyD; EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm;? ppfwyfESihfjynfolwkdYtwGuf ta&;ygqHk;yk*¾dKvfwpfOD;tjzpfquf&Sdaeonf/
rdzk&m;BuD;oD&dacwf (79 ESpf)
2008 ckEpS t
f wGi;f u &Jrsm;ESifh t"du½kP;f jzpf&mrSaoqH;k aom oufqifukd qefYusiu
f efYuu
G o
f w
l pfO;D \
psmyeukd rdz&k m;BuD;wufa&mufcNhJ yD; &Sy0f gwdYk bufr&S adS eol? oufqifrvdv
k m;onhf &Syef w
D Ykduq
kd efYusio
f t
l jzpf
,lqcHxm;&NyD; xdik ;f awmf0ifro
d m;pk\ Mum;aeoabmxm;udk oHo,jzpfz,
G jf zpfapcJo
h nf/ bk&ifBuD;use;f rm
a&;,dk,Gif;aecsdefwGif rdzk&m;BuD;\tmPmpufurnfrQ&Sdonfqdkjcif;uawmhraocsmay/
oufqif&Sifem0yfx&m (61 ESpf) 0efBuD;csKyfa[mif;
jynfywGiw
f rd ;f a&Smifae&aomfvnf; oufqifonf jynfwiG ;f wGiMf oZmBuD;rm;aeqJjzpfonf/a0zeforl sm;
u olYudktusihfysufjcpm;ol? udk,fusKd;Munhfol? tmPm&Sifqefol? bk&ifpepftwGuftEÅ&m,f[kqkdMuaomf
vnf; xkdif;wGif olYudkaxmufcHoluoef;csD&SdaeNyD;vlrsm;pkjzpfaeonf/
AkdvfcsKyfBuD;y&m,kcseftkdcsm (56 ESpf) ppfOD;pD;csKyf
xdkif;jynfolrsm; vlaumif;rsm;udkom rJay;oihfonf/ bk&ifpepfudkumuG,fMu&rnf[k a&G;aumufyGJ
rwkid rf rD ed YfceG ;f acRcahJ om y&m,konf bk&ihb
f ufawmfom;[k xif&mS ;oljzpfNyD; rdz&k m;BuD;ESifh qufqaH &;aumif;
oljzpfonf/ xdkif;ppfwyfonf upm;yGJudktajymif;tvJvkyfEkdifonfhtiftm;pktjzpf rSwf,lcHxm;&&m a&G;
aumufyGJ&v'fudk olb,fvdkwkHYjyefrnfqkdjcif;rSm apmihfMunhf&rnfjzpfonf/
Ref;Straits Times
tbf[D;qpf0dZÆmZD0(46 ESpf)?
0efBuD;csKyfESifUtmPm&ygwDacgif;aqmif
ESpv
f zkd ,
G t
f oGi&f o
dS nfh tbf
[D;qpfonf befaumuftxuf
vTmrsm;\ wHcg;rSL;[k ,lqcHae
&Ny;D jynfoYlacgif;aqmifjzpfaMumif;
oufaojy&ef BudK;yrf;ae&qJ
jzpfonf/

,ifvufcf&Sifem0yfx&m(44 ESpf)
twkduftcHacgif;aqmif
olEdkifiHa&;e,fy,fwGif; 0if
vmcJhjcif;onf jzLxdkif;ygwDudk
omruygwDaxmufco
H rl sm;twGuf
ygtm; wufp&mjzpfcJh&onf/ a0
zefolrsm;url oufqiftay: cs
rSwx
f m;aomjypf'Pfrsm; acszsuf
&efomEdik if aH &;0ifvyk o
f nf[k a0
zefxm;NyD;,ifvufcfurl jiif;qkd
xm;onf/

oufqiftvGefxdkif;EdkifiHa&;rSwfwrf;tusOf;
2006 pufwifbm / 0efBu;D csKyo
f ufqif&iS ef m0yfx&m aoG;xGuo
f ,
H rkd rI &Sad omtmPmodr;f rI
jzifU z,f&Sm;cH&/
2007 ar / oufqif\xdkif;&wfxkdif;ygwDtydwfcH&/
2007 'DZifbm / jynfolYtmPmygwD(yDyDyD)udk xkdif;&wfxdkif;tpm;jyefvnfwnfaxmif?
a&G;aumufyGJwGif yDyDyDtEdkif&/
2008 Mo*kwf / tusiyUf sujf cpm;rIEiS t
Uf mPmtvGo
J ;kH rIpcJG surf sm;udk &ifrqdik b
f o
J ufqifwrd ;f
a&Smif/
2008 Ed0k ifbm / 'Dru
kd a&pDjynfow
Yl yfaygi;f pk(yDat'D)trnfatmufwiG f &Sy0f grsm; uefu
h u
G f
qE´jyNyD; ygvDreftaqmufttHkESifU avqdyfudkydwfqkdh? tpdk;&EkwfxGuf&efawmif;qdk/
2008 'DZifbm / a&G;aumufyGJrormrIrsm;&Sdonf[kqdkum xkdif;zGJYpnf;yHkqdkif&mw&m;½Hk;u

yDyDyDygwDudk zsufodrf;/ twdkuftcHacgif;aqmiftbf[D;qpfu ygvDreftwGif;nGefhaygif;zGJY NyD;
0efBuD;csKyfjzpfvm/
2009 rwf-{NyD / oufqifaxmufco
H rl sm;[krw
S ,
f cl &H aom &Syef rD sm;tmPm&Sipf epf qefu
h sif
a&;'Dru
dk a&pDwyfO;D (,l''D )D trnfatmufwiG f uefu
Y u
G q
f E´jyrIrsm;jyKvyk u
f mtpd;k &\ pD;yGm;a&;
rl0g'rsm;udk uefhuGuf/
2009 {NyD / ywÅ&m;&St
d mqD,x
H yd o
f ;D aqG;aEG;yGu
J si;f y&modhk uefu
Y u
G o
f rl sm;0ifa&mufp;D eif;/
2010 rwf-{NyD / &Syef rD sm; befaumifNrKd v
Y ,fu0dk ifa&muford ;f ydu
k ?f tbf[;D qpfqif;ay;&efEiS fh
a&G;aumufyGJ aqmvsifpGmusif;y&efawmif;qkd/ aphpyfn§dEdIif;rIrsm;ratmifrjrifjzpfNyD;aemuf
ppfwyfu uefhuGufolrsm;udkESdrfeif;? 92 aoqHk;/
2011 ar- a&G;aumufyGJusif;yrnfjzpfaMumif;xkwfjyefaMunm/ Ref: Straits Times

2011 ckESpf?azazmf0g&Dvu ygvDrefwGiftwnfjyKcJhaom zGJYpnf; yHktajccH Oya'
jznfph u
G cf suw
f iG rf q
J E´e,fcaJG 0yHak jymif;jcif;ESirfh &J mEIe;f tvdu
k t
f rwfae&mtcsK;d uscw
JG rf;& aom
ae&mwd;k jcif;yg0ifvmonf/yHrk eS t
f wdik ;f rJtrsm;qH;k &oltEkid t
f jzpf 375 OD;a&G;rnfjzpfum ygwD
tcsKd;uspepft& 125 OD;a&G;rnfjzpfonf/
ygwt
D csK;d usu,
kd pf m;jyK pepfrSmowfrw
S x
f m;onfUtrwfta&twGuu
f kd ygwrD sm;twGuf
oD;jcm;xnfU&onfUrJ&mcdkifEIef;t& tcsKd;uscGJa0ay;jcif;jzpfonf/rJay;olonfrdrdESpfoufonfU
ud,
k pf m;vS,u
f akd &G;Ny;D aemuf rdrEd pS o
f ufonfyU gwu
D x
kd yfa&G;&onf/ ,if;pepftwGuaf 'oBu;D
ajcmufckcGJjcm;xm;NyD;,if;a'oBuD;rsm;wGif ygwDrJ&mcdkifEIef;tvdkufowfrSwfxm;onfU trwf
ta&twGuu
f dk ygwrD sm;ucG&J rnfjzpfonf/ ,if;twGuyf gww
D u
hkd a'oBu;D ajcmufcw
k iG f oD;jcm;
trwfavmif;pm&if;wifxm;&Ny;D a'oBu;D wpfcw
k iG f 4 a,muf&u ,if;a'oBu;D &Syd gwt
D rwf
avmif;pm&if;rS eHygwf 4 txdtrwfjzpfrnfjzpfonf/
wpfygww
D nf;tpd;k &zG&YJ eftrwfppk ak ygi;f 500 \ xuf0ufausmf 256 ae&m xufrenf;
&&efvt
dk yf&m wdu
k ½f u
kd af &G;aomtrwfae&mrsm;wGif jzLxdik ;f u xuf0ufausmv
f Qiyf if tcsK;d us
&mEIef;tvdkuf&aomtrwfae&mrSm usefygwDrsm;ESifUtajrmuftjrm;ruGmEdkifay/ ,if;rJay;rI
ESpfckaygif;wGif ygwDwpfygwDwnf;u 256 ae&m&&ef cufoGm;&m jzLxkdif;urJtrsm;qHk;&Edkif
aomfvnf; xuf0ufrausmfbJtpdk;&zGJY&mwGif vuf&SdnGefhaygif;tpdk;&zGJYxm;aom 'Drkdu&ufu
nGefhaygif; qufzGJY NyD; quf&SdaeEdkif&ef&nf&G,fxm;onf[k a0zefrIrsm;&Sdaeonf/

xkdif;EkdifiHtaMumif; wapUwapmif;
yx0Dtaetxm;
xdik ;f yifv,fauG?Y tuf'refyifv,fEiS Uf tdE,
´d ork'w
´ hkd 0dik ;f &Hxm;
aom xdik ;f Edik if o
H nf jrefrm? uarÇm'D;,m;? vmtd?k rav;&Sm;wdEhk iS Uf e,ferd w
d cf si;f xdpyfaeonf/
{&D,mtus,ft0ef; pwk&ef;uDvdkrDwm 513115 (198115 pwk&ef;rdkif)
vlOD;a&
67 'or 8 oef; (2009 urÇmbPfcefhrSef;)
NrdKYawmf
befaumuf
bmom
ax&0g'? Ak'b
¨ momud;k uG,f ol 94 &mcdkifEIef;? rGwfpvif 4
&mckdifEIef;? c&pf,mef 1 &mcdkifEIef;?
ordkif;tusOf;
qdik ,
f rf[k ,cifuodMuaomxdik ;f Ekid if o
H nf udv
k ekd v
D ufatmuf
odkh rnfonfUtcgrQ rusa&mufcJUzl;ay/ 1932 ckEpS f ZGev
f 24 &ufaehwiG f t<uif;rJo
U ufO;D
qHydkifbk&ifpepf udk aoG;xGufoH,dkr&SdbJ tmPmodrf;um zsufodrf;cJUNyD; ygvDreftpdk;&ESifU
pnf;rsO;f cHb&k ifpepfukd usio
Uf ;Hk cJo
U nf/ Ekid if aH &;rwnfNird rf rI sm;jzpfcNUJ y;D aemuf 1946 ckEpS w
f iG f
bk&ifbrl ad bmpwif tkypf ;dk cJNU y;D aemuf pD;yGm;a&;rMuKH pzl;wd;k wufru
I kd &&Scd o
UJ nf/ bk&ifbrl ad bm
tkyfpdk;cJUaom q,fpkESpf 6 cktwGif; 0efBuD;csKyf 24 OD; &SdcJUNyD; zGJYpnf;ykHtajccH 16 Budrfjyif
qifcJU&onf/ tmPmodrf;rIrsm;? tmPmodrf;&ef BudK;yrf;rIrsm;tBudrfBudrfMuHKawGYcJU&onf/
EkdifiHa&;tzGJYtpnf;rsm; pnf;rsO;f cHb&k ifpepfusio
Uf ;Hk aom xdik ;f Edik if o
H nf atmufvw
T f
awmftrwf 500 ESifU txufvTwfawmftrwf 150 &Sdonf/
pD;yGm;a&;
1970 jynfUvGefESpfrsm;ESifU 1980 jynfUvGefESpfrsm;wGif pD;yGm;a&;
ESpq
f wd;k wufcNUJ y;D 1986 ckEpS rf S 1996 ckEpS t
f wGi;f ysr;f rQp;D yGm;a&; 9 &mckid Ef eI ;f wd;k wufcUo
J nf/
xkdif;EkdifiHonf Oa&my? *syef? tar&duef&Sd ydkhukefaps;uGufrsm;udk rSDcdkae&NyD; 2009 ckESpfwGif
pD;yGm;a&; 2 'or 3 &mcdkifEIef;usKHoGm;cJUNyD; q,fpkESpfwpfcktwGif; yxrqkH;tBudrfpD;yGm;a&;
usKHoGm;cJUjcif; jzpfonf/ EkdifiHa&;rwnfNidrfrIrsm;&SdcJhaomfvnf; ,refESpfu xdkif; pD;yGm;a&;
wnfNidrfcJUNyD; 7 'or 8 &mcdkifEIef;wdk;wufcJUonf/
*sD'DyD
a':vm263 'or 77 bDvs(H 2009 urÇmb
h Pfcefrh eS ;f )Ref:AFP

14

health, science & technology

tmumopcef;udk trduI rf sm;

zdvpfykdifwGif ouf&SdrsKd;pdwfopf 300 ausmfawGY&Sd
tcGefrygaom ykpGefwkyf? a&
rsKdNyD; taumifBuD;toGifaqmif
aom ig;ref;i,ftygt0if wd&pämef
ESit
hf yifrsKd;pdwo
f pf 300 ausmfudk
zdvpfyidk w
f iG af wGU&Scd ahJ Mumif; od&
onf/tar&duefEkdifiH umvDzkd;eD;
,m;odyÜHtu,f'rDrS OD;aqmifNyD;
jyKvkyfaom 42 &ufMumtPÖ0g
okawoewGiaf wGU&Scd jhJ cif;jzpfonf/
]]zdvpfydkif[m urÇmay:rSm
rsKd;okOf;aysmufuG,fvkeD;yg;jzpf
aewJhouf&SdrsKd;pHkusufpm;wJht"d
uae&mwpfcyk g/ 'Dvt
kd ajctae&Sd
ayrJh 'DuZD0rsKd;uGJawGudkodyfrod
Muygbl;/ uReaf wmfwYkda&iky&f mS wJh
tcgwdkif;? awmifay:wuf&SmwJh
tcgwdkif;? oEÅmausmufwef;?
rkwfokHawm? ork'´&mMurf;jyif
b,frSm&Sm&Sm rsKd;pdwfopfawGawGY
aewmyJ}}[k &SmazGavhvma&;ukd
OD;aqmifol wm;&efYpaf *ghpv
f eD mu
ajymMum;cJhonf/

wkdufrdrvdkjzpf

touf t EÅ & m,f u d k Ncd r f ;
ajcmufEikd af omtaumifBuD;rsm;ESifh
awGYygu a&jzihftpmtdrfudkjznfh
NyD; cE¨mudk,fazmif;um;BuD;xGm;

apum taumifBuD;toGifaqmif
aom a&eufydkif;wGifaeonfh ig;
ref;i,f? opfaqG;wkH;udkom pm;
onhf a&vuf0g; (Starfish) ig;

wkdYudkawGU&SdcJhonf/ ykpGefwkyfrsKd;
pd w f o pf o H k ; rsKd ; ? tyf o P² m ef
tacsmif ; rsm;ygaom vuf r &S d
onfhuPef;? yifv,fyufusdyHk

a&uefaeydk;rTm;wpfrsKd;rSm t&G,ftpm;ESihf,SOfygu u<may:wGif toHus,fqHk;ouf&SdjzpfaMumif;awYG&Sd
a&uefwGif;ae ydk;rTm;i,f
wpfrsKd;rSm urÇmay:wGif t&G,f
tpm;ESihf,SOfygu toHus,fqHk;
ouf&SdjzpfaMumif; odyÜHynm&Sif
rsm;u prf;oyftwnfjyKEdkifcJh
onf[k od&onf/
owåaA'tac: Micronecta
scholzi trnf&aom a&atmuf
wGiaf eonhf a&SUajcjziht
f pm&SmNyD;
aemufajcudk avSmfwuftoGifoHk;
um ul;cwfwwfonfh avSavSmf
aumif (water boatman) txD;
\toHonf 99 'or 2 'ufpD
b,ftxd us,faMumif; awGU&SdcJh
onf/ 2 rDvDrDwmom&Snfaom
,if;taumifi,f\atmfoHrSm
oHpHkwD;0dkif;udk a&SUqHk;wef;rSxdkif
em;axmifvQif Mum;Ekdifonfhyrm
PrQus,favmifaejcif;jzpfonf/
Oa&mywpfvTm;wGif awGY&
aom ,if;a&csKdaetif;qufonf
qefYusifbufvdifudkqGJaqmif&ef
twGuf a0S;aphukd &ifbwfjzifh

yGwf&mrS ,if;toHxGufay:vm
jcif;jzpfonf[kod&onf/ ,if;
tif;quf\toHukd rSww
f rf;wif
&ef txl;zefwD;xm;onfh a&
atmufrdkufc½dkzkef;udk toHk;jyKcJh
onf[kqdkonf/ yHkrSefxGufonhf
toHyifvQif 78 'or 9 'ufpD
b,frQ&dSNyD; ukefwif &xm;wpfp;D
u jzwfarmif;oGm;vQif Mum;&
onhftoHrQ us,fonf/
*vuf p ud k & S d px&uf u
vdkufwuúodkvfrS a'gufwm*sdrf;

0if;'frD;vfu ]]uRefawmfwkdYt&rf;
tHhtm;oihfoGm;ygw,f/ 'DtoH
xGuw
f &hJ if;jrpfukd uRefawmfwYdk od
NyD;wJah emuf tcsdet
f rsm;BuD;,lNyD;
toHrw
S w
f rf;wifrI rSeu
f efatmif
vkyfcJhMuygw,f}} [kqdkonf/
,if;avmuftoHus,af omf
vnf; vlwkdYMum;&aomtcg
,if;rQ rus,jf cif;rSm ¤if;wkYd onf
a&atmufwGifom rdwfvdkufjcif;
ESihf a&xkudkjzwfNyD; avxkxJodkY
toHa&mufvmaomtcg toH

99 &m cdkifEIef;rSmaysmufoGm;jcif;
aMumifhjzpfonf[kqdkonf/okdY&m
wGif vlem;ESiMfh um;Edik af vmufaom
toHwdk;wdk;udkrl ukef;ay:rSMum;&
ao;onf[k od&onf/
]]uef a ygif a b;u jzwf
avQmufoGm;wJholawGqdk&if a&
atmufu wpfaumifaumif oDqkd
aeovdkrsKd; Mum;ae&ygw,f}} [k
0if;'frD;vfuqdkonf/ a0vig;
jym\toHrSm 188 'ufpDb,f?
qifrsm;rSm 117 'ufpDb,ftxd
us,fatmif atmfEdkifaomfvnf;
tvGefBuD;onhftaumifrsm;jzpf
&m t&G,ftpm;ESihfEdIif;,SOfvQif
,if;ydk;aumifrSm toHus,fqHk;
[kqdkEkdifaMumif; 0if;'frD;vfu qdk
onf/ vlYqHyifwpfacsmif; txl
rQom&Sdaom 50 rdkufc½dkrDwmrQ
omtus,f&Sdonhfa0S;aphrS ,if;
rQ us,faomtoHxGufjcif;\
taMumif;t&if;udkrl twdtus
rod&ao;ay/
Ref: The Sun

Facebook udk ,SOfrnfU Google+ vmNyD
tGev
f ikd ;f vlrq
I ufqaH &;0ufbf
qkdufe,fy,fwGif Facebook \
vTr;f rd;k xm;rIuakd cszsuEf idk &f eftwGuf
Google u Google+ trnf& 0ef
aqmifrIwpf&yfudk ZGefv 28 &uf
aeYupNyD;vTiw
hf ifvu
kd af Mumif;od&
onf/ ,cif G-Mail uJhodkY Invite
vkyfjcif;cH&rSomoHk;EdkifrnfjzpfNyD;
rMumrDtcsdeftwGif; vlwdkif;oHk;
Ekid af wmhrnfjzpfaMumif; od&onf/

Google \ Google Profile
ESifh Google Buzz wdkYonf atmif
jrifcJhjcif; r&Sdaomfvnf; ,ck
Google+ rSmrl Circles? Hangouts?
Sparks ? Huddles [l a om
0efaqmifrIopf rsm;jzihfFacebook
ud,
k OS &f ef txl; zefw;D xm;onf/
Circles wGif oHk;pGJolonf
rdrd\tGefvdkif;rdwfaqGrsm;udkESpf
ouf&mpuf0dkif;twGif; qGJcs? qGJ

wifonhfenf;jzihf tvG,fwul
tkyfpkcGJEdkifrnfjzpfonf/ Huddles
rSm rdkbdkif;zkef;rsm;ESihf Circles ukd
csdwfqufoHk;EkdifrnfjzpfNyD; Hangouts rSm Circles twGif; AD'D,dk
pum;wGwfxdk;rIjyKEdkif&ef zefwD;
xm;jcif;jzpfonf/ Android rdk
bdkif;pepfoHk;zkef;rsm;? ud&d,mrsm;
jzihf "mwfyu
kH kd odr;f xm;jcif;? NyD;rS
rQa0vdkvQif rQa0jcif;jyKvkyfEkdif

aom Instant Upload 0efaqmifrI
vnf ; yg&S d o nf / Sparks rS m
Google \tcsut
f vuf&mS azGa&;
0efaqmifrIudk rGrf;rHxm;jcif; jzpf
NyD; rdrdodvdkonfudk a&G;NyD; tvdk
tavsmuf&Smay;xm;rnfjzpfum
rdrb
d momuefYowfNyD; vdo
k nfukd
jyef&SmEkdifrnfjzpfonf/Streams
rSmrl Facebook rS Status Update
uJhokdY jzpfaomfvnf; Facebook
uJhodkY Wall ay:wGif ½IyfraebJ
Circles rsm;rSwpfqihf rdrdaxmuf
Munhfonhfolay:wGif xdkol\
Status Update ay:aejcif;rsKd;jzpf
onf/ Facebook \a0zefcHae&
aomtcsurf sm;jzpfonfh ud,
k af &;
tcsuf t vuf v H k j cH K rIr&Sdjcif;?
tuefYtowfjzihf owif;tcsuf
tvuf jzefYjzL;&mwGifcufcJjcif;?
yGiv
fh if;jrifomvGe;f jcif;wkYdukd um
uG,fNyD;om;jzpfap&ef zefwD;xm;
jcif;jzpfonf/ Ref: PC World

qef;wpfrsKd;ESihf a&atmufwGif
aygufaom toGifxl;onhftyif
rsm;ukd awGU&SdcJhonf/
Ref: AFP

urÇmywfvrf;aMumif; t
wGi;f vSnyfh wfaeaomEkid if w
H um
tmumopcef; (tdik t
f ufpt
f ufp)f
onf ZGef 28 &ufaeYu tmumo
trdIufrsm;ESihf wdkufrdrvdkjzpfoGm;
cJah Mumif;emqmuxkwjf yefco
hJ nf/
pcef;&Sd tmumo,mOfrSL;
ajcmufOD;rSm pcef;wGif qdkufuyf
xm;aom qdk,kZf'Hk;,mOfESpfpif;
ay:ta&;ay:0ifa&mufaecJh&NyD;
tajctaeraumif;ygu ,mOfudk
pcef;rScmG NyD;urÇmay:jyefajy;&ef pD
pOfc&hJ onf/ urÇmywfvrf;twGi;f
vSnafh eaom N*dK[fwak [mif;rsm;
ESihf tjcm;tmumoavhvma&;
ypönf;a[mif;rsm;onf trdIufo
½dkufozG,f&Sdaejcif;jzpfonf/ 14
em&DomBudKodc&hJ jcif;aMumihf pcef;
udk vSnhfNyD; a&Smif&eftcsdefr&cJh
aMumif; od&onf/
Ref: AP

/LIFE
tjrTmr[kwfaom uav;ESpfa,mufudk
wpfNydKifeufarG;onfUtrsKd;orD;

uav;&Ekdifa&;twGuf okH;
ESpw
f w
d t
d cufMuHKcJ&h NyD;aemuf *sL
vD,m*½dAk efbmh*sEf iS hf cifyeG ;f jzpfol
awmh'fwkdYonf jynfyrSuav;
wpfOD;ukd arG;pm;&ef pOf;pm;cJhMu
ao;onf/ 2009 ckESpf? Zlvkdifv
wGiu
f ,
dk 0f ef&adS Mumif;od&NyD;aemuf
touf 33 ESpfESifh 34 ESpf toD;
oD;&SdMuaom ZeD;armifESHESpfOD;rSm
0rf;omtm;&jzpfcJhMuonf/
okdY&mwGif Superfetation [k
ac:aom ESpfywfausmfjcm;NyD; ESpf
Budru
f ,
dk 0f efaqmifcahJ Mumif; od&dS
cJh&NyD;aemuf ESpfOD;pvkH;pkd;&drfcJh&
onf/ ,if;odkYxl;jcm;onfh vu©
Pmjzpfygu uav;ESpfOD;ukd oD;
jcm;pDu,
dk 0f ef&v
dS maomfvnf; arG;
aomtcgwGiw
f pfcsed w
f nf;arG;avh
&SdNyD; aq;ynmoabmw&m;t&
t`rTm[k r,lqEdkifay/
]]uRefr 'Dvrdk sKd;uk,
d 0f ef&w
dS m
rdwfaqGawGodMuawmh yef;awG?
abmvk;H awGray;Ekid b
f J pmemaMumif;
uwfjym;eJYqak wmif;pmawG a&muf
vmcJyh gw,f}}[k rpö*½kAd efbmh*su
f
jyefajymif;ajymjyonf/
tmx&maqmif;½du
k Mf unfNh yD;
aemufzUHG NzKd ;rItqifrh wlaomuav;
ESpOf ;D &Sad eaMumif;awGU&ojzifq
h &m
0efrsm;ukd,fwkdifyif tHhtm;oifh
cJhonf/

t"dujyóemrSm uav;ESpf
OD;\cefYreS ;f arG;&ufrwlaomaMumifh
wpfOD;arG;onfhtcsdefwGif usef
wpfO;D (okYdr[kw)f ESpOf ;D pvk;H qk;H ½I;H
&rnfukd ylyefcJhonf/ uav;
ESpOf ;D okYdaomf t`rTmr[kwq
f adk om
pum;ukd ¤if;wkdYjyonfh q&m0ef
ukd,fwkdif &Sif;vif;pGmrajymjyEkdif
aomaMumifh tifwmeufwGif &Sm
Munfh&mrS Superfetation [kac:
aom jzpfpOf[k odcJhMuonf/
2010 jynfhESpf? 'DZifbmv
2 &ufaeYwGif ti,fjzpfol[uf
qefrSm vraphao;aomaMumifh
uav;ESpOf ;D pvk;H ukcd aJG rG;cJ&h onf/
arG;zGm;&mwGif [ufqefu ti,f
jzpfaomfvnf; OD;pGmarG;vmNyD;
tBuD;jzpfol *sLvD,Hu aemufrS
arG;cJhonf/ uav;ESpfOD;rSm wpf
csdefwnf;arG;aomfvnf; touf
rwlaomaMumifh zGUH NzdK;rIwiG f [uf
qefu ESpfywfrQtjrJaemufusae
cJo
h nf/ ,if;tcsurf mS rdbESpyf g;
twGuf ylyefp&mjzpfcJhaomfvnf;
aemufykdif;wGif ykHrSeftajctae
tjzpf vufcEH idk cf o
hJ nf/ ,cktcg
ajcmufvjynfNh yDjzpfaom uav;
ESpfOD;ukd t`rTmtjzpfrqufqHbJ
arG;csif;nDtpfukdrsm;tjzpf quf
qHay;&ef q&m0efrsm;u nTef
Mum;xm;onf/ Ref:DailyMail

16

regional News

om;a,musfm;om vdkcsifaomrdbrsm;aMumifh
tdE´d,wGif vdift*Fgajymif;onfh cGJpdwfrIrsm;jzpfay:ae

tif'dkeD;&Sm;or®wu a,mufzudk ppfOD;pD;csKyfcefhtyf
tif'ekd ;D &Sm;or®w,l',
kd Ekd u
kd
a,mufzjzpfol y&mrdEk t
kd uf'0D b
D kd
0dkudk ppfOD;pD;csKyftjzpf ZGefv 30
&ufaeYu cefYtyfcJhonf/ 0Dbkd0kd
onfta&SUwDarmta&;wGit
f jiif;
yGm;zG,fudkifwG,fcJholwpfOD;jzpf
aMumif; tcGifhta&;tzGJUrsm;u
ajymMum;cJhonf/
ZeD;jzpfo\
l armifi,fjzpfol
0Db0dk u
dk kd 'kw,
d Adv
k cf sKyfBuD;&mxl;
rS AdkvfcsKyfBuD;&mxl;wdk;ay;cJhNyD;
ppfO;D pD;csKyf&mxl;ygay;cJjh cif;onf
tif'dkeD;&Sm;EdkifiH\or®wjzpfvm
EdkifrItwGuf jyifqifaejcif;jzpf
onfqo
kd nfo
h wif;pum;rsm;xGuf
ay:vmcJhonf/ or®w,l'dk,dkEdk
onfvnf; Adv
k cf sKyfBuD;rSwpfqifh
or®wjzpfvmcJholjzpfonf/
touf 56 ESpft&G,f&Sd 0Dbkd
0kdonf ppfwuúodkvfrS 1980
jynfEh pS w
f iG b
f YJG &&Scd NhJ yD; 1999 ckEpS f
wGif Kopassus txl;wyfzGJUudk
OD;aqmifcJholjzpfonf/ xdkYtjyif
or®wa[mif; ar*g0wDqu
l mEkyd l
x&D\vufaxmufvnf; jzpfczhJ ;l
onf/
vuf&SdwGif ppfwyf\ Kostrad r[mAsL[ma&;&mwyfrSL;jzpf
ol 0Dbkd0kdonf&mxl;rS tem;,l

awmhrnfh AdkvfcsKyfBuD; George
Toisutta ae&mwGif tpm;xdk;cefY
tyfcH&jcif;jzpfonf/
tqifjh rifph pft&m&Srd sm; tzGUJ
\axmufcHay;rIjzifh 0Dbkd0kdudk ppf
OD;pD;csKyfcefYtyf&ef a&G;cs,fcJhjcif;
jzpfaMumif; wm0ef&o
dS rl sm;uajym
Mum;cJo
h nf/ odYk aomfvnf; 0Db0dk dk
onf ta&SUwDarmvGwfvyfa&;
twGuf 1999 ckESpfwGif jynfvHk;

ppfom;rsm;avh usifh&ef tGefvdkif;*drf; w½kwfwDxGif
ppfom;rsm;\ wdkufcdkufa&;
pGrf;&nfrsm;ESifh enf;ynmqdkif&m
owdjyKrrI sm;udak vhusi&hf eftwGuf
The Glorious trnf&Sd tGefvdkif;
*dr;f wpfcu
k kd w½kwEf ikd if \
H jynfoUl
vGwaf jrmufa&;wyfrawmfuyxr
qHk;tGefvdkif;ppf*drf;tjzpf wDxGif
cJah Mumif; China Daily owif;pm
wGifazmfjycJhonf/
tqdkyg tGefvdkif;*drf;onf
tMurf;zufuGefysLwm*drf;jzpfNyD;
ppfqifa&;rsm;wGiw
f pfO;D wpfa,muf
csi;f (odYkr[kw)f tzGUJ vdu
k yf g0ifEikd f
aMumif;od&Sd&onf/ tqdkyg*drf;
wGif PLA vufeufESifh wu,fh
ppfajrjyiftajctaersm; yg0ifNyD;
*drf;wDxGif&ef tcsdef 32 vMum
jrifch ahJ Mumif; China Daily owif;

pmwGif azmfjycJhonf/
]]w½kwfppfwyfudk axmufcH
olawGdownload vkyNf yD; upm;Edik f
zdYk 'D*rd ;f udk zGiahf y;xm;r,fvYkd xif
w,f}} [k trnfazmfjyjcif;r&So
d nfh
PLA vlxkqufqHa&;t&m&Sdwpf
OD;u ajymMum;cJhonf/ *drf;\
aemufqHk;Am;&Sif;udk ZGef 20 &uf
wGif pwifjzefYa0cJhonf/
urÇmwGif tifwmeufoHk;pGJ
oltrsm;qHk;jzpfonfh w½kwfwGif
tGefvdkif;*drf;upm;ol oef;300
ausmf&SdaMumif; tpdk;&xkwfjyef
csuft& od&Sd&onf/ w½kwftGef
vdkif;*drf;aps;uGufonf yxrESpf
0uftwGi;f ,Grf 8 'or 5 bDvsH
&&SdcJhonf/
Ref: Reuters

w½kwfwGif wpfv,Grf 3500 (tar&duefa':vm
540) txuf&olrsm;om 0ifaiGcGefay;aqmif&rnf
w½kwEf ikd if w
H iG f ,cifu wpf
v,Grf 2000 (309) a':vm&&Sd
olrsm;udk 0ifaiGcGefay;aqmif&ef
owfrw
S x
f m;&mrS ,cktcgwpfv
vQif ,Grf 3500 (tar&duefa':
vm 540)odYk jr§iw
hf ifvu
kd af Mumif;
EdkifiHydkifqif[Gmowif; at*sifpD
u azmfjycJhonf/
w½kwt
f rsK;d om;jynfoUl uGef
*&ufaumfrwDu 0ifaiGtqifh
owfrSwfcsufudk jr§ifhwifcJhrIonf
0ifaiGenf;jynforl sm;tay: tcGef
0efxkyf0efydk;avsmhcJhNyDjzpfaMumif;
ajymMum;cJhonf/ qif;&Jcsrf;om
uGm[vmrIaMumihf vlraI &;rwnf
NidrfrIrsm; ay:aygufvmrnfudk
w½kwt
f pd;k &pd;k &draf eaMumif; avh
vmolrsm;u ajymMum;cJhonf/

0ifaiGenf;rdom;pkrsm;\ pm;
aomufukeftwGuf oHk;pGJrIonf
arvwGif ,refwpfESpfu xuf
11 'or 7 &mcdkifEIef;txd jrifh
wufcahJ Mumif; w½kwv
f yk o
f m;tif
tm;pk\ 12 &mcdkifEIef;cefYonf
wpfvvQif,Grf 3000 ausmf&&Sd
aeMuonf/
0ifaiGcGefay;aqmif&rnfh v
pmowfrSwfcsufjyifqifrIrSm puf
wifbmvwGif pwiftmPmouf
0ifrnfjzpfNyD; 0ifaiGcGefay;aqmif
&rnfhol 84 oef;rS 24 oef;xd
avsmhusoGm;rnf[k b@ma&;0ef
BuD;XmerS tcGefXmeudk udk;um;í
qif[mG u azmfjycJo
h nf/ w½kwf
onf 2008 ckESpfu 0ifaiGcGefudk
jyifqifowfrw
S cf o
hJ nf/Ref:BBC

0Dbdk0dkudk*kPfjyKaeonfU or®w,l'dk,dkEdkESifUZeD;
uRwfqE´cH,lyGJtwGuf jyKvkyfae
onfhtcsdeftwGif; tjiif;yGm;zG,f
udik w
f ,
G cf o
hJ nfjh zpfpOfrsm;wGiyf g0if
rIjzifh vlYtcGit
hf a&;vIy&f mS ;olrsm;
u ar;cGef;xkwfcJhonf/
]]ta&SUwDarmrSm jzpfcJhwJh
wdkufcdkufrIwpfckrSm 0Dbkd0kdygw,f
vdkY oHo,&Sdw,f/ olyg0ifw,f
qdkwm pHkprf;ppfaq;vdkUrNyD;awmh
aocsmrodao;ygbl;/ 'gayrJh

0Dbkd0kdudk ppfOD;pD;csKyfcefYtyfw,f
qdkwm aqGrsKd;aumif;pm;a&;0g'
qdkwm azmfjyaeygw,f/ rdom;pk
0ifawGukd Ekid if q
H ufvufO;D aqmif
apzdYk or®wujyifqifwmvdYk xif&
w,f}}[k Missing Persons and
Victims of Violence aumfr&SifrS
Haris Azhar u qdkonf/
Ref: AFP

om;a,musfm;av;om vdk
csifonfh tdE´d,EdkifiHom;rdbrsm;
aMumifih ,f&,
G o
f nfrh ed ;f uav;rsm;
tay:vlrqefonfv
h id t
f *Fgajymif;
vJcGJpdwfrIrsm;jzpfapaMumif; Telegraph owif;pmwGiaf zmfjycJo
h nf/
rdef;uav; 300 udk wpfOD;
vQif cGJpdwfc tar&duefa':vm
3200 ,lNyD;cGpJ w
d af y;cJrh jI zifh tdE,

EdkifiH Madhya Pradesh jynfe,f?
Indore NrdKU&Sd q&m0efrsm;udkpGJcsuf
wifcJhonf/
vdift*Fg yHkrSeftajctae
r[k w f o nf h rd e f ; uav;rsm;
(odYkr[kw)f trsK;d om;ESit
hf rsKd ;orD;
vdift*Fg ESpfckvHk;ygonfh uav;
rsm;udo
k mcGpJ w
d af y;cJjh cif;jzpfonf
[k q&m0efrsm;u ckcHajymMum;
cJo
h nf/ odYk aomfvnf; rdbrsm;ESihf
q&m0efrsm;onf uav;i,frsm;
\tajctaeud k rd e f ; uav;rS
a,musfm;av;tjzpf vdift*Fg
ajymif;vJay;cJhonf[k pGyfpGJcHcJh&
onf/
vdift*Fg ajymif;vJcGJpdwfrI
rsm;onf a[mfrkef;xkwfvkyfEdkif
pGrf;r&Sdjcif;? rsdK;ryGm;Edkifjcif;ESifh

yef;aorIrsm;udjk zpfapaomaMumifh
uav;i,frsm; tay:wGif pdwf
ydkif;qdkif&mESifh vlrIa&;qdkif&m qdk;
usdK;rsm;jzpfvmEdik af Mumif; Indore
NrdKU&Sd uav; oli,fqdkif&m aq;
aumvdyf Ouú| a'gufwm V P
Goswami uajym Mum;cJhonf/
tdE,
d´ Edik if w
H iG f usm;^rtcsKd ;
rnDrQrEI iS hf MuHKawGUae&NyD;touf
6 ESpfatmufuav;rsm;udk EIdif;
,SOf&mwGif a,musfm;av;onf
rde;f uav;xuf ckepfoef;ydrk rkd sm;
aecJhonf/
]]ynmydkwwfNyD; ydkcsrf;om
wmeJUtrQred ;f uav;awG towf
cH&wmydkrsm;vmavavygyJ/ vl
awGu trsKd;orD;awG&UJ ynma&;
u@rSm &if;ESD;jr§KyfESHwm? cJGa0oHk;
pJGwm? 'grSr[kwf r*FvmvufzJGU
ray;csifwmawG &Sdaew,f/ tJ'g
aiGaemufvkdufaewJh avmbBuD;
wJh vlwef;pm;rsKd;awGrSm jzpf
ay:aewmjzpfw,f}}[k trsK;d orD;
oaE¨om;zsufcsrI qefYusifa&;
OD;aqmifol Ranjana Kumari u
ajymMum;cJhonf/
Ref: The Korea Herald

wm0ef,lwwfaomtiftm;BuD;EdkifiHtjzpf jyKrlusifUMuH&ef zdvpfydkifu w½kwfudkwkdufwGef;
wm0ef,lwwfaomtiftm;
BuD;EdkifiHtjzpf jyKrlusihfMuH&ef
zdvpfyikd Ef ikd if u
H w½kwu
f kd Zlvikd v
f
1 &ufaeYwiG f wku
d w
f eG ;f cJo
h nf/
rMumao;rD&ufrsm;twGif;
wif;rmrIjrihfwufcJhaom awmif
w½kwyf ifv,f&dS tjiif;yGm;uRe;f pk

rsm;ta&;onf vufeufuikd w
f u
kd f
cku
d o
f nft
h ajctaetxd ra&muf
EkdifaMumif; zdvpfydkifEdkifiHjcm;a&;
0efBuD;t,fvfbwf',f½dkqm&D,dk
u ajymMum;onf/ vmrnfo
h w
D if;
ywftwGi;f w½kwo
f Ydkzw
d Mf um;csuf
t&oGm;a&mufí tjiif;yGm;uRef;

pkrsm;taMumif;udw
k ½kwaf cgif;aqmif
rsm;ESiahf qG;aEG;&eftpDtpOf&o
dS nf
[k¤if;uajymMum;onf/
]]w½kwEf idk if H tiftm;BuD;vm
wm? MoZmvTr;f vmwm? pD;yGm;a&;
tiftm;BuD;vmwmudktodtrSwf
jyKygw,f/ wm0ef,lwwfwJhtif

tm;BuD;Edik if H wpfEidk if t
H aeeJYaygh}}
[k ½dq
k m&D,u
kd owif;axmufrsm;
udak jymMum;onf/ zdvpfyikd f or®w
bDepfEdktuDGEkdonfvnf; w½kwf
Ekid if \
H zdwMf um;csufuakd emufq;kH
wGiv
f ufczH ,
G &f o
dS nf[k Edik if jH cm;
a&;0efBuD;uqkdonf/ Ref: AFP

w½kwfuGefjrLepfygwD ESpf (90) jynfU txdrf;trSwf tcrf;tem;usif;y

tpD&ifcHpmzwfNyD;aemuf rsufrSefjyefvJ
aeonfU or®wa[mif;usefZDrif;
w½kwfuGefjrLepfygwDonf
Zlvdkif 1 &ufaeYwGif ESpf(90)jynfh
oGm;cJhNyDjzpfonf/
ayusi;f &Sd jynfoYlcef;raqmif
wGif usif;ycJhaom ESpf(90)jynfh
txdr;f trSwt
f crf;tem;udw
k ½kwf
xdyfwef;acgif;aqmifrsm; wuf
a&mufcJhMuonf/ uGejf rLepfygwD
ESp(f 90)jynfh txdr;f trSwaf eYwiG f
or®w[lusiaf wmifujcpm;rI? vl
xkEiS afh 0;uGmrIonfjynfoYlaxmuf
cHrIudk qHk;½IH;oGm;apEdkifaMumif;
owday;cJo
h nf/ygwD\jynfwiG ;f
ppfESihftjcm;tusyftwnf;rsm;rS
½kef;xGufEkdifrIudk[lu *kPfjyKajym
Mum;oGm;cJhaomfvnf; pD;yGm;a&;
wHcg;zGihfrIESihf EdkifiHa&;wif;usyfrI
tMum;rQacsud k rcsd e f E k d i f y gu
tcuftcJrsm;MuHKawGY&Ekdifao;
aMumif;owday;cJhonf/
[lu awmfou
l akd e&may;rnhf
pepfukd ydt
k ajcjyKoGm;&efEiS t
fh &nf

&SdMuolrsm;jzpfonf/
[lu 'Drkdua&pDESihfrl0g'cs
rSwaf &;wGijf ynfov
l x
l yk g0ifa&;
ESiyfh wfoufNyD;xnhaf jym½Ho
k majym
cJNh y;D t"dutm;jzihyf gwDacgif;aqmif
rIatmufwGifomvkyfaqmifa&;
ESihfvuf&Sdtajctaetwdkif;quf
xde;f xm;Ekid af &;udo
k m t"duajym
cJhonf/ w½kwf\yxrqkH;av
,mOfwifoabFmudk Zlvikd f 1 &uf
aeYu prf;oyfarmif;ESifcJhonf/

rdefhcGef;ajymaecsdeftwGif;cPem;NyD; a&aomufaeaomor®w[lusifawmif
tcsi;f &Sv
d il ,frsm;udpk ak qmif;oGm; Mum;oGm;cJhonf/ vuf&SdygwD0if
a&;aqmif&u
G rf nfjzpfaMumif; ajym 75 &mcdik Ef eI ;f rSm 35 ESpEf iS t
fh xuf
Ref: AFP
w½kwfuGefjrLepfygwD
tzGJY0if / oef; 80 ausmf&SdNyD; urÇmwGit
f Bu;D qk;H ygw/D
wnfaxmifrI / touf 27 ESpft&G,farmfpDwkH;yg0ifaom yxrqkH;tBudrfygwu
D eG u
f &ufoYkd wufa&mufvmaomudk,fpm;vS,frsm;u 1921
ckESpfwGif&Sef[dkif;ü w&m;0ifwnfaxmiff/
tmPmtajccH / w½kwfEdkifiHonf wpfygwDpepfusifUokH;onfUEkdifiHjzpfNyD; uGefjrLepfygwDacgif;aqmifrIu w½kwfzGJYpnf;ykHtajccHOya'udk
xdef;odrf;xm;onf/
ygwDtwGif;a&;rSL;csKyf / [lusifawmifonf 2002 ckESpfrSpí ygwDtwGif;a&;rSL;csKyfjzpfvm/
ygwo
D rkid ;f wGif xif&mS ;aomtjzpftysufrsm;1921 / w½kwfuGefjrLepfygwD(pDpDyD)udk w&m;0ifpwifwnfaxmifcJUNyD; w½kwfvlxktay:tajccHonfUypönf;rJUawmfvSefa&;udk a&SYwef;wifum
vDeifvrf;pOfukdtajccHcJU/
1934-35 / trsK;d om;a&;0g'rD sm;\0ef;&Hyw
d q
f rhdk rI v
S w
G af jrmuf&ef w½kwEf ikd if t
H a&SaY wmifyikd ;f rS ajrmufyikd ;f txd c&D;&Sncf sw
D ufyjJG zifU awmifveS af &;
tajcpdkuf&mae&mudk a&TYajymif;cJUNyD; armfpDwkef;u tjiif;yGm;zG,fr&Sdacgif;aqmiftjzpfay:xGufvm/
1949 / jynfwGif;ppfwGif trsKd;om;a&;0g'DwkdhudktEkdif&&SdNyD; uGefjrLepfygwDutmPm&/
1966-76 / ygwDwGif;tmPmcsdeJhaerIudktm;opfavmif;&efESifUygwD\ rlvZpfjrpfudkjyefoGm;&efBudK;yrf;onfUtaejzifU,Ofaus;rIawmfvSefa&;udk
armfuaqmif&Guf/ EdkifiHwGif;u aomif;ueif;jzpf/
1978-1976 / armfuG,fvGefNyD;aemuf wdefha&Smifzdefu ygwDudk rmhu©pD;yGm;a&;tdkif'D,dkavmf*sDrS z,fcGmcJUNyD;aps;uGuftiftm;udkvufcHonfU
rl0g'udkusihfoHk;/pD;yGm;a&;axmif wufvm/
2001 / ygwDacgif;aqmifusefZDrif;u pD;yGm;a&;orm;rsm;udkygwDtzGJY0iftjzpf pwifvufcHcJUNyD; rlvZpfjrpfrSz,fcGmvm/
2002 / [lusifawmifuGefjrLepfygwDacgif;aqmifjzpfvm/
2010 / 'kwd,or®w&SDusifyif;u MoZmBuD;aomA[dkppfaumfr&Sif'kwd,Ouú|jzpfvmcJUNyD; [ludkqufcHrnfUoltjzpf½IjrifcHxm;&/

18

international News

ql'efor®wbm&Sm;\av,mOfudk wmhcfrifepöweftmPmydkifwdkYu wm;qD;rIaMumifh w½kwfEkdifiHc&D;pOfaESmifhaES;
vlrsKd;okOf;owfjzwfrIppf&m
Z0wfrIrsm;jzifh pGJcsufwifcHxm;&
aomql'efor®wtdrk mt,fvb
f m
&Sm;\av,mOfukd aemufaMumif;
jyefvSnfh&ef wmhcfrifepöweftm
Pmydik rf sm;u apcdik ;f NyD;aemuf ZGef
v 27 &ufaeYu c&D;pOfaESmifah ES;cJh
&NyD; w½kwfEkdifiHodkY aemufusrS
oGm;a&mufEkdifcJhonf/
bm&Sm;onf ZGefv 28 &uf
aeYreufwGif ayusif;odkY a&muf&Sd
cJhonf[k qif[Gmowif;at*sif
pDu azmfjycJhonf/ bm&Sm;onf
tD&efrw
S pfqifh w½kwEf ikd if o
H YkdomG ;
NyD; or®w[lusiaf wmifEiS hf awGUqkH

&ef vma&mufjcif;jzpfaMumif;
ql'efEkdifiHjcm;a&;0efBuD;Xmeajym
cGi&hf yk*Kd¾ vft,fvu
f b
kd mtpfr'l g0D
u ajymMum;cJhonf/
vrf;aMumif; ajymif;vJjcif;
rSm EdkifiHa&;ESifhoufqdkifrI&Sdvdrfh
rnf[rk ,lqaMumif; rl'g0Duajym
Mum;cJhonf/ pufydkif;qdkif&mt
aMumif;jycsufaMumifh ajymif;vJcJh
&onf[k ¤if;u ajymMum;cJo
h nf/
t,fvfbm&Sm;ESifh w½kwfacgif;
aqmifrsm;\ tpnf;ta0;rsm;rSm
xda&mufrrI &Scd ahJ Mumif;w½kwEf idk if H
jcm;a&;0efBuD;XmeajymcGifh&yk*dK¾ vf
a[mifav;u ajymMum;cJhonf/

bm&S m ;tay: pG J c suf r sm;
xGufay:vmuwnf;u ¤if;\
jynfyc&D;pOfrsm;udk oufqdkif&m
Edik if rH sm;uzsuo
f rd ;f &eftjynfjynf
qdkif&mvGwfNidrf;csrf;omcGifhtzGJU
ESiv
hf Yl tcGit
hf a&;apmifMh unfo
h nfh
tzGJUrsm;u zdtm;ay;vsu&f o
dS nf/
bm&Sm;onf ZGefv 24 &uf
aeYuwnf;u tD&efEidk if H wD[&D ef
wGif a&muf&adS ecJNh yD; tMurf;zufrI
wdu
k zf suaf &;qdik &f muGezf &ifw
h pfck
odkY wufa&mufcJhonf/
bm&Sm;\pDpOfxm;onfh c&D;
pOfrsm;udzk suf odr;f cJo
h nfEh ikd if rH sm;
wGif wl&uD? ZrfbD,mESifh A[dk

tmz&du or®wEdkifiH wdkYyg0if
aMumif;e,l;a,muf tajcpdu
k f vlY
tcGit
hf a&;apmifMh unft
h zGUJ rS ajym
Mum;cJo
h nf/
w½kwEf ikd if o
H nf tjynfjynf
qkdif&m&mZ0wfw&m;½kH;wGif tzJGU
0iftjzpf yg0ifjcif;r&Sad y/ w½kwf
EkdifiHonf ql'efEkdifiHajrmufydkif;
acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh &if;ESD;onfh
qufqaH &;&SNd yD; Zlvikd v
f 9 &ufaeY
wGif vGwv
f yfonfh EkdifiHwpfckjzpf
vmrnfh a&eHxkwv
f yk af om ql'ef
awmifydkif;\axmufcHrIudkvnf;
&&Sd&ef BudK;yrf;vsuf&Sdonf/

ql'ef&t
dS jiif;yGm;tufbaf ,;a'oodkh
ukvwyfzY0GJ if 4200 apvTwrf nf

Ref: AFP

qD;&D;,m;or®wtwGuf tcsdefr&SdawmUaMumif; [Dvm&DuvifwefajymMum;
ql'ef&Sd ukvrpf&SifwGifyg0ifaom ZrfbD,mppfom;rsm;
qD;&D;,m;Ekid if w
H iG f qE´jyol
rsm;udk tiftm;oHk;zdESdyfaeaom
or®wtmqwftwGuf tcsdefr&Sd
awmhaMumif; tar&duefEkdifiHjcm;
a&;0efBuD;[Dvm&Duvifwefu Zl
vkid f 1 &ufaeYwiG af jymMum;onf/
qD;&D;,m;\'kw,
d tBuD;qH;k
NrdKU Aleppo wGif tpdk;&qefYusif

qE´jyrIrsm;jyKvkyf&efpDpOfaepOf
vpfoal ,;eD;,m;Edik if o
H Ykd a&muf&dS
aeaom [Dvm&Duvifwefu a0
zefcJhjcif;jzpfonf/ tmqwfonf
twku
d t
f cHrsm;ESiahf wGUqHak qG;aEG;
a&;udk &Sif;vif;jywfom;pGmOD;pD;
rvkyfaqmifEdkifaMumif;? EkdifiHa&;
vIy&f mS ;olrsm;udEk rdS ef if;aeaMumif;

[Dvm&Du a0zef½IwfcscJhonf/
Aleppo NrdKUESifh e,fpyfwGif
tpd;k &OD;pD;aomtzJUG rsm;? vHjk cHKa&;
wyfzJGU0ifrsm;u "m;rsm;jzifhwkduf
cku
d jf cif;? ½du
k Ef u
S jf cif;rsm;&Sad eonf
udo
k wif;Mum;ae&aMumif; [Dvm
&DuajymMum;onf/ ]]vHk;0aocsm
w,f/ qD;&D;,m;tpdk;&twGuf

tcsdefvGefoGm;NyD/ xyfar;aep&m
rvdak wmhb;l }}[ktar&duefEikd if jH cm;
a&;0efBuD;uajymMum;onf/ ]]tck
csed rf mS uRerf wdYk tvd&k adS ewmpum;
vH;k awGr[kwb
f ;l / vufawGUvkyjf y
zdYk vadk eNy}D }[k or®wtmqwf\ rdeYf
cGef;rsm;udk &nfnTef;ajymMum;cJh
onf/
Ref: AFP

rlbm&ufvufxuf jcpm;rIjzihf emrnfausmfaom jrLeDpDy,faumifpDrsm;udk zsufodrf;
tD*spo
f r®wa[mif;rlbm&uf
vufxufzUGJ pnf;cJah omjcpm;rIrsm;
jzifh jynfhESufaeonfh jrLeDpDy,f
aumifprD sm;udk zsuo
f rd ;f &ef udik ½f dk
NrdKU Administrative Court u ZGef
28 &ufwiG f nTeMf um;cJo
h nf/
,if;aumifprD sm;udzk suo
f rd ;f
&efrmS rlbm&uftm;jzKwfcscJo
h nfh
jynfolvlxk\awmif;qkdcsufrsm;

teuf wpfcktygt0ifjzpfonf/
]]'D jcpm;rIawGeJYysufpD;aewJh jrLeD
pDy,faumifpaD wGukd rzsuo
f rd ;f bJ?
pepfwpfckvHk;udk rajymif;vJbJeJY
awmh vlxak wmfveS af &;NyD;qH;k w,f
vdkY rac:Edkifbl;}} [k Revolution
Youth Coalition rS tpD&ifcp
H mxkwf
jyefco
hJ nf/ ,if;aumifp0D iftrsm;
pkrmS ,ciftmPm&ygwD National

Democratic Party ESifhqufqHa&;

eD;uyfaMumif; *DZmNrdKUawmf0eft
vDtuf',f &m[frefu qdkonf/
,if;aumifprD sm;udk w&m;½H;k
trdeYfjzifo
h mzsuo
f rd ;f Ekid Nf yD;aumif
pD a&G;aumufyJGrsm;ukd &uf 60
twGif; jyefvnfjyKvkyf&rnf jzpf
aMumif; ¤if;uajymMum;onf/
tD*spw
f iG f jrLeDpyD ,faumifpD 1790

ck&adS Mumif;? tzJUG 0if 50000 ausmf
&SdaMumif;? 2008 ckESpf? jrLeDpDy,f
a&G;aumufyJGwGif NDP ygwDu rJ
vdrNf yD;trwftrsm;pk&&Scd ahJ Mumif;?
a&G;cs,cf &H a&;twGuf vmbfx;kd cJh
aMumif; a'oqdkif&mtzJGUtpnf;
qdkif&muRrf;usifoltuf',f*gzm
½SLumuajymMum;onf/
Ref: CNN

ql'efajrmufydkif;tpkd;&ESihf
awmifydkif;tMum; rMumao;rDu
&&Scd aJh omoabmwlncD sut
f & ykid f
qdkifrItjiif;yGm;aeaom tufbf
a,;a'ookYd ukvNird ;f csr;f a&;xde;f
odr;f rIwyfzUGJ 0if 4200 apvTw&f ef
ukvvHkjcHKa&; aumifpu
D ZGef 27
&ufwiG f twnf jyKcJhonf/
,if;qH;k jzwfcsut
f & United
Nations Interim Security Force
for Abyei UNISFA wyfzJGU0ifrsm;

udk ajcmufvMumapvTwfrnfjzpf
aMumif; od&onf/ UNISFA wGif
ppfbuftzJGU0if 4200? &JwyfzJGU
0if 50 vnf; yg0ifrnfjzpfaMumif;
od&onf/
tufbfa,;a'oonf ESpf
aygif;rsm;pGm a'owGif;wif;rm

rIjzpfaponfh &if;jrpfwpfckjzpfcJh
aMumif;? typftcwfcsufcsif;&yf
pJa&;jyKvky&f ef oufqikd o
f rl sm;udk
awmif;qdck ahJ Mumif;? wdu
k cf u
dk rf rI sm;
aMumif; xdcdkufcJhaomt&yfom;
rsm;udv
k o
l m;csi;f pmemaxmufxm;
rItultnDay;&ef vdktyfaMumif;
tar&duefEidk if jH cm;a&;0efBuD;Xme
u xkwfjyefcsuft&od&onf/
ydkifqdkifrItjiif;yGm;aeaom
tufbaf ,;a'owGif apmihMf unfh
xdef;odrf;&eftwGuf Mum;cHtzJGU
tpnf;wpfcx
k m;&S&d ef ql'efajrmuf
ydik ;f ESifh awmifyikd ;f tMum; oabm
wlncD sufukd vufrw
S x
f ;kd cJo
h nf/
ql'efawmifydkif;onf Zlvdkif 9
&ufwiG f oD;jcm;Ekid if t
H jzpfxal xmif
&ef pDpOfaeonf/ Ref:CNN

M i d d l e E a s t & A r a b W o r l d Uprising D i a r y
qD;&D;,m; /

aqmf'D /

tD&ef /

Zlvkdifv 1 &ufaehu aewdk;xdk;ppfqifrI&uf 100 jynfUcsdefwGif u'gzDtxdremao;rItxdrf;trSwftjzpf u'gzDaxmufcHolrsm;u rD;½SL;rD;yef;rsm;ypfazmufatmifyGJcHpOf
ZGef 29 (Ak'¨[l;aeh)
vpfAsm; /
ZifwefNrdKUteD;&Sd u'gzDwyfrsm;\vufeufwu
kd w
f pfcu
k kd
twdu
k t
f cHwu
kd cf u
kd af &;orm;rsm;u odr;f ,lEidk cf ahJ Mumif;
t,fvfatwdkif;rfu owif;xkwfjyefonf/ ,if;vuf
eufwdkufrSm tmz&duwGif tBuD;qHk;vufeufwdkufwpfck
jzpfaMumif; tm&yf½yk o
f v
H idk ;f rsm;u azmfjycJo
h nf/ NrdKUawmf
x&DydkvDteD; csOf;uyfEkdifa&;twGuf vpfAsm;&Sdbmbm
rsKd;EG,fpkxH jyifopfEdkifiHu avaMumif;rSwpfqifh vuf
eufrsm; csay;cJhonf/
qD;&D;,m; / NAdwdefEdkifiH&Sd qD;&D;,m;EdkifiHom;rsm;ukd oH½Hk;&SdoHwref
wpfO;D u Ncdr;f ajcmufajymMum;cJo
h nf[k owif;xGucf &hJ m
NAdwdefqdkif&mqD;&D;,m;oHtrwfBuD;udk ac:,lowday;
cJh&aMumif;od&onf/ 'kwd,tBuD;qHk;NrdKU Aleppo wGif
qE´jy&mü a&SUaersm;vnf; yg0ifvmcJhonf/
bm&def; /
wpfoufwpfuRef;jypf'PfcscH&aom vlYtcGifhta&;vIyf

aqmf'D /

*gZm /

&Sm;ol 21 OD;\ t,lcH0ifrIrsm;tm; ppfbufw&m;½Hk;u
qdik ;f iHx
h m;onf/ qE´jyrItm;ESrd ef if;&mwGif vlYtcGit
hf a&;
csKd;azmufrrI sm;&So
d nfukd pHpk rf;ppfaq;rnfh vGwv
f yfaom
aumfr&SifwpfckzJGU&ef bk&if[mrpf'fu aMunmonf/
um;rarmif;&[laomtrdeYf uzkd q
D efonfh trsKd;orD;ig;OD;
xufrenf; zrf;qD;cH&aMumif; vlYtcGifhta&;vIyf&Sm;ol
rsm;u ajymMum;onf/
,ckow
D if;ywftwGi;f *gZmodYkvma&mufrnfah &,mOfpu
k kd
tpöa&;uNcdrf;ajcmufcJhonf[k owif;xGufay:cJhNyD; vm
rnfhoDwif;ywftxd a&TUqdkif;zG,f&SdaMumif;od&onf/

ZGef 30 (Mumoyaw;aeh)
vpfAsm; /
jyifopfEkdifiHu avaMumif;rSwpfqifh vufeufrsm;csay;
jcif;onf jynfwGif;ppftEÅ&m,f? EkdifiHuJGjym;rItEÅ&m,f?
qkrd mvDEidk if u
H o
hJ YdkjzpfEidk o
f nft
h EÅ&m,f? ,if;vufeufrsm;

aMumifh ae&mwdkif;wGif tMurf;zufwdkufckdufrI tEÅ&m,f
MuHK&EkdifaMumif; tmz&duor*¾aumfr&SifOuú|*sD;yifu
owday;onf/
ZGef 29 &ufu qE´jyrItBuD;tus,fjzpfcJhaom EkdifiH
tv,fydkif;&Sd[mrmNrdKUokdY qD;&D;,m;ppfwyfu OD;wnfcJh
aMumif; e,l;a,mufwdkif;rfu azmfjyonf/
tD&efEdkifiHuom EsLvufeuf&&SdoGm;ygu ta&SUtv,f
ydkif;a'owGif EsLuvD;,m;vufeufNydKifyJG jzpfvmEkdif
aMumif; aqmf'DtBuD;wef;oHwrefESifh bk&ifrdom;pk
tzJGU0ifwpfOD;u owday;onf/
or®wtrm'DeD*sufu ¤if;\r[mrdwfrsm;udkzrf;qD;ae
jcif;ESiyhf wfoufí ¤if;\&efbufrsm;tm; yxrqH;k tBudrf
owday;cJNh yD;tpd;k &udu
k muG,o
f mG ;rnf[ak jymMum;onf/
bmoma&;acgif;aqmift,mwdkvmcgareDESifhjyóem
wufNyD;aemuf trm'DeD*suf\r[mrdwfrsm;rSm zrf;qD;
jcif;cH&onf/

Zlvdkif 1 (aomMumaeY)
qD;&D;,m; / rNidrfroufrIrsm;jzpfNyD; 16 ywftMumwGif tBuD;us,f
qHk;qE´jyrIwpf&yfjzpfay:cJhonf/EkdifiHtv,fydkif;NrdKY[m;
rm;ESihfEdkifiHtESHYtjym;wGifjzpfyGm;aeNyD; tenf;qHk;vl 12
OD;rQaoqHk;cJhonf/ tmqwftmPmquf&Sdaernfh vrf;
pOfudk twdkuftcHrsm;uy,fcsonf/ tpdk;&ESihfaqG;aEG;
a&;twku
d t
f cHuvufrcHjcif;ud½k &k mS ;tpk;d &u½Iwcf sonf/
vpfAsm; /
aewdk;uom avaMumif;wkdufcdkufrIrsm;r&yfqkdif;ygu
Oa&my&Sdtdrfrsm;?½Hk;rsm;?rdom;pkrsm;udk wkdufcdkufrnf[k
u'gzDuNcdrf;ajcmufonf/ Zlvdkifv 1 &ufaeYwGif&uf
100 jynhfNyDjzpfaomaewdk;avaMumif;wdkufcdkufrIwGif
ta&;redrfhao;rItwGuf u'gzDaxmufcHolrsm;u rD;½I;
rD;yef;rsm;ypfazmufatmifyGJcHonf/
,Drif /
or®wqmvuf[u
f se;f rma&;ESiyfh wfoufNyD;ra&&mrI rsm;
ay:aygufaecsdefwGif EkdifiHwpf0ef;uefYuGufrIrsm;jzpfay:
aeonf/

19
w½kwfwGif urÇmht&SnfqHk;yifv,ful;wHwm;zGifUvSpf

w½kwEf ikd if H ta&SUbufpmef;
awmifjynfe,f? usifawmifwGif
urÇmt
h &Snq
f ;kH yifv,fu;l wHwm;
udk w½kwfu pwifzGifhvSpfay;cJh
onf/ ta&SUbufurf;½kd;wef;NrdKU
usiaf wmifESifhausmifusKd;yifv,f
atmf&SdqifajczHk; [GrfawmifNrdKUwdkY
udck sw
d q
f ufay;rnfh 26 'or 4 rdik f
(42 'or 4 uDvrkd w
D m ) &Snv
f sm;

aom ,if ; wH w m;onf usif
awmifNrdKUv,frS [GrfawmifNrdKUudk
c&D;Mumcsdef rdepf 20 ESifh oGm;vm
Edkifrnfjzpfonf/
ZGefv 27 &ufaeYu wHwm;
wnfaqmufa&;ESiyhf wfoufonfh
prf;oyfrIrsm;NyD;pD;oGm;cJhNyD; ZGev
f
30 &ufaeYwiG f ,mOfrsm;oGm;vm
Edkif&ef zGifhvSpfay;cJhaMumif; EdkifiH

World News In Brief
wmvDbefwu
hkd kd ygupöwefaxmufvrS ;f a&;uavhusiafh y; / tar&duefwyfzJGU0ifrsm;
ESit
hf mz*eftpd;k &udk wdu
k cf u
dk af eaomwmvDbefwYkdudk ygupöweftpd;k &
u tumtuG,af y;aeNyD; wmvDbefwYdk taejzifh ,if;uJo
h Ydk ppfqifa&;
jyKvkyaf eEdik jf cif;rSmvnf; ygupöwefaxmufvrS ;f a&;avhusiafh y;aejcif;
aMumifhjzpfonf[k tmz*efc½dkiftkyfcsKyfa&;rSL;wpfOD;u pGyfpJGcJhonf/
ygupöwefonf wmvDbefwdkYukdESdrfeif;oa,mif[efaqmifaeaMumif;
,if;tkyfcsKyfa&;rSL;0gvD&Sm;u pGyfpJGcJhonf/
Oa&myor*¾tvSnu
hf sOuú|udk ydv
k efEidk if v
H ,
TJ l / 2004 ckESpfwGif Oa&myor*¾odkY
0ifa&mufcNhJ yD;aemufyikd ;f ydv
k efEidk if o
H nf tvSnu
hf sOuú|ae&mudk yxr
qHk;tBudrftjzpf Zlvdkif 1 &ufaeYrSpwifxrf;aqmifcJhonf/ ajcmufv
MumjrifhrnfhOuú|oufwrf;twGif; Oa&myta&SUydkif;ESifhawmifydkif;
tdrfeD;csif;rsm;tMum; qufqHa&;xlaxmifa&;? pD;yGm;a&;wdk;wufrI
&&Sad &;udt
k "duvkyaf qmif&rnfjzpfonf/ ,if;tvSnu
hf sOuú|ae&mudk
xrf;aqmifjcif;aMumifh ydv
k ef0efBuD;csKyfa':e,fvw
f ufpu
f atmufwkd
bmwGifjyKvkyfrnfha&G;aumufyJGrsm;wGif ¤if;\ Civic Platform ygwD
tEkdif&a&; taxmuftuljyKrnf[k ajymMum;cJhonf/
*smreDEsLpuf½t
kH m;vH;k udk 2022 ckEpS w
f iG f ydwyf pf&efoabmwl / urÇmph wkwt
¬ BuD;qH;k
pufrIEdkifiH *smreDEdkifiH&Sd EsL"mwfaygif;zdktm;vHk;udk 2022 ckESpfwGifydwf
ypf&ef atmufvw
T af wmftrwftrsm;pku twnfjyKay;cJo
h nf/ rwfv
uwnf;u vQyfppf"mwftm;ray;Ekdifawmhaom "mwfaygif;zdka[mif;
&SpfvHk;tm; ydwfypfcJhNyD;jzpfNyD; usef&Sdaom "mwfaygif;zkdukd;vHk;udk 2022
ckEpS w
f iG f ydwyf pfrnfjzpfonf/ EsLpGr;f tifae&mwGif jyefvnfjynfNh zdK;jrJ
pGrf;tifrsm;udk tpm;xkd;rnfjzpfonf/
ygupöweftajcpdu
k pf cef;rS tar&duefwyfz0YGJ ifrsm;½kyo
f rd ;f &efneT Mf um; / 0gZD&pöwefNrdKU
awmifbuf? taemufbuf rdkif 350 tuGm? bvlcsDpwefjynfe,f&Sd
qrfpDavwyfpcef;rS tar&duefwyfzJGU0ifrsm;udk ½kyfodrf;&efnTefMum;cJh
aMumif; ygupöwefumuG,fa&;0efBuD;u ajymMum;onf/ ,if;pcef;rS
aeí pDtidk af tonf t,fvaf u;'g;? wmvDbefwYkdukd vlrw
hJ u
kd cf u
dk af &;
av,mOfrsm;jzifh uGyfuJwdkufckdufavh&Sdonf/

ydkifrD'D,muazmfjycJhonf/
w½kw\
f yifv,fu;l wHwm;
onfvuf&u
dS rÇmt
h &Snq
f ;kH yifv,f
ul;wHwm;jzpfonfh tar&duef?
vl 0 D p D ; ,m;em;jynf e,frSLake
Pontchartrain Causeway xuf4 uD
vdrk w
D mydrk &kd n
S v
f sm;onf/ wHwm;
wnfaqmuf&ef a':vm 1 'or

55 bDvsHo;kH pGcJ &Jh NyD; av;ESpfMum
wnfaqmufc&hJ aMumif; wHwm;udk
wdkifaygif; 5200 ausmfjzifh wnf
aqmufxm;aMumif; EdkifiHydkifrD'D
,muazmfjycJo
h nf/ xdw
k w
H m;ay:
wGif wpf&ufvQif um; 30000
ausmjf zwfoef;oGm;vmrnf[ak rQmf
vifx
h m;MuNyD; usiaf wmifEiS hf [Grf
awmifNrdKUMum;oGm;vmcsed u
f kd rdepf
40 txd avQmhcsEdik rf nfjzpfonf/
odYkaomfvnf;þwHwm;onf
urÇmt
h &Snq
f ;kH yifv,fu;l rSww
f rf;
udMk umMumudik pf x
JG m;Edik rf nfr[kwf
ay/ w½kwo
f nfuek x
f w
k v
f yk af &;
A[dck suu
f rG w
f u
kH kd rumtd?k a[mif
aumifwdkYudkcsdwfqufrnfh 31
'or 1 rdkif&Snfww
H m;wpfpif;udk
2009 ckESpfu pwifwnfaqmuf
aeNyD; 2016 ckESpfwGif zGifhvSpf&ef
pDpOfxm;onf/
Ref:BBC

AifeDZJGvm;or®wudk,fxJ&Sd uifqmjzpfaeonfh
tom;ydktusdwfudkz,f&Sm;cJh&
AifeZD v
GJ m;or®w[l*ckd sm;AwfZf
u rdrdukd,fxJwGif uifqmjzpfae
aomtom;ydktusdwfudk q&m0ef
rsm;u z,f&Sm;ay;cJhaMumif; ZGef
30 &uf nydkif;u rdefYcGef;wGif
xnfhoGif;ajymMum;cJhonf/
wifyg;qHk½dk;&Sd jynfwnfem
udkcJGpdwfukoay;cJhNyD;aemuf uif
qmqJvrf sm;ul;pufaeaom jynf
wnfaeonfhtusdwfudk q&m0ef
rsm;uz,f&mS ;ay;cJjh cif;jzpfaMumif;
AifeZD v
GJ m;Ekid if yH ikd o
f wif;Xme VTV
rSwpfqifh csm;AwfZfuajymMum;cJh
jcif;jzpfonf/ csm;AwfZfu uif
qmjzpfaeaomtusdwf rnfonfh
ae&mwGif&Sdonf? rnfonfhtcsdef
wGif Ekid if o
H Ykdjyefvmrnfukd BudKwif
a&;xm;onfh 15 rdepfpm rdefYcGef;
wGif xkwaf zmfajymMum;jcif;r&Sad y/
¤if;\b0wGif usef;rma&;
ud*k ½krpdu
k jf cif;[laom tajccHt
rSm;udu
k sL;vGecf ahJ Mumif; 0efcaH jym
Mum;cJhonf/ vGefcJhaomoDwif;

ywfoHk;ywfcefYu usL;bm;wGif
ta&;ay:cJpG w
d u
f o
k rIjyKvkycf &hJ NyD;
aemuf csm;AwfZfonf ZGef 30
&ufwGif yxrqHk;tBudrfrdefYcGef;
ajymMum;jcif;jzpfonf/ ½kyfoHrS
wpfqifrh ed Yf ceG ;f rMumcPajymavh
&Sdolcsm;AwfZfonf ZGef 10 &uf
aemufydkif;usL;bm;odkYa&mufcJhNyD;
aemufydkif; rajymMum;EdkifcJhay/
csm;AwfZf\usef;rma&;t
ajctaeudt
k aMumif;jyí vmrnfh
oDwif;ywfwGif AifeDZJGvm;EdkifiHü
vufwiftar&duacgif;aqmifrsm;
wufa&mufrnfh xdyfoD;aqG;aEG;
yJGudk zsufodrf;cJhaMumif; ZGef 28
&ufwGif wm0ef&Sdolrsm;u xkwf
jyefaMunmonf/ usL;bm;wGif
aq;ukorIcHae&aom csm;AwfZf
taejzifh jynfyrSaeíEdkifiHudktkyf
csKyf&efrSm tajccHOya'ESifhrnD
aMumif;? 'kw,
d or®wxH tmPm
vJTay;xm;oihfaMumif; twdkuft
cHrsm;u ajymMum;cJo
h nf/Ref:CNN

ZGefv 28 &ufaehu usL;bm;wGif zD',fuwfpx½dkESifUtwl uGefjrLepfygwDtmabmf
owif;pm*&efrm zwfaeonfU csm;AwfZf

ajrmufu&kd ;D ,m;wGif wuúov
kd rf sm;ydwf
ajrmufu&kd ;D ,m;u wuúov
kd f
ausmif;om;rsm;udk pmoifEpS f wpf
ESpfqdkif;iHhxm;&ef ajymMum;xm;
aMumif; ajrmufu&kd ;D ,m;qdik &f m NAd
wdeo
f t
H rwfBu;D uajymMum;cJo
h nf/
NyKH,rf;tpdk;&xHrS w&m;0if
aMunmcsufrxGufay:ao;aomf
vnf; NrdKUawmf&w
dS uúov
kd af usmif;

om;rsm;onf 2012 ckESpf {NyDv
txd teD;0ef;usif&Sd aqmufvkyf
a&;vkyif ef;cGirf sm;wGif vkyu
f ikd Mf u
&efpkpnf;aeMuonf[k oHtrwf
BuD;yDwm[ku ajymMum;cJhonf/
tdrf&m rvkHavmufrIudkavsmhus
ap&eftwGuf NyKH,rf;wGif tdrcf ef;
200000 wnfaqmufoGm;rnf[k

NyD;cJhonfhESpfESpfwGif ajrmufudk&D;
,m;uaMunmcJo
h nf/ ]]tcktcsed f
xdtcef; 10000 avmufyaJ qmuf
&ao;w,f/ 2012ckESpfrSm uiftD
qGe;f ESp(f 100)jynfh arG;aeY rusif;
yrD aqmufvyk af &;vkyif ef;awG t
&Sdefjr§ifhzdkY wuúodkvfausmif;awG
em;xm;&ygw,f}}[k¤if;uqdo
k nf/

vmrnfhESpfrwdkifrDtxd bGJU
,lrnft
h BuD;wef;rsm;ESihf Ekid if jH cm;
ausmif;om;rsm;twGuf twef;
rsm;rSví
JG twef;tm;vk;H ydwx
f m;
&ef ajrmufu&kd ;D ,m;acgif;aqmif
ydik ;f u ajymMum;xm;aMumif; usK'd kd
owif;at*sifpDu azmfjycJhonf/
Ref: Reuters

rufAD'ufESifhuif*sKHtDvf½k&Sm;wGifawG&Y eftpDtpOf rD'D,mrsm;wGifaygufMum;rIaMumihf ysufjym;cJh
½k & S m ;or® w ruf A D ' uf E S i f h
ajrmufu&kd ;D ,m;acgif;aqmif uif
*sKt
H v
D w
f Ydkonf½&k mS ;ta&SUzsm;qdyf
urf;NrdKU Avm'DaAmhpawmh qifajc
zH;k &S{d nhaf *[mwpfcük ZGef 30 &uf
aeYwiG f yxrqH;k tBudraf wGUqH&k ef
pDpOfxm;aMumif; owif;ayguf

Mum;um rD'D,mrsm;wGifazmfjycJh
MuNyD;aemuftpDtpOfysufoGM;cJh
aMumif;od&onf/
rufAD'ufonf vmrnfhESpf
atyufxdyfoD;aqG;aEG;yGJtwGuf
,if;NrdKUwGif jyifqifaerIrsm;udk
Munhf½I&efom oGm;a&mufpOfwGif

uif*sKHtDvfuvmawGYvdkjcif;jzpf
NyD;rD'D,mrsm;wGifaygufMum;oGm;
aomaMumihfysufcJh&onf[k½k&Sm;
owif;&if;jrpfrsm;uazmfjyonf/
uif*sHKtDvfonf ½k&Sm;okdY
txl;&xm;jzihf vma&mufrnfjzpf
NyD; rufA'D ufEiS afh wGYqNkH yD;onfEiS fh

csufcsif;jyefzG,f&Sdonf[k awmif
udk&D;,m;?*syef?½k&Sm;rD'D,mrsm;
uazmfjycJhMuNyD;aemuf uifu olY
vkjH cHK a&;twGupf ;kd &drjf cif; aMumihf
pdwaf jymif;oGm;jcif;jzpf Ekid af Mumif;
owif;rsm;uazmfjyonf/
Ref:AFP

awmifudk&D;,m;wGif qdkufbmppfqifa&;ausmif;wpfck zGifUvSpfrnf
ajrmufudk&D;,m;EdkifiHrS tif
wmeufwdkufcdkufrIrsm; jrifhwuf
vmrI u d k umuG , f & ef t wG u f
awmifudk&D;,m;ppfwyfu qdkuf
bmppfqifa&;ausmif;udk 2012
ckEpS w
f iG zf iG v
hf pS o
f mG ;rnfjzpfaMumif;
wm0ef&o
dS w
l pfO;D uajymMum;onf/
qdu
k b
f mppfqifa&;ausmif;\ pm
oifESpfrSmav;ESpfjzpfNyD; wpfESpf
vQif ausmif;om; 30 vufcHoGm;
rnfjzpfonf/

oif½dk;rsm;wGif tEÅ&m,fjyK
onft
h ifwmeufoauFw0Surf sm;
udk csKd;azmufenf;? qdkufbmppf
qifa&;twGuf pdwfydkif;qdkif&m
jyifqif&ef enf;vrf;ESihf qdu
k b
f m
wdkufcdkufvmEdkifrIrsm;udkumuG,f
&eftwGuf tjcm; IT enf;ynm
rsm;yg yg0ifrnfjzpfaMumif; ppf
wyfrS ajyma&;qdkcGifh&SdolwpfOD;u
ajymMum;cJhonf/
qdu
k b
f m ppfqifa&;ausmif;

wGifwufa&mufrnfh ausmif;om;
rsm;twGuf ausmif;vcudk awmif
udk&D;,m;ppfwyfu ay;oGm;rnf
jzpfNyD; tqdkygausmif;om;rsm;
onfteG v
f ikd ;f ppfqifa&;ESihf quf
pyfonfw
h yfzUJG wGif ckepfEpS w
f m0ef
xrf;aqmif&efvt
kd yfaMumif; ajym
a&;qdck iG &hf o
dS w
l pfO;D u ajymonf/
ajrmuf u d k & D ; ,m;Ed k i f i H u
vufa&G;pif[ufumrsm; jyKpkysKd;
axmifxm;onfqdkonfh owif;

xkwfjyefrIonf awmifudk&D;,m;
twGuf ,if;uJhokdYvkyfaqmif&ef
aphaqmfrIjzpfcJhonf/
ajrmuf u d k & D ; ,m;ppf b uf
axmufvSrf;a&;tzGJUonf awmif
ud&k ;D ,m;tBuD;qH;k bPf wpfcu
k kd
arvtwGi;f qdu
k b
f mwdu
k cf u
kd rf I
jyKvkyfcJhonf[k awmifudk&D;,m;
tpdk;&a&SUaersm;u ajymMum;cJh
onf/
Ref: AFP

21

opinion
vpf A sm;Ek d i f i H a &;ES i f h y wf
oufí tqkd;rsm;omjzpfvmvdrfh
rnf[k a[mudef;xkwfolrsm;\
toHyu
dk s,af vmifvmvsu&f o
dS nf/
vpfAsm;EkdifiHwGif jzpfyGm;aeaom
rwnfNidrrf rI sm;onf taemufEidk if H
rsm;ukd rnfokdYrQ rxdcdkuf? olwkdY
ESifh bmrQrywfouf/ þt&yfukd
olwYkdwpfawGonf pdw0f ifpm;jcif;
r&SdMu[k ,if;yk*¾dKvfrsm;u ajym
Mum;Muonf/ tar&duefuvnf;
vpfAsm;ta&;ukd pdw0f ifpm;rIenf;
NyD; ywfoufrrI &Sv
d aS wmh/ or®w
tkdbm;rm;onf uGef*&ufvTwf
awmfwGif vpfAsm;ta&;ü t"du
ae&mrS yg0ifcrhJ aI y:jypfwifpum;
tajymcH&onf/ wu,fwrf;us
awmhO;D aqmifwu
dk cf u
dk af eonfu
aewkd;wyfzGJUrsm;jzpfonf/ NAdwdef
ESifh jyifopfAkdvfcsKyfrsm;uawmh
vpfAsm;ta&;wGif MuHKawGU&aom
0efxkyf0efykd;rsm;ukd rdrdwdkYomcg;
pnf;cHae&onf/ u'gzD &mxl;rS
y,fcscH&a&;udk rdrdwdkYwyfzGJUrsm;
u tifwdkuftm;wdkufBudK;yrf;ae
Mu&ojzif0h efxyk 0f efy;kd ydNyD; zdtm;
awGcaH eMu&onf[k axmufjyMu
onf/ yifv,fauGUrS tm&yfawG
uawmh u'gzDqefYusifa&;olykef
wyfzGJUrsm;udk aiGaMu;axmufyHhrI
awGu&kd yfwefYypfcsiaf eNy[
D q
k o
kd nf/
vpfAsm;ta&;ESihf ywfoufNyD;
tqdk;rjrifonfh yk*dv
¾ frsm;tav;
teufxm;íaxmufjyonft
h csuf
wpfcsufvnf;&Sdjyefonf/ &uf
owfrw
S x
f m;jcif;r&Sad om ppfqif
a&;? vpfAsm;rS jyefvnfqkwfcGm
rnf&h ufowfrw
S x
f m;jcif;r&Sad om
ppfqifa&;[líjzpfonf/ olykef
wyfzUJG rsm;onf t&nftcsif;jynfh
rDjcif;r&Sdolrsm; &Sdaeaomfvnf;
tu,fí olwdkYvufwGif yg0g
a&muf&Sdvmrnfqdkygu vpfAsm;
wyfzGJUrsm;xufawmh ydkínifom

jznf;jznf;rSefrSef ajcvSrf;jzifh tem*wfukd avQmufvSrf;jcif;
jr wf o pf

pGmvkyfaqmifrIrsm;&Sdrnfomjzpf
onf/ olykefwyfzGJU0ifrsm; u'gzD
qefYusiaf &;udk jyKvkyv
f mMuonf
rSm 'Drdkua&pDa&;twGufr[kwf/
vlrsKd;pkrsm; u'gzDqefYusifa&;udk
jyKvyk v
f mMuonfrmS 'Dru
kd a&pDa&;
twGuf r[kwf/ vlrsKd;pkta&;
twGufjzpfonf/ u'gzDuvnf;
vlrsKd;pkwcsKdUonf rdrdbufrS &yf
wnfvdrfhrnf[k ,lqxm;onf/
aewd;k wyfzUJG 0ifrsm; taejzifh
vnf; vpfAsm;EdkifiHwGif vuf&Sd
jzpfay:aeonfhtjzpftysufrsm;
udkMunfhNyD; u'gzDtpdk;&jyKwfus
a&;rS m vuf i if ; csuf j cif ; vk y f
aqmifr&aMumif; owdjyKrdonf/
wdkufyGJrsm;aMumifh t&yfom;rsm;
aoqHk;&jcif;? t&yfom;rsm;udk
owfjzwfjcif;onf &mZ0wfru
I sL;
vGefaejcif;jzpfNyD; ukvvHkNcHKa&;

uyfbDqHk;jzwfcsuf 1973 udkcsKd;
azmufjcif;jzpfaMumif; ajymqdkMu
onf/ twdkcsKyfqdk&vQif vpfAsm;
ta&;onf xdwfvefYzG,faumif;
aom? uaomif;ueif;jzpfaom
tajctaerSm&Sad eqJ/ vGwaf jrmuf
a&;vrf;pr&Sdao;/
tqdk;jrift,ltq&Sdolrsm;
onf vpfAsm;EdkifiHü jzpfay:ae
aom yx0Dtajctaeudk yHkysuf
yef;ysujf zpfatmifvyk x
f m;Muonf/
vpfAsm;Edik if \
H ppfa&;ESiEhf ikd if aH &;
taetxm;rSmrwd;k omrqkwo
f m
taetxm;rSmr&Sd/ u'gzDqefY
usiaf &;udrk eS u
f efaomvrf;aMumif;
ay:wGif avQmufvSrf;vkyfaqmif
vsuf&Sdonf/ u'gzD\ydkifeuf
e,fajronf usKHU0ifvsuf&o
dS nf/
olyikd q
f ikd x
f m;onfah &eHawGvnf;
ukefcrf;pjyKNyD/ vpfAsm;ppfwyfrS

vpfAsm;wGif vlrsK;d pk jyóemonf ta&;ygaomfvnf; jynfol
trsm;pkonf vGwv
f yfru
I rkd w
G o
f yd af eMuonf/ nDnw
G rf u
I kd &,lae
vku
d o
f nf/ olwo
hkd nf vGwv
f yfrEI iS Uf nDnw
G rf t
I momqE´ukd b,f
awmUrS pGefhvTwfMurnf r[kwfawmUay
xGuaf jy;aomwyfajy;ta&twGuf
vnf;rsm;vmonf/ olMoZmtm
Pmusqif;vmovdk vpfAsm;ydkif
eufwGif aexdkif&rnfhaeY&ufawG
vnf; bmrS rusefawmh/ urÇm
ajrjyifay:rSpGefYcGm&rnfhaeY&ufu
vnf; ukefcrf;pjyKNyD/ vpfAsm;ppf
wyfrSxGufajy;um wyfajy;ta&
twGufvnf; rsm;onfxufrsm;
vmonf/ olMoZmtmPmusqif;
vmovdk vpfAsm;ydkifeufwGif ae
xdik &f rnfah eY&ufawGuvnf;owf
rSwfpNyD/ olykefawGuawmh rsKd;pHk

aeNyD; olwYkd wpfawGonf NrdKUawmf
x&Dyv
kd &D t
dS pd;k &qefYusiaf &;orm;
awGESifhyl;aygif;aeMuNyD/
vpfAsm;wGiv
f rl sKd;pkjyó em
onfta&;ygaomfvnf; jynfol
trsm;pkonf vGwfvyfrIudk rGwf
odyfaeMuonf/nDnGwfrIudk&,l
aevkdufonf/ olwdkYonf vGwf
vyfrIESifhnDnGwfrItmomqE´udk
b,fawmhrSpGefYvTwfMurnf r
[kwaf wmhay/aewd;k wyf zGUJ 0ifrsm;
uvnf; ppfqifa&;jyK vky&f mwGif
t&yfbufypfrw
S rf sm; udk wwfEikd f

orQa&S m if u G i f ; NyD ; ypf c wf M u
onf/ odkYayr,fh uHr aumif;
taMumif;rvSyJt&yfom; wcsKdU
usnfoifhaoqHk;cJh&wmawG &Sdae
onf/
vpfAsm;EdkifiHawmf tem*wf
udk vpfAsm;jynfolrsm;uyJ rsKd;aph
cs&rnf/ xGe,
f ufMu&rnf/ u'g
zDudk csufcsif;z,f&Sm;zdkYqdkwmu
awmhjyify\tultnDr,lír&/
ukvuvnf;vpfAsm;wGifjzpfay:
aeonfh wdkufcdkufrIrsm;csufcsif;
&yfpJa&;twGuf apmifhMunfhxdef;
uGyfa&;tzGJUwpfzGJU0ifawGyg0if&
rnf/ aemufydkif;wGif EdkifiHpHkyg0if
um Nidr;f csr;f a&;wyfzUJG rsm;u vpf
Asm;EdkifiH\vHkjcHKa&;yg wm0ef,l
apmifhMunfh&rnf/
vpfAsm;EdkifiHESifhywfoufí
taemufurÇmuwdu
k yf rJG sm;jzpfay:
aejcif;udrk ESpo
f ufMu/ tu,fí
u'gzDae&mwGif El;nHhodrfarGU
aom? ,Ofaus;ysLiSmaom tpdk;&
tzGUJ wpf&yfay:xGe;f vmcJNh yD;acwf
opfvYltzGUJ pnf;wpf&yfux
kd al xmif
vdkaom tiftm;wpf&yf&Sdvma&;
udkomvdkvm;aeonf/ tm&yf
urÇmwGiv
f nf; Edik if aH &;ESihf pD;yGm;
a&;jyKjyifrIrsm;jzpfay:vma&;udk
omvQif taemufurÇmrS vdkvm;
onf/vpfAsm;ta&;onf ,ckt
wdkif;omquf&Sdaernfqdkygu t
aemufEikd if rH sm;u ppfa&;vIy&f mS ;rI
rsm;ydkrdkvkyfzG,f&Sdonf/ olykefrsm;
udkvnf; ydkrdktm;ay;rIjyKvkyfrnf/
wpfcsed x
f rJ mS yJ u'gzD&mxl;rS z,f
&Sm;a&;udk vkyfaqmifrnfomjzpf
onf/
vpfAsm;ta&;onf tcsdef
wef&ifawmh NyD;qHk;oGm;ayvdrfh
rnf/ urÇmBuD;uawmh tqifw
h pf
qifah jymif;vJ&ef toif&h adS eonf/
Ref:Keep Calm,Keep going;The
Economist

w½kw(f wdik af y)or®wa[mif; vDwefa[G; jcpm;rIpyG pf cJG suEf iS &Uf ifqikd af e&
w½kw(f wdik af y)or®wa[mif; vDwefa[G;onf Edik if aH wmfaiGa':vm
7 'or 7oef;udk tvGJoHk;pm;vkyfcJhaMumif;pGyfpGJcHae&onf/ 1998
ckEpS rf S 2000 jynfEh pS t
f xd or®wjzpfcahJ om vDwefa[G;onf xdu
k mv
twGi;f vQKUd 0Suo
f w
H ref&efyakH iGrS aiGaMu;rsm;ud&k ,lcahJ Mumif; pGypf cJG aH e&
onf/ touf 88 ESpf&SdNyDjzpfonfh vDwefa[G;onf yk*v
¾ dutwdkifyif
cHtzGJU wnfaxmif&eftrsKd;om;vHkjcHKa&;AsL½dk&efyHkaiGxJrS aiGaMu;rsm;udk
&,lcJhaMumif; tpdk;&a&SUaersm;uajymMum;cJhonf/ w½kwf(wdkifay)wGif
yxrqH;k a&G;cs,w
f ifajrmufc&H aom vDwefa[G;onf jcpm;rIpyG pf cJG sujf zifh
&ifqdkif&aom 'kwd,ajrmufw½kwf(wdkifay) or®wa[mif;jzpfonf/
vDwefa[G;udq
k ufccH o
hJ nfh or®wa[mif; cseaf &TjAef;onfvnf; jcpm;rI
jzifh axmif'Pf 17 ESpfuscHae&onf/
Ref:AFP

Page 22
(1)
wpfzufurf;odYk ul;Murnf/
yk*H-acsmufrSonf taemf&
xmwHwm;jzwfum {&m0wDjrpf
wpfzufurf;odYk uRefawmfwYkd tzGUJ
ul;Murnf/ rEÅav;rSpma&;q&m
ESpfOD;udk pvif;NrdKUodkY vdkufydkY&ef
jzpfonf/ &efukefrS pma&;q&m
ESpfOD;udkrl &efukefjyef&ef usef
tzGJUu pDpOfaqmif&GufMurnf/
&ef u k e f - rEÅ a v;rS p ma&;
q&mrsm;yifzh w
d í
f uReaf wmfwYkdNrdKU
wGif pmaya[majymyGJav;usif;y
jzpfcJhMuonf/ NrdKUol? NrdKUom;rsm;
umvtwefMumiHv
h ifah ecJMh uonfh
pmaya[majymyGJum;atmifjrifpGm
usif;yNyD;pD;oGm;cJhNyD/ taMumifh
oifhcsifawmh ESpfyGJqufwdkufyif
usif;yjzpfoGm;onf/ yxryGJrSm
aZw0efbkef;awmfBuD; oifynm
a&;ausmif;\pmMunfhwkdufzGifhyGJ
txdrf;trSwfusif;yjzpfaomyGJ/
'kw,
d yGrJ mS jrifjh rwfoal pwemaoG;
vSL&SifESifh vlemwif,mOfulnDrI
toif;(10)ESpfjynfhtxdrf;trSwf
usif;yaomyGJ/
pmaya[majymyG J u sif ; ycJ h
aom nrsm;\ jrifuGif;rsm;onf
,cktcsdefxdtm½kHxJwGifraysmuf
jy,fao;/ NrdKUwGif emrnfausmf
acwfay:aw;*DwtzGJUvma&muf
wD;cwfazsmfajzpOfu 0kef;'dkif;BuJ?
pnf;vGwf0g;vGwftm;ay;cJhMu
aomvli,frsm;onfyifpmaya[m
ajymyGJa&SUwGif wrlxl;vsufodrf
arGUEl;nHhpGmrSwfom;em,laeonf
udk awGUjrifcJh&onfhtcg---rdwfaqGwpfOD;ajymouJhodkY ]]vl
i,fawGpdwf,Ofaus;rIzGHUNzdK;zdkY}}
'DvdkyGJawG a&SUqufvdktyfaeOD;rSm
ygvm;awG;rdonf/
(2)
pma&;q&mtzGJUESifh taemf&
xmwHwm;BuD;a&SUtrSww
f &"mwf
ykH½dkufrnfhjyKaomtcg rvSrf;r
urf;*dwt
f wGi;f rSvNHk cKHa&;uvSr;f
wm;onf/ tusKd;taMumif;oGm;
a&muf&Sif;jyaomtcgrS "mwfykH
½du
k cf iG jhf yKonf/ xdYkaemuf{&m0wD
jrpfBuD;ay:rS jzwfMuonf/ jrpf
jyifut
kd vsm;vdu
k jf zwfíwdu
k cf wf
vmaomavonf uRefawmfwdkY
tzGUJ pD;vmaomum;twGi;f odYk wd;k
vQdK;0ifa&mufvmonf/ vwf
qwfaomavaMumifh uReaf wmfwYkd
tm;vk;H at;jrvef;qef;oGm;onf/
qdyfjzLudk jzwfonf/ vrf;cGJwpf
zufwGif csif;jynfe,f? ewfr

{&mtaemufjcrf;ysKd;cif;a'owpfck\
twdwf? ypöKyÜefESifU tem*wfrsm;
udak emf(yk*)H
awmifodkY oGm;vmvrf;&Sdonf/
qdyfjzLNrdKU\ jrifuGif;rsm;
onf usef&pfcJhaomwpfzufurf;
&SdacsmufNrdKUuJhodkY NrdKUjyrqefaomf
vnf; aoGUajcmufíum;rae/
pdr;f pdr;f pdpk ?kd ndKUndKUrIid ;f rIid ;f ? us,f
us,f0ef;0ef;ESifh qGwfysHUzG,f&m
{uefyif/v,fuiG ;f ? ,muGi;f awG
udk jrifawGU&onf/ refusnf;?
wrm? ukuKdú opfyifBu;D rsm;uvnf;
pdkpdkjynfjynfzGHUzGHUxGm;xGm;/
{&m0wDjrpfbufrS wdu
k cf wf
vmaomavud½k ½I u
dI &f if;owdxm;
rdonfrSm rwlaomvrf;okH;vrf;
tNydKifjzpfaejcif;yif/ um;vrf;\
0JbufwGif {&m0wDjrpfa&,mOf
aMum? ,mbufwGifyckuúL-BuH
cif;rD;&xm;vrf;/ a&vrf;? um;
vrf;? rD;&xm;vrf;ok;H vrf;tNydKi/f
uReaf wmfwYkdum;av;rSm csKd ifh
rsm;? usif;rsm;udka&Smifwdrf;&if;----? oJacsmif;rsm;udpk w
d &f n
S pf mG
jzwfoef;&if;-----? &Hzef&Hcg
vrf;ab;vSnf;vrf;ay:udkusL;
ausmfarmif;ESif&if;----pma&;
q&mwdkY\ pmaypum;Mum;em
vsufvwfqwfaom av? oif;
ysHUaom pyg;oif;&eHYwdkYudk½I½SdKuf
vsu-f --? EGm;a&Tet
D yk w
f Ykdukd a&Smif
uGi;f vsu-f -------? pdr;f ndKUndKU
v,fuGif;rsm;qDrS v,folrav;
rsm;\ usDp,faemufajymif&,f

armoHwdkYudk em;pGifhvsufc&D;ESif
cJhMu\/
]]om;cspf usyif;? orD;cspf
pvif;qdkNyD; a&S;u'De,fawGudk
bk&ifutydkifpm;ay;Muw,f}}
wanmifudkvGefí em&D0uf
ausmfc&D;ESifNyD;aomtcg usyif;
odYk a&mufonf/ yk*aH cwftavmif;
pnfolrif; wnfxm;aumif;rIjyK
aom &SifyifazmifawmfOD;bk&m;udk

½kyfwkBuD;ESpfck&Sdonf/ odMum;½kyf
wk&adS om apmif;wef;udEk ,
G w
f r,f
odMum;apmif;wef;[ktrnfemr
wyfxm;onf/ ydkía&S;Muaom
apmif;wef;vnf;jzpfonf/
qifjzLuRe;f NrdKUav;odYkpvif;
acsmif;(ac:)EG,fwr,facsmif;wH
wm;onf vSvyS yav;OD;wdu
k 0f if
a&mufoGm;onfhES,f--/ EG,fw
r,facsmif;onftrnfav;ESiv
hf u
kd f

{&m0wDjrpfbufrS wdkufcwfvmaomavudk ½SL½Iduf&if;
owdxm;rdonfrmS rwlaomvrf;ok;H vrf;tNyKd ijf zpfaejcif;yif/
um;vrf;\ 0JbufwGif {&m0wDjrpfa&,mOfaMum? ,mbuf
wGif yckuúL-BuHcif;rD;&xm;vrf;/ a&vrf;? um;vrf;? rD;
&xm;vrf; okH;vrf;tNydKif . . .
ukef;awmfay:wGifMunfndKzG,fzl;
awGU&\/ ukef;abmifajc&if;0,f
eDapG;apG;tkwaf vSum;ysuw
f pfcrk mS
yk*Hacwfvuf&mjzpf[efwlonf/
uav;i,fo;Hk av;OD; xdak vSum;
twkdif;wufoGm;Muonf/ uRef
awmfwYku
d m;&yfíacwåem;Muonf/
ukef;awmfay:wuf&ef ,ckacwf
vuf&mapmif;wef;BuD;ESpcf u
k ,
kd OS f
wGJvsufawGU&onf/ wpfpif;\
rkcOf ;D wGijf caoFBh uD;ESpaf umif&NdS yD;?
usefwpfpif;\ rkcOf ;D wGif odMum;

atmifomom,m,m&SdvSonf/
us,v
f nf;us,jf yefYonf/ a&vGwf
aomae&mrsm;wGif pdu
k cf if;rsm;u
pdr;f pdr;f pdpk adk 0a0qmqm/uReaf wmf
wdYka'orsm;twGurf ;D zdak csmif&u
d m©
rsKd ;pku
H kd jznfw
h if;ay;&mO,smOfBuD;
vnf;jzpfonf/ wpfzufwiG f oJyHk
apwDav;wpfqv
l nf;zl;awGU&\/
qdyjf zLESihf qifjzLuRe;f onf 23 rdik f
ESpf zmvkHrQa0;NyD;? qifjzLuRef;
ESifhpvif;rSm ckESpfrkdifrQoma0;
aMumif; od&onf/
wu,fawmhy*k EH iS hf þa'o
onfvnf;ajrjyifyx0Dtaetxm;
t&jzpfap? orkdif;aMumif;wnf&Sd
ykt
H &jzpfapEG,q
f ufvsu&f cdS o
hJ nf/
(3)
a&S;OD;jrefrmwdkYonf EdkifiHxl
axmif&mü pdkufysdK;a&;xGef;um;
aom? pm;a&&du©mayg<u,faom
ausmufqnf(11)c½dik Ef iS hf rif;bl;
(6)c½dik w
f Ykd uckd sKyfuikd Ef idk &f ef a'o
ESpfckMum;&SdtcsuftcsmMuaom
yk*aH 'oudk tajccscMhJ uonf/ ul;
oef;a&mif;0,fa&;twGuf {&m
0wDjrpfBuD;onf t"duvrf;rBuD;
jzpfco
hJ nf/ orkid ;f q&mwdYk \ rSwf
wrf;rsm;t& ausmufqnf(11)
c½dkifwGif yifv,f? jynfrem;? jrpf

om;? &ikef? jrif;ckefwdkif? yeef?
wrkw?f oifawmif? ru©&m? wjyuf
om? cHrSL ponfha'orsm;yg0if
NyD;? rif;bl;ajcmufc½dkifwGif puk?
ryifp&? usufoudkif? ,yaum?
pvif;? atmhvdkifa'owdkY yg0if
onf/qdk&vQif yk*HvufeufEdkifiH
awmfBuD;t"GefY&SnfpGmwnfwHhckdif
NrJa&;? wpfrsdK;om;vkH;pnf;vkH;
nDnGwfpGmjzifh EdkifiHwpfEdkifiHxl
axmifa&;wdYkwiG f þa'oawGonf
t"dujyKpkysKd;axmifay;&mysKd;cif;
a'orsm;yifjzpfonf[k wifpm;
cJhMuonf/
]]uReaf wmfwYkdomG ;aewJh vrf;
[m a&S;uNrdKU½dk;a[mif;BuD;ae
&maygh}}qdkaomtcg uRefawmf
MuufoD;jzef;jzef;xoGm;cJhonf/
Mumyef;&eHYawGxo
Hk if;vIid af eaom
a&uefBuD;ud½k w
k w
f &ufawGUvdu
k f
&\/0ufonf; uef[ak c:aMumif;
od&onf/ acG;jzLrudk MumykwD;
awGay;cJzh ;l aMumif;oDcsi;f a&;zGUJ cJo
h l
udkaX;Munf(pvif;)onf þ0uf
onf;uefBuD;eHab;wGif a&;zGJUoD
ukH;cJhykH&onf/ pvif;a'oonf
tEkynmyef;aygif;pkHzl;yGifh&majr
vnf;jzpf\/
]]pvif;yef;yk? pukyef;csD}}
emrnfausmfajrmufav;pOf
opfom;½kypf aHk usmif;awmfBuD;um;
crf;em;wdwfqdwfpGm/ rif;wkef;
rif;vufxufpvif;NrdKUrSoal umif;
rsK;d ½d;k tvSLU'g,dumra':ykaqmuf
vkyfvSL'gef;cJhaMumif; od&onf/
vuf&majrmufaom yef;ykvuf
&mwpfckjzpfrnfqdkí ausmif;BuD;
atmufrSoGm;onfhtcg? {&mr
opfyifBuD;wpfyif½kyfpkHausmif;
awmfBuD;ESifh xdvkxdcifvJusae
onfudkawGU&onf/ vGefcJhonfh
ESpf *D&drkefwkdif;0ifa&mufpOfu
vJuscjhJ cif;[k od&onf/ qifjzL
uRe;f ? pvif;vrf;wpfavQmuf *D&d
rkew
f idk ;f aMumifv
h u
J scahJ om opfyif
BuD;rsm;udk twkH;t½kH;jrifawGUcJh&
onf/ ½kyfpkHausmif;teD; vJusae
aom opfyifBuD;om 'D*&Dtenf;
i,fwrd ;f apmif;uscJyh gvQif pvif;

NrdKU\ a&S;a[mif;,Ofaus;rItarG
tES p f ½ k y f p k H a usmif ; awmf B uD ; \
tvSuReaf wmf,ckvjkd rifawGUcHpm;
Edkifrnfr[kwfyg---/
]]t&ifuuRefawmfwdkYNrdKUrSm
½kpH aHk usmif;BuD;ckepfausmif;avmuf
&Sdw,f/ ckawmh'DwpfckyJusefawmh
w,f/ tcsdef &&ifAv
kd Of wÅrcHwyf
ausmif;vdkufjyr,f}
(4)
oDaygrif;ygawmfrNl yD;aemuf
rif;bl;c½dik t
f wGi;f NAdwo
d Quv
kd ekd D
e,fcsUJ rsm;aoG;ysu&f avmufatmif
awmfvSefykefuefcJholrsdK;cspfol&J
aumif;ESpOf ;D &So
d nf/ Adv
k &f EJT iS Ahf v
kd f
OwårwdkYjzpfonf/ AdkvfOwårESifh
pyfvsOf;í aumfr&Sief mrif;BuD;Sir
Charles Crosthwaite u ¤if;\
]]ArmEdkifiHawmfudk ESdrfeif;&jcif;
taMumif;}}pmtkyfwGif atmuf
ygtwkdif;a&;om;xm;cJhonf/
]]'kwd,vlrSm AdkvfOwÅrjzpf
NyD; NAdwo
d QwdYk tm;&G&H mS rke;f wD;pdwf
txl;xm;um oJoJrJrJjzifhckcHae
olrsm;pGmwGif wpfa,muftygt
0ifjzpfonf/ vufatmufi,f
om;rsm;udkvnf; xkdpdwf"mwfrsdK;
oGi;f ay;Edik Nf yD; rif;bl;'dpBwdw\
f
teD;wpf0u
kd Ef iS ahf jrmufbufa'o
wpfavQmufudk taESmihft,Suf
ay;aeonf/ uREfkyfwdkYwyfrsm;\
wdkufcdkufrIaMumifh AdkvfOwÅrwdkY
vlodkufonf rMumcPvlpkuGJ&
onf/ odkY&mwGifcsufcsif;qdkovdk
yif jyefvnfpkpnf;jrJpkpnf;vm
jyefonf/ olESifh Adkvf&TJwdkYonf
tjrJwapvufwv
JG yk af qmifMuo
jzifhvnf; wkdif;jynfudk BuD;pdk;rif;
rlEdkifMujcif;jzpfonf/}} (AdkvfrSL;
baomif;\ArmhawmfveS af &;orkid ;f )
pvif;e,frS e,fcsJUNAdwdoQ
wdkYtm; awmfvSefykefuefcJh&mwGif
wrmacsmif;wdkufyGJ? a&Twefqm
wdkufyGJ? rusD;awmwdkufyGJ? &Sifyif
csrf;omBuD;wdkufyGJ? "mwfawmf
acsmif;wdkufyGJ? azmif;vif;&Gmjrpf
½dk;wdkufyGJ? qifjzLuRef;NrdKUv,f
wdu
k yf rJG sm;onf,cktcsed x
f pd vif;
om;wdkYyg;pyfzsm;wGif *kPf,l0Hh
<um;pGm ajymqdak eMuqJjzpfonf/
Ad k v f O wÅ r \ &G y f & G y f c RH c RH
awmfveS w
f u
kd cf u
kd cf rhJ al Mumifh NAdwd
oQbufrS uyÜwdeftufuifqif
tygt0ift&m&SdokH;OD; usqkH;cJh
onf/ a'ocHjzpfol udb
k Munfu
rlojl zwfoef;od&cdS o
hJ rQAdv
k Of wÅr
cHwyfausmif;BuD;taMumif; rjcGi;f
rcsef&Sif;jyaeonf/ uRefawmf\
uifr&monf AdkvfOwÅrcHwyf\
yk&H yd u
f ykd jD yifatmif azmfjyEdik pf rG ;f r
&Sdawmh? usvkae\ arSmif&dyf
wcsKd U0ef;usiw
f pf0u
kd &f aD 0&pfoef;
vmaomaMumifh-----/
(5)
odyÜHarmif0\ wpfcsufckwf
ok;H csujf ywfaom tnmbk&m;yGu
J kd
pvif;NrdKUol^NrdKUom;wdYktpOftvm
twdkif;usif;ycJhykH&onf/ uRef
awmfwdkYtzGJUa&mufaomaeYwGif
yGJaps;rSmodrf;vkNyD/ odyÜHarmif0
onf ,ckyGJawmfBuD;taMumif;
a&;om;&mwGif bk&m;vnf;zl;&?
aysmfvnf;aysmf&? aps;vnf;0,f
&rdYk wpfcsufcw
k o
f ;Hk csufjywfaom
pmrsufESm(26)odkh

Page 23
ausmif;om;acgif;aqmif udkatmifqef;
2011ck Zlvdkifv(19)&uf
tmZmenfaeU
]]ESpv
f &moD--tcg&moDa&GU
ayr,fh tmZmenfaeYudkjzifh--r
arhoifhygNyD}} all india a&'D,dkrS
arvSNrdKif\ aw;oDcsif;wpfydkif;
wpfpudMk um;vdu
k &f onf/ Adv
k cf sKyf
wdYkusq;kH csed u
f uReaf wmfrmS ajcmuf
ESp?f ckepfEpS o
f m;t&G,af &mufaeyg
NyD/ &GmwGiv
f Bl uD;rdbrsm;ESi&hf [ef;
oHCmrsm;rsuf&nfpufvufjzpf
aeyHkudk ,cktESpf 60 ausmfvm
onfw
h ikd f jyefvnfjrifa,mifaeyg
onf/ odkYtwGufWeekly Eleven
rSwpfqifhjynfolwdkYwifjy&ef þ
aqmif;yg;udak &;&jcif;jzpfayonf/
Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk 1276
ck waygif;vqef; 1 &uf (132-1915)aeYwGif rauG;c½dkif ewf
armufNrdKU a&SUaeBuD;OD;zm? a':pkwYkd
u arG;zGm;cJhonf/ Zmwmtrnf
(armifxdefvif;)jzpfNyD; olYtpfudk
OD;atmifoef;trnfESifhvdkufzuf
atmif (atmifqef;)[kyifac:cJMh u
onf/ Adv
k cf sKyfrmS rif;wke;f rif;BuD;
\trwfwpfO;D jzpfaom crf;ywf
rif;BuD; ESifhorm;awmfOD;ausmfZH?
awmifwiG ;f &Sit
f *¾orm"dwYkd\ rsK;d
qufjzpfaMumif; od&onf/
NAdwo
d QwYkdtm; vufeufuikd f
awmfvSefcJhaom OD;rif;a&mif (c)
Adkvfva&mifrSm AdkvfcsKyfESifhtzdk;
av;awmfonf/ AdkvfcsKyfrSmi,f
pOfuyif r[kwfrcH? rrSefwmr
vky/f wpfO;D wnf; ilww
l pl Of;pm;ae
wwfoljzpfonf/ ckepfESpfom;t
&G,f ewfarmufNrdKU OD;aombdwxH
pmoif&m 12 ESpfom;wGif av;
wef;atmifonf/ xdkYaemuf a&eH
acsmif; t.x.u odkY ajymif;íoif
Mum;onf/ wpfEdkifiHvHk;&Sd Ak'¨bm
omausmif;rsm;wGif yxrpGJojzifh
q&mBuD;OD;a&Tcdkifu a&TwHqdyfqk
ay;cJhonf/
AkdvfcsKyf 8 wef;a&mufaom
tcg zcifOD;zmuG,fvGef&Smonf/
1932 ckESpfwGif 10 wef;atmif
ojzifh &efuek w
f uúov
kd o
f YkdwufchJ
onf/ t*Fvdyfpm? orkdif; History ESihf Political Science bmom
bGJUudk&,lonf/ wpfESpfwpfwef;
atmifcJhaomfvnf; 1935? 36 ck
ESprf sm;wGif ausmif;om;or*¾vyk f
ief;rsm;½IyfaxG;aeojzifh pmar;yGJ
rajzvdkuf&yg/ 1937 ckESpfusrS
0dZÆmbGJU&onf/ udkatmifqef;
onfwuúov
kd af &mufcsderf pS NyD; yJ
cl;ausmif;aqmifüaexdkifNyD; EdkifiH

a&;pmtkyrf sm;udk oJorJ rJ zJ wfrw
S f
cJhonf/
1935-36 ckEpS w
f iG f olonf
wuúodkvfor*¾tzGJU trIaqmif
E.C jzpfvmNyD; tdk;a0r*¾Zif;udk
wm0efcHxkwfa0cJhonf/ (acG ; o
&rf;BuD;vGwfaeonf) aqmif;
yg;aMumift
h ;kd a0t,f'w
D mudak tmif
qef;ESifh or*¾OD;EkwdkYudkausmif;
xkwfypfvdkufonf/ 1936 ckESpf
azazmf&Dv wGif yxrqH;k tBudrf
wuúov
kd o
f ydwBf uD;ay:aygufvm

0ifonf/ ppfBuD;twGi;f 11-121941 &ufaeYu &efukefNrdKU AHk;
'PfcH&NyD; vl 600 ausmfaoqHk;
oGm;onf/

nDvmcHBuD;jyKvkyfaepOf 'kwd,
urÇmppfBuD;pjzpfonf/ xdktcg
Adv
k cf sKyfwYkd ut*Fvyd t
f cuf-Arm
tcsuf[k a<u;aMumfcJhonf/
xdkYaemuf udkatmifqef;? udk
A[def;? ocifoef;xGef;wkdYonf
tdE´d,EdkifiH &rf * g NrdKUwGifusif;y
aom uGef*&ufnDvmcHodkYwufcJh
onf/ nDvmcHrStjyefociftm;
vHk;udk tpdk;&u zrf;0&rf;xkwf
onf/ atmifqef;udkrdvQif aiG
5d ^ - qkcsrnf[k [oFmwc½dkif&J

AdkvfcsKyfESifU ZeD;a':cifMunfrdom;pk

AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;\ b0yHk&dyfESifU ol\'óetjrifrsm;
eDNird ;f (tnmwuúov
kd )f

uefawmfrifyef;jcHwGif w&m;a[mcJUpOf
&m vli,frsm;EdkifiHa&;Edk;Mum;pjyK
vmonf/ udkatmifqef;ESifh udkEk
wdkYe,fqif;í c½dkifNrdKUe,frsm;ü
or*¾tzGJUrsm;zGJUonf/ 37^38 ck
ESpw
f iG f udak tmifqef;wpfa,muf
ArmEdik if v
H ;kH qdik &f m (Auo)Ouú|
jzpfvmcJhonf/
EdkifiHa&;b0a&mufcJU&
xdEk pS rf mS ocifu,
kd af wmfriId ;f
ESifh ocifjrwdkYOD;pD;aom 'd k Y A rm
tpnf ; t½H k ; BuD ; ay:vm&m udk
atmifqef;rSm taxGaxGtwGif;
a&;rSL;jzpfvmNy;D (ocifatmifqef;)
trnfukd &&Scd o
hJ nf/ ausmif;om;
xk u 0d k i f ; 0ef ; axmuf c H o jzif h
wuúov
kd t
f yk cf sKyaf &;tzGUJ \ aumf
rwD0ifwpfOD;vnf;jzpfvmonf/
1939 ckESpfu armfvNrdKifü ocif

ocifatmifqef;b0ua&;cJUaom (EdkifiHa&;trsKd;rsKd;)
aqmif;yg;wGif ]EdkifiHa&;onf vlrIolrIudpötm;vHk;yifjzpf\/
vl[íl urÇmwGijf zpfvmonft
U cg vlwef;pm;tavsmuf vlvkd
ae? vlvdkpm;? vlvdkaomuf? vlvdkvkyfcsifvm\/ vlvdkvkyf&ef
BuKd ;pm;&if; txajrmufatmifjrifvmonf/ ydrk u
kd s,af jymvm
\/ vlEiS w
Uf &d pämefujJG ym;rIrmS vlwiG f wwfonft
U pGr;f ? jrifonfU
tpGrf;&Sdjcif;yifjzpfonf}[lía&;cJU . . .
0efrpöwmaZAD;,m;uajymifavSmif
um qkaiGrsm;xkwfonf/
Adv
k cf sKyw
f Ykdut*Fvyd x
f v
H uf
0g;jzefYawmif;cHae½Hrk jS zifv
h w
G v
f yf
a&;udk&Edkifrnfr[kwf/ vufeuf
udik w
f u
kd yf 0JG ifr&S rnf[q
k ;kH jzwfNyD;
*syefESifhaphpyfMunfhonf/ *syef

wdkYu ulnrD nfqo
kd jzifAh v
kd af wZ
(c) udkatmifqef;wdkYtzGJU *syef
jynfodkYxGufcGmcJh&m 24-8-1940
&ufaeYwiG f trGKd ifoYkd a&mufonf/
xdkESpf Edk0ifbmvwGif wdkusKdodkY
oGm;um vQdKU0Sufpum;qdkcJhMu
onf/ oabmwlnDcsuf&ojzifh

AdkvfcsKyfwdkYjrefrmEdkifiHodkYjyefvm
onf/ 1941ckESpf rwfv 3 &uf
aeYwGif &efukefodkYacwåjyefa&muf
um rsK;d cspv
f il ,frsm;udk wpfow
k f
NyD;wpfokwfac:xkwfoGm;&m [dkif
eefuRef;ay:odYk &Jabmfo;kH usdyv
f ;kH
a&muf&SdoGm;onf/
Adv
k af wZESihf ocifvNS rdKifwYkd
OD;aqmifí [dkifeefuRef;wGif ppf
ynmrsm;tywfwukwfoif,lNyD;
1941 ckEpS rf mS yif,;kd ',m;bufoYkd
xGufcGmvmcJhonf/ befaumuf
od k Y a &muf v Qif 26-12-1941
&ufaeYwGif ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyf
rawmf BIA (Burma Independence
Army) udk zGJUpnf;umppfaMumif;
rsm;cGJí *syefwyfrsm;ESifhtwljref
rmEdkifiHwGifjyef0ifvmcJhMuonf/
&efuek w
f ikd ;f ta&SUawmifbufrpS

AdkvfawZ\ ppfAdkvfcsKyfb0
t*Fvdyfwyfrsm; &efukefrS
qkwfcGmoGm;&m 8-3-1942 &uf
aeYwGif B.I.A OD;pD; *syefwyfrsm;
u &efukefNrdKUudk odrf;,lcJhonf/
xdkESpf Zlvdkifv 28 &ufaeYwGif
B.I.A udk B.D.A (Burma Defence
Army) tjzpf jyifqifzGJUpnf;cJh
onf/ AdkvfawZrSm AdkvfrSL;BuD;rS
ppfO;D pD;aoemywdcsKyjf zpfvmonf/
BIA wyfrawmfwi
G pf pfaoemywd
csKyfwm0efxrf;aqmifaepOf Adkvf
csKyaf tmifqef;tBu;D tus,zf sm;em
cJo
h nf/ tvHjybk&m;vrf;ppfaq;
½Hük wufa&mufuo
k aepOf olemjyK
q&mrBuD;a':cifMunfESifharwåm
rQNyD; 1942 ckESpf arvwGif vuf
xyfvdkufMuonf/ om;ESpfOD;?
orD;wpfOD;xGef;um;cJhonf/
1943 ck rwfvwGif a'gufwm
AarmfESifh AdkvfcsKyfudk *syefjynfodkY
ac:um *syefb&k ifuAdv
k cf sKyftm;
ar*sm*sife&,ftqifhwdk;jr§ifhay;
vdkufonf/ 1-8-1943 &ufaeY
wGif ArmEdkifiHudkvGwfvyfa&;ay;
aMumif; *syefu aMunmcJhonf/
*syefvw
G v
f yfa&;rSm twkt
a,mifjzpfojzifh AdkvfcsKyfuzuf
qpfudkawmfvSef&ef xdkESpfMo*kwf
vrSmyif zufqpfwdkufzsufa&;
jynfolYvGwfvyfa&;tzGJU (z?w?
y? v)udk zGUJ pnf;onf/ aemiftcg
z? w? y? v rSm (z? q? y? v)
tzGJUBuD;jzpfvmNyD; 27-3-1945
&ufaeYwGif AdkvfcsKyfOD;pD;Armhwyf
rawmfu *syefrsm;udak wmfveS af &;
vkyfcJhonf/ xdkawmfvSefa&;wGif
jrefrmwdkYu tEdkif&&SdcJhonf/
xdkodkY *syefudkatmifjrifpGm
armif;xkwv
f u
kd Ef ikd o
f jzifh t*Fvyd f
wdYu
k Adv
k cf sKyu
f t
kd xifBu;D vmonf/
AdkvfcsKyfBuD;armifhbufwefESifh bk
&ifcHqma':rHprpfwdkYu AdkvfcsKyf
tm; bk&ifcH\twdkifyifaumifpD
wGi&f mxl;BuD;ay;aomfvnf;vuf
rcHcJhyg/ 3-5-1945 &ufaeYwGif
t*FvdyfwdkY &efukefjyef0ifvmNyD;
(uufpb
f pD pftyk cf sKyfa&;)udpk wif
cJhonf/ xdkESpf Mo*kwfv 19 &uf
aeYwGif aeol&deftpnf;ta0;BuD;
udu
k si;f yum NAdwo
d Quq
kd efYusicf hJ
onf/
1946 ckEpS w
f iG q
f m[l;bwf&efY
pmrsufESm (26) odkh

Page 24
,ck uRefawmf wm0efusae
wJh rdk;ndKNrdKUuav;udk uRefawmf
uawmh bmyJjzpfjzpfESpfoufrdyg
w,f/ &efuek jf ynfvrf;rS {&m0wD
jrpfbufodkYqefí 17 rkdifa0;uGm
aomae&mwGi&f adS eaomNrdKUuav;
yDyD vlaerIpepfu aus;vufqef
NyD; t½dk;cHawGomrsm;Muygw,f/
&Sdwmav;ESifhvSatmif0wf&wm
av;ESiahf vmufatmifpm;½Ho
k mru
uspfuspfvspfvspfpak qmif;um t
vSLtwef;vnf;&ufa&mMuygw,f/
trSew
f u,fom,HMk unftm;ud;k &
rnfvdkYxif&if aemufuyHkatmNyD;
vku
d w
f wfMuygw,f/ q&m0eft
wnfwusr&Sw
d majcmufvavmuf
MumoGm;NyD;rSuRefawmfa&mufomG ;
wmaMumifv
h nf;odu
k o
f u
kd 0f ef;0ef;
ESiv
hf u
Id v
f u
Id v
f v
JS u
JS kd tm;yg;w&
BudKqdkMuwmaygh/ 0dkif;0ef;vnf;yHh
ydk;ay;Muygw,f/ "mwfrSefpuf?
vlemukwif? cGJpdwfcef;oHk;ypönf;?
vlemapmifrh sm;em;aeaqmif? touf
½IcsJUpuf? aoG;cGJyg0ifrIwdkif;wm
puf? aoG;csKdwdkif;puf? uGefu&pf
a&pif? av;cef;wGJ,ifvHktdrfom
ponfjzifh uRefawmfajymjyorQ
aq;½HktwGufvdktyfcsufawGudk
NrKd Uvlxu
k jznfq
h nf;ay;Muwm[m
tifrwefwdkawmif;wJhoHk;av;ig;
vtwGi;f rSmwifwefz;kd ode;f aygif;
140 xdatmif&SdcJhygNyD/ udk,fydkif
aiGaMu;&onfjzpfap? r&onfjzpfap
udk,fvkyfudkifaomvkyfief;rsm;udk
tm;vHk;uwdk;wufatmifyHhydk;ay;
MuwmESiw
hf if uReaf wmfrh mS yDwjd zpf
umauseyf&ygw,f/ NrdKUuav;\
o'¨gw&m;udv
k nf;tifrwefryS if
av;pm;rdygawmhw,f/ auseyfyw
D d
jzpfvdkYrSr0ao;bl; NrdKUolNrdKUom;
awG&UJ o'¨gpdwu
f t
kd oH;k csapmfum;
oGm;wJhtjzpftysufawGuquf
wkdufqdkovdkay:vmygava&m/
wpfaeYrSm NrdKUt0ifuNrdKUOD;
&Gmuav;udk trsKd;orD;BuD;wpf
OD;a&mufvmygw,f/ vl&nfoefY
oefY&nf&nfrGefrGeftrsKd;orD;BuD;
[m qdik u
f ,fwpfp;D udk u,f&aD c:
&if;a&mufvmwmvdkYqdkygw,f/
'gayr,fh ajcaxmufwpfzufrSm
vnf;ywfwD;BuD;pnf;vdkYaygh/ &Gm
OD;ausmif;q&mawmfudk 0wfjyKNyD;
pum;awGa&yufr0ifatmifpaJG qmif
rI&Sd&SdESifhajymaewmudk tm;vHk;ai;
Munfhem;axmif&if;oabmayguf
vmwmuawmh olr[m yifpifpm;
use;f rma&;0efxrf;wpfO;D jzpfw,f
qdkwmygyJ/ (wcsKdUu Mum;awmh
om;zGm;q&mrwJh/ wcsKdUuawmh
q&m0efrBuD;wJh) ckyifpif,lcgp
rSm qdik u
f ,fwu
dk cf v
H u
kd &f vdYk tpd;k &
axmufyahH Mu;ESiahf vsmfaMu;aygif;
odef;wpf&mig;q,f&vdkufw,f
vdkYqdkygw,f/ tJ'DaiGawGESifh 'D&Gm
av;rSmausmif;aqmufcsifvdkYvm
cJhwmvdkYqdkygw,f/ tvSL&Sifqdk
wmeJYtm;vHk;[mZmpfZmpfjrpfjrpf
rar;jref;MubJ aysmfaysmfyg;yg;udk
vufcx
H m;vdu
k yf &kH ygw,f/ oHo
,0ifr,fq&kd ifawmif oluvSLr,fh
olyaJ vqdNk yD; bmrSrjzpfwefygbl;
qdkwJhpdwfu&SdaerSmyg/ 'Dvdkae&m
u wpfaeYrif;vSNrdKUudk aiGvTJoGm;
xkwrf ,fqNkd yD;oGm;ygava&m/ [dk
a&mufrStwlvm oludk vufzuf

&nfqdkifrSmxm; ajcaxmuftem
udk aq;oGm;xnfhr,fqdkNyD;xGuf
oGm;vdkufwm ckcsdefxd jyefrvm
awmhygbl;/ jyefrvmawmhygrS &Gm
xJrSmtoHawGxGufvmawmhwm
ygyJ/ q&mrBuD;&GmrSm aeoGm;wJh
oHk;&uftwGif; olYrSmygvmwJh vl
ajcmufuav;udkjyNyD; vlajcmuf
uav;ua&TyGm;w,fqdkvdkY [dkvl
uvufpyG ?f 'Dvu
l qGBJ udK;b,fol
uem;uyfponfjzifh ay;xm;wm
awG[may:vmyga&m/ tvSLUtr

BuD;a&m*gcGpJ w
d w
f mudak wmif vuf
awGUoifMum;rIcH,lvdkuf&vdkY ck
aemufxyfvlawGudk ukoay;Edkif
aeygNyD/ tJ'Dvlwnf;aewJhtdrf
ay:wufvdkufuwnf;u tJ'Dvl
[m vlvrd q
f w
kd mudo
k v
d u
kd &f ygNyD/
uRefawmft&ifwm0efuswJhe,f
bufrmS olYu,
kd o
f t
l *kd saD rmifarmif
qdkNyD;vdrfvnfvdkYaxmifESpfESpfus
zl;cJhwJh &rf;ukwpfa,mufqdkwm
ygodvkduf&ygNyD/ e*dkwkef;updwf
ESiq
hf kd toufBuD;BuD;i,fi,fuyk f

av/ r½dkaopum; xxdk;csifr
wwfjzpfaewJh uRefawmfu 'gqdk
cif A sm; uRef a wmf h q D u vuf
axmufq&m0efuav;xufawmif
i,fygao;vm;vdYq
k v
kd u
kd rf yd gw,f/
w[m;[m;&,fNyD; twif;uRef
awmfhvufudkqGJzdkYBudK;pm;&if; t
oufBuD;awmharhNyDu,
G v
hf Ydkqjdk yefyg
w,f/ tJ'Dtcsdefxd olYukdvufcH
xm;wJhtdrf&SifawG&JU ,kHMunfrI
o'¨gu avsmhyg;ykHray:bJ olwkdY
q&mBuD;ukdvm&pfaew,fqkdwJhykH

avsmavsmayghayghoufomav;
vkyyf gq&m&,fvYdkwu
dk w
f eG ;f Muyg
w,f/ uReaf wmft'J v
D adk jymcH&wm
ESiw
hf if olwYdk EiS yhf wfoufrw
d mukd
&Surf yd gw,f/) uReaf wmfqufar;
ygw,f/ uRefawmfwYdk q&m0efjzpf
awmh &Gwq
f cdk w
hJ u
hJ wdopömukd rSwf
rdygovm;b,fvadk c:ygvJqadk wmh
toufBuD;NyDavuGmarhNyDayghwJh/
[pfykdua&;wD;tkwfcfvkdYac:wJh
uwdopömukd q&m0efwkdif;wa&;
Ekd;xar;awmifajzEkdifygw,f/ t

o'¨gESifU ynm
eE´0if; (aq;-1)

avmif;BuD;rdkYrxifbl;wdkY/ wdkYudk
u nHw
h mygponfjzifh wzspaf wmuf
awmufESifhaygh/ t,HkoGif;NyD; [dk;
a&S;a&S;wnf;uenf;udk oHk;oGm;
wmyg/ o'¨gtm;aumif;NyD; t,Hk
vG,folawGrSm qifjcifrIynmudk
avmbuzHk;oGm;jyefawmh vdrfvdk
olawG&JU tuGufxJ 0if&wmaygh/
tJ'x
D ufyq
kd ;kd NyD;uReaf wmfEiS hf
ywfouf&wJu
h pd u
ö rMumcif&uf
ydkif;twGif;rSm MuHKawGU&jyefa&m/
wpf&ufrSm owif;Mum;ygw,f/
yif p if p m;txl ; uk q &m0ef B uD ;
wpfO;D NrdKUudk a&mufvmNyD; &efuek f
rSmcGJpdwfcHxm;&NyD; roufomwJh
rk e f c sKd t d w f u if q m ( Pancreas
cancer)a&m*gonfwpfOD;udkvm
ukae w,fqdkwmyg/ a&epfolt
wGuf aumuf½;kd wpfrQifvnf;tm;
jzpfygapawmh&,fvdkYqdkNyD; vmuk
ol[m tppftrSef[kwf? r[kwf
rppfaq;rdygbl;/ 'gayr,fh &ufyikd ;f
twGi;f rSmyJ xdv
k mukou
l ol[m
at;at;Nidrf;? tdtdNidrf;udkcGJpdwf
ukay;cJhzl;wJhq&mBuD;a'gufwm
armifarmifygvdkY qdkvmygw,f/
uRefawmfhq&mBuD;tjzpfMuHKcJhzl;
wJh q&mBuD;&JUtrnfygvmawmh
uRefawmfhrSmwm0ef&Sdvm&jyefyg
w,f/ trSew
f u,f uReaf wmfwm
0efuswJhe,frSm q&mBuD;awGvm
&if oGm;a&muf*g&0jyKwwfwmu
uReaf wmft
h usiyhf g/ rMumao;cif
u yifpifpm;cGJpdwfq&m0efBuD;
wpfOD; ukrÜPDwpfck&JU tpDtpOf
ESifh uRefawmfhtydkifu wkdufe,f
aq;½Hw
k pfcrk mS vma&mufcpJG w
d af y;
wmuReaf wmf*g&0jyK&if;vnfyif;

o'¨grsm;NyD; ynmenf;&if vlvdrfcH&wwfygw,fqkdwm
odyfrSefwmygyJ/ bmyJjzpfjzpf ukd,fU&JY vkdtyfcsufudkyJ qef;ppf
&r,fU uRefawmf rSwf,lvkdufwmuawmU tJ'DvkdvlawG&JY
todynmrwk;d wufwm uReaf wmftvkyv
f yk zf Ydk todynmawG
ay;zkdh vkdaeao;w,fqkdwmygyJ . . .
qGJNyD;zrf;csKyfvdkufygw,f/ 'gay
r,fh ck e,f&UJ rsufEmS zH;k wcsKdUud,
k f
wdkif,HkMunfNyD; q&mBuD;rSq&m
Bu;D jzpfaecsed rf mS r[kwaf Mumif;ouf
aojyzdkYESifh tdrf&Siftygt0iftm;
vHk;&JUt&Sufodu©mudkumuG,fzdkY
wm0ef&Sdaeygao;w,f/ pdwfudk
xde;f csKyv
f u
kd Nf yD;EIwq
f ufpum;qdk
vdu
k yf gw,f/ at;at;Nidr;f ESihf td
tdNidrf;udk cGJpdwfukoay;cJhzl;wJh
q&mBuD;a'gufwmarmifarmifyg
vm;qdak wmh at;avuGm igyJav
wDADGxJrSm rif;rawGUbl;vm;vdkYqdk
ygw,f/ &ifxJrSma'goawGb
avmifqal ewJu
h Reaf wmf[m OD;av;
[m uRefawmfwdkY&JUq&mBuD; OD;
armifarmifr[kwyf gbl;vdYkomG ;Mum;
xJuavoHEiS yhf aJ jymvku
d rf yd gw,f/
qufNyD; q&m0efBuD;qdk&if qr
eHygwfb,favmufygvJcifAsmqdk
awmh igtpdk;&udka&m aq;ynm
avmuudak &mpdwef mvdYk 'gawGukd
arhxm;vdkufNyDvdkYqdkygw,f/ t
wif;ajymygqdkumrS ESpfuGmwJh/
ESpfqdkwm b,favmufvJ ESpf&m
vm;? ESpfaxmifvm;? ESpfaomif;
vm;qdkawmh rsm;&ifydkBuD;r,fxif
wJhvlvdrfaumifu ESpfaomif;wJh

aygufaewkef;ygyJ/ t&m&mukd oH
o,pdw0f ifwwfwhJ uReaf wmf[m
zswfueJ tm;vkH;tvkdwltvkdyg
ESiahf rsmufjyqefawmif;vkycf sifae
Muwmrsm;vm;vkYd awmif awG;rdyg
ao;w,f/ 'gayr,fh olwYdkpOf;pm;
ÓPfenf;vkdYqkdNyD;awmhyJ pdwfxJ
rSm BudwfcGifhvTwfvkdufygw,f/
aygif;pm;w,fq&dk ifvnf; b,fol
ygyguRefawmfu*½kpkdufrSmr[kwf
ygbl;/ uReaf wmfq
h &mBuD;&JU*kPo
f d
u©mESiNhf rdKUe,fq&m0efwpfa,muf
jzpfwhJ uReaf wmfumuG,af y;&r,fh
NrdKUvlxktwGuf wkdufyGJ0ifoGm;zkdY
ukq
d ;Hk jzwfvu
dk yf gw,f/ uReaf wmf
wkdYbGJU,lpOfu MuufoD;jzef;jzef;
xatmif&GwfqkdcJh&wJh rdrdukdaq;
ynmoifay;cJah omq&morm;rsm;
tm; rdbozG,fukd;uG,fygtHhqkd
wm&,f? vlemwkdY\ukd,f\usef;
rma&;? pdwf\usef;rma&;wkdYukd
rdrdta&;ozG,fapmifha&SmufygtHh
qkw
d mukd owdw&ESiu
hf ,
dk rhf b
d vkd
oabmxm;&r,fq
h &mBuD;twGuf
NrdKUvlxt
k wGuNf yD;awmhtrSew
f &m;
twGuf uRefawmfvkyfukdvkyf&rSm
yg/ (trSefw&m;ukd OD;xdyfrxm;
wJh wcsKdUolawGuawmhvu
dk v
f u
dk f

om;awGwek v
f matmifa'goxGuf
aerdwJh uRefawmf[m a'goukd
xde;f &if; cifAsm;bmvJqw
dk muRef
awmfodaeNyD 'ku©ra&mufcsif&if
bmvky&f r,fqw
dk modw,faemfvYdk
tm;vk;H &JUrsuEf mS ukad xmufxm;NyD;
ajymvku
d yf gw,f/ olU&JUjyefygawmh
r,fqkdwJhpum;aemuf uRefawmf
vSnfhjyefvmygw,f/ tcsif;csif;
tm;awmifhtm;emjzpfaewJh uRef
awmfv
h al wGuMdk unfNh yD; yxrOD;qk;H
pdwfysufrdovkdpdwfxJuvnf;
½Iwfcsrdygw,f/ &Jpcef;ac:NyD; &J
vufrtyfvkduf&wmukdyJ pdwfxJ
rSm EkdifiHom;wpfa,muf&JUwm0ef
rausovkNd rdKUe,fuse;f rma&;OD;pD;

XmerSL;wpfO;D &JUwm0efrausovkd
wynfhwpfa,muf&JUwm0efraus
ovkd cHpm;&ygw,f/ NrdKUudk u,f
wifrvkYdvmwm rif;wkYdq&m0efu
vufrcHawmh rif;wkdYxkdufESifhrif;
wkYduiH gjyefr,f/ at;oem;vkYd qD;
csKt
d jrpfjywfaq;udak wmha&mif;ay;
cJhr,f/ wpfcGufpmwpfodef;ESifh
ajcmufcu
G af omufaysmuf&r,fqdk
wJhpum;udkajymaeNyDvnf;qkda&m
yxrawmhao;wJh trIyaysmufyg
apqkdNyD; rJwif;ae&wJh uRefawmf
[m&Jpcef;qDukd ajcOD;vSnfhvkduf
ygawmhw,f/ oufqkdif&muac:
ppfawmhrS ol[m xm;0,fc½dkif
avmif;vkNH rdKUuvmwJt
h wef;ynm
uk;d wef;yJwwfwhJ AdaEémaq;ynm
enf;enf;wwfw&hJ rf;ukwpfa,muf
qkdwm 0efcHygawmhw,f/ rdrd&JU
vkyfykdifcGifhxufykdNyD; rpGufwwf
wJhuRefawmf[m &JrSm olw&m;0if
0efc&H ifyJ q&mBuD;twGuf jynfoYl
twGuf umuG,rf v
I aHk vmufNyDvYdk
xifygw,f/ oltjypfay;cH&jcif;?
rcH&jcif;[m uRefawmfpdwf0ifpm;
&r,fht&mr[kwfbl;vkdY rSwf,l
xm;ygw,f/ o'¨gpdwo
f yd o
f efwhJ
uRefawmfhNrdKUuav;(uRefawmfu
awmh a&muf&mt&yf[m uReaf wmfh
t&yfvYkdyJ cH,x
l m;ygw,f/)u ol
awG[m atmifzsmvdyfawmhr,fh
olYqu
D o
dk mG ;NyD;av;zufemtwGuf
b,fwpfv;Hk ? nmwpfv;Hk xk;d ay;cJh
wJh aq;bmvJa&;ay;cJyh gvkYdawmif
oGm;awmif;w,fMum;ygao;w,f/
wu,fvnf; oufomoGm;wm
ukd;/ trSefawmhtJ'Daq;[m wpf
vk;H xk;d zkYd awmif tifrwefcsifch sde&f
wmyg/ uk,
d af y:rSmaoG;awGxu
G f
wwf? OD;aESmufaoG;aMumjywf
wwf? t½dk;awGyGwwf? ESvkH;a&m
*gjzpfwwfwJhaq;ukd bmrSrjzpf
&if? bmrSrjzpfbl;qkdNyD; ESpfvkH;yl;
xkd;cJhwmukd auseyfaeMuwmyg/
o'¨grsm;NyD; ynmenf;&if vlvdrf
cH&wwfygw,fqw
dk modyrf eS w
f myg
yJ/ bmyJjzpfjzpf uk,
d &hf UJ vkt
d yfcsuf
udkyJ qef;ppf&r,fh uRefawmfrSwf
,lvkdufwmuawmh tJ'DvkdvlawG
&JU todynmrwkd;wufwm uRef
awmftvkyfvkyfzkdY todynmawG
ay;zkdY vkdaeao;w,fqkdwmygyJ/
BudK;pm;vkdufygOD;rnf

Page 26
pmrsufESm (23) rStquf
bk&ifcHjzpfvm&m trIxrf;aygif;
pHkoydwfBuD;ay:vmNyD; AdkvfcsKyf
wdkY\ zqyv,m,Dtpdk;&wuf
vmonf/ aemufwpfESpf 17-11947 &ufaeYpGJwGif t*Fvefü
AdkvfcsKyfESifh rpöwmtufwvDwdkY
vGwfvyfa&;tBudKvufrSwfa&;
xdk;cJhonf/ AdkvfcsKyfwdkYjrefrmjynf
jyefa&mufaomtcg wkid ;f &if;om;
nDñGwfa&;twGuf 47 ck azazmf
0g&DvwGiyf ifvn
kH v
D mcHukd usi;f y
onf/ NAdwdoQwdkYbufrS rpöwm
aAmhwGefravwufonf/
1947 ck {NyDvwGif yxrqH;k
tBudrfa&G;aumufyGJBuD;udkusif;y
&m AdkvfcsKyfwdkYyiftEdkif&cJhonf/
xdo
k Ykd jrefrmwpfEikd if v
H ;kH vGwv
f yf
a&;tjref&atmifBudK;yrf;aqmif
&GufaepOf AdkvfcsKyfESifhtmZmenf
acgif;aqmifBuD;rsm;udk 19-71947 &ufaeYu OD;apmtzGJUu
vkyMf uHvu
kd o
f nf/ odYk EiS hf Adv
k cf sKyf
atmifqef;onf touf 33 ESpf
t&G,frSmyif uG,fvGefcJhaMumif;
0rf;enf;pGmwifjy&ygonf/
AdkvfcsKyf\ EdkifiH'óetjrifrsm;
AdkvfcsKyfrSm rsKd;cspfEdkifiHa&;
orm;wpfOD;jzpfouJhodkY pma&;
aumif;olwpfOD;vnf;jzpfonf/
ol\vlrIa&;? EkdifiHa&;? pD;yGm;a&;
tawG ; tac:rsm;rS m uRef b 0
a&mufaeaom jrefrmEdik if t
H wGuf
tvGefwefzdk;&Sdonf/ ocifatmif
qef;b0ua&;cJhaom (EdkifiHa&;
trsKd;rsKd;) aqmif;yg;wGif ]]EdkifiH
a&;onf vlrIolrIudpötm;vHk;yif
jzpf\/ vl[lí urÇmwGifjzpfvm
onfhtcg vlwef;pm;tavsmuf
vlvdkae? vlvdkpm;? vlvdkaomuf?
vlvdkvkyfcsifvm\/ vlvdkvkyf&ef

pmrsufESm (22) rStquf
tnmbk&m;yGJ[k qdkcJhonf/ odyÜH
armif0wdYkacwfu ukoed m½kb
H &k m;
yGJ[kac:wGifcJhMuaomfvnf; ,ck
acwfvrl sm;ua&Tjynfat;bk&m;yGJ
[k omokH;aMumif; od&onf/
vufusefyGJaps;wef;av;\
aemufwiG f anmifEpS yf ifbek ;f awmf
BuD;ausmif;av;&Sdonf/ ausmif;
ocFe;f av;tay:wGif {nfyh &dowf
pkHpkHvifvifa&muf&SdaeMuonf/
w&m;emvmMuonfum;r[kwf/
q&mawmf O D ; pE´ d r usif ; yaom
(14)Budrfajrmufod*Fg&ynm&nf
cRefqkay;yGJodkY wufa&mufvmMu
jcif;jzpfonf/ uRefawmfwdkYtzGJU
vdkufydkYcJhaom rEÅav;rS pma&;
q&mESpOf ;D onfþyGw
J iG q
f &k ausmif;
ol^ausmif;om;rsm;twGufpmay
cs;D jr§ihpf um;a[mMum;rnf/ ausmif;
ocFe;f av;twGi;f 0,fpma&;q&m
rsm;\"mwfykHrsm;? yef;csDum;rsm;
jzifjh ynfEh u
S af e\/ pvif;NrdKUwdYk\
ynm&nfx;l cReaf omausmif;om;^
ausmif;olav;rsm;udk q&mawmf
rS*kPfjyKqkcsD;jrSifhonf/ ajcmuf
bmom*kPx
f ;l &ESpOf ;D ? ig;bmom
*k P f x l ; &ES p f O D ; ? av;bmom
*kPfxl;&ESpfOD;? okH;bmom*kPf
xl;&ESpfOD;? pkpkaygif;&SpfOD;/
ynm&nfxl;cRefolav;awG
\b0aumufaMumif;vdkufMunfh

udkatmifqef; (c) xdefvif;
BudK;pm;&if; txajrmufatmifjrif ]]uRefawmfvnf; EdkifiHa&;uxGuf
vmonf/ ydkrdkus,fajymvm\/ rSmygyJq&m/ xGuNf yD;awmh pma&;
vlESifhwd&pämefuGJjym;rIrSm vlwGif r,fMuHw,f/ uReaf wmfausmif;rSm
wwfonfhtpGrf;? jrifonfhtpGrf; aewke;f u ygVda&m jrefrmpmudyk g
&Sdjcif;yifjzpfonf}} [lía&;cJh ,lcJhw,f/ jrefrmpmrSm trSwf
onf/ ArmhEdkifiHa&;0g'ESifh pyf aumif;aumif;&w,f/ uRefawmf
vsOf;NyD; ]]ArmjynfrSmqdk&if tkyf BudK;pm;&if 'pfpfpaw;&Sif;awmif
pdk;MuwJh vlrsm;&JU EkdifiHa&;u &rSmyJ}} [kajymcJhyHkrSm AdkvfcsKyf\
wpfrsKd; (e,fcsJUpepfudk trSDjyK 0goemudkazmfñTef;aeayonf/
aeonf) tkyfpdk;cH&aomArmvl
Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;onf t*F
rsKd ; rsm;\ Ed k i f i H a &;uwpf r sKd ; vdyfbmom? jrefrmbmomjzifh
(vGwfvyf&eftajccHonf)vGwf aqmif;yg; 16 yk'af &;cJo
h nf/ bm
vyfa&;vkdcsifonfqdk&mrSmvnf; oma&;? vlrIa&;? orkdif;a&;? ppf
ArmawGiwfjywfae&mrS 00vif pmaypHkvS\/ yJcl;ua0? tnm
vifpm;csifvdkY? ukodkvfvkyfcsif om;av;? armif a tmif q ef ; ?
vdkYyifjzpfonf}} [k &Sif;vif;a&; ocifatmifqef; uavmiftrnf
om;cJhygonf/
rsm;udktoHk;jyKcJhonf/ (Burma
Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;wdYkvyk Mf uH and Buddhism)aqmif;yg;udk t*F
rcH&rDig;&uftvdk 14-7-1947 vdyv
f akd &;cJo
h nf/ bmoma&;ydik ;f
&ufaeYu twGif;0ef½Hk;ü pmay tpHt
k vifygonf/ umvmrokweå f
ynm&Sirf sm;ESiahf jymcJyh rkH mS Adv
k cf sKyf (Kalama Suta)udk ud;k um;í a&;cJh
\ 'óetjrifudkxifvif;apyg onf/ Ak'¨bk&m;u ]Mum;&½Hkjzifh
onf/ olu 'D;'kwfOD;bcsKdtm; r,HkMunf&ef? jrif&½kHjzifhvnf;
aomtcgtrsm;pk\b0onf yef;
arGU&ma&TaumaZmr[kwf/ rdbu
rwwfEikd í
f olwpfyg;axmufyrhH jI zifh
ausmif;wufc&hJ olyg\/ 0dik ;f ?abmf
'gawGvufvSrf;rrDí ½dk;½dk;usL
&Sifjzifhom jzwfoef;cJh&olyg\/
awmrS cufcufccJ J &TUH xJ? EHx
G ?J rd;k
xJ? a&xJoaJ csmif;tvDvjD zwfum
aepOfausmif;wufc&hJ olawGvnf;
yg\/ *kPx
f ;l &ausmif;om;^ausmif;
olwpfOD;csif;a&SUxGufí&ifwGif;p
um;qkMd uonf/ olwYkdav;awG\
toHonf wke&f v
D u
Id af rmaeaomf
vnf; rsuf0ef;tpkHwdkYu ,kHMunf
rItjynfh&SdaMumif; jyoae\/ ol
wdkYav;awGonf orkdif;ykH&dyfBuD;
rm;aom pvif;NrdKUav;\ tem
*wf? uRefawmfwdkYEdkifiH\ tem
*wfyif-----/
tcrf;tem;NyD;qkH;aomtcg
ausmif;om;^ausmif;olav;rsm;onf
olwdkYcspfcifav;pm;aom q&m
rsm;xHcsOf;uyfum trSwfw&
pum;av;rsm;rSwpf pk mtkyt
f wGi;f
a&;om;ay;&ef awmif ; qd k M u
onf/ olwdkYrsm;uRefawmfxHyg;
vma&muf a&;om;ckdifvQifjzifh----wdkYEdkifiH&JU tem*wf[m om;
wdkYorD;wdkYvufxJrSm&Sdw,f/ 'g
aMumifh qwufxrf;ydk;BudK;pm;
Muyg-----vdkY/

yifvkHnDvmcHrS aAmUwGefravESifU AdkvfcsKyf

*syefudkatmifjrifpGm armif;xkwfvdkufEdkifojzifU t*Fvdyf
wdkhu AdkvfcsKyfudk txifBuD;vmonf/ AdkvfcsKyfBuD; armifU
bufwefESifU bk&ifcHqma':rHprpfwdkhu AdkvfcsKyftm; bk&ifcH
\ twdkifyif aumifpDwGif &mxl;BuD;ay;aomfvnf; vufrcH
cJUyg . . .
r,kMH unf&ef? a&S;q&mrsm;ajymcJ½h Hk
rQjzifhvnf; r,kHMunf&ef a[mzl;
aMumif;ud]k ]Lord Buddha Said; Do
not believe in anything because
you have heard; Do not believe
in tradition by they have been
handed down; Do not belive in
anything, because it is rumoured
and spoken by many }}[lí

&Sif;

vif;a&;om;cJhygonf/
armifatmifqef;trnfjzifh
a&;aom 0d[m&aqmif;yg;wGif
]]owå? ocFg&? Moumoavmu

BuD;onfum; igwdkYtm;vHk;tzdk;r
jzwfEkdifaom 0dZÆmynmudkoif&m
Mum;&m? rSw&f mwuúov
kd af usmif;
BuD;tppfyifwnf;/ . . . &mZ0if
tpHkpHkudk MunfhrnfqdkvQif yxr
vl½ikd ;f acwf? xdYk aemuf tdraf xmif
,mcsjyKaomacwf? aemufwpfOD;
ESifhwpfOD;ul;vl;qufqH? cdkuf&ef
jzpf y G m ;? avmbrD ; ? a'gorD ;
awmufavmifaom acwfjzpf\/
odkYjzifh rif;usifhw&m;q,fyg;?
o*F[w&m;av;yg;paom 0wå&m;
rsm;udk xrf;aqmifEdkifrIr&Sd/ ysuf

uGuo
f jzifh a0oEÅ&mrif;BuD;wdik ;f
jynfrS xGufoGm;&onf/ oD[Am
[krif;om;wdik ;f jynfrt
S ESicf v
H u
kd f
&\}ponfjzifh tud;k taxmufEiS hf
wuGa&;om;cJhonf/
Adv
k cf sKyfonf ]atmifqef;ESihf
pmayaqmif;yg;}wGif vlxv
k w
l ef;pm;
toD;oD;udk þodYk vYIHaqmfco
hJ nf/
]]'gaMumifh uRefawmfwdkYjyKpk
&r,fhpmayta&;tom;[m 'Do
abmw&m;rsm;eJYjynfph w
kH phJ mayrsKd;
jzpf&r,f/ 'grSvnf; uReaf wmfwYkd
&JU pmay[m urÇmt
h qift
h wef;udk
rDr,f/ urÇmt
h qifrh rD u
S syjf ynf'h if
jynfw
h efz;kd &Srd ,f/ ,Ofaus;rIpepf
BuD;vnf; csufcsif;wdk;wufvm
vdrfhr,f/ ,Ofaus;rIpepfBuD;wdk;
wufajymif;vJjcif;r&SdbJESifhacwf
ajymif;? pepfajymif;wdk;wufa&;
ratmifjrifEdkifbl;/}}
]]wpfurÇmvHk;[m ,cktcg
acwfajymif;aecsdefjzpfw,f/ uRef
awmfwYkdvnf;urÇmBuD;eJYtwlacwf
aemufruseaf tmif trDvu
kd Mf updYk/
urÇmhZmwfcHkBuD;rSm urÇmhaw;oHpHk
awGudkvkdufNyD; uEkdifwJhurÇmBuD;
jzpfatmifzefw;D jyKjyifMupdYk / vuf
0,f&w
dS v
hJ yk if ef;wm0efawGtvdu
k f
uReaf wmfwYkdtvkyv
f yk Mf updYk / uRef
awmfwdkYtm;vHk;ppfom;a&m? EkdifiH
a&;orm;a&m? pma&;q&m? owif;
pmq&mrsm;yg ArmwpfrsKd;vHk; . .
. acwfajymif;tvkyfudkwlNydKifNydKif
vk y f u d k i f M uygpd k Y } }[l í a&;om;
cJhaMumif; AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;\
pmayoabmw&m;rsm;udk ed*;kH csKyf
wifjy&ygonf/
usrf;udk;
- AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;\ pmay
vuf&m (jr[ef)
- jrefrmha&;&mokwya'om
- jrefrmhpG,fpHkusrf; twGJ (15)

yckuúLe,foJtif;&GmBuD;ü wpfacwfwpfcgu oD&dvuFmEdkifiH\ Ak'¨jrwfpG,fawmfvSnfh vnf
ylaZmfyGJobiftcrf;tem;"mwfyHk &Sm;yg;rSwfwrf;tjzpfawGY jrifavh vmEdkif
oJtif;&Gmausmif;awmfBuD;ü
a&S;a[mif;,Ofaus;rItarGtESpf
rsm;pGm&Sdonfhteuf a&S;,cifu
yif jrefrm-oD[dk(oD&dvuFm)ESpf
EdkifiHomoema&;ul;vl;qufqHrI
&SdcJhaMumif; "mwfyHktaxmuft
xm;rsm;vnf;awGUjrifcJh&aMumif;
od&onf/
bBuD;awmf ppfuikd ;f rif;vuf
xuf ]]ol&d,0Hombd oD&dy0&m
vuFm& "r®aoemywd r[m"r®
&mZ"d*½k }k } [laom bGUJ trnfawmf
jzifh yxroJtif;omoemydkift
jzpf qufuyfvSL'gef;MunfndKyl
aZmfjcif;cH&aom oJtif;&GmZmwd
&Sio
f &l ,
d moDwif;oH;k cJ&h m ausmif;
awmfBuD;onf ,aeYxufwdkif oJ
tif;&Gmü wnf&Sdvsuf&SdaMumif;
od&Sd&onf/
omoemydkif oJtif;q&m
awmfBuD; arG;zGm;oefYpif&m oJtif;
&Gmonf yckuúLa'o ycef;udkBuD;
ausmfyGJusif;y&mteD;xef;awm

&GmteD;csif;wGif;jrpfta&SUbuf
urf;ü wnf&Sdygonf/
oJtif;&GmtpOftqufrS oH
Cmawmft&Sio
f jl rwfrsm;onf oD
&dvuFmEdkifiH Ak'¨pG,fawmfylaZmfyGJ
odkY zl;ajrmfMunfndK&efoGm;a&muf

cJhaMumif;udk wpfacwfwpfcgu
oD&dvuFmEdkifiHom;rsm; Ak'¨jrwf
pG,af wmfvn
S v
hf nfyal ZmfyJG obif
tcrf;tem;"mwfyHkudk awGUjrif
avhvmEkdifaMumif; od&ygonf/
&Sm;yg;rSww
f rf;0if"mwfyu
kH kd

Munfh½Ijcif;tm;jzifh oD&dvuFm
Edik if \
H ,cifacwfvlaerIb0ESifh
Ak'b
¨ mom,Ofaus;rIuv
kd nf; cHpm;
rdaMumif; a'ocHrsm;u ajymMum;
cJhonf/
aeOD;armif(yckuúL)

trSwf(22)? awmifjrif;NydKifuGif;vrf;? wmarGBuD;(c)&yfuGuf?wmarGNrdKYe,f?&efukefNrdKY/
zkef; - 400528? 400524? 401411? zufpf - 400528

27

e0rtBudrfajrmufwkdif;jynf
jyKvTwfawmf(ygvDref)nDvmcHudk
12 puf w if b m 1949 wG i f
twGi;f 0ef½;kH 0if;twGi;f &Sd ygvDref
taqmufttkHü pwifusif;y&m
vTwfawmfOuú|aysmfbG,fOD;jru
em,utjzpfaqmif&GufcJhonf/
nDvmcHodkY &Srf;apmfbGm;rsm;ESifh
&JabmfjzLtrwfrsm; wufa&muf
cJhMujcif;r&Sday/
ig;ajcmufykpGefajcmufudpö
eHeuf 11 em&D 45 rdepfwGif
tcrf;tem;pwifvQif trwfrsm;
jzpfMuaom OD;bxGef;(zqyv?
vrf;rawmf)ESihf OD;armifarmifwif
(wpfo;D yk*v
¾ ? ykord Nf rdKUr)wdYkusr;f
opömusdefqdkMuygonf/ ,if;
aemufar;cGef;tar;tajzrsm;jyK
vkyfMu&mwGif rauG;aus;vuf
awmifydkif;trwfocifAoef;\
ig;ajcmufykpGefajcmuf oGif;ukef
vdik pf ifupd jö zifh pwifco
hJ nf/ ocif
Aoef;u tpdk;&uxkwfay;xm;
aom ig;ajcmufykpGefajcmuf vdkif
pifwefzkd;ESifh ywfoufí ar;jref;
&m ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&;ESiahf xmuf
yHah &;0efBuD;u 1949 ckEpS t
f wGi;f
ig;ajcmufvidk pf if 47 apmifwefz;kd
usyf 898200? ykpeG af jcmufvikd pf if
295 apmifwefzdk;usyf 2320000
zd;k ay;xm;NyD;jzpfaMumif; ajzMum;
cJhonf/
&oHk;cefhrSef;ajcpm&if;
b@ma&;0efBuD;OD;wifu pm
rsufESm882rsufESmyg bwf*suf
pmtkyfrsm;a0iScJh&mü pm&if;csKyf
wGif 1948-49ckESpftwGuf cefU
rSef;ajc0ifaiG odef; 5207.84?
xGufaiG odef; 6216.98? vdkaiG
odef; 1009.14/ 1949-50 ckESpf
twG u f tcG e f a wmf c ef Y r S e f ; aiG
usyfodef; 5735.77? toHk;p&dwf
odef; 5906.46? vdkaiG odef;
170.72 &SdaMumif; azmfjyxm;
onf/ vTwaf wmfwiG f toHcsUJ puf
wyfqifrxm;ojzifh 0efBuD;OD;wif
ajymqdkorQudk trwfrsm;aumif;
pGmrMum;&ay/
EdkifiHawmfxlaxmifa&;
trwfwpfOD;u EdkifiHawmfxl
axmifa&;ESifhywfoufí a0zef
ajymMum;&mwGif ppfab;ppf'Pf
tjyif;txefcHcJh&ojzifh ysufpD;
,dk,Gif;aeaomEdkifiHawmftwGuf
t&yf&yfjyefvnfxlaxmifa&;rSm
vnf; rwGifus,fcJhaMumif;?jynf
wGif;avaMumif;o,f,lydkUaqmif
a&;udk &Srf;jynfe,fqdkif&mtxl;
rif;BuD;u 1948ckpufwifbmv
upí zGifhvSpfcJhaomfvnf; pD;yGm;
a&;rsufpdjzifhMunfhygrl o,f,lykdU
aqmifc ukefusp&dwfBuD;vGef;vS
aMumif;?qufo,
G af &;vrf;aMumif;
ysufpD;ojzifh jynfwGif;jynfy
a&mif;0,fazmufum;jcif; ysuf
jym;cJ&h m vltajrmuftjrm; tvkyf
vufrjhJ zpfc&hJ aMumif; yg&Syd gonf/
oufawmfapmifU0wfpHk
'kwd,aeUwGif 0efBuD;tcsKdU
ygvDrefwufvmMu&mü oufawmf
apmifhrsm; wlnD0wfpHkjzifh vdkufyg

vmcJMh uonf/oufawmfapmifrh sm;
rSm udk,fhp&dwfESifhudk,f umuD
,leDazmif; 0wfqifvmcJhMujcif;
jzpfonf/ vufarmif;ü jcaoFh
ESpfaumif½kyftMum; ]]oufawmf
apmifh}} [laom jrefrmpmvHk;jzifh
a&;xm;onfh trSww
f q
H yd f yg0if
\/OD;xkyrf mS rl ppfom;rsm;aqmif;
onfh oHy&mcGHtpdrf;a&mifOD;xkyf
rsm; jzpfMuonf/oufawmfapmifh
rsm;u umuDa&mif,leDazmif;?
om;a&pvG,fESifhrdkYtawmfcHhnm;
rI&Sdaeonf/ aemifaiGaMu;acsmif
vnfvmvQif vufpD;BudK;ESifheuf
uwdik rf sm;udw
k yfqifMuOD;rnf[k
oufawmfapmifrh sm;u qdyk gonf/

a&S;acwfjrefrmUaMu;eef;vkyfief;okH;'dkifcGuf

vmcHyOöraeUwGif trwfOD;xGef;
jrifhu tNidrfhyGJ? ZmwfyGJrsm;ü yGJ
cGeaf wmfw;kd jr§iahf umufcyH EkH iS hf ywf
oufí a0zefajymMum;cJhonf/
OD;xGef;jrifhu]] yGJcGefawmfwdk;jr§ifh
aumufcHjcif;udk rdrduuefUuGuf
ygaMumif;? yGJudkvnf; pnf;pdrf,l
aomudpö[lí tpdk;&u oabm
xm;NyD; aumufcHjcif;jzpfaMumif;?
trSefrSm yGJonf ZdrfcHaomt&m
r[kwfyg/ qif;&Jom;rsm;pdwf
aysmf&TifrI? ,Ofaus;rI? tEkynm
jyojcif;omjzpfygaMumif;? yGJ
Munfhjcif;jzifh pdwfaysmf&TifaprIudk
rvkyfMuESifh[k ydwfyif&ma&muf
ygí rdrdwdkUtpdk;&onf ,Ofus;rI

jrefrmUEikd if aH &;ordik ;f avUvmcsuf

e0rtBudrfajrmuf wdkif;jynfjyKvTwfawmf(ygvDref)nDvmcH
wifEikd w
f ;dk

o,f,lydkhaqmifa&;0efBuD; ref;0if;armif
jrefrmUaMu;eef;udpö
nDvmcHwwd,aeUjzpfaom
14pufwifbm1949wGif eHeuf
11em&Dü vTwaf wmfnv
D mcHtcrf;
tem;pwifcJh&m aysmfbG,fOD;jru
em,utjzpf aqmif&u
G yf gonf/
txl;{nfhcef;wGif odEéDapmfbGm;
BuD;udkawGU&Sd&NyD; omref{nfhcef;
üvnf; {nfhonfrsm;jynfhae\/
jrefrmhaMu;eef;udpt
ö qdkwifoGif;
rnfjzpfí jrefrmhaMu;eef;½du
k Mf um;
enf ; jyq&m OD ; ud k u d k B uD ; ES i f h
wynfrh uav;rsm; {nfch ef;ü avh
vm&ef a&muf&adS eMuonf/tcrf;
tem;pwifvQif jrif;NcHaus;vuf
taemufydkif;trwf OD;jrifhaqGu
jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiH zGJUpnf;
tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya' tcef;
13?yk'fr216ESifhudkufnD&ef jrefrm
EdkifiHawmftwGif; aMu;eef;quf
oG,&f mü jrefrmbmomudo
k moH;k
pGJ&ef tqdkwifoGif;cJhonf/
trwfOD;jrifhaqGu ajymMum;
&mwGif ]] a&S;jrefrmbk&ifrsm;vuf
xufu jrefrmbmomjzifh aMu;
eef;½dkufMum;EdkifatmifpDrHxm;
aMumif;?uif;0efrif;BuD;ESifha,m
twGif;0efwdkUvufxufuvnf;
jrefrmbmomjzifh aMu;eef;½dkuf

Mum;EdkifcJhaMumif; em;vnfyg
onf / jref r mbk & if v nf ; uG , f
aysmufí t*FvdyfwdkUa&mufvm
aomtcgrS jrefrmaMu;eef;½dkuf
Mum;enf;uG,af ysmufNyD; t*Fvyd f
aMu;eef;½dkufMum;enf;rsm;a&muf
vmMuygaMumif;?tifrwef0rf;enf;
p&maumif;ygonf/}} ponfjzifh
yg&SdcJhonf/
o,fydkh0efBuD;\ tajz
o,f,lydkUaqmifa&;0efBuD;
ref;0if;armifu jrefrmbmomjzifh
aMu;eef;½dkufMum;enf; 3enf;udk
tpdk;&u &&SdygaMumif;?odkUaomf
t*Fvdyfenf;jzpfaom armpfukwf
( Morse Code )enf;uvnf;&Sd
ae&m wpfckESifhwpfck tqifajy
atmif pDrHEdkifzdkU aumfrwDwpfckzGJU
pnf;NyD; tvkyfvkyfaeygaMumif;
jyefMum;cJhonf/
zrf;qD;cHtrwf
wdik ;f jynfjyKvw
T af wmf(ygvDref)
nDvmcHvmwufaeaom rtlyif
aus;vuf"EkjzLawmifykdif;trwf
OD;jrarmiftm; nDvmcHwwd,
aeU 14&uf pufwifbmv 1949
ckEpS n
f aeydik ;f wGif &efuek Nf rdKUv,f

MunfjrifUwdkiftrsKd;orD;trwf a':cifvS
za&Zmvrf;(,cktaemf&xmvrf;)
ESifh 29 vrf;axmifhwGif pHkaxmuf
&Jt&m&Srd sm;u umuG,af &;Oya'
yk'fr 5 jzifh zrf;qD;cJhonf/"EkjzL
udk &JabmfjzLwdkUacwåodrf;ydkuf
xm;pOfu &JabmfjzLtkyfcsKyfa&;
tzGUJ ü yg0ifczhJ ;l í zrf;qD;onf[k
qdkygonf/
yGJcGefawmfwdk;jr§ifUjcif;udpö
16 pufwifbm 1949 nD

qefUusifaom tpdk;&jzpfaeyg
aMumif;? odkUtwGuf yGJawmfcGefudk
wdk;wufaumufcHjcif;rjyK&ef pOf;
pm;apvdkygaMumif;}} ponfjzifh
ajymMum;cJhygonf/
jynfUwefqmyaysmufa&;
21 pufwifbm 1949wGif
Munfhjrifwdkiftrwf a':cifvSu
jynfw
h efqmyaysmufa&;tufOya'
ESifhywfoufí a0zefajymMum;cJh

onf/ ,if;odYk ajymqd&k mwGif jref
rmEdkifiHawmftmPmtwnfjyKNyD;
aom 1949jynfhwefqmyaysmuf
a&;tufOya't& tjrefxad &muf
pGmta&;,laqmif&Guf&ef wkduf
wGef;cJhonf/ trwfa':cifvSu
]] ,ckrrd w
d Ukd twnfjyKvkycf ahJ om
1949ckESpftufOya'u jynfhwef
qmyaysmuf½Hkomru raumif;rI
ESifhtoufarG;0rf;ausmif;vkyf&
aomolrsm;tm; tvkyftudkif&Sm
ay;a&;? tusiphf m&dwjå yKjyifa&;qdk
aom tcsuftvufaumif;rsm;
yg0ifaMumif; awGU&ygvdrfhrnf/
odkYaomfvnf; xdktufOya'
onf pmtkyfxJrSmom&SdNyD; bmrQ
xdxad &mufa&muf ta&;,ljcif;r
&Sad o;onfukd awGU&ygaMumif;? xdYk
aMumifh rdrdut&mxrf;trIxrf;
rsm;onf xdkOya't&jyif;jyif;
xefxef ta&;,lapvdkaMumif;
wdkufwGef;&aMumif;}}qdkygonf/
a':cifv\
S tqdu
k kd &efuek f
NrdKU vrf;rawmftrwfa':apma&T?
rtlyif trwfa':vS&Sif? 'D;'kwf
OD;bcsKd\orD; a':cifykwdkUu
axmufcHcJhMuonf/
Ouú|\ ed*Hk;csKyfrdefhcGef;
vTwfawmf(ygvDref)aemuf
qH;k aeUjzpfaom 1 atmufwb
kd m
1949 wGif vTwfawmfOuú|u
rdefUcGef;ajymMum;&mü]] ,aeYxl;
jcm;wmuawmh trwfrif;rsm;
tpdk;&udk ydkNyD;a0zefwm[m vTwf
awmf&JU aumif;zdkUedrdwfyJvdkU qdk&
ygr,f/ pOf;pm;jcif;jzifh wefzdk;
rwufygbl;/ þodkY pdwf0ifpm;
atmifa0zefrSvJ wefzdk;wufvm
ygw,f/ trwfrif;rsm;acgif;aygif;
vmwm vTwfawmfudk ½dkaoav;
pm;&ma&muf N yD ; vT w f a wmf \
*kPfudk jr§ifhay;&ma&mufygw,f}}
ponfjzifh ed*;kH csKyfred Uf cGe;f ü xnfh
oGi;f ajymMum;cJyh gonf/ xdYkaemuf
Edik if aH wmfor®wBuD;\ vTwaf wmf
½kyfodrf;rdefUudk zwfMum;um e0r
tBudrfajrmufwkdif;jynfjyKvTwf
awmf(ygvDref)nDvmcHukd ½kyo
f rd ;f
cJhonf/
usrf;udk;
1/ jrefrmh&ufpOfordkif;
(1945 rS 2008 txd) 'kwd,wGJ?
ordkif;okawoeOD;pD;Xme
2/ jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm
(1949 pufwifbm) owif;rSwf
wrf;rsm;

PG-29
0ufem;&Gujf yma&m*g
uif;&Si;f aMumif;yg&rdS S
0ufa&mif;csciG jUf yK
&efuek w
f ikd ;f a'oBuD;twGi;f
0uf r sm;tm; a&mif ; cs&mwG i f
wd&pämefq&m0ef\ 0ufem;&Gujf ym
a&m*guif;&Sif;aMumif;taxmuf
txm;yg&SdrSom vufvTJa&mif;
cscGifhjyKaMumif; 0ufarG;jrLolrsm;
xHrS pHpk rf;od&&dS onf/
]] 0ufawGukd vufvaJT &mif;
csr,fq&kd ifw&d pämefq&m0ef&UJ 0uf
em;&Gufjyma&m*guif;&Sif;aMumif;
taxmuftxm;ygrSvufvaJT &mif;
csciG jhf yKwm[kwyf gw,f/ 'Dvv
kd yk f
wmESpfywfavmuf&SdygNyD/ t"du
awmh &efukefrSm 0ufom;pm;oHk;
olawGtaeeJY pdwfoefYoefYeJYpm;
oHk;Edkifatmif&nf&G,fwmyg}}[k
arG;jrLa&;ESifhukoa&;OD;pD;XmerS
wm0ef&o
dS w
l pfO;D u ajymjyonf/
]]0ufa&mif;r,fq&kd if arG;jrL
a&;eJYuo
k a&;OD;pD;Xmeudt
k aMumif;
Mum;&r,f/ arG;-ukuaewd&pämef
q&m0efwpfa,mufvw
T f ay;r,f/
q&m0efu a&mif;csr,fh 0ufawG&UJ
usef;rma&;tajctaeeJY? 0ufem;
&Gufjyma&m*g&Sd? r&Sdudk ppfaq;
ay;r,fyh pkH jH zpfygw,f}}[kr&rf;uke;f
ae 0ufarG;jrLolu qdkonf/

AHk;aygufuGJrIjzpfpOfrsm;jzpfyGm;NyD;aemuf &efukefNrdKY&Sd vlpnfum;aomae&mrsm;?
pufrIZkefrsm;? tdrf&mrsm;ESifUtjcm;ae&mrsm;ü vHkjcHKa&;ydkrdk*½kjyKaqmif&Gufvm
2011ckEpS f ZGev
f 24 &ufaeY
uaejynfawmf?rEÅav;ESifhjyifOD;
vGiNf rKd Ursm;üAH;k aygufurJG jI zpfpOfrsm;
qufwdkufjzpfyGm;NyD;aemuf &ef
ukefwdkif;a'oBuD;twGif;&Sd vl
pnfum;aomae&mrsm;?puf½rkH sm;?
tdrf&mrsm;ESifh tjcm;aomae&m
rsm;üvHjk cHKa&;ud,
k cifuxufyrkd kd
Muyf r wf u m aqmif & G u f v m
aMumif; pHpk rf;od&&dS onf/
vHjk cHKa&;wif;MuyfpmG aqmif
&Guv
f suf&o
dS nfah e&mtrsm;pkrmS
a&Smyh if;pifwmBu;D rsm;?pufrZI ek rf sm;?
tdrf&mrsm;?aps;rsm;?½kyf&Sif½Hkrsm;
ponfv
h t
l rsm;pkEiS yhf wfoufonfh
ae&mrsm;ü,cifuxufvjkH cHKa&;
ydrk w
kd if;MuyfpmG aqmif&u
G af eonfh
tjyiftjcm;aomae&mrsm;üvnf;
*½kpu
kd pf pfaq;rIrsm;jyKvyk v
f su&f dS
aMumif;od&&dS onf/
]]uRefawmfwdkY '*HkpifwmrSm
yGKd ifah wmifh 19 e,fowfrw
S x
f m;
w,f/ tJ'Dae&mawGudkvnf;
oufqidk &f mtzGYJtpnf;awGtjyif
yk*v
¾ u
d vHjk cHKa&;wm0ef&o
dS al wGeYJ
yl;aygif;NyD;aqmif&u
G af eygw,f/
pifwmt0ifrmS vnf;ppfaq;a&;*dwf
xm;&SNd yD;cgwkid ;f xufypkd pfaq;yg

'*Hkpifwmt0ifü vHkjcHKa&;aqmif&Gufaeonfrsm;udk ZGefv 29 &ufaehu awGY&pOf
w,f/ uReaf wmfwYkdtaeeJYppfaq;
wJt
h cgrSm pufu&d ,
d mawGeYJ widk ;f
wmppfaq;wmxuf vufeJYppf
aq;wJhtydkif;udk OD;pm;ay;wJh
twGut
f cuftcJav;awGvnf;&Sd
vmw,f/ pifwmtwGi;f rSmvnf;
aps;0,fo[
l efeYJ yJ vHjk cHKa&;aqmif
&Gufaewmvnf;&Sdygw,f}}[k'*Hk
pifwmrSvHkjcHKa&;wm0ef,laqmif
&GufaeolwpfOD;u qdkygonf/
vIdifom,mpufrIZkef?pDrHcefY

um;ESpfpD; rsufESmcsif;qdkifwdkufrdNyD; rD;avmifí vlwpfOD;aoqHk;

cGaJ &;XmerSwm0ef&o
dS Ol ;D ausmaf usmf
0if;uvnf;]]oufqdkif&mXmet
oD;oD;uwm0ef&SdolawGeJY uRef
awmfwdkYqDutzGJUawGyl;aygif;NyD;
awmhpufrIZkeftwGif;rSm vHkjcHKrI&Sd
zdYktwGut
f zGJUwpfczk UJG pnf;NyD;awmh
24em&Dwm0efxrf;aqmifaeygw,f/
'ghtjyifpuf½w
kH pf½ckH si;f pDuwm0ef
&So
d al wGuv
kd nf;ac:NyD; owday;
xm;w,f/ puf½w
kH pf½ckH si;f taeeJY
uvnf; udk,fhpuf½HkvmwJh{nfh

vufawmhyftopfwpfvHk;vQif usyfoHk;odef;ausmf0ef;usifjzifh 0,f,l&&SdEdkifvm
uGeyf sLwmaps;uGut
f wGi;f ü
vufawmhyt
f opfwpfv;kH vQiu
f syf
oHk;odef;ausmf0ef;usifjzifh 0,f,l
&&SdEdkifaomtaetxm;odkY a&muf
&SdvmaMumif; uGefysLwmta&mif;
qdkifrsm;rSod&onf/
]]tckq&kd ifvufawmhyt
f opf
wpfvHk;udk aps;tenf;qHk; usyf

2011ckEpS f Zlvikd v
f 1 &uf
aeY eHeuf 1 em&D tcsdef0ef;usif
cefYu &efuek Nf rdKU vrf;rawmfNrdKU
e,f 14 vrf;ESihf 15vrf;Mum;
anmifyifav;aps;teD; urf;em;
vrf;ray:wGi,
f mOfEpS pf ;D rsuEf mS csi;f
qdkifwdkufrdNyD;rD;avmifívlwpfOD;
aoqHk;oGm;cJhaMumif; od&onf/
jzpfpOfrmS eHeuf 1 em&Dtcsdef

0ef;usifcefYwGif taemufbufrS
urf;em;vrf;wpfavQmufarmif;
ESifvmaom wuúpDum;wpfpD;ESihf
ta&SUbufrS armif;ESiv
f maomtdrf
pD;udk,fydkifum;wpfpD;wdkY anmif
yifav;aps;teD;wGif wdkufrd&mrS
wuúpDum;rSm rD;avmifoGm;NyD;
wuúpDum;armif;ESifvmol ao
qH;k oGm;aMumif; od&onf/

]]um;ESpfpD;wdkufrdNyD; wuúpD
um; acgif;ydkif;upavmifw,f/
tJ'eD m;rSm&SMd uwJh wpfa,mmufEpS f
a,mufawmh0ikd ;f Ni§rd ;f Muao;w,f/
'gayr,fh wuúpu
D rD;ydBk uD;vmNyD;
pDtif*sDum;vnf;jzpfwmrdkY xGuf
ajy;Muw,f/ aemufrD;owfum;
vmNi§rd ;f w,f}} [k jzpfpOfteD;wGif
&Sad eolwpfO;D u ajymygonf/

onf &JUtcsuftvufawGeJYukef
t0iftxGufpojzifhaygh? tm;vkH;
udkvnf; rSwfwrf;rSwf&mawGeJY
aqmif&GufzdkY nTefMum;xm;yg
w,f}}[k ajymMum;cJo
h nf/
A[ef;NrdKUe,ftwGif;&Sd tdrf
&mwpfckrS vHkjcHKa&;wm0ef&Sdol
udpk ;kd rif;Ekid u
f vnf;]]t&ifwek ;f u
uRefawmfwdkYtdrf&mxJuum;awG
udek yH gwfrw
S o
f m;wJt
h qifeh YJ yJ 0if
xGucf iG jhf yKwmyg/ tckq&kd if wdu
k f

cef;wpfcef;udk um;ESpfpD;EIef;eJY
0ifcGifhuwfjyKvkyfNyD;awmh 0if
xGucf iG ahf y;awmhw,f/ tdr&f mudk
vmwJh jyify{nfhonfawGtae
eJYuvnf; olwdkYoGm;r,fhtdrfeJY
tquftoG,v
f yk Nf yD;rS tdr&f mxJ
ud0k ifciG jhf yKwJph epfukd pwifusihf
oHk;aeygNyD}}[kvnf; ajymMum;
cJo
h nf/
tvm;wl &efukefNrdKU&Sdvl
pnfum;&m aps;0,fpifwmBuD;
rsm;üvnf; vma&muf0,f,lol
odoad vsmu
h sumtjcm;aom ½kyf
&Sif½HkuJhodkYvlpnfum;&m ae&m
trsm;pküvlt0ifavsmhenf;vm
aMumif;vnf; od&Sd&onf/
r&rf;ukefNrdKUe,f? bk&ifh
aemifuek pf nf'ikd rf w
S m0ef&o
dS w
l pf
OD;uvnf;]]ukepf nf'ikd x
f u
J 0kd if&if
tpuwnf;u vHkjcHKa&;t&0ef
xrf;uwf ygrS0if&ygw,f/ ck
aemufyikd ;f awmh'v
D xJrmS Mum;ae
&wJo
h wif;awGaMumifh ukepf nf
'dik v
f jkH cHKa&;udak wmhyNkd yD;wif;Muyf
wJt
h aeeJY cgwdik ;f xufyNkd yD; ppf
aq;rIawGjyKvkyfaeygw,f}}[k
vnf; ajymMum;cJhygonf/
0if;jrifhausmf? eDvm

330000 0ef;usifeJY&vmEdkifygNyD/
Memory qd k v nf ; 1GB eJ Y
Harddisk qdk&ifvnf; 500GB u
tenf;qH;k jzpfvmwmawGU&w,f/
vufyaf wmhwpfv;kH rjzpfraevdt
k yf
wJholawGusawmh tJ'Dvdk Entry
Level vufyfawmhawG t0,frsm;
w,f } }[k KMD rS wm0ef & S d o l

wpfOD;u ajymMum;cJhonf/
vufawmhyfuGefysLwmrsm;
tenf;qHk;aps;EIef;rSm 2011 ESpf
qef;ydkif;u a':vm 450 rS 500
Mum;&Scd NhJ yD; ESpv
f ,fyikd ;f wGif tedrhf
qHk;aps;EIef;rSm a':vm 400 rS
450 Mum;jzpfvmcJhaMumif; od&
onf/

rEåav;awmifajc&Sd &wemyHkacwfvuf&m ok"r®mZ&yfwef;udk jyKjyifxdef;odrf;rIrsm;jyKvkyf w½kwfEdkifiHodkYwifydkYa&mif;csaom uPef;aps;EIef;
rEÅav;awmifajc&Sd ok"r®mZ
,refEpS frdk;wGif;umvxuf ESpfqeD;yg;&&Sd
&yfwef;udk ZGefv'kwd,ywfrSp
wifumjyKjyifxed ;f odr;f rIrsm;jyKvyk f
vsu&f adS Mumif;od&&dS onf/ ok"r®m
Z&yfwef;wGif &wemyHkacwftEk
ynm yef;csDvuf&mrsm;udk,aeY
wdkifawGUjrifEdkifNyD; &moDOwkESifh
obm0ab;tEÅ&m,frsm;aMumifh
a&S;a[mif; tEkynmvuf&mrsm;
rysufpD;atmif MudKwifumuG,f
jcif;ESiyhf supf ;D rIrsm;udpk pfaq;wGuf
csufum ,Ofaus;rI0efBuD;Xmeu
jyifjyKxdef;odrf;jcif;rsm;tjyif t
vSL&Sifrsm;zdwfac:jyKjyifjcif;jzpf
aMumif; od&onf/
]]jyKjyifr,fh Z&yf 19 ckrSm
13 aqmiftwGut
f vSL&Si&f &Sx
d m;
NyD; Z&yfajcmufaqmifuakd wmh Xme
updu
k x
f w
k jf yKjyifomG ;rSmyg}}[k jyK
jyifxed ;f odr;f rIvyk if ef;cGirf t
S if*sif
eD,mwpfOD;u ajymMum;cJhonf/
ok"r®mZ&yfaygif; 34 aqmif

&Sdonfhteuf pHausmif;wdkufESifh
ausmufawmfBuD;bk&m;Mum;&Sd Z&yf
18 aqmifxJrSckepfaqmifrSm t*F
vdyfvufxufuvrf;azmuf&ef
tzsufcHcJh&onf/ ok"r®mZ&yf
awmfMuD;rSm 1945 ckESpf 'kwd,

rEåav;-jrpfBu;D em;vrf;ydik ;f wGif
tdyfpifoD;oefYtxl;&xm; pwifajy;qGJjcif;ESiUftwl
vuf&Sd&xm;c&D;pOfxGufcGmcsdefrsm; ajymif;vJajy;qGJ

rEåav;blwmBuD;wpfae&m
rEÅav;-jrpfBuD;em;vrf;ydkif;
wGif tdypf ifo;D oefYtxl;&xm;udk
Zlvkdifv 2 &ufaeYu pwifajy;
qGjJ cif;ESit
hf wl vuf&adS jy;qGv
J suf
&Sdaom &xm;c&D;pOfxGufcGmcsdef
rsm;vnf ; ajymif ; vJ a jy;qG J c J h
aMumif; od&Sd&onf/ 34 tpkef?
33 tqef tdyfpiftxl;&xm;udk
twGJukd;wGJ? ½dk;½dk;wef;wGJwpfwGJ?
&xm;xde;f wGw
J pfww
JG Ykd csdwq
f uf
umajy;qGo
J mG ;rnfjzpfNyD; rEÅav;
NrdKUrS tywfpOf pae? t*Fg? Mumo
yaw;aeY rGe;f vGJ 1 em&DwiG f xGuf
cGmum jrpfBuD;em;NrdKUodkY aemuf
wpfaeYeHeuf 5 em&D 10 rdepf
cefYwiG q
f u
kd af &mufrnfjzpfaMumif;
od&onf/ xdkYtwl jrpfBuD;em;NrdKU
rSvnf; we*FaEG? Ak'¨[l;ESifhaom
MumaeY rGef;vGJ 1 em&D 50 rdepf
wGix
f u
G cf mG írEÅav;NrdKUodYk aemuf
wpfaeY eHeuf 6 em&D0ef;usifwGif
qdkufa&mufrnfjzpfaMumif; od&
onf/ EdkifiHjcm;om;rsm;twGufrl
tdyfpifwpfae&mvQif 45 a':vm
ESifh½dk;½dk;wef;ae&mtwGuf tar
&duefa':vm 18 a':vmowf
rSwfxm;onf/ ]]tdyfpifoD;oefY

&xm;twGuf rEÅav;-jrpfBuD;
em;xd vrf;tptqHk;vufrSwf
aps;EIef;u usyf 15000 jzpfyg
w,f } }[k rEÅ a v;bl w mBuD ; rS
wm0ef&SdolwpfOD;u ajymMum;cJh
onf/ ]]tckajymif;vJajy;qGJwJh
c&D;pOfawGrmS rEÅav;uae t&if
12 em&DxGufcGmwJh 55 tqef
txl;tjref&xm;udk 2 em&D 10
rdepfajymif;vJNyD; jrpfBuD;em;uae
t&if 9 em&D 45 rdepfxGufcGmwJh
56 tpkeftxl;tjref&xm;udk 7
em&D 45 rdepfajymif;vJcJhygw,f/
hjrpfBuD;em;uxGufr,fh 58 tpkef
eJY 42 tpkef&xm;csdefawGudkawmh
t&ifxGufcGmcsdefawGxufaemuf
usNyD; owfrSwfxm;ygw,f}}[k
qufvufajymMum;cJhonf/
vuf&Sd rEÅav;-jrpfMuD;em;
vrf;ydik ;f wGif jrpfBuD;em;rSr;kd aumif;
blwmtxdajy;qGaJ eaom a&SUajy;
(rdkif;&Sif;)&xm; APT (Army Pilot Train)udk ucsifjynfe,fESifh
ppfuikd ;f wdik ;f a'oBu;D e,ferd w
d t
f pyf
&Sd eefYpDatmifblwmtxd ajy;qGJ
oGm;rnfjzpfaMumif;vnf; od&Sd&
onf/
rif;oefY

urÇmppfBuD;twGif; rEÅav;NrdKU
odrf;wdkufyGJumvü rD;avmifjym
usoGm;cJhonf/ 1889 ckESpfwGif
vnf;Z&yfESpfaqmifrSm rD;avmif
jymuscJNh yD;Z&yfwpfaqmifrmS uif;
0efO;D rmvde\
f om;uzsu,
f al &mif;

pm;cJhaMumif;od&onf/ Z&yfav;
aqmifrmS rl 1967 ckEpS u
f avjyif;
rkefwdkif;'PfaMumifh NydKusysufpD;
cJah omaMumifh vuf&w
dS iG Zf &yf 19
aqmifomuse&f adS wmhaMumif; od&
onf/

w½kwfEdkifiHodkY rlq,f 105
rdik ef ,fpyfuek o
f ,
G af &;pcef;rSwpfqifh
wifyYakd &mif;csaomuPef;aps;EIe;f rSm
,refEpS rf ;kd wGi;f umvxuf ESpq
f
eD;yg;&&Sv
d maMumif; uPef;wifyYkd
a&mif;csorl sm;xHrpS pkH rf;od&&dS onf/
]]'DEpS rf ;kd wGi;f umvrSm uPef;
aps;u 10 uDv*kd &rfaowåm 100
udk tar&duefa':vm 2500 u
ae 3000 twGif;&Sdw,f/ rESpf
wke;f u 'Dtcsdeq
f kd aowåwpf&mrS
tar&duefa':vm 1500 eJY 2000
Mum;yJ&Sdw,f/ 'DESpfrdk;wGif;rSmaps;
EIe;f uESpq
f eD;yg;avmufwufvm
w,f/ 'Dvdkaps;EIef;&wmuvnf;
ukeo
f ,
G af &;pcef;rSm avvHqw
JG hJ
tzGJUawGwdk;vmwmaMumifhyg}}[k
pOfu
h ikd Nf rdKUe,f qnf½mG &Sd Mu,fwm
uPef;yGJ½HkrS wm0ef&SdolwpfOD;u
ajymonf/

]]w½kwu
f t
kd "duwifyYkdwhJ u
Pef;awG[m &cdkifjynfe,ftrf;eJY
ppfawGuvmwJhuPef;awGyg/
wpfcgwavawmifuw
k u
f vnf;ydYk
w,f/ ukef;vrf;uaewifydkYwm
jzpfwt
hJ wGupf Ofu
h ikd Nf rdKUem;uqnf
½Gmukda&muf&if aoaewJhuPef;
eJYajrmhaewJu
h Pef;awGuzkd ,fxw
k f
&ygw,f/ wu,fawmh jrefrm
uPef;[m w½kwfwpfEdkifiHvHk;
a&mufwmr[kwfbJ aps;uGufu
acGrifavmufyJ&Sdygao;w,f}}[k
uPef;wifydkYa&mif;csolwpfOD;u
ajymonf/ uPef;rSm rd;k wGi;f um
vwGiaf ygrsm;NyD; aqmif;&moDwiG f
yHkrSef&Sdum aEG&moDü &Sm;aMumif;?
&cdkifjynfe,frS w½kwfe,fpyfodkY
wifydkY&mwGif vrf;yef;qufoG,f
a&;tcuftcJrsm;&SdaMumif;vnf;
od&dS&onf/

Pg-32

xm;0,fc½dkifwGif a&mfbmwdk;csJpY dkufysKd;&ef pdkuf{uopfrsm;azmfxkwf
weoFm&Dwikd ;f a'oBuD; xm;
0,fc½dkiftwGif;&Sd tcsKdYae&mrsm;
wGif a&mfbmrsm;wdk;csJUpdkufysKd;&ef
twGuf pdu
k {f uopfazmfxw
k jf cif;
ESifhawmif,mrsm;rD;½IdU&Sif;vif;rI
rsm;jyKvyk v
f su&f adS Mumif;od&onf/
aps;uGufcdkifrmaeaom pufrIukef
Murf;oD;ESHwpfckjzpfonfha&mfbm
udkwdk;csJUpdkufysKd;aeolrsm; wpfESpf
xufwpfEpS yf rkd rkd sm;jym;vmNyD; wd;k
csJU&efvdktyfaom ajrae&mrsm;t
wGuf opfawm½dkif;rsm;ESifh awm
awmifrsm;udkckwfxGif&Sif;vif;NyD;
pdkuf{uopftjzpfazmfxkwf&mrS
opfawmjyKef;wD;rIrsm;ydkrdkjzpfyGm;
vmNyD; obm0ywf0ef;usifa*[
pepfudkwjznf;jznf;xdcdkufvm
aMumif; od&onf/
]]wpfESpfxufwpfESpf&moDO
wkqdk;&Gm;vmygw,f/ opfawm
awGjyKef;wD;vmwmeJYtrQ &moDO
wkuvnf;t&ifeYJ rwlbJ avjyif;
wdkufwm? aeY? ntylcsdefawGwdk;
wmeJYyHkrSefr[kwfwJh &moDOwkt
ajctaetrsKd;rsKd;udkcHpm;vm&yg
w,f/ a&mfbmqdw
k mrsK;d uckepfEpS f

avmuf M umrS tyif B uD ; tjzpf
a&mufwmyg/ tJ'DckepfESpftwGif;
rSma&mfbmpdkufzdkYtwGuf &Sif;vif;
vdkufwJh&SdNyD;om; opfawmawG&JU
ywf0ef;usijf yKjyifzefw;D Edik pf rG ;f udk
awmh rDrSmr[kwfygbl;/ 'Dawmh
a&mfbmpdkufawmhr,fqdk&ifvnf;
Oyrm {u 100 pdkufr,fqdk&if
{u 50 udkt&ifpdkufNyD; av;ESpf
avmufMumrS usefwJhtyifawGudk
xyfpdkufoifhygw,f/ 'grSvnf;
rlv&SdNyD;om; opfyifawG&JU ae&m

udt
k pm;xd;k Edik Nf yD; ywf0ef;usifa*
[pepfudkvnf; rxdcdkufatmif
xdef;odrf;EdkifrSmyg}}[k &moDOwk
ajymif;vJrItay: avhvmaeol
wpfOD;u ajymMum;cJhonf/
,ckESpftwGif; rGefESifhu&if
jynfe,fwYkdrS a&mfbmpdu
k yf sK;d ol pD;
yGm;a&;vkyif ef;&Sirf sm;rSvnf; ¤if;
wdYk\a'orsm;üa&mfbmpdu
k yf sK;d &ef
ajrvGwfajr½dkif;rsm;enf;yg;vmí
weoFm&Dwikd ;f a'oBuD;twGi;f odYk
0ifa&mufvmNyD; e,fausmfpu
kd yf sKd;

rItjzpfvkyfudkifaeMuojzifh a&mf
bmpdkuf{ursm; wdk;vmzG,f&Sd&m
opf a wmjyKef ; wD ; rI r sm;vnf ;
ydkrdkrsm;jym;vmEdkifaMumif; od&
onf/
jref r mEd k i f i H w G i f ,cif u
obm0opfawmBuD;rsm;onfEikd if H
{&d,m\ 70 &mcdkifEIef; &SdcJh&mrS
,cktcgEdkifiH{&d,m\ 47 &mcdkif
EIef;omusefawmhaMumif;pm&if;
rsm;t&od&onf/
NzdK;Zif(xm;0,f)

2011 ckEpS f yxrESp0f uftwGi;f rEåav;wdik ;f a'oBu;D rxo(ta0;ajy;)odYk c&D;onfrsm;\wdik Mf um;rI 20 rI&cdS Jh
2011 ckESpf yxrESpf0uf
umvtwGif; rEÅav;wdkif;a'o
BuD; armfawmf,mOfvkyfief;aygif;
pHkxdef;odrf;a&;aumfrwD (ta0;
ajy;)odYk c&D;onfrsm;\wdik Mf um;rI
20 rI&cdS &hJ mwGif 13 rIuakd jz&Si;f ay;
cJNh yD;ckepfrrI mS rNyD;jywfao;aMumif;
od&onf/

]]c&D;onfawG&JUwdkifMum;
rI[m'DESpfxJrSm 20 rI&SdcJhw,f/
'Dvw
kd ikd Mf um;rIawGukd rxotae
eJYwikd Mf um;ol?wdik Mf um;cH&olawGukd
ESpOf ;D ESpzf ufawGUqH?k tjzpfreS af y:
rlwnfNyD; ajz&Sif;ay;cJhygw,f/
rsm;aomtm;jzifw
h ikd Mf um;olbuf
u 90 &mEIef;rSefwwfygw,f/

ajz&Si;f ay;&mrSmvnf;ESpOf ;D ESpzf uf
pHkrS jrefwwfygw,f/ wcsKdUvnf;
wdik Mf um;Ny;D ygrSqifah c:wJt
h cgrvm
wmvnf;&Sdygw,f/ 'DvdkrvmwJh
twGuf'DESpfxJrSmckepfrIuawmh
rNyD;jywfao;ygbl;}}[krEÅav;wdik ;f
a'oBuD;armfawmf,mOfvkyfief;
aygif;pHx
k ed ;f odr;f a&;aumfrwD(ta0;

ajy;)rSwm0ef&o
dS w
l pfO;D uajymonf/
c&D;onfrsm;\wdkifMum;rI
trsm;pkwiG ,
f mOfarmif;?,mOfaemuf
vdkufrsm;u racsriHqufqHjcif;?
wefqmypön;f avsmeh nf;jcif;?aysmuf
qH;k jcif;? ,mOfpnf;urf;vrf;pnf;
urf;azmufzsufrItwGuf wdkif
Mum;jcif;wdYk jzpfaMumif;od&onf/

&Srf;jynfe,fwGif ,ckESpfvufzufcl;vkyfom;
&Sm;yg;rIaMumifU tnma'orSvkyfom;rsm;
vufzufpdk&moDrukefrDtdrfjyef&eftcufawGY
tnma'orS a&GUvsm;vuf
zufc;l vkyo
f m;rsm; ESppf OfEpS w
f ikd ;f
vufzufcl;oGm;&mwGif &Srf;jynf
e,fü ,ckEpS v
f ufzufc;l vkyo
f m;
&Sm;yg;rIaMumifh vufzufp&kd moDr
ukefrD tdrfjyef&eftcuftcJrsm;
awGUvsuf&SdaMumif; od&Sd&onf/
]]vGefcJhwJh av;ESpfavmufu
vufzufaps;aumif;ovdk cl;wJh
olvnf;aygw,f/ tckwpfEpS f ESpf
ESpftwGif; vufzufaps;edrfhuso
vdk NcHyikd &f iS af wGvnf; vufzufc;l
c&Si;f &mrSm tcuftcJawGU&w,f/
vufzufcl;cu [dkt&ifuawmh

ESpfvufzufcl;vdkufzdkYpdwf0ifpm;
olenf;vmw,f/ vufzufc;l vkyf
om;vnf;&Sm;yg;vmw,f}}[lí rHk
&Gmc½dkift&mawmfNrdKUe,frS vuf
zufc;l vkyo
f m;wpfO;D uajymonf/
]]a&TzDcsdeftNyD;rSm vufzuf
pdkcsdefjzpfw,f/ vufzufaps;u
raumif;awmh tdrfjyefcsifolawG
rsm;w,f/ jcH&iS u
f vnf; vufzuf
rcl;&if vufzufMurf;rSmpd;k vdYk aiG
&Si;f ray;ao;bl;/ vufzufc;l csdef
u ckepf&uf wpfywfudk ajcmuf
&ufavmufcl;&w,f/ Oykof&uf
rSm vufzufcl;avh&SdNyD; &Gmay:udk

vufzufaps;tMurf;&Sad yr,fU vufzufaps;rjzwfEikd af o;bl;/
'Dvo
kd m vufzufaps;usNy;D qufc;l ae&&if aemufESpfawGrSm
vufzufcl;oGm;zdkh pdwf0ifpm;rI ydkenf;oGm;Edkifw,f . . .
tjynfht0&w,f/ vufzufaps;
uvnf;aumif;wmudk;/ vGefcJhwJh
ESpEf pS af vmufpNyD; vufzufc;l vkyf
om;awG tdrjf yefcsed f 0gqd?k 0gacgif
rSm vufzufc;l cwpf0ufy&J ol? t
jynfhr&olawGrsm;vmw,f/ usef
wJhvufzufcl;cudk oDwif;uRwf?
wef a qmif r k e f ; vawG a &muf r S
bPfuaevTMJ uw,f/ 'grSr[kwf
&GmawGut
kd vnfvm&if;vufzuf
cl;c vufusefudk&Sif;Muw,f/
tjynft
h 0awmh&ygw,f/ vMum
Mumawmhapmifh&wmaygh/ vuf
zufaps;edrahf wmh wpfEpS x
f ufwpf

wuf vufzufajcmufydkYMuw,f/
vufzufpdkudk awmrSmyJ 0g;acGNyD;
zuf&Gufum zuf&Gufcif;xnfh
w,f/ a&TzDa&m vufzufpdka&mu
waygif;vae 0gqd0k gacgifawGt
xdcl;Muw,f/ rdk;&Gmvnf; rdk;um?
yuúvmawGaqmif;NyD; cl;Muwm
ygyJ/ vufzufaps;tMurf;&Sad yr,fh
vufzufaps;rjzwfEikd af o;bl;/ 'D
vdo
k m vufzufaps;usNyD; qufc;l
ae&&if aemufEpS af wGrmS vufzuf
cl;oGm;zdkYpdwf0ifpm;rIydkenf;oGm;
Edkifw,f}}[k&Srf;jynfe,frSvuf
zufc;l jyefvmolwpfO;D uajymonf/

jrefrm-tdE,
d´ cspMf unfa&;vrf;jzpfaomwrl;-uav;-uav;0vrf;ay:&dS
usDukef;-uav;0 vrf;ykdif;ukd jyKjyifvsuf&Sd

jrefrm-tdE´d, cspfMunfa&;
vrf;jzpfaomwrl;-uav;-uav;0
vrf;ay:&Su
d sDuek ;f -uav;0vrf;
ykid ;f ukd 2012 ckEpS w
f iG t
f NyD;owfjyK
jyifrnfjzpfaMumif; od&onf/
jrefrm-tdE´d,cspfMunfa&;vrf;
jzpfaom wrl;-uav;-uav;0
vrf;ay:&Sd usu
D ek ;f -uav;0vrf;
ykdif;ukdtdE´d,EkdifiH BRTF tzGJUrS
jyefvnfjyifqifvsuf&SdNyD; 2012
ckESpfwGif tNyD;owfEkdifrnf}}[k
tdE´d,EkdifiHrS wm0ef&SdolwpfOD;u
ajymMum;cJah Mumif; od&&dS ygonf/
]]tdE´d,-jrefrmcspfMunfa&;
vrf;ukad zmufvu
dk af wmhwrl; e,f
pyfuek o
f ,
G af &;vrf;twGuf awmf
awmfav; aumif;oGm;ygw,f/

'gayr,fw
h rl;e,fpyfuek o
f ,
G af &;
ut&ifESpfaygif; 30 avmufu
vkdyJ bmrSrwkd;wufvmbl;/ 'D
vrf;ykid ;f rSmtcufcq
J ;Hk eJY tqk;d qk;H
vrf;ykid ;f uusu
D ek ;f eJYuav;0vrf;
ykid ;f yg}}[ka'ocHuek o
f nfwpfO;D u
ajymMum;cJhygonf/
tqkdyg cspfMunfa&;vrf;
BuD;ukd 1997 ckESpf pwifazmuf
vkycf NhJ yD; 2001 ckEpS f azazmf0g&Dv
13 &ufaeYwGifzGifhyGJ tcrf;tem;
ukd usif;ycJhonf/ tqkdygvrf;r
MuD;onf rkid f 100 cefY t&Sn&f NdS yD;
,OfaMumtus,f 5 'or 5 rD
wm? vrf;om;yck;H tygajrjyefYwiG f
12 rDwm&Sdíawmifukef;a'owGif
10 rDwmus,fum cHEkdif0ef24

wefowfrSwfxm;onf/ vrf;
atmufcu
H wå&mvrf;om; 7 'or
5 pifwDrDwm&SdNyD;xyfykd;vTm av;
pifwDrDwm &SdaMumif;od&onf/
]]'DcspfMunfa&; vrf;ykdif;rSm
ysufpD;rI trsm;qkH;ae&mu awmh
usu
D ek ;f -uav;0NrdKU vrf;ykid ;f yg/
rNyD;ao;wmuvnf;tJ't
D ykid ;f yJ/
vrf;ab;a&ajrmif;awGeYJvrf;ab;
awmife&H aH wGurNydKuscJb
h ;l qk&d if
awmf a wmf a v;aumif ; ygh r ,f /
vrf;ajrom; jywfa&GUjcif;eJY vrf;
om;edrfhusjcif;rsm;vnf; 'Dvrf;
ykdif;rSmjzpfcJhzl;ygw,f}}[k a'ocH
tif*sifeD,mwpfOD;u ajymMum;
onf/
atmifolxGef;(uav;NrdKU)

33

commodities prices

wpfywftwGif; &efukefaps;EIef;rsm;
rD;zdkaqmifoHk; ukefpnfrsm;aps;EIef; (usyf)
qefrsK;d pHak ps;EIe;f rsm;
a&Tbdkay:qef;arT;
1 jynf 1500
ykodrfay:qef;arT;(&S,f)
1 jynf 1150
ykodrfay:qef;arT;(xl;xl;½S,f) 1 jynf 1200
zsmyHkay:qef;arT;(xl;&S,f)
1 jynf 1400
zsmyHkay:qef;arT;(xl;xl;&S,f)
1 jynf 1500
rdk;ZD,m(&S,f)
1 jynf 900
a';'&Jay:qef;arT;(&S,f)
1 jynf 1100
ab;Mum;(½dk;½dk;)opf
1 jynf 1000
ay:qef;arT;(vwf)
1 jynf 900
awmifysH(xl;xl;&S,f)
1 jynf 1400
bdkuav;ay:qef;arT;(&S,f)
1 jynf 1150
ay:uRJ(½dk;½dk;)
1 jynf 800
a';'&JawmifysH(&S,f)opf
1 jynf 1200
awmifysHMuD;(½dk;½dk;)
1 jynf 1000
awmifysH(&S,f)
1 jynf 1200
raemokc(rdk;&S,f)
1 jynf 800
{nfUrx(xl;xl;&S,f)
1 jynff 750
uRef;a&T0g(&S,f)opf
1 jynf 700
a&T0gxGef;(&S,f)
1 jynf 800
a&T0gxGef;(vwf)
1 jynf 700
&mausmf(&S,f)
1 jynff 650
ipdef
1 jynf 600
qif;oG,v
f wf
1 jynf 900
aEGZD,m(xl;&S,f)
1 jynff 750
{&marT;
1 jynff 1200
a&T0gxGef;
1 jynf 700
&mausmf(½dk;½dk;)
1 jynf 600
ab;Mum;
1 jynf 1000
zsmyHkay:qef;arT;(½dk;½dk;)
1 jynf 1200
ykodrfay:qef;arT;(½dk;½dk;)
1 jynf 1100
rD;zdkaqmifoHk;ukefypönf;aps;EIef;rsm;
MuufoGefeD(tjrifUaps;)
1 ydóm 1000
MuufoGefeD(tedrfUaps;)
1 ydóm 700
MuufoGefjzL-Arm(tjrifUaps;) 1 ydóm 3000
MuufoGefjzL-Arm(tedrfUaps;) 1 ydóm 2500
tmvl;(tjrifhaps;)
1 ydóm 1000
tmvl;(tedrfUaps;)
10 usyfom; 700
csif;
10 usyfom; 300
ukvm;yJ
10 usyfom; 150
yJeDav;
10 usyfom; 350
tom;wk
10 usyfom; 250
i½kwfoD;ta&mifwifrIefY 10 usyfom; 300-700
i½kwyf ak jcmuf
10 usyo
f m; 600-700
tdkiftdk'if;qm;(50usyfom;) 1 xkyf
150
refusnf;oD;rSnfh
10 usyfom; 400

azmfjyygaps;EIef;rsm;onf Zlvdkifv 2 &ufaehwGif
aumuf,lxm;aom aps;EIef;rsm;jzpfNyD; 5% rS 10% txd
aps;EIef;tajymif;tvJ&dSEdkifygonf?

EdkifiHwumukefpnfaps;rsm;
EdkifiHwumukefpnfaps;EIef;rsm;
tm&Saps;uGuf qefaps;EIef;
(tar&duefa':vm)
(wpfwef? tar&duefa':vm)
25-6-2011
2-7-2011
xdik ;f
AD,uferf ygupöwef
a&eHpdrf;(wpfpnf)
91 .23
94 .75 100%qefjzL 519
a&T(atmifp)
1502 .45
1487 .76 5%qefusKd;yg 503
480
530
aiG(atmifp)
34 .31
33 .88 10%qefusKd;yg 4 .32
"mwfaiGY(mmbtu) 4 .25
15%qefusKd;yg "mwfqD(wpf*gvef)
2 .78
2 .96
25%qefusKd;yg 469
440
431
*sKH(aygif 60 tdwf) 7 .67
7 .20
aygif;qef
529
a&Taps;EIef;rsm;(usyf)
15yJ&nf
tacguf

wpfusyo
f m;
wpfusyo
f m;

615000
653000

&efukef&Sd yk*¾vdupufoHk;qDta&mif;aps;EIef;rsm; (usyf? Zlvdkifv 2 &ufaehaps;rsm;)
qdkiftrnf

ta&twGuf
wpf*gvef
wpf*gvef
wpf*gvef
wpf*gvef
wpf*gvef
wpf*gvef
wpf*gvef
wpf*gvef
wpf*gvef
wpf*gvef
wpf*gvef
wpf*gvef

PETRO K
HTOO

ruf(pf)jrefrm
ol&d,pGrf;tif
KZH

jr0wD
ST Oil
Petro Green

jrwfarwÅmrGef
NEW DAY
Green luck
2000

"mwfqD
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500

'DZ,f
3645
3600
3600
3600
3550
3550
3600
3500
3700(y&DrD,H)
3600
3600
3600

pm;oHk;qDaps;EIef;rsm;(usyf)
ajryJqDoefh
ajryJqD(½dk;½dk;)
yJESrf;a&mqD

yJrsKd;pHk

1 ydóm
1 ydóm
1 ydóm
FOB

4200
3200
3700

yJydpyfqD
taMumfcq
H D
ykpGefESpfaumifqD

aps;EIef;rsm; (wpfwef? tar&duefa':vm)

rwfyJ
rwfyJ
rwfyJ
rwfyJ
yJwDpdrf;(tnm)
yJwDpdrf;(yckuúL)
yJwDpdrf;
yJwDpdrf;
yJwDpdrf;(tcGHygvHk;ao;jcrf;)
yJwDpdrf;(tcGHygvHk;ao;jcrf;)
yJpif;iHk
yJpif;iHk
yJpOf;iHk
yJpOf;iHk
ukvm;yJjzLvH;k Mu;D

FAQ
SQ

tcGHcRwftvHk;
tcGHygtjcrf;
FAQ
FAQ

a½T0gtao;
a½T0gtMu;D
tnm
yckuúL
topfteD
topfjzLeD
topftjzL
ta[mif;teD
tcGHcRwftjcrf;

750-770
850-870
1075-1100
940-965
1000-1020
950-970
1180-1200
1280-1300
1250-1275
1215-1240
620-640
520-540
520-540
600-620
1135-1160

(txufyg yJaps;EIe;f rsm;udk bk&ifah emifuek pf nf'ikd rf aS umuf,x
l m;jcif;jzpfygonf/)

jyifqifzwf½yI g&ef
Weekly Eleven News *sme,f

atmufwdef;
3800
3800
3900
3800
3800
3800
3650
3800
3700
3700

twGJ(6)? trSwf(34) pmrsufESm(8)wGifyg&Sdaom ]jynfyrSvma&mufvkyfudkifonfU ukrÜPD?
[kdw,f? vkyfief;rsm;ü0ifa&mufvkyfudkifaeaom jrefrmtvkyform;rsm;\vpmukd; EdkifiHjcm;om;rsm;&&SdonfhEIef;xm;twdkif;&&Sd&efpDpOfay;vsuf
&Sdonf[kqdk}owif;yg ]EdkifiHjcm;om;rsm;&&SdonfUEIef;xm;twdkif;&&Sdap&ef}pmom;tpm; ]EdkifiHjcm;om;rsm;&&SdonfUEIef;xm;twdkif; r&awmif
&oifU&xdkufonfUvpmrsKd;&&Sdap&ef}[k jyifqifzwf½Iyg&ef/

1 ydóm
1 ydóm
1 bl;

3600
2000
8500

EdkifiHwumaiGaMu;vJvS,frIEIef;rsm;
( t a r &d u ef w pf a ': v m ES ifU nD rQ a o m a ps ; EI ef ; jz pf o nf )
EdkifiHtrnf
aiGtrsKd;tpm;
25-6-2011
2-7-2011
Oa&myor*¾
,l½dk
0 .705
0 .688
NAdwdef
aygif
0 .626
0 .622
qGpfZmvef
z&efhpf
0 .837
0 .848
MopaMw;vs
a':vm
0 .953
0 .928
uae'g
a':vm
0 .987
0 .958
ruúqDudk
yDqkd
11 .857
11 .605
awmiftmz&du
&ef;
6 .900
6 .728
*syef
,ef;
80 .500
80 .830
,lattD;
Dirham
3 .673
3 .673
w½kwf
,Grf
6 .475
6 .465
a[mifaumif
a':vm
7 .791
7 .781
pifumyl
a':vm
1 .235
1 .227
rav;&Sm;
&if;*pf
3 .040
3 .010
tdE´d,
½lyD;
44 .990
44 .620
xdkif;
bwf
30 .690
30 .790
w½kwf(wdkifay)
a':vm
28 .882
28 .747
awmifudk&D;,m;
0rf
1078 .800
1064 .850
ul0dwf
Dinars
0 .275
0 .274
umwm
Riyals
3 .641
3 .641
bm&def;
Dinars
0 .377
0 .377
zdvpfydkif
Pesos
43 .300
43 .170
½k&Sm;
½lb,f
28 .175
27 .820
e,l;ZDvef
a':vm
1 .233
1 .208
b*Fvm;a'h&Sf
wmum
73 .900
74 .300
ta0;ajy;um;vufrSwfaps;EIef;rsm;(usyf)
rEåav;
rdwv
D¬ m
aejynfawmf
jyifOD;vGif
jrif;jcH

atmifausmrf ;kd
rEåvmar
rEåvmar
rEåvmar
r[m

10400
8200
5900
11400
9500

rauG;
ppfawG
rH&k mG
ykodrf
a&Tbdk

jynfjh zKd ;atmif
wd;k &wem
atmmifausmrf ;kd
pdk;at;
pdefaX;vdIif

7500
15200
12500
3000
14000

anmifwkef;NrdKYe,f qm;ravmufaus;&GmwGif avjyif;wdkufcwf
vlaetdrfajc 27 vHk; NydKusysufpD;um opfyifrsm;vJNydK

anmifwkef;NrdKUe,f qm;r
avmufaus;&GmtkyfpkwGif ZGefv
29 &ufaeY nae 6 em&Du av
jyif;wdkufcwfojzifh opfyifBuD;
rsm;usKd;yJhvJNydKjcif;? vlaetdrfajc
rsm;NydKusysufpD;jcif;rsm; jzpfyGm;
oGm;aMumif; od&Sd&onf/

avjyif;wdkufcwfrIaMumifh
qm;ravmufaus;&Gmtkypf t
k wGi;f
&Sd olaX;ukef;&Gm? 0g;awm&Gm?
anmifyifom&Gm? uGif;uav;&Gm?
qm;ravmuf&Gmrsm;&Sd oGyfrdk;ysOf
axmiftdrfwpfvHk;ESifh wJtdrf 26
vHk;? pkpkaygif;tdrfajc 27 vHk;NydK

usysupf ;D oGm;aMumif;od&&dS onf/
vlESifhwd&pämefrsm;xdcdkufaoqHk;rI
r&SdaMumif; od&Sd&onf/
tcif;jzpfyGm;&modkY anmif
wkef;NrdKUe,ftkyfcsKyfa&;rSL; OD;cif
rif;? NrdKUe,f&JwyfzGJUrSL;'k&JrSL;
atmif0if;ESihf NrdKUe,fobm0ab;

tEÅ & m,f w m;qD ; umuG , f a &;
aumfrwD0ifrsm;oGm;a&mufNyD;
vdktyfonfrsm; ulnDaqmif&Guf
ay;cJhaMumif; od&Sd&onf/
avjyif;wdkufcwfrIaMumifh
12ESpftxufusm; 25 OD;? r 34
OD;? 12 ESpfatmufusm; 27 OD;? r
30 OD;pkpkaygif; 116 OD;udk eD;pyf
&maqGrsK;d rsm;tdro
f Ykd a&TUajymif;ay;
cJh&aMumif; od&Sd&onf/
avjyif;wdkufcwfrIaMumifh
qm;ravmuft&ufcsufpuf½kH\
oGyfrdk;tenf;i,fvefoGm;onfh
tjyif t&ufcsufpuf½kHt0ifvQyf
ppf"mwfwikd t
f enf;i,fysupf ;D oGm;
aMumif;?usKd;yJv
h NJ ydKcJah om opfyif
rsm;udk &Sif;vif;z,f&Sm;vsuf&Sd
aMumif; od&Sd&onf/
]avjyif;u tcsdeftenf;
i,fwdkufoGm;ayr,fh ysufpD;rIu
enf;enf;rsm;oGm;ygw,f}[k rsuf
jrifawGY&o
dS w
l pfO;D u ajymygonf/
]]rdk;csKyfcgpqdkawmh rdk;u
vnf;arSmifvmNyD;avqifEmS armif;
vdkavjyif;wdkufcwfoGm;wmyg/
vrf;ab;opfyifawGu tyif&n
S f
BuD;awGjzpfawmh usKd;yJv
h u
J srIrsm;
ygw,f}}[k&Gmom;wpfOD;u ajym
ygonf/ aevif;(anmifwek ;f )

Pg-34
ar,kawmifay:um;vrf;wGif
awmifajrNydKqif;&mü c&D;onfum;wpfpD;
ajrom;rsm;atmufa&mufoGm;cJU
ar,k a wmif a y:um;vrf ;
ay:wGif ZGefv 30 &ufaeYu
awmifajrNydKqif;jcif;rsm;jzpfay:
cJ&h m bl;oD;awmifrS armifawmNrdKU
odYkvmaomc&D;onfwif[ikd ;f vwf
um;wpfpD;rSm awmifacgif;BuD;
t0teD;ta&mufü awmifajrNydK
qif;&mwGif epfygoGm;aMumif;
owif;&&Sdonf/
armfawmfum;rSm awmifajr
atmufodkYa&mufoGm;aomfvnf;
c&D;onfrsm;tcsdefrDajy;xGufEdkif
cJo
h jzifh wpfpw
kH pf&mxdcu
kd 'f Pf&m
r&&SdcJhaMumif; od&onf/
]]uRefawmfwdkY bl;oD;awmif
uxGufvmuwnf;u rdk;t&rf;

&Gmaeygw,f/ awmifacgif;t0
vnf;a&mufa&m rdk;BudK;ypfvkduf
wmeJYawmifajru ½kwfw&ufNydK
qif ; vmw,f / c&D ; onf a wG
awmh xdcdkuf'Pf&mr&bJvGwf
oGm;ygw,f/ um;awmhajratmuf
a&mufoGm;w,f/ cPvnf;Mum
awmh ,mOfxed ;f &JawGeYJaqmufvyk f
a&;uwm0ef&o
dS al wGa&mufvmNyD;
pufawGeYJw;l azmfaeygw,f}}[k t
qdyk g[dik ;f vwfum;armif;orm;u
ajymonf/jynfolYaqmufvkyfa&;
rS tif*sifeD,mrsm;u um;vrf;
ydwq
f Ykd rrI sm;udpk uf,EÅ&m;rsm;jzifh
&Sif;vif;aqmif&GufaeaMumif; od
&onf/
om;a&TOD;(upäy)

oHvGif(armfvjrdKif)wHwm; ydwfcsdefavQmhcsjcif;jzihf xm;0,fc½dkiftwGif;ü rdk;&ufquf&GmoGef;cJhrIaMumifh acsmif;a&rsm;vQHwufvmNyD; v,f{uwcsKdU a&vTrf;jcif;cHch J &
m&Dwikd ;f a'oBuD; xm; eJYeD;wJhv,fawG tukefvHk;eD;yg; awGvnf;usOf;vmvdkY awmifus &Gm&ifvnf; t&rf;&GmNyD; r&Gm&if
c&D;onfrsm;oGm;vmrItay: tusKd;oufa&mufrI&dS 0,fcweoF
½dkiftwGif;&Sd tcsKdUae&mrsm; a&vTr;f oGm;cJyh gw,f/ wcsKUd v,f a&awGrqif;EdkifbJ ydkNyD;vQHwuf vnf;vHk;0r&GmbJ awGUMuHKae&
oHvGif(armfvjrdKif)wHwm;
ydwfcsdefavQmhcsjcif;jzihfc&D;onf
rsm;oGm;vmrItay: tusKd;ouf
a&mufrI&dSaMumif; a'ocHc&D;oGm;
rsm;xHrS od&dS&onf/
]]udpöay:vdkYnum;eJU&efukef
oGm;wm eHeuf 2 em&Davmuf
NrdKUxJ0ifawmh wnf;r,fhtdrfudk
oGm;zdkUroihfwmeJU eHeuf 6 em&D
avmufxdvrf;ab;vufzuf&nf
qdkifrSm tcsdefjzKef;cJh&ygw,f/

armfvjrdKiftjyefusawmhvnf;
rkwårudk eHeuf2em&Dausmfa&muf
jyD; wHwm;tzGihf eHeuf5em&DcJGxd
apmihfae&w,f}[k jrdKUcHwpfOD;u
ajymygonf/
oHvGif(armfvjrdKif)wHwm;
tm; wnfaqmufNyD;ptcsed u
f n
6 em&DrSeHeuf 6 em&Dxdjzwfoef;
cGihfuefUowfxm;NyD; ,cktcgn
9 em&DrS eHeuf 5 em&DcJGxd avQmh
ayghay;cJhonf[k od&onf/

wGif ZGefv 22 &ufcefYrSpí rdk;
onf;xefpmG qufwu
kd &f mG oGe;f cJrh I
aMumifh xm;0,fjrpfa&rsm;vQw
H uf
vmNyD;jrpfvufwufrsm;ESiehf ;D uyf
vsuf&Sdaom aus;&Gmrsm;&Sdv,f
ajrrsm;wGif a&vQHrIrsm;ydkrdkjzpfyGm;
cJu
h m v,f{uwcsKdUa&epfysufp;D
cJhaMumif; od&onf/
]]rdk;uckepf&ufavmufquf
wdkuf &GmcJhawmh acsmif;zsm;ua&
awGwpf[ek x
f ;kd qif;vmNyD;urf;yg;

awGqdk&if pyg;ysKd;yifcsxm;wkef;
yJ&Sdao;w,f/ a&epfoGm;awmh t
ukefvHk;ukeaf &m/ twGi;f bufyikd ;f
uswhJ v,fawGuawmh ysK;d yifawG
jyefvu
kd q
f ,fvYkd&cJw
h mawG&w
dS ,f/
t&ifESpfawGwkef;u 'DvdktcsdefrSm
a&enf;enf;wufwwfayr,fh qd;k
qdk;&Gm;&Gm;r[kwfygbl;/ 'DESpfrSm
xm;0,fjrpfu oJaomifawGay:
vmwmydkrsm;vmNyD; jrpfa&wdrf
vmw,f?aemufNy;D a&qif;wJah csmif;

vmwmyg}}[kxm;0,fNrdKUe,fZ[m
&GmrSawmifolwpfOD;u qdkonf/
]]rdk;&moDrdk;&Gmwmu yHkrSef
r[kwfawmh v,fxJrSmxGefa&;
pwifzdkYtwGuf tcufawGUcJh&yg
w,f/ ZGev
f v,favmufrmS rd;k jyef
&Gmvmawmh rdk;yHkrSefjzpfNyDxifvdkY
xGefa&;pvdkufwm rdk;uydkrsm;vm
NyD; a&awGygvQHwufvmawmhxeG f
a&;csxm;wm tvum;jzpfoGm;
w,f/ rdk;uvnf; yHkrSefr[kwfbJ

awmh pyg;qufpu
kd zf Ykd b,fvv
kd yk f
&ifaumif;rvJvdkY pOf;pm;ae&yg
w,f/ tckvukefcgeD;rSmawmh
rd;k vnf;wjznf;jznf; enf;vmNyD;
a&jyefuspjyKaeygNyD/ a&tm;vHk;
jyefusoGm;&if v,fawGujkd yefjyif
&OD;rSmyg/ aemufxyf rdk;rsm;NyD;
a&rvQzH Ykdqak wmif;ae&ygw,f}}[k
avmif;vHNk rdKUe,fraS wmifow
l pfO;D
u qdkygonf/
NzdK;Zif(xm;0,f)

zrf;qD;&rdaom rl;,pfaq;0g;ESifh "mwkypönf;rsm; vm;½dI;NrdKUwGif rD;½dIUzsufqD;

tjynfjynfqkdif&m rl;,pf
aq;0g;tvJGoHk;rIESifh w&m;r0if
a&mif ; 0,f r I wk d u f z suf a &;aeY
tcrf;tem;ukd ZGev
f 26&ufaeYu
vm;½dI;NrdKU&dS ae&moHk;ae&mwGif
usif;yjyKvkycf ahJ Mumif; od&onf/
tjynfjynfqkdif&m rl;,pf
aq;0g;tvJGoHk;rIESifh w&m;r0if
a&mif;0,frw
I u
dk zf suaf &;aeYtcrf;

tem;ukd vm;½dI;NrdKU NrdKUawmfcef;r
ü usif;ycJhNyD; ,if;tcrf;tem;
NyD;aemuf jynfaxmifpktm;upm;
uGif;wGif zrf;qD;&rdaom rl;,pf
aq;0g;rsm;rD;½dIUzsufqD;yJGusif;y
í tEÅ&m,f&dS aygufuJGapwwf
aom "mwkaq;&nfESifh tufqpf
rsm;? qufpyfypönf;rsm;ukd vm;
½dI;-er®wltxGuf NrdKUjyif acsmuf

urf;yg;wGif pGefYypfrD;½dIUcJhjcif;rsm;
jyKvkyfcJhMuaMumif; od&onf/
rl;,pfaq;0g; rD;½dIUzsufqD;
yJGwGif &Srf;jynfe,f(ajrmufykdif;)?
rauG;wkid ;f a'oBuD;?rEÅav;wkid ;f
a'oBuD;wkdYrS zrf;qD;&rdaom rl;
,pfaq;0g;rsm;ESihf "mwkaq;&nf
rsm;? "mwkypönf;rsm;ukd rD;½dIUzsuf
qD;cJhjcif;jzpfaMumif; od&onf/

Pg-35
csif;awmifajca'owGif0ufem;&Gufjyma&m*g aejynfawmf? rEåav;ESifU jyifOD;vGifNrdKYwdkhwGif jzpfyGm;cJhonfUaygufuGJrIESifU
pyfvsOf;í today;csufrsm;xkwfjyefxm;NyD; tdrf&SiftdrfiSm;tiftm;
jzpfyGm;rIr&Sdaomfvnf; jrefrm-tdE´d,
pm&if;aumuf,ljcif;rsm; aqmif&Gufae
e,fpyfokdh 0ufwifykdhrIenf;yg;

csif;awmifajca'owGif 0uf
em;&Gufjyma&ma*gjzpfyGm;rI r&Sd
aomfvnf;jrefrm-tdE´d,e,fpyf
okYd0ufwifyYdkreI nf;yg;vsu&f o
dS nf
[k od&Sd&ygonf/
]]csif;awmifajca'oawGrSm
0ufem;&Gufjyma&m*g jzpfyGm;rI
r&Sdygbl;/ 0ufem;&Gufjyma&m*geJY
ywfoufvkdYa[majymyGJawG? tod
ynmay;rIawG vkyfjzpfygw,f/
wjcm;a'ou0ufawG0ifa&muf
rIr&Sdygbl;/ txl;ojzifh rkH&GmNrdKUeJY
rEÅav;NrdKUawGu0ufawG0ifa&muf
rIr&Sdygbl;/ uav;NrdKUrSm0ufaps;
usaew,f/ 'ghaMumifeh ,fpyfjzwf
ausmfa&m*g0ifa&mufrIr&Sdygbl;/
aps;rukdufbl;/ vrf;raumif;bl;
qkdawmh rvmawmhbl;aygh}}[k
uav;NrdKUwd&dpämefarG;jrLa&;ESifh
ukoa&;OD;pD;XmerSwm0ef&Sdol
wpfOD;u ajymMum;cJhygonf/
uav;NrdKUe,fESifhcsif;awmif
ajca'otwGif;&Sd0ufrsm;ukda'o
wGif;pm;okH;rIomru jrefrmtdE,
d´ e,fpyfuek o
f ,
G af &;\t"du
wifyYdk uek t
f jzpftEd ,
d´ Ekid if H rDZ&dk rf
jynfe,fokdYwifykdYvsuf&SdaMumif;?

rDZkd&rfjynfe,fonf 0ufom;pm;
okH;rIrsm;jym;NyD;0ufarG;jrL&efcuf
cJaoma'ojzpfaMumif;od&onf/
]]0ufawGucdk sif;jynfe,f &d'f
acg'gNrdKUe,fcGJuwpfqifh tdE´d,
Ekid if rH ZD &dk rfjynfe,fuw
dk ifyYdyk gw,f/
'Djynfe,fu0ufom;pm;ok;H rI jrifh
rm;NyD;arG;jrLzkdY tcuftcJ&Sdw,f/
'gaMumifh0ufom;vkdtyfcsufukd
jrefrmEkid if u
H yJwifyYdak y;ae&wmyg/
tckvkdrkd;&moDrSm vrf;yef;quf
oG,fa&;tcuftcJaMumifh 0uf
um;awGuvrf;c&D;rSmMuefYMum
wwfygw,f/ 'Dvkdvrf;c&D;rSm
MuefYMumw,fqkd&if 0ufawGao
Muw,f/ um;wpfpD;rSm 0ufwpf
aumifaow,fq&dk if t½I;H ay:NyD/
tckavmavmq,f jrefrmaiGaps;
jrifrh m;rIaMumifh wifyYdkvYdk wGuaf cs
ruku
d b
f ;l / jrefrm-tdE,
d´ e,fpyf
0ufaps;uvnf;t&ifaps;xuf
30 &mckdifEIef;avmuf usqif;ae
w,f/ 'DvkdtcuftcJawGaMumifh
0ufwifykdYrI enf;vmwmyg}}[k
jrefrm-tdE´d,e,fpyfokdY 0ufwif
ykdYaeolwpfOD;u ajymMum;onf/
atmifolxGef;(uav;NrdKU)

aejynfawmf? rEÅav;ESifh
jyif OD;vGijf rdKUwGif NyD;cJo
h nfZh eG v
f
24 &ufaeYujzpfymG ;cJo
h nfh ayguf
uGJrIrsm;ESifhpyfvsOf;í oufqkdif
&mrSoo
H ,&do
S rl sm;udk zrf;qD;Ekid f
a&;ESifh rouFmolrsm;tm;awGU&dS
ygu owif;rsm;ay;ydkYEkdifaMumif;
oufqkdif&mrS today;xkwfjyef
xm;aMumif; od&onf/
tqkdyg today;xkwfjyef
csuw
f iG f aygufurJG jI zpfpOfrsm;ay:
wGif oufqkdif&mtzGJUtpnf;rsm;
\ xkwjf yefcsuft& aejynfawmf
wGif aygufuGJaomaetdrfrSm rEÅ
av;NrdKU r[matmifajrNrdKUe,fae
a':oef;jrifh\ aetdrfjzpfNyD; {jyD
v 24 &ufaeYu pkdif;qrfESifh pkdif;
tkdufqkdolwkdYu wpfvvQif aiG
usyaf jcmufoed ;f ig;aomif;EIe;f jzifh
ajcmufvpmay;í iSm;&rf;xm;
jcif;jzpfNyD; jyifOD;vGifNrdKUü ayguf
uGJrIjzpfcJhonfhaetdrfrSm a':apm
pE´m ykdifqkdifonfh aetdrfjzpfNyD;
pkdif;qrfESifh pkdif;tkdufqkdolwkdYu
yif arv 5 &ufaeYu wpfv
vQif wpfoed ;f av;aomif;EIe;f jzifh
ajcmufvpmay;í iSm;&rf;aecJh
jcif;jzpfonf[k od&onf/

rEÅav;NrdKU aps;csKdwkdufwef;
a&SUwGif aygufuGJcJhonfh um;rSm
vnf; vkdifpifrJh,mOfwpfpD;jzpf
umZGefv21 &ufaeYu um;yGJpm;
ESpfOD;rSwpfqifh trsKd;om;oHk;OD;
u aiGusyfodef; 60 jzifh 0,f,lcJh
aMumif;od&ojzihf,if;trsKd;om;
oHk;OD;tm; pdppfcJh&m aejynfawmf
ESifh jyifO;D vGiw
f Ydk wiG f {NyDEiS fh arv
u aygufuGJrIjzpfyGm;cJhonhf tdrf

aejynfawmfaumifpeD ,fajrtwGi;f ü e,fajrvkjH cKH a&;twGuf
vlaexkdifjcif;r&dSonfUaps;qkdifESifUvlaetdrfrsm;tygt0iftaqmuf
ttkHrsm;ukdzGifhvSpfppfaq;jcif;? tdrf&SiftdrfiSm;?qkdif&SifqkdifiSm;rsm;
tiftm;pm&if;rsm;aumuf,lrsm;ukd aqmif&Gufvsuf&dS . . .
rsm;udk iSm;&rf;cJo
h nhf pdik ;f qrfEiS fh
pdik ;f tku
d q
f o
kd w
l Ydk jzpfz,
G &f adS Mumif;
twnfjyKEdik cf o
hJ nf[k od&onf/
oufqidk &f m tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;
\xkwfjyefcsufwGif aygufuGJrI
jzpfpOfEiS yhf wfoufí oHo,&So
d l
pkdif;qrf? pdkif;tkdufESifh pdkif;ausmf
jrihfOD;wkdY\ yHkyef;oP²mefrsm;udk
azmfjyxm;NyD; tqkdyg rouFmol
rsm;udak wGU&Syd gujynforl sm;tae
jzifh eD;pyf&mvHkjcHKa&;tzGJUtpnf;

w½kwEf idk if q
H &dk if 164 z&Jwpfwef
udk ,Grf 1600 uae ,Grf 1800
txdaps;ay;0,f,lMuwJhESpfawG
vnf;&Sdygw,f}}[k e,fpyftajc
pdkufz&JukefonfwpfOD;u ajym
onf/
]]164 z&Jqdk&if 2006 ckESpf
twGif;u jynfwGif;aygufaps;
wpfv;kH usyf 600 xuf rydyk gbl;/
2006 ckESpfaemufydkif;rSm w½kwf
ut0,fvdkufvmwJhtwGufaps;

bJ owdxm;apmifhMunhfwwfwJh
vHkjcHKa&; tjrif&SdzdkYvnf; vdkyg
w,f/ ud,
k &hf yfuu
G x
f u
J vlrae
wmMumwJh tdrfwpftdrfrSm vlt
0iftxGuf&SdNyDqkdwmeJY owdxm;
p&mjzpfvmw,f/ud,
k &hf yfuu
G x
f J
rSmntdyn
f aevlprd ;f t0iftxGuf
rsm;vmNyDqkd&ifvnf; owdxm;
p&mjzpfvmw,f/ 'DvkdvHkjcHKa&;
tjrifrsKd;eJYowd&Sdr,fqdk&if&Jvkyf
ief;rSm jynfolyg0ifvmwmygyJ/

&Jvkyfief;rSm jynfolyg0ifrS xd
a&mufatmifjrifwJh vHkjcHKa&;&rSm
yg/ &JwyfzGJU0ifawGuvnf;jynf
olawGyg0ifvmatmifpnf;½H;k zdYkvydk g
w,f}}[k jynfxJa&;0efBuD;Xme?
jrefrmEkid if &H w
J yfzUJG rStqihjf rift
h &m
&SBd uD;wpfO;D uajymMum;cJyh gonf/
aejynfawmfaumifpDe,fajr
twGi;f ü e,fajrvkjH cHKa&;twGuf
vlaexkid jf cif;r&do
S nfh aps;qkid Ef iS hf
vlaetdrfrsm;tygt0iftaqmuf
ttkHrsm;ukd zGifhvSpfppfaq;jcif;?
tdr&f iS t
f rd if mS ;? qkid &f iS q
f idk if mS ;rsm;
tiftm;pm&if;rsm; aumuf,lrsm;
ukdaqmif&Gufvsuf&dSonf/
]]aejynfawmfaumifpDe,f
ajrtwGif;rSmawmh vlaexkdifjcif;
r&SdwJhaetdrfawG? aps;qkdifcef;
awGudkpdppfaeygw,f/ wcsKdUtdrf
awGusawmhtdrf&Sifuvnf; 'D&yf
uGufur[kwfawmh tdrfiSm;&Sdae
ayr,fh tdrf&Sifb,folrSef;rodbJ
tqifq
h ifph pkH rf;ae&mwm awG&ydS g
w,f/ 'gaMumifhtdrf&SiftdrfiSm;
tiftm;pm&if;aumuf,lrIaqmif
&Gufaewmjzpfygw,f}}[kaejynf
awmfa&TMumyif&yfuu
G t
f yk cf sKyaf &;
rSL;wpfOD;u ajymMum;cJhygonf/
aejynfawmfysOf;rem;owif;tzGUJ

weoFm&Da'oxGufykpGefajcmufrsm; jr0wDESifhrJaqmufaps;uGufwGif 0,fvdktm;jrifhrm;
u&ifjynfe,f ?jr0wDc&dkif
jrKdYodkY&efukef-armfvjrdKif-jr0wDD
ukefoG,fvrf;aMumif;rSpD;0ifvm
aomNrdwfykpGefajcmufrsm; jr0wD
ESihf rJaqmufaps;uGuw
f iG f pm;oH;k
oltBudKufjzpfNyD;0,fvdktm;jrifh
rm;vsu&f adS Mumif;?ykpeG o
f m;ayguf
&moDjzpfí ,cifaEGvrsm;xuf

txGufEIef;avsmhum aps;jrifhrm;
vsuf&SdaMumif;od&onf/
]]jr0wDaps;uGufudk armfv
NrdKif? &efukef? bufuvmwJh Nrdwf
ykpeG af jcmufeYJ &cdik jf ynfe,f awmif
ukwf? trf;vrf;uae0ifvmwJh
ykpGefajcmufawGtjyif‘'dkufOD;u
vmwJah &csKdajcmufawGvnf;0ifyg

w½kwft0,fvdkufaeaom0rf;ppfzdk;z&JoD;rsm;udkrlq,fe,fpyfukefoG,fvrf;aMumif;tjyif jr0wDokdhwifykdhrIrsm;jym;
w½kwfEkdifiHrS t0,fvdkuf
vsuf&Sdaom 0rf;ppfzdk;jrefrmz&J
oD;rsm;udrk q
l ,fe,fpyfrw
S pfqifh
wifydkYvsuf&SdaeouJhokdY e,fpyf
ukefoG,fvrf;aMumif;rSwpfqifh
jr0wD? wmhc½kdifrJaqmufNrdKUrsm;
odkYwpf&ufjcm;yHkrSefwifydkYvsuf&Sd
aeaMumif; owif;&&Sdonf/
jrefrmhz&JoD;aps;uGufwGif
144? 164? 737? ZD ; zvm;?
tifygwl; ponft
h rsKd;tpm;rsm;&Sd
NyD; 164 z&JoD;rSm e,fpyfaps;
uGuw
f iG ef mrnf&vsu&f u
dS mw½kwf
Edik if EH iS hf xkid ;f Ekid if w
H Ydk rt
S 0,fvu
kd f
aMumif;?xko
d Ydkt0,fvu
kd &f jcif;rSm
ta&mifaumif;? t&omcsKNd yD; wpf
vausmcf efYtxm;cHjcif;aMumifjh zpf
aMumif; od&Sd&onf/
]]144 uvHk;vHk;? 737 u
&Snf&SnfjzLMum;? tifygwl;u
tjzL? ZD;zvm;u pdrf;Mum;jzpfNyD;
164 u&Snf&Snfpdrf;pdrf;jzpfyg
w,f/ w½kwfEkdifiHeJYxkdif;EkdifiHawG
uwm&Snt
f xm;cHNy;D ta&mifaumif;
t&omcsKdwJh 164 udk tBudKuf
awGY0,f,lwm awGY&ygw,f/

rsm;odYk owif;ay;ydYk yg&ef tqkyd g
today;xkwfjyefcsufüyg&Sdonf/
]]jynfolawG&JU vHkjcHKa&;udk
aqmif&GufwJhae&mrSm jynfolyg
0ifwJh &Jvkyfief;pepf (Public Policing) u b,favmufatmifjrif
ovJqkdwm ta&;BuD;ygw,f/
jynfolwpfa,muftaeeJY udk,fh
ywf0ef;usifrSm jzpfay:aewJht
ajctaeudk arharhavsmhavsmhrae

jrifhoGm;&wmyg/ 164 u w½kwf
EkdifiHursKd;jzpfayr,fh olwdkYqDrSm
rjzpfxeG ;f bJuReaf wmfwYdkqrD mS om
jzpfxGef;wmrdkYaps;aumif;&&SdwJh
tajctaerSm&Sdygw,f}}[k quf
vufajymMum;cJh onf/
w½kwfEkdifiHESifh xkdif;EkdifiHwkdY
rS t0,fvkdufaom jrefrmhz&JoD;
rsm;udk yJc;l wkid ;f a'oBuD;twGi;f &Sd
'dkufOD;? OuúH? tif;r? awmifil?
ausmufwHcg;? uRJ? yGJtif;wkdYrS

vnf;aumif;? rEÅav;wkdif;a'o
BuD; twGif;&Sd Muufarmuf? 0rf;
wGif;? wyfukef;? uRJqnfuefwdkYrS
vnf;aumif; xGuf&SdaMumif; od
&Sd&ygonf/
164 z&JoD;rsm;udk ZGefv
qef;ydkif;rSpí jr0wDukefoG,f
vrf;aMumif;rSwpfqifh wpf&uf
jcm;yHkrSef 12 bD;,mOfrsm;jzifh wif
ydkYvsuf&SdaMumif; od&Sd&onf/
pdk;pdk;(bm;tH)

w,f}}[kbk&ifhaemifaps;rS ig;
ajcmufESifh ykpGefajcmufa&mif;csol
wpfOD;u ajymonf/
jr0wDaps;uGufodkY 0ifvm
aomykpGefajcmuf?ig;yd? ig;ajcmuf
rsm;rSmaomif&if;jrpfwpfzufurf;
rJaqmufaps;uGufodkYwifydkYa&mif;
csvsuf&Sd&m NrdwfykpGefajcmufrsm;

rSmvlBudKufrsm;aps;uGuf0ifvsuf
&SdaMumif;? ykpGefajcmufwpfuDvdk
(65usyfom;)vQif bwfaiG 500
^400 jzifah &mif;csvsuf&adS Mumif;?
jr0wDaps;uGufwGif wpfydóm
vQif usyf 12000? 15000?
18000 wdkYjzifh a&mif;csvQuf&Sd
aMumif; od&onf/

ppfawGurf;ajcwGif
bef*vkrd sm;wnfaqmufvm
jrefrmEkdifiHtwGif;urf;ajc
tajrmuftjrm;wGif [kdw,frsm;
aqmufvkyfvmouJhokdY wnf;ckd
aqmifrsm;uJo
h Ydk aomtaqmifrsm;
vnf; aqmufvkyfvmcJhMu&m ppf
awG[w
dk ,furf;ajcwGiv
f nf;bef
*vkdrsm;aqmufvmcJhMuaMumif;?
odYk aomfvnf;0efaqmifrI vkyif ef;
tay:wGifrlwnfum ajymif;vJ
wk;d wufrrI sm;jzpfay:vmEkid af Mumif;
a'ocHrsm;uokH;oyfajymMum;Mu
ygonf/ bef*vkrd sm;wnfaqmuf
vmjcif;onf ppfawG[w
dk ,furf;
ajctwGufaumif;aom tcsuf
tvufrsm;jzpfaMumif;ESifhjzpfay:
vmaom taMumif;t&mrsm;ay:
wGifrlwnfuma'ocHrsm; tvkyf
tukdiftcGifhtvrf;yGifhvif;vmrI
rsm;&SEd idk af Mumif;vnf;od&&dS onf/
]]bef*vkdrsm; aqmufwnf
qkw
d muvnf;aumif;wJv
h u©Pm
wpfckjzpfw,f/ 'gayr,fhb,f
avmuftwkdif;twmxd aumif;
vmr,fqkdwmukdajymzkdYcufw,f/

vkyfief;tcGifhtvrf;awG b,f
avmuf&SdvmrvJqkdwmukdvnf;
xnfw
h u
G zf Ydkvw
dk ,fvYdkjrifygw,f/
'gaMumihf ppfawGurf;ajcrSm bef
*vkdwpfckwnf; aqmufvkyf½kHeJY
rNyD;bl;/ trsm;BuD;aqmufvkyf
zkdYvkdw,f/ NyD;awmh urf;ajc&JU
vSyom,mrIuv
dk nf;xnfw
h u
G zf Ydk
vkdr,fvkdYxifygw,f}}[k ppfawG
rS pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;&SifwpfOD;u
ajymMum;cJhygonf/
]]'Durf;ajcrSm bef*vkdawG
aqmufzYdk tpuwnf;upDpOfxm;
wmyg/ 'gayr,fhtaMumif;trsKd;
rsKd;aMumifh raqmufvkyfEkdifcJhbl;/
urf;ajcom,mvSyzkdYeJYurf;ajc
rSm 'DvkdtaqmifrsKd;awG rsm;rsm;
jzpfvmapzkdY? ay:aygufvmapzkdY
t"duxm;cJhwmjzpfygw,f/urf;
ajc&JUtvSaMumifh aemufqkd ykdrkd
pnfum;vmr,fvYdk vnf;,kMH unf
ygw,f}}[k bef*vkdaqmufvkyf
aeolu ajymMum;cJhygonf/
om;BuD;jrwf(ppfawG)

aejynfawmfaumifpeD ,fajrtwGi;f ,mOfpnf;urf;
vrf;pnf;urf;qkid &f mpDrcH su'f PfaiGy,fzsuNf y;D
axmif'Pf? aiG'Pffrsm;jzifUta&;,loGm;rnf
aejynfawmfaumifpD e,fajr
twGif; ,mOfpnf;urf;vrf;pnf;
urf;csKd;azmufrrI sm;udk ,cifu pD
rHcsuf'PfaiG (21500)usyf wyf
½du
k t
f a&;,ljcif;&Scd ahJ omfvnf; NyD;
cJhonhf ZGefv (24)&ufaeYrSpwif
um pDrHcsuf'PfaiGjzifh ta&;,l
jcif;udk y,fzsuffvkdufNyD; aejynf
awmfpnfyifom,ma&;aumfrwD\
trdefYaMumfjimpmtrSwf71^2011
t& vdktyfovdk ta&;,laqmif
&Guo
f mG ;rnfjzpfonf[o
k &d onf/
tqkyd g trdeYfaMumfjimpmwGif
aejynfawmfaumifpDe,fajrt
wGif; ,mOftEÅ&m,fuif;&Sif;ap
&efESifh ,mOfpnf;urf; vrf;pnf;
urf;rsm;tm; od&Sdvdkufem&eft
wGuf aejynfawmfpnfyifom,m

a&;Oya'yk'fr 8(q)(Z)ESifh yk'fr
38(c)t& tyfESif;xm;aom vkyf
ydkifcGihfudk usifhoHk;um armfawmf
,mOfydkif&Sifrsm;? ,mOfarmif;ol
rsm;? ,mOfaemufvdkufrsm;ESihf
vrf;toHk;jyKolrsm; vdkufem&ef
pnf;urf;csuf (35)csufudk xkwf
jyefaMunmaMumif; od&onf/
,if ; pnf ; urf ; csuf r sm;t
eufwpf&yf&yfudk aejynfawmf
pnfyifom,ma&;e,ferd w
d t
f wGi;f
vku
d ef m&efysufuu
G yf gu aejynf
awmfpnfyifom,ma&;Oya'yk'rf
26 t& oH;k vxufrydak omaxmif
'Pfjzpfap?usyfwpfodef;xufrydk
aomaiG'Pfjzpfap 'PfESpf&yfvHk;
jzpfapta&;,lc&H rnf[o
k &d onf/
aejynfawmfysOf;rem;owif;tzGUJ

Pg-36
bDvl;uRef;acsmif;qHkNrdKeY ,f oHvGifjrpfurf; aus;&GmtcsKdY rsKd;pyg;rsm; rdk;xdjcif;?
c½kudkufjcif;wdakh MumifU rsdK;pyg;yifrsm;xyfrH&SmazGae&onf[k od&

rG e f j ynf e ,f bD v l ; uRef ;
acsmif;qHNk rdKUe,f oHviG jf rpfurf;&dS
aus;&GmtcsKUd \pyg;ysK;d cif;rsm;wGif
rsK;d pyg;rd;k xdjcif;? c½kuu
kd jf cif;jzpf
ay:umysupf ;D rItenf;i,fjzpfay:

írsKd;pyg;yifxyfr&H mS azG&rIaMumihf
pdu
k yf sK;d csed f aESmihaf ES;rIrsm; MuHKawGU
aeaMumif; a'ocHrsm;uqdo
k nf/
,ckEpS f pyg;&dwo
f rd ;f csed w
f iG f
tcgrJ h r d k ; aMumih f pyg;tcsKd U

rdk;pdkrIwGif rsKd;pyg;rsm;yg0ifcJh&m
pyg;rsm;jyefvnfysKd;axmif&mwGif
ysufpD;rIjzpfay:jcif;? rdk;OD;quf
wdkuf&GmoGef;um a&qif;acsmif;
ajrmif;rsm;a&qJrG t
I m;enf;íysK;d cif;

tcsKdUa&jrKyfrIjzpfay:jcif;? tcsKdU
pyg;ysKd;cif;wdkYwGif c½krsm;udkuf
jzwfjcif;udkygawmifolrsm; MuHK
awGUaeMu&m rsKd;pyg;yifxyfrH&Sm
azG&rIaMumihf pdkufysKd;csdefaESmihfaES;
rIrsm;MuHKawGUae&aMumif; acsmif;
qHNk rdKUe,fuan§maf us;&Gmaeawmif
olwpfOD;u ajymygonf/
bDvl;uRef;wGifrdk;pyg;pdkuf
{uajcmufaxmifcefU&d&S m rsK;d pyg;
ysupf ;D íxyfr&H mS azG&rIaMumih,
f ck
tcsdefwGifpdkuf{u\oHk;yHkwpfyHk
cefYompdu
k yf sKd;Edik Nf yD; Zlvikd v
f qef;
ydkif;wGif rdk;yg;uma&qif;rIrsm;
yguusepf u
kd {f ursm;udq
k ufvuf
pdu
k yf sK;d Edik &f efppD Ofaqmif&u
G v
f su&f Sd
onf[k od&onf/
armifarmifa&TNrdKif(armfvNrdKif)

csi;f wGi;f jrpfa&0ifa'oajrEkuRe;f ajrrsm;wGif
a&wGi;f wl;pdu
k yf sK;d olyrkd rkd sm;jym;
csi;f wGi;f jrpfa&0ifa'orsm; &Sd
Ek e f ; wif a jrEk u Ref ; ajrrsm;wG i f
a&wGif;rsm;wl;um pdkufysKd;ol ydkrdk
rsm;jym;vmaMumif; od&Sd&onf/
]]t&ifESpfawGuawmh &GmrSm
a&uESpfwkdif;eD;yg;0ifw,f/ wpf
&GmvHk;eD;yg;0ifw,f/ &GmrSma&0if
&if a&vGwfwJh ukef;ajrawmudk
oGm;aeoluae? rHk&Gm-anmifyif
BuD;-qm;vif;BuD;vrf;eHab;udk
oGm;aeoluaeeJY ,m,DaeMu&
w,f/ jrpfa&r0ifwm ESpfESpf? oHk;

ESpfavmuf&SdNyD/ tcka&BuD;ayr,fh
a&r0ifao;bl;/ &GmrSm a&BuD;csdef
a&0ifwJh Ekef;wifajrEkuRef;ajr&Sd
ovdk a&r0ifwJh ,majrawmawG
vnf;&Sw
d ,f/ uRef;ajrudk pdw0f if
pm;olrsm;NyD; ajrtaetxm;ay:
rlwnfum wpf{uudk usyfodef;
20 uae odef; 30 0ef;usifwef
w,f}}[k csif;wGif;jrpftaemuf
bufurf; qm;vif;BuD;NrdKUe,f
a&TavS&GmrS udkxGef;Ekdifuajymyg
onf/
[def;rif;xuf(rHk&Gm)

rdk;&GmoGef;aerIaMumifU u&ifjynfe,fESifU
rGefjynfe,fcsdwfqufc&D;vrf;rsm;wGif
ukefpnfpD;qif;rIESifU c&D;onfoGm;vmrIenf;yg;

ZGev
f twGi;f rd;k qufwu
dk &f mG
oGe;f rIaMumifh u&ifjynfe,f? rGef
jynfe,fcsdwfquf(a&aMumif;?
ukef;wGif;)c&D;vrf;rsm;wGif ukef
pnfp;D qif;rIEiS hf c&D;onfomG ;vm
rIenf;yg;vsu&f adS Mumif;od&onf/
]]rdk;uwpf&ufrS rem;bl;/
qufwkduf&Gmaeawmh ukefpdrf;oD;
ESaH wG 0ifa&mufraI ES;auG;vmovdk
c&D;onfoGm;vmrIuvnf; t
awmfav;enf;yg;vmwmawGY&
w,f/ roGm;rjzpfoGm;&r,fh udpö
&SdrSom oGm;vmMuwmrsm;w,f/
uRefawmfwdkYrSefvHk,mOfawGrSm cHk
vGwfawGrsm;NyD; vlenf;enf;eJY
xGufae&w,f/ rdk;t&rf;&Gmawmh
jr0wDbufu ukefpdrf;awGvnf;
t0ifenf;w,f}}[k rGefjynfe,f

rxo vufatmufcHrSefvHk,mOf
armif;wpfOD;uajymonf/
u&ifjynfe,fbm;tHNrdKUESifh
rGefjynfe,f armfvNrdKif NrdKUonf
ukef;wGif;um;vrf;t&Snfav;rkdif
cefY&SdNyD; rGefjynfe,f rxovuf
atmufcHrSefvHk,mOfrsm;ESifh [dkif;
vyf,mOfi,frsm;ajy;qGJay;vsuf
&So
d nf/]]rd;k rsm;NyD; ukepf nfp;D qif;
rIaES;auG;vmwJhtwGuftcsKdUukef
pnfawGvnf; vufvDaps;uGuf
rSm aps;tenf;i,fjrifhwufrIawG
&Sdw,f/ trsm;tm;jzifh xkdif;uDvdk
oD;ESHawG aps;jrifhwufaew,f/
a'geawmifaMum awmifNydKvrf;
ydw&f if ydq
k ;kd ao;w,f}}[k armfv
NrdKifNrdKUcHwpfOD;u ajymygonf/
pdk;pdk;(bm;tH)

The 12th Japanese Speech Contest
jrefrmEdik if q
H ikd &f m *syefo½H ;Hk ?
MAJA ESifh *syefukefonfBuD;rsm;

H.E.Mr.Takashi
SAITO(Ambassador of Japan)

OD;jrifUa0(Chairman,MAJA)

ygarmu©a'gufwmcifat;
(tzGJY0if?jrefrmpmtzGJh)

toif;(&efuek )f wdYk yl;aygif;jyKvkyf
onfh The 12th Japanese Speech
Contest udk ZGefv 25 &ufaeYu
Parkroyal Hotel wGif usif;ycJh&m
wm0ef&Sdolrsm;ESifh NydKifyGJ0ifrsm;?
{nfhonfawmfrsm; wufa&mufcJh
aMumif; od&Sd&onf/

Workshop on Industrial Development
In Myanmar and Vietnam

Dr. Truong Thi Chi BINH
(Director, Supporting Industry
Enterprises Development Center,
Ministry of Industry and Trade)

jrefrmEkdifiH tif*sifeD,mt
oif;rSBuD;rSL;NyD; Workshop on Industrial Development In Myan-

OD;0if;cdkif (Ouú|? jrefrmEkdifiHtif*sifeD,m
toif;)
mar and Vietnam tm; Zlvdkifv
1 &ufaeYu jrefrmEkdifiHtif*sifeD
,mtoif;½Hk;ü usif;ycJh&m jrefrm

Vietnam Association of Mechanical Industry rS

Edik if H tif*sief ,
D mtoif; wm0ef&dS
olrsm;? AD,uferfEkdifiHrS wm0ef
&Sdolrsm;ESifh rsKd;qufopftif*sif

&efukefwkdif;a'oBuD;0efBuD;csKyf OD;jrifUaqGu ynmoifp&dwfaxmufyHUaiGay;tyfpOf

wm0ef&Sdolrsm;ukd awGh&pOf

eD,mrsm; wufa&mufcMhJ uNyD; puf
rIzGHUNzdK;a&;twGuf aqG;aEG;cJhMu
aMumif; od&Sd&onf/

p&Pr*¾Zif;(7)ESpfajrmuf ESpfywfvnftcrf;tem;ESih f jrifuGif;pHk*sme,f pwifxkwfa0jcif;rdwfqufyGJ

a'gufwm ol<u,fcefhpdk;

(General

ygarmu©a'gufwm a':jrifUjrifUcif

Manager, G.I.G.S Co.,Ltd)

p&Pr*¾Zif; (7) ESpfajrmuf
ESpfywfvnftxdrf;trSwfESifh jrif

uGif;pHk*sme,f pwifxkwfa0jcif;
rdwfqufyGJtcrf;tem;udk Zlvdkif

Eushido Oversea Trip 2011

q&maumif;ausmf(pD;yGm;a&;wuúodkvf)
wm0efcHt,f'Dwm? p&Pr*¾Zif;)

q&mazjrifU (t,f'DwmcsKyf?
jynfolhacwf*sme,f)

v 2 &ufaeYu &efukefNrdKU&Sd CenwGif usif;ycJh&m zdwf

Mum;xm;olrsm; wufa&mufcJh
aMumif; owif;&&Sdygonf/

tral Hotel

jrefrmEdkifiH udk,ft*FgroefpGrf;olrsm;toif;
½kH;csKyf\ udk;ESpfjynfUtcrf;tem;

jrefrmEdkifiH udk,ft*Fgroef
pGrf;olrsm;toif;½kH;csKyf\ udk;ESpf
jynfhtcrf;tem;ESifh roefpGrf;oHk;
taxmuftuljyKypön;f rsm;? ynm
oifp&dwrf sm;ESiahf usmif;oH;k pma&;
ud&d,mrsm;ay;tyfyGJtcrf;tem;
udk ZGev
f 28 &ufaeYu &efuek Nf rdKU
jynfvrf;&Sd International Business Center(IBC) wGif usif;ycJh
aMumif; od&onf/

OD;jrwfOD; (Ouú|? jrefrmEdkifiH
udk,ft*FgroefpGrf;olrsm;toif;)

Online Phone Billing
System rdwfqufyGJ

OD;aZmfrif;OD; (tif*sifeD,mcsKyf?
owif;tcsuftvufESifU enf;ynmXme?
jrefrmUqufoG,fa&;vkyfief;)
jrefrmhqufo,
G af &; vkyif ef;
ESijhf ynfwiG ;f bPfrsm;yl;aygif;aqmif
&Gurf nfO
h nline Phone Billing pepf
qdik &f m rdwq
f uf&iS ;f vif;yGu
J kd ZGef

a':vv
UJ 0UJ if;(vufaxmuftaxGaxGrefae*sm?
aiGpm&if;Xme?jrefrmUqufoG,fa&;vkyfief;)
v 30 &ufaeYu jrefrmhquf
oG,af &;vkyif ef;(tvk)H wGiu
f si;f y
cJ&h mwm0ef&o
dS rl sm;ESizhf w
d Mf um;xm;
olrsm;wufa&mufcJhMuonf/

QS II Hair Product ukefypönf;opf rdwfqufyGJusif;y

rdwfqufyGJ

OD;pnfolxGef;(Assistant General

a':wdk;wdk;&D(Sales & Marketing

Manager, R.D.C Co.,Ltd)

Manager, R.D.C Co.,Ltd)

a':a0a0vGif(MD, Modern Life

ay;rnfhtpDtpOfESifh ywfoufí
rdwq
f ufyu
JG kd ZGev
f 30 &ufaeYu
Central Hotel wGif usi;f ycJo
h nf/

Trading Co.,Ltd)

k yf pön;f ok;H
Eushido tvSue
pGJolrsm;teuf uHxl;&Sifrsm; a&G;
cs,u
f mEdik if jH cm;c&D;pOfrsm;ydYkaqmif

Modern Life Trading Co.,
Ltd taejzifh *syefEi
kd if rH S wifoiG ;f

Modern Life qdkifopf

aom QS II Hair Product ukef
ypön;f opfrw
d q
f ufyEJG iS hf qdik o
f pf

zGifUvSpfyGJtcrf;tem; usif;ypOf
zGifhyGJtcrf;tem;udk Zlvdkifv 2
&ufaeYu trSwf 310 Anm;'v

cdik Ef iS ;f a0
vrf; r*FvmawmifnGefYNrdKUe,f&Sd
tqdkygqdkifopfü usif;ycJhonf/

38
½kyf&Sifordkif;jywdkuf&efyHkaiGtjzpf AD'D,dkZmwfum;av;um;udk
aiGusyfodef; 800 ausmfjzifUavvHwifa&mif;cs
½kyf&Siforkdif;jywdkuf jyKjyif
rGrf;rH&eftwGuf &efyHkaiGtjzpf
½du
k u
f ;l xm;onhf AD',
D Zkd mwfum;
av;um;udk ZGefvv,fydkif;u
xkwfvkyfa&; oHk;cktm; aiGusyf
885 odef;jzihf jrefrmEdkifiH½kyf&Sif
tpnf;t½Hk;rS avvHwifa&mif;cs
cJhonf[k owif;&&Sdygonf/
avvHwifa&mif;cscJhonhf
Zmwfum;rsm;teuf 'g½dkufwm
rvdcpd;k xdu
k af tmif½u
kd u
f ;l NyD; pdik ;f
pdik ;f crf;vdiI ?f 0wfraIH &T&nfEiS fh od*Ð
xGef;wdkY t"duyg0ifxm;onhf ]r
qdk;ygeJYaumifrav;}Zmwfum;udk
aMumifurÇmxkwfvkyfa&;rS usyf
odef; 170 jzihf0,f,lcJhonf/ 'g
½dkufwm rsKd;aZmfatmif½dkuful;NyD;
aerif;? e0&wf? c&pöwD;em;wdkYyg
0ifxm;onhf ]ESif;qDaESmifBudK;}
Zmwfum;udk a&TpifOD;xkwfvkyf
a&;rS usyfodef; 170 jzihf0,f,l
cJhNyD; 'g½dkufwm tdtdcdkif½dkuful;
NyD; aewd;k ? ausmaf usmAf Ekd iS fh pd;k jynhf
oZifwdkY t"duyg0ifxm;onhf

]Ed;k wl;}Zmwfum;udk vyfu;D qJAif;
xkwv
f yk af &;rS usyf 345 ode;f jzihf
avvHwif&,lco
hJ nf/ 'g½du
k w
f m
cefYpnfo½l u
kd u
f ;l NyD; cefYpnfo?l &J
atmif? nDeE´? cdkifoif;MunfESihf
cspfpEd;k OD; wdYk yg0ifxm;onhf ]vefY
vefvef;}Zmwfum;ukad MumifurÇm
xkwfvkyfa&;rS usyfodef; 200jzihf
0,f,loGm;aMumif; owif;&&Sdyg
onf/
½kyf&Sifordkif;jywdkuf jyKjyif
xde;f odr;f a&;vkyif ef;rsm;vkyaf qmif
&eftwGuf &efykHaiGZmwfum;rsm;
udk 2010 jynhfESpfwGif pwif½dkuf
ul;cJhaMumif; od&onf/ tqdkyg
&efyHkaiGZmwfum;rsm;teuf oHk;
um;udk a&S;OD;pGmavvHwifa&mif;
cscJh&m tjrwfaiGusyfodef; 500
&&SdcJhNyD; tjrwfaiGrS usyfodef; 80
udk tqdkygZmwfum;oHk;um;wGif
yg0ifaom tEkynm&Sifrsm;tm;
*kPjf yKqk cs;D jr§iafh y;cJo
h nf[k od&Sd
&ygonf/ 

jyZmwf? tNidrfU? ya'omuyJGrsm;qifqmBudKwifMunfU½Ijcif;ESifUywfoufíaMunmcsuftopfxkwfjyef

jyZmwf? tNidrfh? ya'omu
yJGrsm;qifqmBudKwifMunfh½Ijcif;
ESiyhf wfoufíaMunmcsut
f opf
tm; ZGev
f twGi;f xkwjf yefaMunm
cJNh yD; tqdyk gaMunmcsuo
f nf jy
Zmwf? tNidrfh? ya'omuyJGrsm;
wifqufujyjcif;ESi&hf efyakH iGtjzpf
AD',
D ½kd u
kd u
f ;l jzefYcsjd cif;wdYktwGuf

xkwjf yefcjhJ cif;jzpfonf[k owif;
&&dSonf/
,if;aMunmcsufwGif &efyHk
aiGyJGrsm;twGuf jyZmwf? tNidrfh?
ya'omuyJrG sm;usi;f yjyKvyk &f mwGif
qifqmppfaq;Munf½h &I mü trsm;
jynfoo
l Ykw
d ifqufujyrnft
h wdik ;f
0wfpjkH ynfw
h ifqufEikd jf cif;r&dyS gu

qifqmBudKwifppfaq;rIujkd yKvkyf
ay;rnfr[kwaf Mumif;ESihf yJrG ed Yf &&dS
a&;axmufccH suaf y;Edik rf nfr[kwf
aMumif;xnfo
h iG ;f azmfjyxm;onf/
jyZmwf? tNidrfhESifh &efyHkaiG
ya'omuyJrG sm;wifqufujy&mü
yJrG ed Yf&&d&S eftwGujf refrmEdik if ½H yk &f iS f
tpnf;t½Hk;ESifh jrefrmEdkifiH*Dw

tpnf;t½Hk;wdkYrS wm0ef,lpDpOf
jyKvkyfay;NyD; trsm;jynfolodkY
wifqufujyjcif;rjyKrD oH;k &uf
tvdw
k iG q
f ifqmBudKwifppfaq;
NyD;rSom trsm;jynfolodkY wif
qufcGifhjyKcJhonf/ ,if;odkYqif
qmwifqufujy&mü 0wfpjkH ynfh
0wfqif&onfhtjyif wifquf
ujyrnft
h ptqH;k tm;xnfo
h iG ;f
wifquf&efnTefMum;xm;aomf
vnf; ,ckaemufydkif;wGif qif
qmwifqufujy&mü0wfpjkH ynfh
wifqufEdkifjcif; r&dSonfhtjyif
qifqmMunfh½IcsdefrSom pwif
Zmwfwu
kd af vhusio
hf nfrsm;&daS e
aMumif;? 0wfpjkH ynfw
h ifjyppfaq;
rI rcH,El ikd í
f AD',
D t
kd jzpf½u
kd u
f ;l
xkwfvkyfNyD; qifqmppfaq;&ef
wifjyvmonft
h cgcGijhf yKEdik jf cif;
r&do
S nfrsm;yg0ifvmaMumif;?jyef
vnfjyifqif½u
kd u
f ;l &efvnf;r&
Edik o
f nft
h ajctaersK;d rsm;jzpfay:
onft
h wGu,
f ckaMunmcsut
f m;
xyfrx
H w
k jf yefaMunmjcif;jzpfonf
[k od&dS&onf/

MopBw;D ,m;Edik if H ½d;k &m½kyaf o;azsmaf jzrIwiG vf tdk yfonfU ½kyaf o;½kyrf sm;tm; jrefrmEdik if rH rS mS ,l aroef;EkO;D aqmifonfU yg&rD&iS t
f Nird t
Uf zJEYG iS t
Uf Ekynm&Sirf sm; pifumylEikd if w
H iG f
MopBwD;,m;EdkifiH
t&rf;atmifjrifw,f/ tJ'DZmwf OD;cifarmifaxG;u ajymMum;cJhyg
oGm;a&mufazsmfajzNyD;aemuf 'DAD'DZmwfum;av;um;ygwpfygwnf;½dkuful;rnf
NrdKU&Sd
um;rSmygwJh
qdkwJhZmwf onf/
Salzburg

Salzburger Marionettent

½kyfao;½HkwGif pOfqufrysufazsmf
ajzwifqufaeonhMf opBwD;,m;
½d;k &m½kyaf o;azsmaf jzrIüvdt
k yfonhf
½kyfao;½kyfrsm;tm; jrefrmEdkifiHrS
rSm,lvsu&f adS Mumif; owif;&&Syd g
onf/
]]t"dutaMumif;&if;uawmh
MopBwD;,m;Edik if H Salzburg NrdKUudk
aemufcHNyD; ½dkuful;xm;wJh The
Sound of Music Zmwf u m;u

Maria

aumifut
kd &rf;oabmuswt
hJ wGuf
olwYkdEikd if rH mS tJ'½D yk &f iS u
f m;ukd ½kyf
ao;½kyaf wGeYJtckxpd Ofqufrysuf
ujyaeMuwkef;yg/ tJ'DrSm vdktyf
wJ½h yk af o;½kyaf wGukd jrefrmEdik if u
H
½kyaf o;½kyx
f v
k yk o
f al wGxu
H rSm
,laeygw,f/ t&ifu rSm,lay
r,fh tckaemufyidk ;f rSm jrefrmvuf
&mudEk pS o
f ufNyD; ½kyaf o;½kyaf wGukd
qufwdkuf rSm,laeygw,f}}[k

&efuek Nf rdKUwGif ½kyaf o;½kyf xk
vkyfonhfvkyfief;vkyfudkifol ig;
OD; 0ef;usif&SdaMumif; od&onf/
½kyaf o;½kyrf sm; jyKvky&f mwGif ,r
aeom;jziht
f "dujyKvkyaf vh&adS omf
vnf; ,ckaemufyikd ;f wGif opf&mS ;
yg;rIaMumihf t½kyf\tpdwftydkif;
tcsKdUudk uopfom;? uRef;om;
wkdYjzihf a&maESmtoHk;jyKonfrsm;
vnf;&SdaMumif; od&onf/

aroef;EkOD;aqmifonfh yg
&rD&SiftNidrfhtzJGUESifh tEkynm&Sif
rsm;onf pifumylEikd if o
H Ykd Zv
l ikd v
f
qef;wGio
f mG ;a&mufazsmaf jzNy;D aemuf
'DA'D ZD mwfum; av;um;yg wpfyg
wnf;½dkuful;&ef pDpOfxm;NyD; ESpf
ywfcefYMumjrifrh nf[k od&&Sd onf/
]]rqifw
h Ykd yg&rD&iS t
f Nidrt
hf zJUG
&JU 'kw,
d ajrmufjynfyc&D;pOfaygh/
yxrc&D;pOfwek ;f u *syefukd oGm;

jzpfw,f/ tJ'w
D ek ;f uvnf;jrefrm
y&dowfawGeYJw&if;wES;D awGUqHck iG hf
&vdkYaysmfygw,f/ tckwpfacguf
vnf;pifumylrmS ujrefrmawGtrsm;
tjym;&dSaeMuw,fqdkawmh rqifh
wdkYvnf; aysmfwmayghav/ olwdkY
Munf&h usKd;eyfatmifaocsmvnf;
jyifqifomG ;&rSmayg}}[k o½kyaf qmif
aroef;Eku ajymjycJhonf/
pifumylEdkifiHodkY ½dkuful;a&;

ESifhazsmfajza&;c&D;pOfwGif 'g½dkuf
wm ukov
kd Ef iS hf 'g½du
k w
f m udak Zmf
(t½kPfOD;)? aewdk;? [def;a0,H?
aroef;Ek? pdk;jynfhoZif? acsm&
wem? eef;qk&wDpdk;? armhpf? cif
vdIif ponfhtEkynm&Sifrsm;yg0if
rnf[kod&onf/ azsmfajza&;wGif
yg&rD&SiftNidrfhcef;wifqufrI? zdk;
cspf\ESpyf g;obifEiS *hf w
D azsmfajz
rIrsm;jyKvkyo
f mG ;rnf[k od&onf/

jrefrmEdik if \H obm0tvStyrsm;tm; w½kwEf ikd if rH vS ma&muf½ukd uf ;l cJUNy;D aemuf AD,uferfEiS Uf *syefEikd if wH rhkd xS yfrvH ma&muf½ukd uf ;l tjzLa&mifjrpfwdkh\

,ckESpftwGif; jrefrmEdkifiH&Sd
obm0tvStyrsm;tm; EdkifiH
wumrS rSwfwrf;wifvma&muf
½dkuful;rIwGif w½kwfEdkifiHrS yxr
qHk;tBudrf vma&muf½dkuful;cJh
aMumif; od&onf/ w½kwf,leef
½kyfoHXmerS rSwfwrf;vma&muf
½dkuful;cJhNyD;aemuf AD,uferfESihf

*syefEdkifiHrS vma&muf½dkuful;cJh
onf[k tqdkyg todkif;t0ef;rS
owif;&&Sdygonf/
w½kwfjynfolYor®wEdkifiH
,leef½kyfoHvdkif;rS rSwfwrf;vm
a&muf½u
kd &f mwGif &cdik jf ynfe,f &Sd
ppfawG? ausmufjzL? {&m0wDwikd ;f
a'oBuD;twGif;&Sd ykodrf? ajrmif;

jr? rtlyifNrdKUESihf &efukef? rEÅav;
aejynfawmfwdkYwGif ½kyfoHrSwf
wrf;½dkuful;a&;vkyfief;rsm; vkyf
udkifcJhonf/ ,leef½kyfoHXmeonf
tqdyk grSww
f rf;ukd tzGUJ 0ifajcmuf
OD;jzihf &uf20 ausmfMum ½dkuful;
rIjyKcJhjcif;jzpfaMumif; od&onf/
w½kwfEdkifiHrS vma&muf½dkuf

ul;cJhNyD;aemuf AD,uferfEdkifiH
,Ofaus;rI? tm;upm;ESihf c&D;
oGm;0efBuD;XmerS tzGJU0if ckepfOD;
yg0ifonhfrSwfwrf;½dkuful;a&;t
zGJUonf arv 29 &ufaeYrS ZGefv
4 &ufaeYtxd jrefrmEdkifiHü rSwf
wrf;½ky&f iS ½f u
kd u
f ;l rIjyKvkycf o
hJ nf/
tqdyk gtzGUJ onf &efuek ?f rEÅav;?

yk*H? tif;av;? [J[dk;a'orsm;
odkY oGm;a&mufum ,Ofaus;rIzGHY
NzdK;wd;k wufrv
I yk if ef;rsm;ud½k u
kd u
f ;l
cJhonf[k od&onf/
,if;aemuf ZGefv 13 &uf
aeYrS ZGefv 18 &ufaeYtxd *syef
EdkifiHrS Mr.AIDA/TAKASHI OD;
aqmifonhf tzGJU0if oHk;OD; yg0if
aom½dkuful;a&;tzGJUwpfzGJU vm
a&muf½dkuful;cJhonf/ tqdkygt
zGJUonf usKdufxD;½dk;apwDawmfESihf
teD;0ef;usif&Sd awmawmifa&ajr
obm0½Icif;rsm;tm; rSwfwrf;
AD'D,dk½dkuful;cJhjcif;jzpfonf/
ZGefv 13 &ufaeYrS 16 &uf
aeYtwGif;*syefEdkifiN
H HK owif;
XmerS½u
kd u
f ;l a&;tzGUJ onf yk*aH &S;
a[mif;e,fajrrsm;tm; ½kyfoHrSwf
wrf;½dkuful;cJhonf[k od&onf/
2011 ckESpftwGif; EdkifiH
wumrS jrefrmEdik if üH rSww
f rf;½du
k f
ul;&ef urf;vSrf;rIrsm;wGif *syef
Edik if rH S ppfawGEiS fh ausmufjzLa'o
rsm;&Sad &eufqyd u
f rf;wnfaqmuf
rItm; rSww
f rf;½du
k u
f ;l vdak Mumif;
urf;vSrf;rI&SdcJhaMumif; od&onf/
,ckEpS t
f wGi;f ppfawGEiS fh ausmuf
jzLa'owdYk wiG f w½kwEf ikd if H ,leef
½kyfoHvdkif;rS ½dkuful;rIjyKchJonf/

vQKd U0Sucf su½f yk &f iS Zf mwfum;
yk*aH 'owGi½f ukd uf ;l rINy;D pD;
pma&;q&mr vGef;xm;xm;
\]tjzLa&mifjrpfwYk\
d vQKUd 0Sucf su}f
½kyf&SifZmwfum;udk ZGefv 15&uf
aeYrS 18 &ufaeYtxd yk*Ha'o
wGif oGm;a&muf½dkuful;cJhNyD; jzpf
aMumif; owif;&&Sdygonf/
tqdkyg½kyf&SifZmwfum;udk
'g½dkufwm udkaZmf(t½kPfOD;)u
aewdk;? ajywDOD;? tdjE´mausmfZif
csr;f rDru
D w
kd Ykdtm; t"duxm;yHak zmf
xm;jcif;jzpfonf/ tqdkygZmwf
um;wGif yg0ifonhf yk*Ha'o
aemufcHZmwf0ifcef;rsm; zefwD;rI
ukd yk*aH 'oü oH;k &ufMum½du
k u
f ;l
cJhaMumif; od&onf/
]]uRefawmfwdkYyk*Hudk ½dkuful;
a&;vkyif ef;vkyaf qmifzYkd ZGev
f 14
&ufaeY poGm;w,f/ [dkrSm wpf
&uf 10 ode;f eJYo;kH &uf½u
kd Nf yD; ZGef
19 &ufaeYrmS &efuek jf yefa&mufyg
w,f/ tckvuf&SdrSmawmhusefwJh
Zmwf0ifcef;awGukd &efuek rf mS ½du
k f
aeygw,f}}[k ,if;Zmwfum;ESihf
ywfoufí wm0ef&SdolwpfOD;u
ajymMum;cJhygonf/

39

arts & entertainment NEWS

atmifoef;\ atmifqef;
a&;om;ol - atmifoef;
1965 ckESpfu yk*Hpmtkyf
wdkufrS yxrqHk;tBudrfxkwfa0cJU
aompmtkyfudk yÍörtBudrfajrmuf
xkwfa0cJUjcif;jzpfygonf/ ,ckpm
tkyu
f akd &;om;cJo
U l OD;atmifoef;rSm
AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;\tpfudkjzpfNyD;
pmtkyfudk a&;om;&mü &mZ0ifok
awoDwpfOD;taejzifU a&;om;cJU
jcif;jzpfonf[k yxrtBudrfxkwf
pmtk y f t wG u f trS m pmwG i f
OD;atmifoef;u a&;om;cJUygonf/
]þpmtkyfudkzwfvQif uRef
awmfonf tpfudktaexuf &mZ
0ifoak woDwpfO;D taejzifaU &;onf pmrlcGifhjyKcsuf - 3100610411? wefzdk; - 3500 usyf
jzefhcsda&; - waumif;pmay
udkawGY&ygvdrfUrnf/ &mZ0ifokaw
oDwrhkd nfonf qE´*wd-a'go*wd Munfonft
U wkid ;f olrsm;tm; rem
rvdkufbJ rdrdwdkhokawoejyKcsuf vdkonfUpdwf r&dSyg/ rdrdxufaMum
t& awGY&dSonfUtcsufrsm;udk rdrd oGm;rnfudkpdk;onfUtwGuf olrsm;
wd,
hk MkH unfonft
U wkid ;f wifjyolrsm; tm; ajcxdk;vdkonfUpdwfrsKd;vnf;
jzpfMuygonf[k OD;atmifoef;u tvsOf;r&dSyg/ atmifqef;ESifUtcsKdY
trSmpmwGif a&;om;cJUygonf/
Ekid if aH &;acgi;f aqmifrsm;uGmjcm;jcif;
]tvd k v d k u f c H & aomf v nf ; onf xdpk w
d "f mwftajccHaMumifyU if
atmifqef;rSmrw&m;vkyfcsifonfU jzpfrnf[k uRefawmfxifygonf}
pdw?f rw&m;tcGit
Uf a&;vdck sio
f nfU [k OD;atmifoef;u pmtkyfü a&;
pdwf"mwfrsKd; r&dSyg/ rdrdudk,frdrd,Hk om;xm;cJUygonf/

acwfrDEkdifiHa&;a0g[m&tbd"mef
a&;om;ol - armif0Ho
pmtkyu
f jkd yKp&k mwGif Oxford Concise Dictionary of Politics, Iain
McLean and Alistair Mcmillan
ESifU Penguin Dictionary of Politics, David Robertson wdu
hk t
kd "du

pmrlcGifhjyKcsuf - 310158120? wefzdk; - 6000 usyf?
jzefhcsda&; - a'gif;pmay

2005 ckESpfrS 2010 jynfU
ESpftxd *sme,frsm;wGif azmfjycJU
aom Ekid if aH &;a0g[m&rsm;udpk pk nf;
Ny;D Ekid if aH &;a0g[m&tbd"meftjzpf
xkwaf 0cJaU ompmtkyjf zpfygonf/ xdk

rSDjirf;NyD; q&marmif0Hou jyKpkcJU
jcif;jzpfaMumif; od&ygonf/ xdkht
jyifpum;vH;k trsm;pkukd Wikipedia
ESifU Encyclopedia wdkhESifUnd§EIdif;NyD;
a&;om;cJUaMumif; od&ygonf/
rsufarSmufacwfEkdifiHa&;udk
avUvmaeMuolrsm;omru EkdifiH
a&;ESifU,SOfwJGvkyfudkifaeaom vl
rsm;twGuf tusKd;jzpfxGef;rIrsm;
&&daS prnfU ,ckpmtkyw
f iG f Ekid if aH &;
e,fy,fESifUywfoufNyD;azmfjyxm;
onfU a0g[m&rsm;? vlyk*d¾Kvfrsm;
ESifUjzpf&yfrsm;udkpHkvifatmifazmfjy
xm;onfudk awGY&dS&ygonf/

jyZmwfrsufESmESifUtjcm;r*¾Zif;0w¦Kwdkrsm;
a&;om;ol - armifndKjym
"mwfccGJ ef;rSL;wpfO;D \ 'kid ,
f m
,DpmtkyfjzifUxif&Sm;cJUonfU q&m
armifndKjym\0w¦Kwdk 18 yk'fudk
azmfjyxm;onfUpmtkyfjzpfygonf/
pmtkyfwGif vlxka':trmu
trSmpm a&;om;xm;cJNU y;D armifnKd
jymonf pma&;aumif;olwpfO;D jzpf
aMumif; vlxak ':trmu ajymqdck UJ
ygonf/
]armifndKjym[m vlawGudk
aoG;om;uwpfqifU "mwfcJGMunfU
½Hrk u vlpY w
d af wGuykd g "mwfcMGJ unfU
aeolxifyg&JY/ olYZmwfaumifawG
udk jc,frSef;&mrSm yDjyifaocsmNyD;
tao;pdw&f v
Sd u
kd w
f m/ Ny;D awmU ol
a&;yHak &;enf;u olt
Y a&;tom;u
qH;k oGm;NyaD yr,fU zwf&wJv
U &l YJ pdwf
xJrSm rqHk;ao;bl;/ qufNyD;awG;
ae? a&;ae aeao;w,f/ 'Dp½dkuf
[m 'Dvakd erSmyJvhkd jrifa,mifae&
w,f}[k vlxak ':trmu pmtkyf

yef;csDOD;bMunf A*sDvif;0PÖ\ q|rtBudrfajrmuf wpfudk,fawmfa&aq;yef;csDjyyGJusif;y
yef;csqD ck s;D jri§ U&f efppD Of
,aeY½dk;&myef;csDq&mrsm;
avhvmae&qJjzpfonfAh 'k 0¨ if½yk pf kH
ordik ;f pmtkyu
f akd &;qGcJ o
hJ nfyh ef;csD
q&mBuD;OD;bMunf\yef;csq
D t
k m;
,ckEpS t
f wGi;f rSpwifía&G;cs,af y;
tyf&efpDpOfvsuf&SdaMumif;od&Sd&
onf/ ,if;qktm; &efukefESifhrEÅ
av;NrdKU&Sd tEkynmtxufwef;
ausmif;? trsKd;om;,Ofaus;rIESifh
tEkynmwuúodkvfwdkYwGif ynm
oif,laeqJjzpfonhfausmif;om;
rsm;xJrS pdppfa&G;cs,fay;tyf&ef
pDpOfxm;aMumif; od&Sd&onf/
]]vuf&SdrSmvnf; yef;csDOD;aiG
udik yf ef;csq
D q
k Nkd y;D ausmif;om;awGukd
a&G;cs,cf s;D jr§iahf y;ygw,f/ tckEpS f
upNyD; yef;csDOD;bMunfqk qdkNyD;
xyfw;kd zdYkppD Ofxm;wmyg}}[k jrefrm
EdkifiH½dk;&myef;ynm&Sifrsm;tpnf;
t½Hk;rS wm0ef&Sdolu qdkygonf/

A*sv
D if;0PÖ\ q|rtBudrf
ajrmuf wpfudk,fawmfa&aq;jyyGJ
udk Zlvdkifv 2 &ufaeYrS 8 &uf
aeYtxd pmayavmu 5 ü jyo
vsuf&SdaMumif; od&Sd&onf/ tqdk
ygjyyGJwGif yef;csDum;aygif; 25
um;tm; jyoxm;NyD; jrefrmrIESifh
acwfopfyHkpHwdkYtm; wGJzufwifjy
xm;onfhyef;csDvuf&mrsm;? ysL
tu©&mESpv
f ;kH tm;toH;k jyKíudE&é D

armifEyHS o
Hk ½kyaf zmfcsurf sm;tygt0if
u&ifjynfe,f&*dS rl sm;rS a&S;a[mif;
bk&m;rsm;\vuf&jdS rifuiG ;f rsm;tm;
awGUjrifcHpm;Edkifaom yef;csDjyyGJ
jzpfaMumif; od&Sd&onf/
,if;jyyGJ usif;y&jcif;ESiyhf wf
oufNyD; A*sDvif;0PÖu ]]2008
ckESpfwkef;u Survival trnfeJYjy
yGu
J si;f ycJyh gw,f/ tckwpfcg wpf
ud,
k af wmfyu
JG si;f yzkYdpw
d u
f ;l wJt
h cg

wpfywftwGif;½kHwifrnfU &efukef½kyf&Sif

wpfywftwGif;xGuf&SdrnfU jrefrmAD'D,dkZmwfum;rsm;

Zlvdkifvxkwf aw;pD;&D;? pD'?D ADp'D D
&Sifi&JBuD;vdrfUr,f
reufjzef
nmolwdkif;cspfwwfygap
1982
eHygwf 1 OD;pGmay;

ydk;tdpH
vlpHk
oif;oif;[ef
a0v
Gateway

rkefhvufaqmif
a'ge
(cefhpnfol? cdkifoif;Munf? aroufcdkif? rdk;'D)
usm;eJhqif orifrkqdk;
armifarmifjrifUvGif
(aevif;OD;? ae&Jvif;? nDbGm;? bkef;oQef? yGifUe'Darmif)
olqdkolYukdtcspfydk
0if;xGef;xGef;
(aerif;? cspfoka0? &D&DyGifUjzL? pdk;rdk;Munf? oef;oef;pdk;)
&J&ifU&ifcGif
vGifudkrif;
(ae&Jvif;? rif;t*¾? ',fe&D ,f? aqmif;ESi;f a0? a*s'u
kd )f
BudK;eJhcsnfwJUBudK;
aeydkif
(ausmf&Jatmif? e0&wf? yGifUe'Darmif? iSufaysmaMumf)
n§dKYa,mifr,f
0dkif;
(atmif&Jvif;? oufrGefjrifU? tdacsmydk)
uEég;pD;rjyHK; 2
rdk;BudK;
(xl;cefhausmf? rif;ol? rsKd;pE´Dausmf? rdk;jynfUjynfUarmif)
&Gufykef;oD;
ausmfaZmvif;(tawG;yHk&dyf)
(&Jwdkuf? ydkifaZ&JxGef;? oifZm0ifUausmf? ,Gef;a&T&nf)
tpGJtvrf; (umwGef;)
qGwfA[m'l;

Zlvikd v
f xkwpf mtkyrf sm;
ADp'D D
'DA'D D
ADp'D D
pD'D
pD'D

[pfwvmaemufqHk; quf'rf&JY ed*Hk; aqGjrifU
"r®yef;O,smOf
rif;eef(armfuRef;)
AkdvfcsKyfajymwJUpum; AkdvfcsKyfa[mwJUw&m; a'gif;eD
cspfaom ra[oD
aumif;xuf
rif;vScHwyf
ewfarmufbkef;ausmf

2500
2000
2000
2000
2000

armifjrifU<u,f

pmrlcGifhjyKcsuf - 5004760411? wefzdk; - 2000 usyf?
jzefhcsda&; - onfurÇmajrpmay

trSmpmwGifa&;om;xm;cJUygonf/
,ckpmtkyw
f iG yf g0ifaom0w¦K
wdk 18 yk'fteuf qkawmif;pmt
rsK;d rsK;d 0w¦KEiS Uf jyZmwfrsuEf mS 0w¦Kwhkd
rSm pmzwfou
l q
kd ufvufpOf;pm;rI
rsm;ay;cJUygonf/

/&efuek f
trSw(f 22)? awmifjrif;NyKd iuf iG ;f vrf;? wmarGBu;D
(c)&yfuuG ?f wmarGNrKd Ye,f? &efuek Nf rKd Y
zke;f 400528? 400524? 401411
/rEåav;(½H;k cG)J
trSwf 4^3? jrpE´mvrf;oG,?f (62_63) vrf;
Mum;? (24_25) vrf;Mum; atmifajrompHNrKd Ye,f?
rEåav;NrKd Y/ zke;f 02-61172
/aejynfawmfysO;f rem;(½H;k cG)J
trSwf 11^54? Advk af wmufxed vf rf;? &efatmif(1)
&yfuuG ?f aejynfawmfysO;f rem;NrKd Y zke;f 067-22822

wdkhrS
jyornfh Zmwfvrf;wJrG sm;
MRTV? MWD

or®w? oGi?f r*Fvm tm'rf&,f {0&,f 'o&,f ('g½dkufwm 0dkif;) r[mNrdKif? 0ZD&m(1) yifv,fxufuae0if;eD
JUNCTIONarmfwif (ajywDOD;? pdkif;pdkif;crf;vdIif? oufrGefjrifU)
('g½dkufwmcifarmifOD;? pdk;odrf;xG#f)
TOP ROYAL(yg&rDped af *[m)
(vlrif;? a0VKausmf? ausmfausmf? [efav;? rif;&Jquf)
aejynfawmf
FAST FIVE
a&TA[d&k ?f
acsmuvuftcspf ('g½dkufwm nDnDxGef;vGif)
(Paul Walker,Vin Diesel)
bk&ifah emif? {&m0wD (ajywDOD;? tdjE´mausmfZif)
a&SaY qmif
GREEN LATERN
awmf0ifpifwm 2 Mu,fawGpHkwJUaeh ('g½dkufwm jynf[def;oD[)
(Martin Campbell )
(ausmfausmfAdk? ZifEdkif;? oD[? aruAsm)
e0a';? a&Tref;? a':vef;
('g½dkufwm ZAÁLxGef;oufvGif)
jr&wem?
0ZD
&
m
2
ighESrav;yGoGm;NyD ('g½dkufwm tPfaxmfPD)
oDwm? pHjy
(&Jatmif? [def;a0,H? aroef;Ek? xGef;tdjE´mAdk?
(rif;armfuGef;? cefhpnfol? pdk;jrwfolZm? pdk;jynfUoZif? *sif;eD)
awmf0ifpifwm 1 pdk;jynfUoZif? oifZm0ifUausmf? eef;a'0D)

4-7-2011 tcspef o
hJ wfrw
S cf w
UJ b
UJ 0\t"dymÜ ,f ukad Zmf(t½kPOf ;D ) 7-7-2011
(aewdk;? tdjE´mausmfZif? qkxufuka#)
/
/
anmif&rf;pm;eJhaoG;opöm
vif;xuf
(ausmfaZm[def;? arxG#facgif)
/
rkefwdkif;Murf;ESifUyef;avjynf
xufydkif
/
(*Ref*dk? rif;[dPf;? 0okef? tHUrif;ndK? o'´gxuf)
/
5-7-2011 tEå&m,fajy;vrf;ESifUrsOf;NydKifypfrSwf
ausmfZ
(a0VKausmf? ykvJ0if;? ae&Jvif;? yGifU&wemausmf)
/
wapmif;ap;eJh rsufacs;
rdk;atmif 8-7-2011
(olxl;pH? rdkhrdkhjrifUatmif? csrf;rDrDudk? 'def;a'gif)
/
xGifw,faemf
ausmfaZmvif;(tawG;yHk&dyf)
/
(ppfO;D atmif? oZif? at;jrwfo?l pE´jD rifUviG ?f a[rmefatmifatmif)
6-7-2011 ESpfb0pH (Edkif;Edkif;? xufxufrdk;OD;)
om;vGif 9-7-2011
/
aysmfapmU . . .yefv,f
armifarmifOD;(pEdk;0dIuf)
(pkrD? xGef;tdjE´mAdk? eef;qk&wDpdk;)
/
/
&ifckefoHbdkif[wf
atmifAyg0g
(pl;&S? at;jrwfol? aZmfOD;? pdk;rdk;Munf)
/

rSmwpfcgrSrjyojzpfwahJ &aq;um;
awGudkjyozdkY pdwful;&&SdcJhNyD; t
aMumif;t&mydkif;udkvnf; jrefrm
,Ofaus;rIa&m? acwfopfa&mudk
aygif;pyfzefw;D wJh vuf&mudk a&G;
cs,fa&;qGJjzpfcJhwmyg/ jyyGJvkyf&
wJ&h nf&,
G cf sufuawmh a&aq;&JU
obm0udk vGwv
f w
G v
f yfvyfwif
jyvdw
k myJjzpfygw,f}}[k ajymMum;
cJhygonf/

1/ opömESvHk;om;
MRTV
wevFm? t*Fg
7;00 /
2/ em;cdk&m
wevFm? t*Fg
9;00 /
3/ MuHMuHzefzeftarGqdkif
Mumoyaw;? aomMum 7;00 /
4/ opömvTrf;aomarwÅm
Ak'¨[l;? Mumoyaw; 9;30 /
5/aESmifBudK;
Mumoyaw;? aomMum 8;30 /
6/ tcspfeJh trkef;
pae? we*FaEG
7;00 /
8/ ½IyfaxG;qef;Mu,f
pae? we*FaEG
9;30 /
10/vrif;aerif;Mu,fwpfpif;MWD
wevFm? t*Fg? we*FaEG 7;00 /
11/ tcspfwdkhwnf&m
wevFm? pae? we*FaEG 9;00 /
12/ b0&JYwrf;wjcif; (Zmwfvrf;opf)
Ak'¨[l;? Mumoyaw; 7;00 /
13/ xm0&cspfol
t*Fg? Ak'¨[l;
9;00 /
14/ &wempHtdrf
aomMum? pae
7;00 /
15/ aygifrkefhtcspftdyfrufav;
Mumoaw;? aomMum 9;00 /

jynfhpHk pmtkyfwdkuf

xda&mufaomacgif;aqmifrI
EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP
jzefcY sda&;

xGufNyD

trSwf(263)? odrfjzLvrf;? trsdK;om;0dkiftrfpDattaqmufttHk?
AdkvfwaxmifjrdKYe,f? &efukefNrdKY? zkef; - 296442? 706082/

40
tqdkawmf 11 OD;yg0ifaom
ud,k yf ikd of pH Ofaw;pD;&D;acGppD Of
tqdkawmf 11 OD;yg0ifaom
ud,
k yf ikd o
f pH Ofaw;pD;&D;acGopftm;
tqdak wmfotdrk pS pD Ofvsu&f adS Mumif;
od&Sd&onf/ ,if;pD;&D;wGif udk
atmif? vIid Of ;D armf? *sDvwf? otd?k
tpdik ;f ? aemaemf? zd;k om;? M oD[?
eDecD ifaZmf? cifppk Ek ikd Ef iS hf rdYkrYkdviG w
f Ykd
yg0ifxm;aMumif; od&Sd&onf/
,if;pD;&D;acGESifhywfoufí
otdu
k ]]tckp;D &D;rSmygwJt
h qdak wmf
awGuoBuFerf mS twlwuGazsmaf jz
cJw
h t
hJ qdak wmfawGyg/ tJ'v
D t
kd wl
oDqdk&if;eJYpkNyD; tacGav;vkyf&if
aumif;r,fqdkNyD; 'DtacGudk pDpOf
jzpfwmyg/ udk,fydkifoHpOfawGudk
taumif;qH;k jzpfatmifBudK;pm;xm;
wmav;udk y&dowfuo
kd ad pcsiyf g
w,f}}[kqykd gonf/ ,if;pD;&D;wGif
vIid Of ;D armf? aemaemf? atmifujkd rif?h
zd;k tDpaomaw;a&;rsm;yg0ifxm;Ny;D
*g;'D;,ef;wD;0dik ;f jzifw
h ;D cwfo&d onf/

arts & entertainment NEWS

jrefrm'DZdkifemtzJY GrS 'DZdkifem 19 OD;\vuf&mzefwD;rIrsm;jyornfU 2011 'DZdkifem½dI;jyKvkyfrnf
jrefrm'DZdkifemtzJGUrS 'DZdkifem
19 OD;\vuf&mzefwD;rIrsm;udk
jyornfh 2011 'DZdkifem½dI;tm;
,ckESpfatmufwdkbmv 1 &ufaeY
wGif usif;yjyKvkyfEdkif&ef pDpOf
vsuf&dSNyD; 'DZdkifemwpfOD;csif;t
aejzifh pdwfBudKufvuf&mzefwD;
rI'ZD ikd ;f rsm;udk pwifjyKvkyaf eNyDjzpf
onf[k owif;&&dSonf/
]]tpfrwdkY'DZdkifemtzJGUudk zJGU
pnf;vdu
k w
f mwpfEpS ef ;D yg;&do
S mG ;yg
NyD/ tzJUG rSmtpfrwdYkvt
kd awGUtMuHK
&dNS yD;om;'DZikd ef mawGygovdw
k u,f
t&nftcsi;f &dw
S rhJ sK;d qufopf'ZD ikd f
emawGvnf;yg0ifygw,f/ pNyD;zJUG
uwnf;u &nf&G,fcsufuawmh
tckv'kd ZD ikd ef m½d;I awGujkd ynfwiG ;f rSm
a&mjynforSmygwpfpw
k pfpnf;wnf;
jyoEdkifatmifyg/ 'gaMumifh 'DESpf
rSmyxrqH;k tBudrt
f jzpf pNyD;vkyf
zdYk ppD Ofjzpfwmyg}}[k 'DZikd ef m r rOÆL
u ajymjycJhonf/

tmqD,Hzuf&Sif½dI;yJGüawGY&aom jrefrm'DZdkifemrsm;
'DZikd ef moufEiS ;f at;uvnf;
]]'DZikd ef m 19 a,mufqakd wmh vuf
&dzS uf&iS 'f ZD ikd ;f &yf0ef;rSm usifvnf

aewJholtrsm;pkyg0ifw,fvdkY qdk
&rSmyg/ tckvdk wpfpkwpfpnf;
wnf;jyocGi&hf rSmqdak wmht&rf;pdwf

vIyf&Sm;zdkYaumif;ygw,f/ 'DZdkif;eJY
ywfoufvYkdpNyD;jyifqifaeNyDjzpfo
vdk armf',fvfa&G;cs,fwm? yJGpDpOf

wmpwJv
h t
kd yfwt
hJ ydik ;f awGuv
kd nf;
wpfa,mufwpfvufqo
kd vdk pNyD;
jyifqifaeMuygNyD/ 'DyJGuMunfh&
usK;d eyfr,fyh w
GJ pfyjGJ zpfrmS yg}}[k quf
vufajymjycJhonf/
'DZikd ef m 19OD;yg0ifrnfh 2011
'DZdkifem½dI;yJGwGif 'DZdkifem rrOÆL?
vwfvwf? ryHkY(My Favourite)?
rd;k ukwaf ygufayguf? jynfp;kd atmif?
a':oDwm0if;(Dozo)? oufESif;
at;? arjrwf0gqd?k *sKu
d m? aumif;
jrwf? Or®mausm?f ndKrmoefY? ,H,
k ;kH
polwdkY yg0ifjyooGm;rnfjzpfNyD;
o½kyfaqmifarmf',fvftrsm;t
jym;yg0ifjyooGm;&efppD Ofxm;onf
[k od&dS&onf/
tqdyk g'DZikd ef m½d;I yJw
G iG f 2012
wGiaf cwfpm;Edik o
f nfh zuf&iS 'f ZD ikd ;f
zefwD;rIrsm;? ta&mifa&G;cs,frI
rsm;tm; zefw;D wifjyoGm;&ef pDpOf
xm;onf[k od&onf/ 

pE´DjrifUvGif\'kwd,wpfudk,fawmf
]aysmfygap}aw;pD;&D; toHoGif;,lae
pE´jD rihv
f iG \
f 'kw,
d wpfudk,f
awmfaw;pD;&D;jzpfonhf ]aysmyf gap}
aw;pD;&D;tm;toHoiG ;f ,lrjI yKvkyf
aeaMumif; od&onf/
]aysmfygap} pD;&D;wGif &Jav;?
Z0g? rsKd;ausmhNrdKif? &o? vTrf;
ydkif? a*smuf*suf? ausmfxG#faqG?
tm;wD? a*srD? befeDNzdK;? om;BuD;
tp&Sdonhf *DwtEkynm&Sifrsm;
a&;om;xm;onfh aw;oDcsif;
12 yk'fyg0ifrnf[k od&onf/

]]'D;'D&JU 'kwd,ajrmufwpf
ud,
k af wmfaw;pD;&D; 'DEpS rf ukecf if
xGuf&SdEdkifzdkYtwGuf toHoGif;ae
ygw,f/ &mcdik Ef eI ;f trsm;pkNyD;oGm;
ygNyD/ 'D;'D&JUpD;&D;rSm *Dwydkif;udk
av;ZD;uvyfeJYwD;cwfwm&Sdovdk
uGeyf sLwm*Dwzefw;D rIvnf;yg0if
rSmyg/ bdkbdktifwmwdefYrefYu
jzefYcsyd ghr,f}}[k pE´jD rihv
f iG u
f ajym
Mum;cJhygonf/ 

ta[mif;rsm;ESifU,SOfwGJNyD; t"dyÜm,fopfudk
&SmazGaom "mwfyHkjyyGJjyKvkyfrnf
wnf&SdcJhNyD;jzpf
onft
h a[mif;rsm;ESifh
,SOw
f NJG yD;t"dymÜ ,fopf
udk&SmazGjcif;tm; azmf
usL;rnf"h mwfyjkH yyGw
J pf
&yfukd Zlvikd v
f 8 &uf
aeYrSZlvdkifv 18 &uf
aeYtxd New Zero
Art Space wGiu
f sif;y
rnf[k od&onf/
"mwfyakH ygif; 37
yHyk g0ifrnft
h qdyk g"mwf
yHkjyyGJ\trnfudk Recycled Meanings [k
ac:qdkcJhNyD;"mwfyHkrsm;
ud k zef w D ; cJ h o l r S m
atmifcifjrifhu zef
wD;cJhjcif;jzpfaMumif;
od&onf/
]]acwfNydKif tEk
ynmwpf&yfudk azmfusL;cJhjcif;yg
yJ/ EdkifiHwumrSmawmh &Sdxm;cJhNyD;
jzpfygw,f/ jyyGrJ mS jyor,fh "mwfykH
awG tm;vHk;u jyef½dkufxm;wJh
Rephoto jzpfMuygw,f/ "mwfyHk
ta[mif;awGukd wjcm;t&mawGeYJ
,SOfwGJvdkufwJhtcg uRefawmfwdkY
odxm;NyD;jzpfwJh t"dyÜm,fawG
r[kwfawmhbJ t"dyÜm,fopfawG
xGuv
f mwmudk ajymcsiw
f myg}}[k

atmifcifjrifhu ajymjycJhygonf/
1976 ckESpfzGm;wpfOD;jzpf
onfh atmifcifjrifhonf 2005
ck E S p f t csd e f u avmuewf t Ek
ynmcef;rü wpfu,
kd af wmf"mwfykH
jyyGw
J pf&yfjyKvkycf NhJ yD; acwfNydKifpm
aycHpm;rIrsm;ESiyhf wfoufípmtky?f
aqmif;yg;rsm; a&;om;aeoljzpf
aMumif;vnf; od&dS&onf/
„

Tudors rif;om; ½dGKif;pfrdkif,m aq;½Hkwufa&muf
emrnfausmf ½kyo
f pH ;D &D;jzpfonfh Tudors ½kyo
f ZH mwfvrf;wGit
f |r
ajrmuf [ife&Db&k iftjzpf o½kyaf qmifcahJ om rif;om;&dKG if;pfrikd ,
f monf
vef'efajrmufydkif;ü aq;½Hkwufa&mufaeaMumif; od&ygonf/ rdkif,m
aq;½Hkwuf&onfh owif;udk The Sun owif;pmrS pwifazmfjycJhjcif;
jzpfum ud,
k u
hf ,
kd u
f kd aoaMumif;MuHpnfcNhJ yD; txrajrmufco
hJ jzifh aq;
½HkodkY a&muf&SdcJhjcif;jzpfonf[k qdkygonf/ odkYaomf rdkif,m\ udk,fa&;
t&m&Sdurl owif;ESifhywfoufNyD; rSwfcsufray;cJhaMumif; od&onf/

'dkif,memudk rsufESmzHk;wifcJUonfU
Newsweek r*¾Zif;a0zefrIESifU&ifqdkif&
'dik ,
f memudk rsuEf mS zH;k wifNyD;
xkwfa0cJhaom Zlvdkifvyxrywf
xkwf Newsweek r*¾Zif;rSm a0zef
rIrsm;ESifh &ifqdkifcJh&aMumif; od&
ygonf/
Newsweek r*¾Zif;taejzifh
'dkif,memtouf 50 jynfhcJhjcif;
udt
k rSw&f aomtm;jzifh 'dik ,
f mem
"mwfyEkH iS hf 'dik ,
f memtaMumif;a&;
om;cJhaom aqmif;yg;udk azmfjycJh
jcif;jzpfygonf/
tqdkygr*¾Zif;\ rsufESmzHk;
wGi'f ikd ,
f memudk acR;rjzpfol udwf
rpf',fwefEiS hf wGzJ ufazmfjyxm;cJh
NyD; azmfjyxm;aom "mwfyEkH iS hf rSe;f
qa&;om;cJhonfh taMumif;t&m
rsm;rSm tjiif;yGm;rIrsm; &SdaecJh
aMumif;od&ygonf/ aqmif;yg;
udk Newsweek r*¾Zif;\ wm0ef
cHt,f'w
D m wDemba&mif;u a&;
om;cJhjcif;jzpfNyD; 'dkif,mem t

Pg-41
Thor Zmwfum;\ aemufqufwGJZmwfum; xGuf&Sdrnf
'pöaeESifh rmAJvfpwl'D,dkwdkYrS wifqufcJhaom Thor Zmwfum;\
aemufqufwGJZmwfum; Thor 2 udk qufvuf½dkuful;rnfjzpfNyD; Zmwf
um;tm; 2013 ckEpS Zf v
l ikd v
f wGif jyo&efppD Ofxm;aMumif; od&ygonf/
odkYaomf rlvZmwfum; Thor udk ½dkuful;cJhonfh 'g½dkufwm uefeufb
&efeuf&Sfu aemufqufwGJZmwfum;tm; qufvuf½dkuful;rnfr[kwf
aMumif; od&ygonf/ Thor Zmwfum;onf urÇmwpf0ef;jyocJhNyD;
0if aiG tar&duefa':vm oef; 430 ausmf&&Sdxm;ygonf/

q,fausmfouftBudKuftEkynmqktwGuf qefcgwifpm&if;ü
Eclipse Zmwfum;u qktrsm;qHk;jzifU OD;aqmif

aMumif; tw K¬ yÜwadÅ &;om;cJzh ;l ol
jzpfygonf/
aqmif;yg;ESifh "mwfyHkazmfjy
rIwGif &nfnTef;xm;csuft& 'dkif
,memonf 1997 ckESpfwGif ao
qHk;cJhjcif;r&Sdygu e,l;a,mufodkY
ajymif;a&GUaexdik v
f rd rhf nfjzpfaMumif;
cefYreS ;f a&;om;cJo
h nf[q
k ykd gonf/
xdk&nfnTef;rIonf 'dkif,mem\
*kPfodu©mudk xdyg;apcJhonfht
jyif wefzdk;rJhjcif;udkvnf; jzpfay:
apaMumif; Social Media rSwpf
qifah 0zefrrI sm;jyKvkycf MhJ ujcif;jzpf
ygonf/
xdkYjyif ZGefv 8 &ufaeYrS 10
&ufaeYtxd ajrmuftar&duodkY
vma&mufvnfywfrnfh rif;om;
0DvsHESifh rpf',fwefwdkY armifESHudk
\ tvnftywfc&D;pOfudkvnf;
pdwftaESmifht,Sufjzpf&ef jyKvkyf
cJjh cif;jzpfaMumif;a0zefcMhJ uonf/

q,fausmfouftBudKuf tEkynmqk
(Teen Choice Awards) twGuf qefcgwif
pm&if;rsm;udk ZGev
f 29 &ufaeYu xkwjf yef
aMunmcJ&h m Eclipse Zmwfum;uqktrsm;
qHk;twGuf qefcgwifpm&if;0ifa&mufcJh
aMumif; od&ygonf/
Twilight Zmwfum;\ aemufqufwGJ
Zmwfum;tjzpfausmfMum;rI&cdS hJ
aom Eclipse Zmwf
um;onfq,fausmf
ouftBudKuftEk
ynmqk t wG u f
qefcgwifqk 11
qkpm&if;0ifa&muf
cJhygonf/Eclipse
Zmwf u m;
jzifyh if
a&m

bwfywfwifqifutrsK;d om;o½kyaf qmif
qktwGuq
f efcgwifpm&if;0ifa&mufcNhJ yD;
c&pöwif;pwD;0yfuvnf;trsK;d orD;o½kyf
aqmifqt
k wGuq
f efcgwifpm&if;0ifco
hJ nf/
q,fausmo
f uftBudKuo
f yd t
HÜ uf&iS f
ESifh pdwful;,OfZmwfum;rsm;qktwGuf
Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows
Part 1? Pirates of the Caribbean: On
Stranger Tides ? Super 8 ? The Twilight

ESifhX-Men: First Class
Zmwfum;wdYkqefcgwifpm&if;0ifcyhJ gonf/
q,fausmfouftBudKuf'&mrmZmwfum;
qktwGuf Black Swan? Limitless?The
Roommate?Soul Surfer ESihf Water for Elephants Zmwfum;wdkY qefcgwif0ifcJhMu
ygonf/
qktrsKd;tpm;aygif; 40 ausmfay;
tyfrnfh,ckqkay;yGJwGif½kyf&SifESifh *Dw
e,frt
S Ekynm&Sirf sm;udk q,fausmfouf
rsm;rSvGwfvyfpGmrJay;a&G;cs,fNyD; qkay;
tyfrnfjzpfygonf/ qkay;yGu
J Mkd o*kwv
f
7 &ufaeYwGifjyKvkyfrnfjzpfNyD;qkay;yGJ
tpDtpOfrsm;udk Mo*kwfv 8 &ufaeYwGif
Fox ½kyfoHrS wifqufrnf[kod&onf/
Saga: Eclipse

MySpace rS *sufpwifwif;bm;vdcftm; tvkyfcefhtyf
tar&duef ayghyftqdkawmf
wpfOD;jzpfonfh *sufpwifwif;
bm;vdcftm; vlrIuGef&uf0ufbf
qdkufwpfckjzpfaom MySpace rS
tvkyfcefYtyfvdkufaMumif; od&Sd
&ygonf/
wif;bm;vdct
f m; tvkycf efY

tyfvu
kd jf cif;udk MySpace \ydik f
&Siftopfjzpfvmaom Specific
Media \CEO wifbef'ga[mhcf
u twnfjyKajymMum;cJjh cif;jzpfyg
onf/
Specific Media taejzifh
MySpace \ azsmfajza&;u@

*sLvD,ma&mbwfEiS Uf qvDem*drk ufZw
f hkd Boxoffice ütm;NyKd if
Zlvikd v
f yxrywftwGi;f p
wifjyocJhaom Zmwfum;rsm;t
euf *sLvD,ma&mbwfESifh wGrf
[efYpw
f Ykd yg0ifo½kyaf qmifco
hJ nfh
Larry Crowne Zmwfum;ESihf qvD
em*drk ufZyf g0ifo½kyaf qmifxm;cJh
onfh Monte Carlo Zmwfum;
wdYkrmS 0ifaiGpcH sed t
f & Boxoffice
ü tm;NydKifrI&Sdvmrnfh Zmwf
um;rsm;jzpfaMumif; od&yg
onf/
pD ; yG m ;a&;tusyf
twnf;umvudk
aemufcHxm;jyD; ½dkuf
ul;xm;onfh
*sLvD,ma&m
bwfEiS hf wGrf
[efYpfwdkY\ Zmwfum;onf
rjyorD t csd e f u yif y&d
owfrsm;tMum; a&yef;
pm;aecJhaom Zmwfum;
jzpfum tar&duefa':

vm oef; 30 tukeftuscHNyD;
½dkuful;cJhjcif; jzpfygonf/
qvDem*drk ufZ\
f Zmwfum;
rS m rl q,f a usmf o uf t Bud K uf
Zmwfum;jzpfaeonft
h jyif*rkd ufZf
tay:pdwf0ifpm;rIrsm;uvnf; ydk
rdkaeonfhtwGuf 0if
aiGt& atmifyGJcH
rnfh Zmwfum;jzpf
aecJah Mumif; od&yg
onf/ Zmwfum;ESpf
um;pvH;k udZk v
l ikd v
f
1 &ufaeYwGif pwif
jyocJhygonf/
Larry Crowne Zmwf
um;onf wG r f [ ef Y pf
ud,
k w
f idk 'f g½du
k w
f mtjzpf
½dkuful;cJhaom 'kwd,
ajrmuf Zmwfum;jzpfNyD;
wG r f [ ef Y pf o nf
1996 ckESpf
u That

Thing You Do Zmwfum;udk 'g½du
k f
wmtjzpf ½dkuful;cJhygonf/
Monte Carlo Zmwfum;udk
'g½dkufwm wGrfbwfZufcsmu t
ar&duefa':vmoef; 20 toHk;jyK
NyD; ½dkuful;cJhaom Zmwfum;wpf
um;jzpfygonf/

udkcsJUxGifwifqufrnfjzpfNyD; t
qdkygu@twGuf zefwD;rI'g½dkuf
wmtjzpf *supf wifwif;bm;vdcf
udk cefYtyfjcif;jzpfaMumif; ajym
Mum;cJhygonf/
bef'ga[mhcfu ajymMum;cJh
&mwGif olYtaejzifh wif;bm;vdcf

ESifh twltvkyfvkyfudkifcJhzl;jcif;
r&S d a omf v nf ; ol w d k Y t aejzif h
ya&mfzuf&Sife,f zefwD;olrsm;r
[kwfjcif;aMumifhwif;bm;vdcf\
zefwD;rIrsm;udk avhvmNyD; tvkyf
cefYtyf&ef a&G;cs,fcJh&jcif;jzpf
aMumif; ajymMum;cJhygonf/

42

sports NEWS

cs,fvfqD;wGif b0pwifEkdifrnf[k bdktuf&fSarQmfvifh
cs,fvfqD;toif;\enf;jy
opfjzpfol ay:wl*v
D rl sKd;bdt
k uf&fS
u¤if;\b0udak tmifjrifrrI sm;jzifh
cs,fvfqD;wGiftpjyKEkdifvdrfhrnf
[karQmv
f ifx
h m;aMumif;ajymMum;cJh
onf/ bkdtuf&Sfu ]]uRefawmfwdkY
&moDtzGiyhf pGJ Oftjzpf pwkwpf ;D wD;
eJYta0;uGif;rSm &ifqdkif&rSmyg/
uReaf wmf&h UJ yxrOD;qH;k wm0ef,&l

wJyh jGJ zpfvYkd ped af c:rIuawmhBuD;rm;
ygw,f/ tJ'DyJGNyD;&ifawmh uRef
awmfwYkdtrd u
f iG ;f rSmESpyf q
GJ ufupm;
&rSmjzpfvdkYauseyfrdygw,f/ tck
qd&k if toif;udu
k Reaf wmfjyefvnf
zJGUpnf;EkdifcJhygNyD/ atmifjrifrIawG
eJYtwl uRefawmfhb0udk'Dtoif;
uae pwifEidk v
f rd rhf ,fvYkdarQmv
f ifh
ygw,f}}[k ajymMum;cJhonf/

tmqife,faemufwef;vl uvpfcst
D m;ac:,&l ef refpw
D ;D toif;oabmwlnrD &I &dS
tjyeftvSeftm;jzifU 0def;b&pfcsftm; tmqife,ftoif;ac:,lvkdae

bufcrfaMumifh LA *vufqDtoif;'Pf½dkufcH&
t*Fvefvufa&G;piftoif;
acgif;aqmifa[mif;jzpfol ar*sm
vd*fuvyf LA *vufqDtoif;
\tv,fwef;upm;orm; a';
ApfbufcrfaMumifh uvyftoif;
rSm ar*smvd*ftzJGUcsKyf\'PfaiG
a':vm 5000 ½dkufjcif;udkcHcJh&
onf/ udkvdk&m'dktoif;ESifhNyD;cJh
onfhZGefv 18 &ufu upm;cJh
onfhyJGwGif LA *vufqDtoif;

onf bufcrftm;'Pf&m&pm&if;
üxnfo
h iG ;f xm;jcif;r&dcS b
hJ J trSef
wu,f,SOfNydKifupm;aomtcg
bufcrfrSm'Pf&mtaMumif;jyí
toif;ESit
hf wlvu
kd yf grvmcJah y/
xdkYtjyif Zlvdkif 4 &ufüupm;
rnfh aqmif;'g;pfESifhyJGwGifrl buf
crftm;'Pf&m&pm&if;üxnfo
h iG ;f
xm;aomaMumifh ,ckuJhodkY LA
*vufqt
D m;'Pf½u
kd cf jhJcif;jzpfonf/

tmqife,ftoif;\ aemuf
wef;b,ftpGeu
f pm;orm;jzpfol
uvpfcsDtm;ac:,l&ef refpD;wD;
toif;taejzifhoabmwlnDrI&&dS
cJNh yDjzpfaMumif;od&onf/ xdYk twl

tmqife,ftoif;uvnf; tjyef
tvSet
f m;jzifh refp;D wD;toif;\
t*Fvefaemufwef;upm;orm;0de;f
b&pfcsfudkac:,lvdkaeaMumif;
od&onf/

jyifopfvufa&G;pifupm;
orm;jzpfol uvpfcsDudk aygif 7
oef;jzifhrefpD;wD;toif;uac:,l
rnfjzpfNyD; wpfywfvkyfcvpm
aygif 9 aomif;ay;acsoGm;rnf

jzpfum av;ESpfpmcsKyfcsKyfqdk&ef
oabmwlnrD &I &dcS jhJ cif;jzpfaMumif;
od&onf/ jyifopfEidk if o
H Ykd tvnf
tywfa&muf&dSaeaom uvpfcsD
onf refpD;wD;toif;ESifhvmrnfh
&ufykdif;twGif; aq;ppfrIrsm;jyK
vkyf&eftwGuf Zlvkdif 4 &ufwGif
t*FvefEkdifiHodkYjyefvnfa&muf &dS
vmrnfjzpfonf/ touf 25 ESpf
&dS uvpfcsDudk,fwkdifuvnf; ref
pD;wD;toif;odkYajymif;a&TUupm;
&efpw
d t
f m;xufoefaeonf/ ref
pD;wD;toif;wm0ef&dSolwpfOD;u
]]ol(uvpfcs)D [m tck t*FvefrmS
r&dSayr,fh 'Dtajymif;ta&TU[m
aocsmaygufjzpfvmrSmyg/ uRef
awmfwYkdtoif;&JUyxrqH;k avhusihf
&ufaeYjzpfwJh Zlvdkif 5 &ufaeYrSm
olYudktoif;om;awGeJYtwlawGU
jrif&zdYk&ySd gw,f}}[kajymMum;cJo
h nf/

Sports News In Brief
tm*siw
f ;D em; á tm*sifwD;em;toif;wkdufppfrSL;rufqDu tm*sifwD;
em;tm; urÇmhzvm;&&dS&efpGrf;aqmifay;rnf[k ajymMum;cJhonf/
ref,l á ref,w
l u
dk pf pfrLS ;a[mif; tef'u
D ;kd vfu [meef'ufZrf mS xl;cRef
onfh yg&rD&SifabmvHk;orm;wpfOD;jzpfaMumif; csD;usL;cJhonf/
ruúpu
D kd á uGeu
f muufzzf vm;NydKify0GJ if ruúpu
D t
kd oif;ü wm;jrpfaq;
oHk;pJGonfhupm;orm;av;OD;ay:xGufcJhaMumif; ppfaq;awGU&dScJhonf/
tmqife,f á tmqife,ftoif;onf bmpDvdkemtoif;rS vli,f
upm;orm; [ufwmA,fvD&ifukd ac:,lpmcsKyfcJhaMumif; od&onf/
*gvmwmpma&; á *gvmwmpma&;toif;onf tmqife,fwu
dk pf pfrLS ;
tm&SmAiftm; aygif 13 'or 5 oef;jzifhac:,lvdkaeonf/
*sLAifwyfpf á *sLAifwyfpftoif;onf vmZD,dkupm;orm; pwDzifudk
,l½dk 10 oef;jzifh av;ESpfpmcsKyfcsKyfqdkvdkufonf/
abmfvfwef á abmfvfweftoif;\aemufcHvl *,f&Duma[;vfu
tmqife,ftoif;odkYajymif;a&TUupm;vdkaMumif; 0efcHcJhonf/

bmpDvdkemenf;jya[mif; &Duwftm;
aqmf'Dtoif; enf;jytjzpfcefhtyf

aqmf'Dtma&Astoif;onf
bmpDvdkemtoif;ESifh*gvmwmpm
a&;toif;wkYd \enf;jya[mif;jzpf
ol 'wfcsv
f rl sK;d z&efY&u
D wftm; NyD;
cJhonfhaomMumaeYuenf;jyopf
tjzpfcefYtyfvu
kd cf NhJ yDjzpfaMumif;od
&onf/ aqmf't
D oif;onf&u
D wf
tm;ay;acs&rnfh vkyfcvpmESifh
ywfoufíowif;xkwjf yefjcif;r&dS
cJah omfvnf; vef'efNrdKUwGi&f aSd om
aqmf'Dtma&AsoH½Hk;ü &Duwftm;
oHk;ESpfpmcsKyfcsKyfqdkEkdifcJhjcif;jzpf
aMumif; od&onf/ &Duwfonf
aqmf't
D oif;tm; b&mZD;vfEidk if H
wGiu
f sif;yrnfh 2014 urÇmzh vm;
NydKify0GJ ifciG &hf &daS tmifprG ;f aqmifay;

&rnfjzpfonf/ &Duwfonf aqmf
'Dtoif;ESio
hf abmwlnrD &I &dcS NhJ yD;
aemuf ¤if;\yxrqHk;yJGtjzpfZl
vdik af emufq;kH ywfü a[mifaumif
toif;ESiahf jcppfypGJ wifupm;&rnf
jzpfonf/
aqmf'Dtma&AsabmvHk; t
zJGUcsKyf(SFF)Ouú|jzpfol rif;om;
em0yfzb
f ifzidk q
f ,fu ]]&Duwf[m
urÇmt
h xl;cRefq;kH enf;jyawGxu
J
wpfO;D yg/ olvv
kd rl sKd;udu
k Refawmf
wdkYtzJGUcsKyf&&dScJhwJhtwGuf t&rf;
0rf;omyDwdjzpf&ygw,f/ ol[m
uRefawmfwYkd toif;udak tmifjrifrI
awGaqmifusO;f ay;r,fo
h w
l pfO;D yg}}
[k ajymMum;cJhonf/

43
vmrnfU 2011 ckESpf Mo*kwfvwGif aejynfawmf FC tdrfuGif;tjzpfvufcHusif;yEkdif&ef
aejynfawmfaygif;avmif;uGif;tm; tqifUjr§ifUwifae
sports NEWS

jynfwGif;tm;upm;owif; twdktxGmrsm;
„

tif'dkeD;&Sm;EdkifiH Palenbang NrdKUwGif Zlvikd v
f 3 &ufaeYrS 7 &ufaeY
txd usif;yjyKvkyfrnfh 2011 SEA Game Chess Test Even NydKifyGJwGif
0ifa&muf,OS Nf ydKif&eftwGuf jrefrmhvufa&G;pifppfw&k ifupm;orm;rsm;
jzpfMuaom atmifrsdK;vdIifESifh pnfolwdkYonf Zlvdkifv 2 &ufaeYwGif
&efukefNrdKUrS xGufcGmoGm;NyDjzpfaMumif; od&Sd&onf/ tqdkyg ppfwk&if
NydKifyGJonf ,ckESpf Edk0ifbmvtwGif; tif'fkeD;&Sm;EdkifiHü usif;yrnfh
(26) Mudrfajrmufta&SUawmiftm&Stm;upm;NydKifyGJwGif yxrqHk;tMudrf
tjzpfxnfhoGif;jyKvkyfrnfh tmqD,Hppfwk&ifNydKifyGJtMudK usif;yaom
yGJjzpfaMumif; od&Sd&onf/
„

tm;upm;0efMuD;XmeESifh jrefrmEdkifiH bwfpuufabmtzGJUcsKyfwdkY
yk;aygif;í jrefrmbwfpuufabmtoif;ESifh yl;aygif;avhusifhrIjyKvkyf
&ef tar&duefEdkifiHrS Vision Sports Basketball Team onf ZGefv 30
&ufaeYwiG f &efuek Nf rdKU a&muf&v
dS mcJah Mumif; od&&dS onf/ tqdyk g tar&d
uef bwfpuufabmtoif;onf Zlvdkifv 1 &ufaeYrS 7 &ufaeYtxd
&efukefNrdKU trsKd;om;tm;upm;½Hk(1) ok0PÖü (26) Mudrfajrmuf ta&SU
awmiftm&Stm;upm;NydKifyGJtwGuf pcef;oGif;avhusifhvsuf&Sdaom jref
rmEdik if H bwfpuufabmtzGUJ csKyf vufa&G;piftoif;ESihf yl;wGaJ vhusifrh I
rsm;jyKvkyfvsuf&SdaMumif; od&Sd&onf/
„

t&eftoif;rsm; trSwf ay;abmvHk;NydKifyGJ yGJpOf(3)
udNk yD;cJo
h nfZh eG (f 28? 29? 30)&ufrsm;uy'krm® uGi;f ESihf pvif;uGi;f wkYd wiG f
qufvufusif;yjyKvkyfcJh aMumif;od&onf/vuf&SdcsefyD,H &efukef,l
Eku
d w
f uftoif;onf ZGu
J yiftoif;ud(k 3-2)*d;k jzift
h Ekid &f &Su
d m aZ,sm
a&Tajrtoif;rSmvnf; rauG;FC udk (1-0)*dk;jzifh tEkdif&&SdcJhonf/ Ekdif
yGJr&ao;onfh&wemyHktoif;? aejynfawmftoif;ESifh raemajrtoif;
wdkYrSm yxrqHk;EkdifyGJrsm;&,lEkdifcJhNyD; KBZ toif;rSmrl ½IH;yGJjyefvnfBuHK
awGYcahJ Mumif;od&onf/ yGpJ Of(3)tNyD;wGi&f efuek t
f oif;ESihf aZ,sma&Tajr
toif;wdYk rmS (3)yGq
J ufwu
dk Ef idk yf rJG sm;&&Sx
d m;NyD;*d;k uGmjcm;csufjzif&h efuek f
toif;u trSwfay;Z,m;udk qufvufOD;aqmifvsuf&Sdonf/
„

MNL

&wemyHktoif;onf 'Pf&mjyóemrsm;ESifh ½kef;uefae&NyD;
touft&G,Bf uD;&ifv
h monf*h ;kd orm;,Ofrif;atmif\ae&mwGif tpm;
xdk;&ef ZGJuyif,lEkdufwuftoif;\ *dk;orm;aZmfaZmfEkdifudkac:,l&ef
pDpOfaeaMumif;od&onf/olonf ,ckEpS M
f NL NydKiyf rJG pS í ZGu
J yiftoif;ü
yg0ifupm;cGifh&&SdcJholjzpfNyD; vufpGrf;jyupm;EkdifcJhrIESifht&yftarmif;
aumif;rGerf w
I YkdaMumifh toif;BuD;rsm;\pdw0f ifpm;rIukd cHc&hJ oljzpfonf/

vmrnfh 2011 ckESpf Mo*kwf
vwGif aejynfawmf FC tdrfuGif;
tjzpfvufcu
H sif;yEkid &f ef aejynf
awmf a ygif ; avmif ; uG i f ; tm;
tqifjh r§iw
fh ifaeaMumif;od&onf/
]]uGi;f twGi;f rSm jrufyifpu
kd f
ysK;d rIawGvyk af eygw,f/ yGMJ unfph if
ESpcf u
k v
kd nf; tqihjf r§iw
hf ifaeNyD;
awmh txl;wef;yGJMunhfpifrSmav
at;pufwyfqifxm;wJh txl;
cef;yg&Sdygr,f/ tm;upm;uGif;eJY
yGJMunhfpifMum;rSm tjrifh ay 20
&SdwJh oHZumawG um&Hxm;rSmjzpf
ygw,f/ rD;qkdif;awGwyfqifrSm
jzpfNyD; yGJMunhfpifawGtm;vHk;udk
rdk;vHkavvHk wnfaqmufoGm;rSm
jzpfygw,f}}[k uGif;wnfaqmuf
a&;vkyfief;cGifrSwm0ef&SdolwpfOD;

u qdkygonf/
aejynf a wmf y sOf ; rem;&S d
aygif;avmif;tm;upm;uGi;f onf
,cifu NrdKUe,fabmvHk;tm;u

pm;orm;rsm; tm;xm;avhusi&hf m
avhusifha&;uGif;wpfuGif;jzpfNyD;
tqihfjr§ihfwifrIrsm; NyD;pD;oGm;
ygu aejynfawmf ukd,fpm;jyK

aejynfawmf FC toif;\ udk,f
ydkifavhusihfa&;uGif;ESihf tdrfuGif;
tjzpf wnf&Sdvmrnfjzpfonf/
„

wdkufuGrf'dktm;upm;zGHY NzdK;a&;tygt0if ukd&D;,m;apwemh 0efxrf;rsm;\ a&SYajy;pDrHudef;rsm; vTJajymif;ay;tyf
jrefrmEkid if H a'otESYH tjym;ü
wdkufuGrf'dktm;upm;zGHYNzdK;a&;
tygt0if udk&D;,m;apwemh0ef
xrf;rsm;\a&SUajy;pDrHudef;rsm;udk
tm;upm;0efBuD;XmeokdYvTJajymif;
ay;tyfvdkufaMumif; od&onf/
,if;a&SUajy;pDrHudef;rsm;vTJ
ajymif;ay;tyfrIudk 2011 ckESpf
ZGefv 28 &ufaeYwGif tm;upm;
ESihfum,ynmodyÜH(&efukef)wGif
tm;upm;taxmuftuljyKypön;f

rsm;ay;tyfvSL'gef;cJhNyD; jrefrm
Ekid if t
H rsK;d om;tm;upm;aumfrwD
wGJzuftwGif;a&;rSL;? tm;upm;
ESihfum,ynmOD;pD;Xme nTefMum;
a&;rSL;csKyf OD;aomif;xkdufxHodkY
ud&k ;D ,m;tjynfjynfqikd &f myl;aygif;
aqmif&Gufa&;at*sifpDr SXmae
udk,fpm;vS,f Ms. Kim Tae-Eun
u vTJajymif;ay;tyfcJhonf/
a&SUajy;pDrHudef;rsm;onf udk
&D;,m;apwemh0efxrf;jzpfMuonfh

Ms.Lee Kyoung Hee vkyfaqmif

cJhaom ]tm;upm;ESifh um,nm
odyÜH(&efukef)wGif tm;upm; avh
usiafh &;cef;rwnfaqmufay;jcif;
ESit
hf qihjf rifah vhusiahf &;tpDtpOf
a&;qGJay;jcif;? Mr. Jung Kaeul
vkyfaqmifcJhaomjrefrmEkdifiHa'o
tESYHtjym;wGiw
f u
kd u
f rG 'f t
kd m;upm;
ydkrdkzGHUNzdK;wdk;wufvmap&ef &nf
&G,fí vdktyfaomavhusifha&;
taxmuftuljyKypönf;rsm; jzefY

a0ay;jcif;wdkYjzpfMuonf/
KOICA onf tm;upm;ESihf
um,ody(HÜ &efuek )f odYk 2007 ckEpS f
wGif tar&duefa':vm 20425
wefz;kd &Sw
d u
dk u
f rG 'f t
kd axmuftul
jyKypönf;rsm;? tJ,m;uGef;ESifh
a&cJaowåmrsm;? 2009 ckESpfwGif
a':vm 12000 wefzdk;&Sd tm;u
pm;ypönf; 16 rsKd;wkdYudk vSL'gef;
cJhNyD; apwemh0efxrf;rsm;udkvnf;
xyfrHapvTwfcJhaMumif;od&onf/

44
tdkvHypfaehtxdrf;trSwf
armifjrefrmESifUr,fjrefrmNydKifyGJusif;y
tdkvHypfaeY txdrf;trSwf
jrefrmEdkifiH um,AvESifh um,
tvStzGJUcsKyfESifhM.G.S Beverage
Co.,Ltd wdkY yl;aygif;usif;yaom
Mr. Crusher ESifh Ms. Quench
um,Avarmifr,fNydKifyu
JG kd Zlvikd f
v 17 &ufaeYu &efukefNrdKU&Sd
jrefrmuGeAf if;&Si;f pifwmü usif;y
cJhaMumif; od&onf/
tqdkygum,Avarmifr,f
NydKifyGJwGif touf 50 ESifhtxuf
tBuD;wef;armifNydKifyGJ? touf
21 ESpfatmuf ti,fwef;armif
NydKify?JG tBuD;wef;tdv
k yH pfarmifNydKif
yGJ? touf 21 ESpfatmuf ti,f
wef;r,fNydKifyGJESifh tBuD;wef;tdk
vHypfr,fNydKifyGJ[lí NydKifyGJtrsKd;
tpm;ig;rsKd; usif;ycJhonf/
touf 50 ESpfESifhtxuf
tBuD;wef;armifNydKifyGJwGif NydKif
yG0J if 11 OD;yg0if,OS Nf ydKifcNhJ yD; yx
rqkudk OD;jym;? 'kwd,qkudk OD;cGef
wifarmifarmif? wwd,qkudk OD;
pdejf rifah ZmfwYkdu toD;oD; qGwcf ;l
oGm;Muonf/
touf 21 ESpfESifhatmuf
ti,fwef;armifNydKifyGJwGif NydKifyGJ

0if 10 OD;0ifa&muf,OS Nf ydKifcMhJ uNyD;
yxrqkukd qvdik ;f ausmrf if;? 'kwd
,qkudkodef;xGef;OD;ESifhwwd,qk
udpk pfEikd af tmifwYkdu&&Scd MhJ uonf/
touf 21 ESpfESifhtxuf
ti,fwef;r,fNydKifyw
JG iG f NydKify0JG if
10 OD;yg0if,SOfNydKifNyD; tdkvHypf
r,f(ti,fwef;)qkux
kd ufr;kd jrwf
OD;u&&So
d mG ;NyD; 'kw,
d qkukd acsmpk
vif;jzLoefYutoD;oD;&&SdcJhoGm;
Muonf/
tBuD;wef;tdv
k yH pfarmif NydKif
yGJwGifatmifaqGEdkif? atmifcdkif0if;
ponfq
h ;D *dr;f pfqw
k q
H yd &f emrnf
BuD;um,Avorm;rsm;0ifa&muf
,SONf ydKifcNhJ yD; tdv
k yH pfarmif (tBuD;
wef;)qkudk atmifaqGEdkifu &&Sd
oGm;um 'kw,
d qkukd xGe;f rif;ESihf
wwd,qkudk atmifcdkif0if;wdkYu
qGwfcl;oGm;Muonf/
aemufqHk; NydKifyGJjzpfaom
tdv
k yH pfr,f(tBuD;wef;)NydKifyw
JG iG f
tdkvHypfr,f(tBuD;wef;)qkudk
ik0gcdik u
f vnf;aumif;? 'kw,
d qk
udkxdkufqk0if;ESifh wwd,qkudk
a[rmpdk;0if;wdkYu vnf;aumif;
toD;oD;&&Sd oGm;cJhMuonf/

trsKd;orD;wpfOD;csif; AdkvfvkyGJwGif &Sm&mydkAmtm;tEdkif,lNyD; qD'iftqifU (8) uDADwdkAm
0ifb,fvf'efcsefyD,Hqkudk yxrqHk;tMudrf qGwfcl;

0ifb,fvf'efwif;epfNydKifyGJ
udk ZGefv20 &ufaeYrSpí NAdwdef
Edik if üH usif;yvsuf&&dS m trsKd;orD;
wpfO;D csif;NydKify\
JG aemufq;kH Adv
k f
vkyw
JG iG Ef ikd af jctqif(h 5) &Sm&mydAk m
udk Edkifajctqifh(8) uDADwdkAmu
tEdik &f &SNd yD; yxrqH;k tBudrAf v
kd pf JG
oGm;cJhaMumif; od&Sd&onf/
2004 ckESpfwGif touf 17
ESpft&G,fjzifh 0ifb,fvf'efcsefyD
,HjzpfcahJ om &Sm&mydAk monf ckepf
ESpt
f MumwGif xyfrAH v
kd pf &JG ef MudK;
pm;cJah omfvnf; aemufq;kH Adv
k v
f yk JG
wGif uDADwdkAmtm; ,SOf½dkufEdkif

jcif;r&Sdojzifh (3-6)? (4-6)jzifh
ESpfyGJjywf ½HI;edrfhcJhjcif;jzpfonf/
,ckESpf 0ifb,fvf'efNydKifyGJ
\ trsKd;orD;wpfOD;csif;yGJpOfwGif
Edkifajctqifh(8) uDADwdkAmonf
*&if;pvif;NydKifyGJrsm;wGif tjrifh
qH;k uGmwmzdik ef ,ftqifo
h ma&muf
&SdcJhzl;NyD; ,ckNydKifyGJwGif tBudKAdkvf
vkyüJG Edik af jctqif(h 4) tZm&efum
ESifh AdkvfvkyGJwGif &Sm&ydkAmwdkYudk
tEdkif&&SdNyD; AdkvfpGJcJhjcif;jzpfonf/
touf 21 ESpf&SdNyDjzpfaom
uDADwdkAmonf 2006 ckESpfu qk
aMu;pm;wif;epfavmuodkY pwif

0ifa&mufcJhjcif;jzpfNyD;olr\wif;
epfoufwrf;wpfavQmufwiG f NydKif
yGaJ v;yGüJ Adv
k pf zJG ;l aMumif;od&onf/
,ckESpf 0ifb,fvf'efwif;
epfNydKifyGJ\ trsKd;orD;wpfOD;yGJpOf
wGif urÇmt
h qif(h 3) uvdu
k pf wm;
rSvGJí usefemrnfausmfwif;epf
r,frsm; yg0if,SOfNydKifcJhMuonf/
Edkifajctqifh (1) rS (10) twGif;
wif;epfr,frsm;jzpfMuonfh ZAdek m
&DAm? vDem? &SD,mAdkeD? pwdkqmwdkY
onf wwd,tqifhüyif ½HI;edrfh
cJNh yD; q&Dem0Dvs?H AD;eyf0v
D s?H a0:eD
,mpuD w d k Y r S m pwk w ¬ t qif h ü

½H;I edrchf u
hJ m Edik af jctqif(h 9) bmwdk
vDrSm uGmwm;zdkife,ftqifhrsm;ü
toD;oD;xGufcGmcJh&onf/
NyD;cJUonfU 10 ESpftwGif; csefyD,Hrsm;
2001
AD;eyfpf0DvsH
2002
q&Dem0DvsH
2003
q&Dem0DvsH
2004
&Sm&mydkAm
2005
AD;eyfpf0DvsH
2006
armf&ufprf kd
2007
AD;eyfpf0DvsH
2008
AD;eyfpf0DvsH
2009
q&Dem0DvsH
2010
q&Dem0DvsH

emq&Dtm;ac:,l&efpdwf0ifpm;onfUtoif;rsm;wGif cs,fvfqD;vnf;yg0ifvm
tmqife,ftoif;wGif t
em*wfrwnfrNidrjf zpfaeonfu
h iG ;f
v,fupm;orm; emq&Dtm;ac:
,lvdkonfhtoif;rsm;xJwGif vef
'efNrdKUcHNydKifbufcs,v
f q
f ;D toif;
vnf; yg0ifvmcJhaMumif; od&Sd&
onf/
tmqife,ftoif;ESihf pmcsKyf
oufwrf; wpfESpfomusef&Sdawmh
onfh emq&Donf toif;ESifhpm
csKyfoufwrf;wdk;&efqE´r&Sdawmh
bJ toif;rSxu
G cf mG vdak eNyD; ref,l
toif;u OD;pGmyxrpdw0f ifwpm;
urf;vSrf;rIrsm;jyKvkyfcJhonf/ xdk

tcsdefwGif tmqife,ftoif;u
emq&Dtm; pmcsKyfoufwrf;wdk;
&ef urf;vSr;f rIrsm; jyKvkycf o
hJ nf/
,if;uJhodkYtajctaewGif NyD;cJh
onfhwpfywfu ref,ltoif;\
NrdKUcHNydKifbuf refpD;wD;toif;u
vnf; emq&Dudkac:,l&efpdwf0if
pm;vmcJNh yD; tmqife,ftoif;u
emq&Duu
kd rf;vSr;f xm;onfh wpf
ywfvpm aygif 90000 \ ESpq
f
jzpfonfh aygif 180000 yrmP
jzifh urf;vSrf;&efpDpOfaeonf[k
owif;rsm;xGufay:cJhonf/ ,ck
aemufqHk; tmqife,ftoif;\

NrdKUcHNydKifbuf cs,fvfqD;toif;
uyg emq&Dudk ac:,l&efpdwf0if
pm;vmjcif;jzpfonf/ refpD;wD;t
oif ; rS m tl ' D ; eD ; pf u pm;orm;
qef;csufZftm;ac:,l&efBudK;pm;
rIratmifjrifco
hJ jzifh emq&Duakd c:
,l&ef BudK;pm;vmjcif;jzpfovdk
cs,fvfqD;toif;rSmvnf; pyg;
toif;\uGif;v,fzefwD;&Sif rdk'
&pftm; ac:,l&efurf;vSrf;rIrsm;
y,fcsccH &hJ ojzifh uGi;f v,fzefw;D
&SifwpfOD;jzpfol emq&Dudkrsufpd
usvmcJhjcif;jzpfonf/
vmrnfh Mumoyaw;aeYwiG f

tmqife,ftoif;\&moDBudKavh
usichf ef;tpDtpOfrsm;udk pwifrnf
jzpfNyD; emq&DrSmtoif;ESifhtwl
avhusichf ef;rsm;jyKvyk rf nfjzpfaomf
vnf; ,ck&moDrpwifrD tmqif
e,ftoif;rS aocsmayguf xGuf
cGmzG,f&Sdaeonf[kvnf; NAdwdef
rD'D,mrsm;u azmfjyvsuf&Sdonf/
emq&D u d k , f w d k i f u rl vpmaiG
tajrmuftjrm;&&Srd nfch s,fvq
f ;D ?
refpD;wD;ponfh toif;rsm;xuf
ref,ltoif;odkYom ajymif;a&TU&ef
pdwftm;xufoefvsuf&Sdonf[k
vnf; od&Sd&onf/

ZGefv 3 &ufaeh rGef;wnfU 12 em&D 0ef;usiftcsdefü &efukefNrdKY Adkvfatmifausmfvrf;&Sd
Aladdin Recreation Centre wGif rdkif;AkH;[k oHo,jzpfzG,fypönf;rsm;udk oufqdkif&mrSppfaq;rIrsm;jyKvkyfcJU
ZGefv 3 &ufaeY rGef;vGJ 12
em&D rdepf 20 0ef;usiu
f &efuek Nf rdKU
Adv
k w
f axmifNrdKUe,fAv
kd af tmifausmf
vrf;&Sd Aladdin Recreation Center
wGif rdik ;f Ak;H [koo
H ,jzpfz,
G yf pön;f
rsm;udkoufqdkif&mrSppfaq;rIrsm;
jyKvkyfcJh&aMumif; od&onf/
jzpfpOfrSm 2011 ckESpf ZGefv
3 &ufaeY eHeuf 11 em&D 52 rdepf
tcsdew
f iG f &efuek Nf rdKU Adv
k w
f axmif
NrdKUe,f Adkvfatmifausmfvrf;&Sd
Aladdin Recreation Centre wGif
rdkif;AkH;[koHo,jzpfzG,fypönf;rsm;
udk awGY&cdS &hJ ojzifh tqdyk g Aladdin
Recreation Centre vkjH cHKa&;wm0ef&dS
olrsm;rSwpfqifh oufqdkif&modkY
taMumif;Mum;rIrsm;jyKvyk cf ahJ Mumif;?
xdkaemuf oufqdkif&mwm0ef&Sdol
rsm;rMumrDtcsdeftwGif;vma&muf
ppfaq;rIrsm;jyKvkyfcJhaMumif; od&Sd
&onf/
Aladdin Recreation Centre rS
vkHjcHKa&;qdkif&mwm0ef&SdolwpfOD;
u ]]eHeuf 11 em&D 52 rdepf tcsdef
avmufrSm touf40 eD;yg; EdkYpdrf;
a&miftusÐ? *sif;abmif;bD0wfxm;
wJt
h rsKd;om;wpfO;D Aladdin Centre
rSmzGifhxm;wJh pm;aomufqdkifrSm
tat;vmaomufw,f/ NyD;awmh
olu qdik u
f pm;yGx
J ;kd wpfa,mufukd
olxdkifwJhae&mrSmypönf; wcsKdYxm;
cJrh ,f/ rMumcif aemufwpfa,muf
vm,lr,f/'Dypön;f awGu Ak;H vk;H 0r

oufqkdif&mrS oHo,jzpfzG,fypönf;rsm;ukd
ppfaq;rIrsm;jyKvkyfaepOf
[kwb
f ;l /tck aumifwmrSm aiGomG ;
&Sif;vdkufOD;r,fvdkYajymNyD; xGuf
oGm;w,f/ tJ'geJYcPaeawmh pm;
yGx
J ;kd u tJ'v
D u
l v
kd u
kd &f mS wJt
h cgrSm
r&SdawmhvdkY vkHjcHKa&;wm0ef&Sdol
awGuaewpfqifh Aladdin Centre
uwm0ef&SdolawGudk taMumif;
Mum;cJhw,f/ Aladdin Centre u
vkjH cHKa&;awGu tJ'yD pön;f udk rdik ;f &Sm
ud&,
d meJYppfMunfv
h u
kd af wmhtcsuf
ay;oHxGufvmw,f/ tJ'ghaMumifh
oufqdkif&m wm0ef&SdolawGudk

AHk;[koHo,jzpfzG,fypönf;xm;cJUonfUae&mtm;vHkjcHKa&;0efxrf;ujyoaepOf
taMumif;Mum;cJyh gw,f}}[k ajymjy
cJhonf/

PHOTO NEWS

jrefrmEdkifiHul;vufrSwfxkwfay;a&;vkyfief;rsm;udk 2011 ckESpf Zlvdkifv 1 &ufaehrSpí &efukefNrdKY
&efuif;NrdKYe,f&Sd jynfxJa&;taqmufttHkü pwifaqmif&Gufay;vsuf&Sd&m jynfxJa&;taqmufttHka&SY ü
EdkifiHul;vufrSwfjyKvkyf&ef apmihfqdkif;aeolrsm;udk Zlvdkifv 1 &ufaeYu awGY&pOf/

aygufuGJapEdkifonf[koHo,
&So
d nft
h qdyk gypön;f rsm;rSmwdik u
f yf

em&Dwpfckukd yguifydwfxm;onfh
ypönf;wpfck? rD;tdrft½kyfwpfckESifh
"mwfcv
J ;Hk rsm;jzpfaMumif;od&onf/
tqdkygudpöESifh ywfoufí
&efukefwdkif;a'oBuD;rS wm0ef&Sdol
wpfOD;uvnf; ]]aygufuGJapwJhAkH;
jzpfEdkifw,fvdkY ,lqvdkY aocsm
pepfwuseJY &SmazGppfaq;cJw
h t
hJ cg
rSmr[kwyf gbl;/ tcktcsderf mS vkjH cHK
a&;udpöawGudk &JwyfzGJU&,f? tkyf
csKyfrw
I m0ef&o
dS al wGeYJ twl jynfol
wpf&yfv;Hk yg0ifoifyh gw,f/ qdik u
f
pm;yGJxdk;taeeJY tJ'DtrsKd;om;u
'Dypönf;awGudk xm;cJhr,f? jyefvm
r,fvYkdajymwJt
h cgrSm vkjH cHKa&;tod
taeeJYxm;cGiahf wmifrjyKoifyh gbl;/
'ghtjyif olwdkY&JUvkHjcHKa&;0efxrf;
awGu xm;oGm;wJhypönf;awGudk
vIyfMunfw
h ,f/ acgufMunfw
h ,f/
'Dvrkd sK;d tjyKtrlawGrvkyo
f ifyh gbl;/
oufqdkif&mudk csufcsif;taMumif;
Mum;oif h w ,f / tu,f í om
aygufuGJrIjzpfcJh&if qkH;½IH;rIawG
trsm;BuD;jzpfEikd yf gw,f}}[ko;Hk oyf
ajymMum;cJhygonf/
2011 ckEpS f Zlvikd v
f twGi;f AH;k
aygufuo
JG nfah umvm[vrsm;rSm
vnf;trsm;jynforl sm;ü ysHUESaH eNyD;
NyD;cJhonfhvu rEÅav;? aejynf
awmfESifh jyifOD;vGifwkdYü AHk;ayguf
uGo
J nfjh zpfpOfrsm; jzpfymG ;cJah Mumif;
od&Sd&onf/
0if;jrifhausmf? a0,HNzdK;OD;

jr0wDuek of ,G vf rf;aMumif;&Sd *sKid ;f jrpfjzwf yGewf eG ;f wHwm;csO;f uyfvrf;rsm;
a&0ifepfjrKyfrIaMumifU ukefoG,f,mOfrsm;wefykdukefrsm;csNyD;
owfrSwfwefcsdefjzifU *sKdif;BudK;wHwm;rS ,m,Djzwfoef;ae&
ZG e f v twG i f ; ES i f h Zl v d k i f v
yxrywftwGif; u&ifjynfe,fü
rd;k onf;xefpmG &GmoGe;f aerIaMumifh
*sKdif;jrpfa&vQHrIjzpfay:um jr0wD
ukefoG,fvrf;aMumif;&Sd *sKdif;jrpf
jzwf yGefwGef; (pontoon) wHwm;
csOf;uyfvrf;rsm; a&0ifepfjrKyfrI
jzpfay:aeNyD; ukefoG,f,mOfwef;
rsm; taejzihf wefykdukefrsm;csNyD;
owfrSwfwefcsdefjzifhom ,cif
wHwm;a[mif; *sKdif;BudK;wHwm;rS
wpfqihf ,m,Djzwfoef;oGm;vm
vsuf&SdaeaMumif;owif;&&Sdonf/
]]rdk;u t&rf;BuD;awmh a'ge
awmifausmfvrf;rSm awmifNydKqif;
vrf;ydwfqdkYwmawG &Sdw,f/ *sKdif;
jrpfu a&awGvQHvmawmh aumh
u&dwftjcrf;buf csOf;uyfvrf;
wpfavQmufa&awGausmfvmw,f/

b,fum;rSjzwfvdkY r&awmhbl;/
ukefawGukd tvkyform;tuleJY 0ef
avQmhcsNyD; BudK;wHwm;uae owf
rSwfwefcsdeftwdkif;jzwfarmif;ae&
w,f/p&dwfpursm;vmovdktcsdef
aESmifah ES;rIawG&v
dS mw,f}}[k jr0wD
ukefwif,mOfarmif;wpfOD;u qdkyg
onf/
tqdkyg *sKdif;jrpfjzwf yGefwGef;
(pontoon) wHwm; csOf;uyfvrf;
rsm; a&0ifepfjrKyfrIrSm ZGefv 28
&ufaeYrSpwifjzpfcJhNyD; aumhu&dwf
buftjcrf; yGefwGef;wHwm;xdyf
wGif ay 50 cefY csOf;uyfvrf;wpf
avQmufeD;yg; a&0ifepfjrKyfaeNyD;
bm;tH b uf t jcrf ; ü a&teuf
oHk;aycefY&Sdum csOf;uyfvrf;wpf
avQmuf ay 40 cefY a&0ifepfjrKyf
vsuf&SdaMumif; od&onf/

Zlvikd vf 2 &ufaehu &efukefNrdKY
&efuif;NrdKYe,f? &efuif;vrf;&Sd
Mum;rSwfwdkifteD;wGif
vlaotavmif;wpfckawGY&Sd
Zlvdkifv 2 &ufaeYu &ef
uif;NrdKUe,f? &efuif;vrf;&Sd Mum;
rSww
f ikd t
f eD;wGiv
f al otavmif;
wpfcu
k akd wGU&S&d aMumif;od&&dS onf/
jzpfpOfrSmtouf 45 ESpf
0ef;usit
f rsK;d om;wpfO;D \tavmif;
udk Zlvdkifv 2 &ufaeY eHeuf 6
em&DcGJcefYwGif &efuif;NrdKUe,f
&efuif;vrf;&Sd Mum;rSww
f ikd t
f eD;
awGY&cdS &hJ jcif;jzpfaMumif;od&onf/
Mum;rSww
f ikd t
f eD;&Sad ps;onf
trsK;d orD;wpfO;D u ]]eHeuf 6 em&DcGJ
avmufrSm qdkifzGifhzdkYa&mufvm
awmh Mum;rSwfwdkifteD;rSm trsKd;
om;wpfOD; vJusaewmudkawGU&
w,f/ tJ'geJY&pJ cef;udt
k aMumif;
Mum;Ny;D wm0ef&o
dS al wGppfaq;awmh
aoqkH;aew,fvdkY od&ygw,f/
b,ftcsed u
f wnf;u aoqk;H ae
ovJ? bmaMumifhaovJqdkwm
awmh wm0ef&SdolawGqufvuf
ppfaq;aew,fvdkYod&ygw,f}}
[k ajymjycJhonf/
tqdyk gjzpfpOfukd &efuif;NrdKY
e,f&UJ pcef;rStrIziG t
hf a&;,lxm;
aMumif;od&Sd&onf/

ARAB

uOöeuRef;om qefpyg;txl;jyKukrÜPDrS awmifolrsm;tm; pdkufysKd;p&dwf usyfoHk;bDvsHausmfxkwfacs;
awmifolrsm;tm; pdkufxkwfyHUydk;onfU txl;jyKukrÜPDrsm;udkom OD;pm;ay;qefwifydkh cGifUjyKrnf

"EkjzLNrdKYe,frS awmifolBuD;wpfOD;

Gold Delta Co., Ltd.

uOöeuRe;f omqefpyg;txl;
jyKukrÜPD(Gold Delta)rS "EkjzL
NrdKUe,ftwGi;f &Srd ;kd pyg;pdu
k af wmif
olrsm;tm; pdkufysKd;p&dwfESifhoGif;
tm;pk pkpkaygif; usyfoHk;bDvsH
ausmftm; Zlvdkifv 3 &ufaeYu
xkwfacs;ay;cJhaMumif; owif;
&&Sdygonf/
]]2010-2011 rd;k pyg;pdu
k yf sK;d
wJt
h csed rf mS usyfoed ;f aygif; 8000
ausmfyJ yHhydk;ay;EdkifcJhayr,fh tck
2011-2012 rd;k pyg;pdu
k yf sKd;&moD
rSmawmh usyfodef;aygif; 30000

WORLD

ausmf(usyfoHk;bDvsHausmf) txd
yHhydk;ay;cJhygw,f/ awmifol pkpk
aygif; 6859 OD;? {u 60000 ausmf
twGufyHhydk;ay;cJhwmyg}}[k uOöe
uRef;omqefpyg;txl;jyKukrP
Ü D
Ouú| OD;cspcf ikd u
f ajymMum;cJo
h nf/
,if;tjyif qefwifydkYcGifhjyK
&mwGiv
f nf;aemufyikd ;f wGif awmif
olrsm;tm;yHyh ;kd rIjyKaeonfq
h efpyg;
txl;jyKukrÜPDrsm;udkom OD;pm;
ay;wifyYckd iG jhfyKrnfjzpfaMumif;vnf;
od&onf/
]]tyifpu
kd w
f mu wpfa,muf?

UPRISING

Zlvdkif 2 (paeaeh)? Zlvdkif 3 (we*FaEGaeh)
vpfAsm; / Oa&myEkid if rH sm;udw
k u
kd cf u
kd rf nf[k u'gzD\Ncdr;f ajcmufrI
tm; [Dvm&Duvifwefuy,fcscJhNyD; Ncdrf;ajcmufrI xkwf
jyefrnfhtpm; vpfAsm;jynfolrsm;\tusKd;pD;yGm;twGuf
OD;pGmjyKvkyfoihfaMumif;? &mxl;rSEkwfxGufoihfaMumif;
ajymMum;onf/ u'gzDtoHzikd x
f u
G af y:cJNh yD;aemuf u'gzD
wyfrsm;ESifh twdkuftcHwyfwdkYtMum; 'ufzfeD,mNrdKUwGif
wpfem&DMum wdkufyJGtjyif;txefjzpfyGm;cJhonf/
qD;&D;,m; / NrdKUawmfwiG f vlaxmifaygif;rsm;pGm qE´jyrIjzpfcNhJ yD;aemuf
[mrmjynfe,ftyk cf sKyfa&;rSL;a'gufwmtmruf'cf gvpf'f
tAÁ'lvfatZufudk or®wtmqwfu taMumif;jycsuf
r&Sb
d J xkwyf ,fco
hJ nf/ rwfvv,fu qE´jyrIpwifjzpf
cJhNyD;aemuf wwd,ajrmufjynfe,ftkyfcsKyfa&;rSL;xkwf
y,fcH&jcif;jzpfonf/
armf½dkudk / bk&ifhtmPmudkavQmhcsNyD; 0efBuD;csKyfESifhvTwfawmf vkyf
ydkifcGifhtmPmydkrdk&&Sdaprnfh tajccHOya'jyKjyifajymif;vJ
a&;twGuf qE´cH,lcJh&m rJay;ol 98 'or 49 cefYu
oabmwlaMumif; twnfjyKcJo
h nf/ ,if;jyKjyifajymif;vJ
jyKvkyfa&; wGef;tm;ay;&eftwGuf qE´jyawmif;qdkrIrsm;
qufvufjyKvkyfoGm;rnf[kvnf; aMunmxm;onf/
,Drif / or®wqmvuf[f &mxl;rSEkwfxGufa&;twGuf qE´jy
awmif;qdrk I ajcmufvausmv
f monft
h csed w
f iG f Edik if aH wmif
ydkif;? tufbf,efjynfe,f&Sd *sm;NrdKUESifh jynfe,fNrdKUawmf
Zif*sDbmNrdKUwdkYukd t,fvfau;'g;ESifhqufET,faom tpö
Zlvdkif 4 (wevFmaeh)
awmifudk&D;,m; - tmPm& Grand National Party u acgif;
aqmifopfa&G;cs,f&ef tpnf;ta0;usif;yrnf/
WHAT'S
e,f
o
mvef
- abmhpeD;,m;qmhbpf pfacgi;f aqmifa[mif;&ufurkd vm'pf
AHEAD
tm; onf[dwf*ftajcpdkuf ,l*dkqvm;AD;,m; ppf&mZ0wfrI
w&m;½Hk; ICTY wGif 'kwd,tBudrfajrmufppfaq;rnf/

rS xkwfacs;ay;onfU pkdufysKd;p&dwfacs;aiGvma&mufxkwf,lpOf
toD;pm;wmuwpfa,muf jzpfvYkd
awmhr&bl;av/ qefpyg;txl;jyK
ukrÜPDawGu awmifolawGudk
axmufyHhrItrsKd;rsKd;ay;w,f/
Oyrm uRefawmfwdkY uOöeuRef;
omukrP
Ü q
D &kd if awmifoal wGukd
pdkufysKd;p&dwfxkwfacs;ovdk wpf
{u wif; 100 xGufatmifvkyf
yg/ vkyfEdkifwJholudk pdkufp&dwf?
oGif;tm;pktvHktavmufvdko
avmufay;r,ft
h jyifxu
G v
f mwJh
pyg;udkvnf; wif;wpf&musyf
400000 tenf;qHk;ay;r,f/

DIARY

wu,fvdkY aygufaps;u usyf
400000 xufydkr,fqdk&ifvnf;
aygufaps;twdkif;ay;0,fr,f/
pyg;ay:wJhtcsdef wif; 100 udk
usyf 400000 atmufayguf
w,fqdk&ifawmif usyf 400000
tenf;qH;k aps;xm;NyD;0,fay;r,f
qdNk yD; awmifoal wGukd aps;tmrcH
ay;wJhpepftxdyhHydk;rIjyKw,f/
'ghtjyiftckqdk "EkjzLv,f,m
ukefxkwftoif;qdkNyD; awmifol
awGpak ygif;zGUJ pnf;xm;w,f/ tJ'D
tzGJUtaeeJY jynfyudkukd,fwdkif
wifydkYEdkifwJhtxd xyfNyD;yHhydk;oGm;
OD;rSm/ tJ'DtwGuf awmifolawG
udk yHyh ;kd wJu
h rk P
Ü aD wGuykd J 25 rSwf
qefwifydkYcGifhaxmufcHcsufay;
NyD; cGifhjyKoGm;zdkY jrefrmEdkifiHqef
pyg;vkyfief;toif;u tpnf;
ta0;qH;k jzwfxm;ygw,f/ awmif
olawGurkd yHyh ;kd bJ qefwifyYkdaewJh
ukrÜPDawGuawmh aemufydkif;rSm
5 rSwfqefvdk t&nftaoG;jrifh
qefawGxkwfNyD;ydkYEkdif&ifawmifrS
wef 200? 500 ponfjzifh tenf;
tusOf;avmufycJ iG jhf yKoGm;zdYk ppD Of
xm;ygw,f}}[k ¤if;u ajymMum;
cJhygonf/
rmefol&Sdef

jrefrm-xdkif; ½dk;&mvufa0Shpdefac:yGJwGif
jrefrmvufa0Shorm;rsm; oHk;yGJEdkif wpfyGJoa&&v'f&&Sdch J
jrefrmEkid if t
H v
kd yH pfaumfrwD?
tm;upm;0efBuD;XmeESifhjrefrmh
½dk;&mvufa0SYtzGJYcsKyfrSBuD;rSL;í
H& S Group \pD p Of r I j zif h
jrefrmESix
hf idk ;f jrefrmh½;kd &mvufa0SY
pdefac:yGJudk Zlvdkifv 2 &ufESifh
3 &ufwYdkwiG &f efuek Nf rdKU uefawmf
BuD;apmif;&Sd odrfjzLtm;upm;
cef;rüusif;ycJ&h m jrefrmvufa0SY

orm;rsm;oH;k yGt
J Edik &f &Scd u
hJ mwpfyJG
oa&uscJhaMumif; od&onf/
Zlvidk v
f 2 &ufaeYwiG f usif;y
onfhyxraeYtxl;pdefac:yGJrsm;
jzpfMuaom a&TatmifvHqk&Sif
pdk;vif;OD; (jrefrm^rsKd;Zmenf)ESifh
tm cGef;(xdkif;)wdkY\yGJpOfwGif pdk;
vif;OD;u yOörtcsDwGiftvJxdk;
jzifh tEdkif&&SdcJhNyD;xyfqifha&Tcg;

zd;k au(jrefrm)ESiv
Uf mcsv
D w
d (f xkid ;f )wd,
hk OS Nf yKd ipf Of

ywf csefyD,Hpdk;rdk;[def; (jrefrm^
rsKd;qufopf)ESifhukrfc&rf(xdkif;)
wdYkyw
JG iG pf ;kd rd;k [de;f uyxrtcsüD yif
tEdkif&&SdoGm;cJhaMumif;od&onf/
Zl v d k i f v 3 &uf a eY w G i f
usif;ycJhaomtxl;pdefac:yGJwGif
a&TxGef;,Hk(jrefrm)u pDaxmif
(xdkif;)udk 'kwd,tcsDwGiftEdkif
&&SdcJhNyD; aemufqHk;txl;pdefac:yGJ
jzpfonfh zdk;au(jrefrm? {0&wf)
ESihf vmcsDvw
d (f xdik ;f ) wdYk \ yGpJ Of
onfyMJG uD;yGaJ umif;wpfyjJG zpfcNhJ yD;
zd k ; auu vuf & nf t om&cJ h
aomfvnf; ig;csDjynfhonf txd
tvJrxdk;EdkifcJhojzifh oa&&v'f
jzifo
h mauseyfc&hJ aMumif;od&onf/

yxraeh&v'frsm;
rif;rif;xGef;(rsKd;Zmenf) Ekdif-½HI; a&T"g;Adkvf(bdvyfajrpuf½Hk)
&JwHcGef(tvif;a&mif) Ekdif-½HHI; &Jausmfol(e*g;rmef)
odef;nDnD(tvif;a&mif) oa& Mu,fav;(tJAm;*&if;)
wl;wl;(e*g;rmef) Edkif-½HI; om;ausmif;om;(awmifuav;)
atmifppfrif;(rsKd;qufopf) Edkif-½HI; apmvSMunfxl;(awmifuav;)
a'gif;onf;ajc(0gqdk) Edkif-½HI; paexGef;(tvif;a&mif)
'kwd,aeh&v'frsm;
zdk;vjynfU(tJAm;*&if;) oa& rdk;rc(0gqdk)
oajyatmif(bdvyfajrpuf½Hk) Edkif-½HI; a&T&Jav;(tjzLa&mifaoG;opf)
av;ndKY&Sif(e*g;rmef) oa& Mu,fpifNzdK;(tjzLa&mifaoG;opf)
0if;armuf(rsKd;Zmenf) oa& em*pfarmifarmif(bdvyfajrpuf½)kH
usm;ayguf(bdvyfajrpuf½Hk) Ekdif-½HI; pvlum(0gqdk)
xGef;xGef;rif;(rk'Hk) Ekdif-½HI; a&Todef;atmif(awmifuav;)

u<mhtqifh (1) em',fvfudk tEdkif,lNyD; *sdKudkApf
0ifb,fvf'efcsefyD,Hqkudk yxrtMudrf&,lEdkifcJh

*&if;pvif;NydKifyGJwpfckjzpf
onfh 0ifb,fv'f efwif;epfNydKifyJG
\trsK;d om;wpfO;D csi;f Adv
k v
f yk u
JG kd
Zlvikd v
f 3 &ufaeYu usif;ycJ&h m
urÇmt
h qif(h 2)*sdKudAk pfu vuf&dS
urÇmt
h qif(h 1)em',fvu
f kd tEdkif
&&SdcJhNyD; 0ifb,fvf'efcsefyD,Hqk
udk yxrqHk;tMudrf &&SdoGm;cJh
aMumif; od&Sd&onf/
*sKd uAkd pfonf ,ckEpS t
f wGi;f ü
*&if;pvif;NydKifyGJwpfckjzpfonfh
MopaMw;vstd;k yif;wif;epfNydKifyJG
wGif tef'rD ma&;tm; tEdik &f &SNd yD;
Adv
k pf o
JG uJo
h Ykd tjcm;NydKifyrJG sm;jzpf
onf h Indian Wells ? Miami?
Madrid? Rome NydKifyGJrsm;wGif
em',fvftm;tEdkif&&SdcJhNyD; 0if

b,fv'f efNydKifyw
JG iG v
f nf; xyfrH
tEdkif&umAdkvfpGJcJhjcif; jzpfonf/
qm;bD;,m;EdkifiHom; *sdKudk
Apfonf 2011 ckESpf 0ifb,fvf
'efNydKifyGJwGif Edkifajctqifh(2)
owfrSwfcH&NyD; yxrtqifhwGif
jyifopfrS csm'D? 'kw,
d tqifw
h iG f
½k&Sm;rStef'gqif? wwd,tqifh
wGif qdkufy&yfpfrS buf*g;wpf?
pwkw¬tqifhwGifvD,dk'&m? uGm
wm;zdkife,fwGif MopaMw;vsrS
wdrk pf? qDr;D zdik ef ,fwiG f jyifopfrS
qGe*f gwdYk ut
kd Edik &f &Scd NhJ yD;Adv
k v
f yk JG
odkY wufa&mufEdkifcJhjcif;jzpfum
Adv
k v
f yk w
JG iG ef m',fvt
f m;(6-4)?
(6-1)? (1-6)? (6-3) jzifh tEdkif
&&Su
d m Adv
k pf o
JG mG ;cJjh cif;jzpfonf/

2014 urÇmhzvm;tm&SZkefyxrtqifh
ajcppfyGJ ('k-ausmh)&v'frsm;
jrefrm 2-0 rGef*dkvD;,m;
(ESpfausmUaygif; 2-1 *kd;jzifU jrefrmwuf)
ta&SYwDarm 0-5 eDayg
(ESpfausmUaygif; 7-1 *dk;jzifU eDaygwuf)
zdvpfydkif 4-0 od&DvuFm
(ESpfausmUaygif; 5-1 *dk;jzifU zdvpfydkifwuf)
w½kwf(wdkifay) 3-2 rav;&Sm;
(ESpfausmUaygif; 4-4 *dk;jzifU
ta0;*kd;pnf;rsOf;t&rav;&Sm;wuf)
vmtdk 6-2 uarÇm'D;,m;
(ESpfausmUaygif; 8-6 *dk;jzifU vmtdkwuf)
rumtdk 1-17 AD,uferf
(ESpaf usmaU ygi;f 13-1 *d;k jzifU AD,uferfwuf)
ygvufpwdkif; 1-1 tmz*efepöwef
(ESpaf usmaU ygi;f 3-1 *d;k jzifU ygvufpwdik ;f wuf)
ygupöwef 0-0 b*Fvm;a'U&Sf
(ESpaf usmaU ygi;f 3-0 *d;k jzifU b*Fvm;a'U&w
fS uf)

ukdygtar&duzvm;
tm*sifwD;em; 1-1 bkdvD;AD;,m;
ukdvHbD,m 1-0 aumfpwm&Dum
b&mZD;vf 0-0 AifeDZGJvm;

urÇmhzvm;trsKd;orD;abmvHk;NydKifyGJ
uae'g 0-4
*smreD 1-0
*syef 4-0
e,l;ZDvef 1-2
ajrmufukd&D;,m; 0-1
tar&duef 3-0
MopaMw;vs 3-2
b&mZD;vf 3-0

jyifopf
Edkuf*sD;&D;,m;
ruúqDudk
t*Fvef
qDG'if
ukdvHbD,m
tDauGwdk&D,,f*DeD
aemfa0

pGyfpJGoltrsKd;orD;\ ½kd;om;rItay:oHo,&SdaMumif; w&m;½Hk;uqHk;jzwfcJUNyD;aemuf
]b,folyJwufwuf pD;yGm;a&;wdk;wufatmif vkyfapcsifw,f}
ESm
rStquf
xuf0ufausmf&&SdNyD; tpdk;&zJGU aomvrf;ab;aps;onfwpfOD;u
tjynfjynfqkdif&maiGaMu;&efyHkaiGtzJGY Ouú|a[mif;pxa&mufcef; tus,fcsKyfrSvGwfajrmuf áápmrsuf
f nft
h Budrt
f enf;i,fteuf ajymMum;onf/ ]]b,folyJwuf
,if;uJhodkY wnfjrJygu EdkifiHa&; Edik o
(D)

Photo:AFP

vpfAsm;twdkuftcHwdkufckdufa&;orm;wdkhESifh wl&uDEkdifiHjcm;a&;0efBuD; awGYqHkpOf
vmrfrpfppfaoG;<ursm;uodr;f ydu
k x
f m;&m ¤if;wkYd uw
kd u
kd f
xkwf&ef ppfqifa&;jyKvkyfawmhrnf[k umuG,fa&;0ef
BuD;Xmeu xkwfjyefcJhonf/
ygvufpwdkif; / tpöa&;wkdYuydwfqdkYxm;aom *gZmurf;ajrmifokdY
tultnDay;a&;a&,mOfpkrsm;vma&mufEkdifa&;twGuf
cGifhjyK&ef [m;rm;tpkd;&u *&dEkdifiHudkawmif;qdkcJhonf/
Freedom Flotilla [kac:aom a&,mOfpkwGif oabFmrsm;
10 pD;cefYyg0ifNyD; tar&duefEkdifiHrS The Audacity of
Hope oabFmuyÜwdef John Klusmire udk *&d&JwyfzJGUu
zrf;qD;cJhaMumif;od&onf/
Ref:CNN;AFP;AP;Reuters

Zlvdkif 5 (t*Fgaeh)
tD*spf - 0efBuD;a[mif;rsm;jzpfonfh Anas al-Fiqqi ESifh Yussef
Butros Ghali wdkY\ jcpm;rIrsm;udk pD&ifcsufcsrSwfrnf/
vdkufbD;&D;,m; - atmufwdkbm 11 wGif usif;yrnfU or®w
a&G;aumufyGJrwdkifrD rJqG,frIrsm;pwifrnf/

rdrdudk tjynfjynfqidk &f maiG
aMu;&efyHkaiGtzJGUOuú|a[mif;
'dkrepfpxa&mufcef;u t"r®jyK
usi&hf efBudK;yrf;cJo
h nf[pk yG pf w
GJ idk f
Mum;cJhaom [kdw,ftrsKd;orD;
0efxrf;\xGuq
f ckd surf sm;ESiyhf wf
oufí¤if;\½d;k om;rItay: oHo
,&SdaMumif; qHk;jzwfcJhNyD;aemuf
pxa&mufcef;udt
k us,cf sKyfrjS yef
vTwf&ef e,l;a,mufjynfe,f
w&m;½Hk;csKyfrSw&m;olBuD;u Zl
vdik f 1 &ufwiG pf &D ifcsucf sco
hJ nf/
t"r®jyKusirhf I jzpfymG ;cJo
h nf
qdak omaeY&ufrwdik rf ED pS &f uftvdk
wGif ,if;pGyfpJGoltrsKd;orD;onf
t&DZdk;em;jynfe,f axmifxJ&Sd
¤if;\&nf;pm;ESifh zkef;ajympOf
¤if;onftajctaeaumif;aMumif;?
,if;vl (pxa&mufcef;udk &nf
nTef; zG,f&Sd)rSm csrf;omaMumif;?
aiG&ayguf&adS Mumif; ajymMum;cJh
onf [ k e,l ; a,muf w d k i f ; rf

Zlvdkif 6 (Ak'¨[l;aeY)
AD,uferf - jcpm;rIusL;vGerf jI zifh axmif'Pfcsrw
S cf x
H m;&Ny;D jzpfaom
ydkhaqmifa&;0efBuD;a[mif; tygt0if vludk;OD;udk vmbf,lrI
rsm;jzifh pD&ifcsufcsrSwfrnf/

*DeED ikd if o
H l ,if;trsKd;
orD;u0efccH ahJ Mumif;
tpd k ; &a&S U aersm;u
Zlvikd f 1 &ufwiG w
f ifjy
cJhaomtcsuftvuf
rsm;t& od&onf/
touf 62 ESpf&Sd
pxa&muf c ef ; rS m
tus,fcsKyfrS vGwf
ajrmufcJhaomfvnf;
trIudk ½kyfodrf;vkduf
Photo:AFP
jcif; r[kwfaMumif;?
pxa&mufcef;ESifhZeD; e,l;a,mufjynfe,fw&m;½Hk;csKyfrS jyefxGufvmpOf
vdifydkif;qdkif&m
owif;pmwGifazmfjycJhrIudk ,if; ,if;owif;&if;jrpfu ajymMum; tMurf;zufrIpJGcsufrsm;jzifh quf
trIESifh eD;pyfolwpfOD;u pDtifef onf/ tqdyk gjzpfpOftNyD;ppfaq; vufpJGqdkxm;aMumif; ruf[uf
tifefodkY ajymMum;onf/
ar;jref;rIrsm;wGif tar&duefü ckd wefc½dkifa&SUaeqkdifAefpDu ajym
h csut
f vuf Mum;onf/ jyifopfEidk if o
H m;px
touf 32 ESp&f dS ,if;trsKd; vHcI iG ahf wmif;cHonft
orD;onf jynfe,ftrsm;tjym;ü rsm;? tcGefaqmifrIESifhywfouf a&mufcef;\ywfpydkYukd wm0ef&Sd
f vufrsm;? vlwpfpk olrsm;u qufvufodrf;qnf;
bPfpm&if;rsm;zGifhxm;aMumif;? onfh tcsut
rl;,pfaq;a&mif;0,frt
I ygt0if u ¤if;udk t"r®jyKusifcJhonfqdk xm;aomfvnf;tar&duefEidk if w
H iG ;f
tjcm;ae&mrsm;rS a':vmaxmif aom tcsuftvufrsm; ponf vGwfvyfpGmoGm;vmEkdifrnfjzpf
aygif;rsm;pGm &&SdcJhzG,f&SdaMumif; wdkYudk vdrfnmxGufqdkcJhonf[k aMumif; od&onf/ Ref:CNN
Zlvdkif 7 (Mumoyaw;aeh)
qGpfZmvef - qdkufy&yfpf jyefvnfaygif;pnf;a&;atmifjrifa&;
aqG;aEG;&ef *&d? wl&uDacgif;aqmifrsm;ESifU ukvor*¾
twGif;a&;rSL;csKyf befuDrGef awGYqHkrnf/
ZifbmabG - pD;yGm;a&;tpDtpOfopf pwifrnf/

Zlvdkif 8 (aomMumaeh)
tm*sifw;D em; - atmufwb
k d m 23 &ufwiG f usi;f yrnfo
U r®wa&G;aumufyJG
twGuf ud,
k pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm;udk t"duygwrD sm;ua&G;cs,rf nf/
tD*spf - 'Dru
kd a&pDenf;us jyKjyifajymif;vJ&eftwGuf zdtm;ay;rIrsm;
qufvufvyk o
f mG ;&ef&nf&,
G Nf y;D w[D&m&ifjyifwiG f qE´jyrIrsm;
vkyf&ef pDpOfxm;onf/

MoZm&Sdaom txufvTmrsm;u
qefYusifuefYuGuf&ef ydkrdkcufcJ
aprnfjzpfaMumif; pifumylEkdifiH
&Sd Institute of Southeast Asian
Studies rS ygAifcsmcsmA,faygif
yefu oHk;oyfonf/
ESpaf ygif;rsm;pGm Edik if aH &;vdyf
cJwnf;vnf;tajctaetqH;k owf
Ekdifrnf[k arQmfvifhxm;onfh
,cka&G;aumufyw
GJ iG t
f Ekid &f cJah om
,ifvufcu
f ,ckatmifyo
GJ nf
ygwDatmifyw
GJ pfcrk [kwb
f J jynf
olYtusKd;udkxrf;aqmif&ef tcGifh
ta&;wpfcjk zpfaMumif; ajymMum;
onf/ oufqifESifhywfoufí
pd;k &drrf jI zpfay:aejcif;tay:¤if;\
tpfut
kd wGuf txl;tpDtpOfr&Sd
aMumif; ajymMum;onf/
,cka&G;aumufyw
GJ iG jf zLxdik ;f
ygwDtEkdif&rIonf rMumao;rD
q,fpkESpfrsm;twGif; ygwDwpfck
wnf;u vdt
k yfaomtrwfae&m

wpfBudrf tygt0ifjzpfvmrnf
jzpfonf/
xkdif;jynfoltrsm;pku pD;
yGm;a&;ukdom t"duxm;pOf;
pm;í rJay;cJjh cif;jzpfaMumif; bef
aumuf&Sd rJ½HkwpfckwGifrJay;cJh

wuf pD;yGm;a&;wdk;wufatmif
vkyfapcsifw,f/ vlaerIp&dwf
t&rf;BuD;aew,f}}[k ¤if;\
arQmfvifhcsufudk ajymjycJhonf/
Ref: CNN, BBC, AFP, AP,
Bangkok Post

„

,cka&G;aumufyw
GJ iG f rJay;cGi&hf o
dS l 47 oef;&SNd y;D Ekid if w
H pf0ef; rJ½Hk
94000 ausmf&Sdum a&G;aumufyJG0efxrf; 1 'or 2 oef;jzifh
aqmif&GufcJhaMumif; a&G;aumufyJGaumfr&Sifu xkwfjyefonf/
vTwfawmf trwfae&m 500 twGuf ygwD 40 ausmfrS
udk,fpm;vS,favmif; 3832 OD;u 0ifa&muf,SOfNydKifcJhonf/
vHkjcHKa&;twGuf &JwyfzJGY0if 170000 cefhudk csxm;cJhonf/
„ rJay;ol&mckid Ef eI ;f rSm 74 &mcdik Ef eI ;f txd&o
dS nf[k a&G;aumufyaGJ umf
r&Siu
f xkwjf yefc&hJ m 2007 ckEpS u
f rJay;ol&mcdik Ef eI ;f eD;yg;&Scd o
hJ nf/
a&G;aumufyaGJ emufq;kH &v'fukd Zlvikd f 4 &ufwiG f xkwjf yefrnf[k
aMunmxm;onf/
„ ygwD 40 ausm0f ifa&muf,OS Nf yKd icf ahJ omfvnf; tEdik &f cJah om jzLxdik ;f
ygwD? tmPm&'Drkdu&ufygwDtygt0if ygwD 10 ckuom
trwfae&mrsm;tEkdif&&SdcJhNyD; usefygwDrsm;rSm wpfrJrSr&cJhay/
„ oufqifudkjzKwfcsNyD; tmPmodrf;rIOD;aqmifcJhaom AdkvfcsKyfBuD;
Sonthi Boonyaratkalin \ Matubhum ygwDonf &SyfeDwdkh\
UDD wkdYESifhvufwJG&ef tqifoifh&SdaMumif; ajymMum;onf/

Zlvdkif 9 (paeaeh)
ql'efawmifydkif; - tcsKyftjcmtmPmydkifEkdifiHwpfEdkifiHtjzpf aMu
nmrnf/
rav;&Sm; - vGwv
f yfNy;D w&m;rQwaom a&G;aumufyrJG sm;usi;f yay;&ef
awmif;qdkrItjzpf vIyf&Sm;wuf<uolrsm;ESifh twdkuftcHygwD
rsm;u pka0;rIrsm;jyKvkyfrnf/

Zlvdkif 10 (we*FaEGaeh)
tpöa&; - tar&duefNidrf;csrf;a&;vIyf&Sm;ol *gZmwGif towfcH&rI
twGuf tpöa&;tpdk;&tzGJYwGif wm0ef&SdonfqdkonfU pGyfpGJ
xm;rIudk tNyD;owfMum;em ppfaq;rnf/

jynfoltrsm;pkqE´t& oufqifaxmufcHolrsm; a&G;aumufyGJwGif EdkifNyD
oufqifnDr,ifvufcf\ jzLxkdif;ygwDtEdkif&aMumif; 0efBuD;csKyftbf[D;qpf *kPfodu©m&SdpGm0efcH
Zlvikd f 3 &ufwiG jf yKvkycf ahJ om
xdkif;taxGaxGa&G;aumufyJGü 0ef
BuD;csKyfa[mif;oufqif\ti,f
qHk;nDrOD;aqmifaom twdkuftcH
jzLxdik ;f ygwDu rJtjywftowfjzifh
tEdkif&cJhaMumif; od&onf/ rJ 97
&mckid Ef eI ;f udak &wGuNf yD;pD;chrJ t
I & jzL
xdkif;ygwDu trwfae&m 500 t
euf 263 ae&m? 0efBuD;csKyftbf
[D;qpf\'Drdku&ufygwDu 161
ae&m&&SdcJhaMumif; a&G;aumufyJG
aumfr&Sifu xkwfjyefcJhonf/
]],ifvufct
f aeeJY trsK;d orD;
wpfOD;u tpkd;&tzJGUukd yxrqHk;
tBudrzf UGJ Ekid w
f t
hJ cGit
hf a&; &cJyh gNyD/
jyefvnf&ifMum;apha&; vkyfaqmif
wmudk uReaf wmfjrifvykd gw,f/ 'Drkd
u&ufygwDu twkduftcHvkyfzdkY
tqifoihyf gyJ}} [k vuf&t
dS mPm&
'Dru
kd &ufygwDacgif;aqmif0efBu;D csKyf

Photo:AFP
Photo: AFP

twdkuftcHjzLxkdif;ygwDacgif;aqmif,ifvufcf befaumufNrdKY&Sd ygwDXmecsKyfokdh a&muf&SdvmpOf
&Sif ,ifvufcfonf xdkif;EdkifiH\
yxrqHk;trsKd;orD;0efBuD;csKyf jzpf
vmawmhrnfjzpfonf/ oufqifu

jynfolawGu uRefrudktcGifUta&;wpfBudrfay;wJUtwGuf
uRefr taumif;qHk;BudK;pm;vkyfaqmifoGm;ygr,f . . .
tbf[D;qpfu ajymMum;onf/
tbf[D;qpf0dZÆmu ¤if;wkdY½HI;edrfh
aMumif;? tEdkif&ol jzLxdkif;ygwDudk
*kPfjyKaMumif; befaumufNrdKU&Sd
ygwDXmecsKyfwiG f ajymMum;cJo
h nf/
a&G;aumufyt
GJ Ekid &f onft
h wGuf
touf 44 ESpf&Sd pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;

zkef;ac:NyD; *kPfjyKpum;ajymcJh
aMumif;? a&SUwGif cufcJMurf;wrf;
aomwm0efrsm;apmifBh udKaeonf[k
ajymMum;cJhaMumif; ,ifvufcfu
ajymMum;onf/ ]]jynfolawGu
uRerf udk tcGit
hf a&;wpfBudraf y;wJh
twGuf uRefrtaumif;qHk; BudK;

Photo: AFP

befaumufNrdKYwGif jzLxkdif;ygwDaxmufcHolrsm;atmifyJGcHaerIudkawGY&pOf
pm;vkyfaqmifoGm;ygr,f}} [k ,if
vufcfu ajymMum;cJhonf/

rJay;NyD; xGufvmolrsm;ukd
Susan Dusit wuúokdvfu ar;jref;

0efBuD;csKyftbf[D;qpfu
½HI;edrfhaMumif; aMunmaepOf
xm;onfph pfwrf;t& jzLxdik ;f ygwD
u trwf a e&m 313 ae&m?
tbf[D;qpf\'Drkdu&ufygwDu
trwfae&m 152 ae&m&&Scd ahJ Mumif;
od&onf/ befaumufNrKdU&Sd Assumption
wuúov
kd u
f ar;jref;onfh ppfwrf;
t& jzLxdkif;ygwDu trwfae&m
299 ae&m? 'Drkdu&ufygwDu 132
ae&m&&SdcJhonf/
,if v uf c f y gwD u vd k t yf
aomtrwftrsm;pkxuf ausmfveG f
tEkdif&vQif nGefYaygif;zJGU&efrvdk
onfhtwGuf tpdk;&tzJGUydkrdkwnfjrJ
rnfjzpfaMumif;?
pmrsufESm(BC)wGif qufvufzwf½Iyg&ef

yxrtausmU½HI;a<u;udk jyefqyfEdkifcJUonfU jrefrmabmvHk;toif;
rGef*dkvD;,m;toif;tm; 'kwd,ydkif;oGif;*dk;ESpf*dk;jzifU tEdkif,lNyD; 'kwd,tqifUajcppfyGJodkhwufa&mufEdkifcJU
2014 urÇmhzvm;NydKifyGJ\
tm&SZek af jcppfyyJG xrtqifh 'kw,
d
tausmhyGJpOfudk Zlvdkifv 3 &ufaeY
u &efukefNrdKU ok0PÖtm;upm;
uGi;f üusi;f ycJ&h m jrefrmhvufa&G;pif
abmvHk;toif;u rGef*dkvD;,m;
vufa&G;pif abmvHk;toif;udk
'kw,
d ydik ;f wGio
f iG ;f ,lcahJ om *d;k ESp*f ;kd
jzifh tEdkif&&SdcJhNyD; 'kwd,tqifh
ajcppfyo
JG Ykd wufa&mufEikd cf ahJ Mumif;
od&Sd&onf/
jrefrmtoif;onf ajcppfyGJ
yxrtausmh rGef*dkvD;,m;ajrwGif
,SOfNydKifupm;cJhaom yGJpOfü (1-0)
*d;k jzif½h ;IH edrchf o
hJ jzifh enf;jycsKyfjzpfol
rDvefZDAm'DEdkApftm; &mxl;rS xkwf
y,fvu
dk Nf yD;tkycf sKyfot
l jzpf OD;wif
jrifah tmif? enf;jycsKyftjzpf OD;qef;
0if;wkdYtm;cefYtyfum udkifwG,fap
cJo
h nf/ toif;wGiv
f nf; cifarmif
vGi?f &efyikd ?f pd;k rif;OD;? ausmfaZ,sm
0if;? odef;oef;OD; ponfhvufa&G;
pifa[mif;upm;orm;rsm;ukd xyfrH
a&G;cs,cf NhJ yD;'kw,
d tausmyh pJG OfwiG f
tEdkif&&Sd&ef aqmif&GufcJhMuonf/

EdkifcJhjcif;jzpfonf/
jrefrmtoif;onf xkwyf ,fcH
&aom enf;jycsKyfjzpfol rDvef
ZDAm'DEAkd pfvufxufwiG f Edik yf &JG &Scd hJ
jcif;r&SdbJ ,ck wpfESpfESifhav;v
tMumrS o m yxrqH k ; Ed k i f y G J u d k
jyefvnf&,lEdkifcJhjcif; jzpfonf/
,ckyt
JG Edik af Mumifh jrefrmhvuf
a&G;pifabmvH;k toif;onf 'kw,
d
tqifah jcppfyo
JG Ykd a&mufciG &hf &Scd NhJ yD;
'kwdtqifhajcppfyGJtjzpf tdkref
toif;ESihf Zlvikd v
f 23 &uf aeYwiG f
tdkrefEdkifiHüvnf;aumif;? Zlvdkifv
28 &ufaeYwGif jrefrmEdkifiHüvnf;
aumif;,SONf ydKiu
f pm;&rnfjzpfonf/
jrefrmtoif;twGuf 'kwd,tqifUajcppfyGJokdhwufa&mufaponfUtEdkif*dk;oGif;,lay;cJUol
rkdiftdkufEdkif(ausmeHygwf 17)ESifU jrefrmUvufa&G;piftoif; upm;orm;tcsKdYatmifyGJcHaepOf
Zlvikd v
f 3 &ufaeYu ,SONf ydKif
upm;cJhaom 'kwd,tausmhyGJpOf
wGif jrefrmtoif;onf yGJcsdeftm;
vHk;eD;yg; rGef*dkvD;,m;toif;buf
odkY xdk;azmufupm;EdkifcJhNyD; tqHk;
owfraocsmcJo
h jzifh yxrydik ;f wGif
*dk;jywftEkdif&&SdEkdifrnfh tcGihfta&;

rsm; vGJacsmfcJh&onf/ 'kwd,ydkif;
wGifvnf; yGJpuwnf;u jrefrm
toif;uyif rGef*dkvD;,m;toif;
bufoYdk zdupm;Edik cf NhJ yD; yxr*d;k udk
'kwd,ydkif; 61 rdepfwGif ydkifpdk;u
oGif;,lEdkifcJhum 'kwd,*dk;udk 88
rdepfwGif rdkiftdkufEdkifu oGif;,l

rDvefZAD m'DEAkd pfvufxuf
jrefrmvufa&G;pifabmvH;k toif;&v'frsm;
jrefrm,l-23
jrefrm,l-23
jrefrm
jrefrm
jrefrm
jrefrm
jrefrm

1-2
1-1
1-1
0-2
1-3
0-2
0-1

tdEd´,,l-23
tdEd´,,l-23
zdvpfydkif
b*Fvm;a'U&Sf
ygvufpwdkif;
rav;&Sm;
rGef*dkvD;,m;

vef'eftdkvHypfajcppfyGJ y-ausmU
vef'eftdkvHypfajcppfyGJ 'k-ausmU
AFC Challenge Cup ajcppfyGJ
AFC Challenge Cup ajcppfyGJ
AFC Challenge Cup ajcppfyGJ
ajcprf;yGJ
2014 urÇmhzvm;ajcppfyGJ