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Precambrian Research 160 (2008) 108–126

Rodinia descendants in South America
Reinhardt A. Fuck a,∗ , Benjamim Bley Brito Neves b , Carlos Schobbenhaus c

Instituto de Geociˆ ncias, Universidade de Bras´lia, 70910-900 Bras´lia, Brazil e ı ı Instituto de Geociˆ ncias, Universidade de S˜ o Paulo, 05508-080 S˜ o Paulo, Brazil e a a c Servi¸ o Geol´ gico do Brasil-CPRM, 70830-030 Bras´lia, Brazil c o ı


Received 5 December 2006; received in revised form 10 January 2007; accepted 23 April 2007

Abstract Geological structures and Precambrian rock units thought to be related to Rodinia Supercontinent evolution were recognized in three main domains of South America: (i) Mesoproterozoic fold belts ca. 1.5–1.1 Ga old and corresponding foreland cover successions and coeval cratonic intrusions exposed in the southwestern portion of the Amazonian Craton make up the most complete and best preserved record of interpreted Rodinia amalgamation in South America. Recently obtained paleomagnetic data place this part of the Amazonian Craton close to the southernmost segment of Laurentia’s Grenville margin. Inferred collision of both continents is reflected in the Nova Brasilˆ ndia and Aguape´-Sunsas fold belts, a ı as well as in the Llano Uplift area. (ii) In eastern South America small crustal fragments of inferred Rodinia ascent were variably reworked during Neoproterozoic Brasiliano orogenic events, rendering it difficult to recognize and map Meso-Neoproterozoic (Grenvillian) mobile belts. So far, the best candidates to represent possible fragments of such mobile belts were recognized in the Punta del Este, Uruguay, terrain, in the Serra do Itaberaba, S˜ o Paulo, eastern Brazil area and in the Cariris Velhos, northeastern Brazil area. (iii) The third domain comprises a number of scattered a basement exposures within the Andean Cordillera, from Venezuela and Colombia (Guajira, Santa Marta) in the north to northwest Argentina (Pampia, Arequipa-Antofalla) in southern South America. Although deeply reworked and fragmentary in exposure, these basement inliers seem to represent the largest litho-structural record of the Meso-Neoproterozoic orogenic collage in South America, apparently making up the western border of the South American Platform. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: South America; Rodinia; Meso-Neoproterozoic orogenic collage; Neoproterozoic break-up

1. Introduction There are many problems in recognizing crust fragments which took part in Rodinia Supercontinent amalgamation and, later on, after break-up and dispersal, ended up as part of South America. Two stand out as the most relevant: (i) the identification of direct descendant segments of Rodinia fragmentation, rearranged within the Gondwana framework and (ii) the identification of Mesoproterozoic mobile belts which took part in the net of orogenic belts that accomplished the amalgamation of Rodinia Supercontinent (Fig. 1). Major exposed blocks of South American shield areas, such as the Amazonian, S˜ o Francisco, and Rio de la Plata cratons, a were recognized early on as possible Rodinia descendants and regarded as such by most authors of Rodinia reconstruction mod-

Corresponding author. E-mail addresses: (R.A. Fuck), (B.B. Brito Neves), (C. Schobbenhaus). 0301-9268/$ – see front matter © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.precamres.2007.04.018

els (Hoffman, 1991; Moores, 1991; Unrug, 1996; Dalziel, 1997, 2001). However, a number of smaller continental blocks of different geological and geographical origins and environments, like the S˜ o Lu´s and Lu´s Alves cratonic fragments, the Rio a ı ı Apa block, as well as reworked segments, such as Goi´ s, Granja a and Guanh˜ es massifs, have not been considered in the classic a Rodinia reconstruction models of the last decade. In addition, there are several large crustal blocks hidden beneath large sedimentary basins, like the Paranapanema and Parna´ba blocks, concealed underneath the Phanerozoic Paran´ ı a and Parna´ba basins, respectively, which are also absent in all ı Rodinia reconstructions. Therefore, it is rather difficult or even impossible to reach the goal of a reliable map of Rodinia, if a large number of its descendant fragments are not included in the reconstructions. A major part of Mesoproterozoic mobile belts was deeply regenerated within the Andean Cordillera, either within the Andean zone itself, like the basement windows in the northern part of the Andean Chain, or within pre-Andean domains (Aleman and Ramos, 2000; Ramos and Aleman, 2000; Ramos,

. to the best of our knowledge. (7) (1300–1100 Ma). 8. Intracratonic basin deposits: (6) (1600–1300 Ma). 2005). 2001).A. and geochronological data. Paleoproterozoic orogenic belts: (2) (2200–2000 Ma). (1100–900 Ma). / Precambrian Research 160 (2008) 108–126 109 Fig.000 geological map of Brazil (Bizzi et al. in the Pampean domain. took part in the amalgamation and demise of Rodinia. ı e e Aside from that.000. and the recently released complete set of 1:1. 2004). it is useful to recollecting dispersal of Pangea.. which.500. . (3) (2000–1800 Ma). Geof´sica e Ciˆ ncias Atmosf´ ricas) were also used. 2. many colleagues from Brazil and South America helped us out with valuable information and important recent references. (11) (900–700 Ma). and Universidade de S˜ o Paulo (Instituto de a Astronomia. (12) Continental arc related rocks (1100–900 Ma).000 geological sheets of the whole of Brazilian territory (Schobbenhaus et al. in central Argentina. among others the Geological Map of South America (Schobbenhaus and Bellizzia. 2004. geophysical. (4) (1800–1600 Ma).R. Fuck et al. Descendant blocks of Rodinia break-up and dispersal Before discussing the case of Rodinia break-up and dispersal. (1) Archean rocks (>2500 Ma). Only rather small fractions of Mesoproterozoic belts were preserved within the stable domains of the South American Platform. Oceanic arc related rocks: (10) (1600–1300 Ma). (13) AMCG suite rocks (1600–1300 Ma). the most recent geological maps of South America were used. as well as a series of recently published papers in different international and national magazines. (14) High grade metamorphic rocks of uncertain tectonic setting (1300–1100 Ma). In our compilation. and the complex geographical and geological picture emerging from the long. CPRM. (5) Passive margin deposits (1100–900 Ma). the new 1:2. for instance. and based on available geologic. Geophysical data provided by Petrobras. 1. Here we present a more complete picture of crustal masses making up South America. Sketch map of Rodinia in South America. as. and many of them were partially or even totally reworked within Neoproterozoic Brasiliano orogens. 2001). (9) Rift related rocks (900–700).

2. However. etc.. A complex framework of continental blocks and fragments of varied size resulted from the process. and the better understanding of geological history. including many small pieces.A. (1) Neoproterozoic blocks (plates. model elaboration.110 R. quasi-cratons. microcontinents. as well as several of intermediate dimensions. a cartoon from Almeida et al. hampering cartographic representation. terranes. identified as microcontinents. there are also a large number of smaller pieces. Detailed analysis of the history of Western Gondwana also reveals that it comprises a complex arrangement of a great diversity of large. Rodinia descendant fragments are indicated. terranes).) of the Neoproterozoic Brasiliano and Pan-African fold belts. Cartoon showing Neoproterozoic (post-Tonian. respectively. These cartoons display presumed paleogeographic arrangements before the Brasiliano orogeny and after amalgamation of Gondwana. crust slices. (6) covered and unknown areas (from Almeida et al. massifs. / Precambrian Research 160 (2008) 108–126 discontinuous and diachronous process of its break-up and dispersal after the Triassic. which are in general recognized as such and included in attempted reconstitutions of the former supercontinent. many of which include descendant fragments from Rodinia. Different assemblages of Neoproterozoic blocks can be put together. (4) ophiolitic remnants. and not as graphic models. 2000). microplates. microplates.. Similarly break-up of Rodinia and dispersal of the resultant fragments is translated in large descendants. corroborating Coward and Ries’ Fig. Many times these smaller pieces of former supercontinents are even ignored because they are not known in the international literature. etc. etc. (2000) or those from Brito Neves et al. and small crustal segments. Due to possible omissions and mistakes. greenstone >QPC. in the internal and external zones (cratons. BVAC. terranes. Fuck et al. pre-Ediacaran) paleogeography.. such as that of Fig. tectonic highs. including basement inliers. intermediate. often forgotten in supercontinent reconstructions. (5) magmatic arcs. Behavior of the smaller fragments in subsequent Neoproterozoic and Phanerozoic orogenic events is often inversely proportional to their size. (3) volcano-sedimentary belts. 2. Brasiliano Neoproterozoic fold belts and rock associations: (2) marginal fold belts QPC. as well as possible ocean domains. these cartoons have to be seen as what they actually are. . (1999). which subsequently may have been involved in the development of accretionary and collisional orogenic belts.

In the case of South America. 3). Ramos. without taking into consideration regenerated portions. inferred from geophysical surveys and subsurface data: GM. forms. where again only the larger blocks have been considered. a (6) S˜ o Lu´s-W Africa Craton. Smaller blocks were more deeply affected and reworked during Neoproterozoic and Phanerozoic orogenies. the part they played during orogeny. Tosdal. the nature of their margins. 2006. a 2005). Parna´ba ı (Fig. / Precambrian Research 160 (2008) 108–126 111 Fig. based on Nd-isotope data (Restrepo-Pace et al.g. This fact has been used to support the SWEAT hypothesis (Moores. Similarly. 2000. and Rio de la Plata blocks were recorded in a Rodinia fits of the last decade. crustal blocks more or less deeply reworked during Neoproterozoic orogenies (e. Kroonenberg. Cordani et al. some of these forgotten blocks are as large and as important as those considered in classic reconstructions. 3. in most Rodinia reconstructions the blocks were included in schematic fits with their present geographic Fig. (3) Borborema Province. 2000. their thermo-tectonic condition (thermal age) and rheology. usually only the Amazonian. Andean basement A number of windows with basement exposures and basement inliers are known for some time within the Andean Cordillera and pre-Andean areas (see Dalla Salda and Dalziel.. 3. SFC. 1982. 2005. (5) Goi´ s Massif. An additional problem is the fact that all blocks are considered as simple monolithic entities. 4. Available age determinations place them in the late Mesoproterozoic (e. (7) S˜ o Francisco Craton.. Fuck et al. (2) Araguaia belt. On the other hand. 2005 and references therein). 1995. (10) Neoproterozoic rift structures (?). Mantovani and Brito Neves. 3. The same is true for most of the crust fragments involved in slightly older thermal events. the previous geological history of such crustal blocks is frequently hard to be recognized and recovered. such as the Grenvillian and Cariris Velhos blocks. Recent compilations give a good idea of the plurality of these blocks and their importance in fits of the real world. 1991). Brito Neves. as we have tried to do during our mission along the IGCP 440 project. without taking into account the nature of their crust. Paranapanema.. their thickness. One common feature of these basement exposures is the “Grenville” signature. (4) Granja Massif.. etc. Rio Grande do Norte terrane). Ramos and Basei. As a result..g. Blocks underlying the large Paleozoic basins (e... 1996. S˜ o Francisco Craton (from Quintas. 4) have been ignored in all ı reconstructions of Rodinia. Paranapanema (Fig. 1997. Tectonic sketch of the Paranapanema Block..R. Cardona et al. a ı a ı (9) Cambro-Ordovician rift structures. Tectonic sketch of the Parna´ba Basin basement inferred from geoı physical survey (adapted from Nunes. resulting from Neoproterozoic or even younger orogenies.. 4).g. Jim´ nez-Mej´a et al. Ord´ nez-Carmona et al. Goi´ s masa sif. Fig. . (8) Parna´ba block. Robust U-Pb age data obtained in recent years support the interpretation that Mesoproterozoic crust forming and high-grade metamorphic events prevailed in these basement remnants (Cordani et al. Pampia) have been left out in practically all reconstitution schemes of Rodinia. e ı o˜ 2006). However. 1991. suggesting that Laurentia was placed to the west of Gondwana until early Phanerozoic times (Moores.g. 1999). Arequipa/Antofalla. Parna´ba. as well as many kinds of lateral accretion as a whole. 2005).A. (1986) statements on colliding blocks in general. 2000. 2006. 1993).. in contrast to the classic reconstitution of Rodinia and Gondwana (Almeida et al. They may be thoroughly reworked in younger Neoproterozoic orogenic events due to their relatively hotter state. as well as the regenerated blocks within the Andean Chain (e. 1988). Fig. Restrepo and Toussaint. Goi´ s a and Pernambuco-Alagoas massifs.. Ramos and Aleman. 1997) and Pb-isotope composition (Ruiz et al.. Legend: (1) Gurupi belt. basement of the Paran´ a Basin. The same holds true for Africa. accretionary and collisional additions. Aleman and Ramos. S˜ o Francisco. and many other blocks of intermediate and small sizes should be included in future fits. 2003). 1993.

etc.112 R. . In our reconstitution these fragments – from the Garz´ n Massif to Sierra Nevada de Santa o Marta and the Guajira Peninsula – are interpreted as possible continuation of the Mesoproterozoic domain of the Amazonian Craton (Fig. 2006. remained either as part of another continental block or as dispersed islands amalgamated to the Amazonian Craton during a Paleozoic orogeny (Ord´ nez-Carmona et al. They appear to the west of 70◦ W. 2005. Cordani et al. It is believed that the Mesoproterozoic rocks of the Andaqu´ terrane remained attached to the Amazonian Craton ı after the Grenville orogeny. Cordani et al. Restrepo and Toussaint. Fuck et al. Restrepo and Toussaint (1988). In the northernmost Andean Chain around 16 basement exposures are known in the Eastern and Western cordilleras (Kroonenberg. these could be crust fragments of Laurentia affinity.A. 2000. although formed during the Grenville orogeny. not Laurentia itself. Plate velocities calculations underline the great difficulty in admitting that Laurentia circumscribed Gondwana to the west. Displacement rates are generally unknown and they may have been involved in more than one Phanerozoic orogeny (Hercinian. Cardona et al. most of which with late Mesoproterozoic age indications. Jim´ nez-Mej´a et al. as well as to the west of the inferred limit of the Amazonian Craton (Fig. Andean. like the late Neoproterozoic Brasiliano orogeny.. 2006). Adapted from Kroonenberg (1982). 5). 1982. whereas other areas grouped in the Chibcha terrane.g. o˜ However.. it is hard to be sure. since.) and even in pre-Phanerozoic orogenies. In any o˜ event. 2000. Aleman and Ramos. Tectonic setting of the Colombian Andes with accreted terranes and windows of basement exposures. 2006). 5. / Precambrian Research 160 (2008) 108–126 Fig. it has to be stressed that these basement rocks have undergone a complex tectonic history.. in the absence of paleomagnetic data. Mallard and Rogers. (2006). On the other hand. Ramos and Aleman. 2006.. Ord´ neze ı o˜ Carmona et al. the picture may have been much more complicated. 1988. (2005) and Ord´ nez-Carmona et al.. 1).. when it is recalled that Avalonian blocks that seem to have been part of South America in Rodinia ended up in eastern North America (e. Aleman and Ramos (2000). 1997).

placed between Arequipa-Antofalla and Rio de la Plata cratons.82–1...A. 1993. . (2004). approximately between 15 and 28◦ S). two groups of reworked basement exposures have been identified (Ramos and Vujovich.0 Suns´ s Orogeny (Fig. It is believed that they are part of a larger block. and Neoproterozoic mobile belts that resulted from their interaction (adapted from Ramos and Vujovich. 2004): the northern domain contains juvenile Paleoproterozoic intrusions metamorphosed at 1. e Choja. giving birth to the western Pampean belt. and separated from the Amazonian Craton by the inferred Sucre Fig. According to Loewy et al. etc. 6).94 Ga. Geological and geochronological data (Tosdal. Fuck et al. / Precambrian Research 160 (2008) 108–126 113 In the area of Arequipa-Antofalla. a The other group of basement exposures refers to the Pampia Craton (Fig. the southern domain comprises Ordovician rocks. 1996).2 and 0. and with the South American platform during the Hercinian orogeny gave birth to the Famatinian belt. which interacted with the Pampia block in late Neoproterozoic. Recent work defined three crustal domains in the ArequipaAntofalla basement (Loewy et al. proposed by Ramos and Vujovich (1993). 1993). Antofalla.79 Ga. Sketch map of northern Argentina and of neighboring countries displaying Proterozoic cratons. Tosdal. and both domains were metamorphosed between 1.. in the central Andes. 6). Bel´ n. whose interaction with the Pampia craton during the Neoproterozoic Brasiliano orogeny led to the western Pampean belt. the central domain contains a Mesoproterozoic juvenile component.g. 6. Arequipa. south of Lima. incorporating crust from the northern domain. One of these groups comprises about 15 basement exposures belonging to the Arequipa-Antofalla block. 1996) have confirmed that the Arequipa-Antofalla block is a fragment of a Mesoproterozoic Grenvillian orogenic belt. a presumed craton/plate during Neoproterozoic collage (e. Arequipa-Antofalla accreted onto Amazonia during the 1.R. Limon Verde. It is interpreted as the remnant of a Neoproterozoic plate.

Gower. Modified from Geraldes et al.8–1. 2000). 2004.91 Ga). Tohver et al. Tassinari et al. a supposed continuation of Laurentia. Rondonia and San Ignacio collisional event 1. (6) Santa Clara and Rio Pardo granite suites e (1. (8) Aguape´/Sunsas groups.48 Ga). A: Ariquemes. The western domain of Amazonia In northern South America. occur to the southwest (Rizzotto.45 Ga.0–0. New geological and geochronological data (Ramos and Basei.42–1. appears the best geologic and geochronologic record of what is believed to be the result of Rodinia amalgamation of possible remnants from the break up of a previous supercontinent (Nena.A. Columbia. Rogers and Santosh. (2001). Scandolara et al. as conveyed in a recent correlation exercise by Van Schmus (2001). the Archean core is limited by the ca..b). the latter represented by the Neoproterozoic Cordoba magmatic arc. 7. (1) Cenozoic cover. Costa Marques and Guap´ granite suites (1. (2004a. 7). the Pampia block was generally ignored in all Rodinia reconstructions up to the present (Fig. Largely covered by Phanerozoic deposits. 2002).0–1.55 Ga. (2002). reinforcing the notion of a previous Laurentia-Amazonia link. supporting the hypothesis that it is an important late Mesoproterozoic fragment.0 Ga): (7) Nova Floresta basalt and gabbro (1. Geologic map of the SW part of the Amazonian Craton.08–1. Brazil.0 Ga Ventuari-Tapajos Province. 1. 2003). 2001. To the southwest.3–1.. 1999. It is worth recalling that similar events and ages are well known from North America. recording several orogenic events.55–1. Nova Brasilˆ ndia and Suns´ s accretionary and collisional a a events 1. and probably was part of the Grenvillian orogenic amalgamation. ı a (11) Cachoeirinha granitoid suite (1.42–1. (4) Meso-Neoproterozoic basins (1. 2000. 1. (10) Santa Helena granitoid suite (1. 1999. (2) Paleo-Mesozoic cover. building up from the seed Archean core. Santos et al. 1992. J: Jauru.85–2. and in Bolivia.3 Ga). GM: Guajar´ Mirim. (3) Neoproterozoic fold belt. Bizzi et al. Fuck et al.. Payolla et al.8 Ga Rio Negro-Juruena Province (Tassinari and Macambira. a ..58–1. (2001). Boger et al. 4.0–0. / Precambrian Research 160 (2008) 108–126 triple junction (Ramos and Vujovich. Geraldes et al. Santa Helena accretionary event 1.35 Ga. 530 Ma (Leal et al. (5) Rondonia (Younger Granites).97 Ga). in Rondonia and Mato Grosso.1 Ga. 1997) suggest that Pampia comprises an assemblage of juvenile island arc materials. (9) Nova Brasilˆ ndia belt. Existence of the Pampia block is well constrained by geological data from the western and eastern Pampean belts..5–1. Its collision with the Rio de la Plata Craton is constrained to ca. which farther SW is followed by the ca. To the northeast it is surrounded by the Paleoproterozoic Transamazonian MaroniItacaiunas Province. 6). the Central Amazonia Province. (12) undifferentiated granite suites and basement units (1. Another important feature in southwestern Amazonia is the presence of post-Rodinia sed- Fig.52 Ga). Rizzotto et al. 1999. Provinces sketchmap after Tassinari and Macambira (1999). Younger Mesoproterozoic additions (Fig.2 Ga). Resultant structures are well exposed in the southwestern part of the Amazonian Craton. The Amazonian Craton displays a notori- ous chelogenic disposition.. 1993).114 R. (2005). 2002): (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Cachoeirinha accretionary event 1.

A. the Uruacuano orogeny (Almeida et al. and Juscelˆ ndia. but its closure was under way ca. S˜ o Lourenco. In other words. facing a a large ocean basin in early Neoproterozoic times. ¸ based mainly on poorly constrained Rb–Sr isotopic data. a ¸ Pac´ as Novos. Tohver et al. Niquelˆ ndia. Geologic sketch map of the Bras´lia belt related units after Pimentel et al. Santa Clara and Costa Marques granite suites. the so-called Palmeiral stage (Brito Neves. The eastern margin of the Goi´ s massif is marked a by large mafic-ultramafic layered complexes and associated volcanic-sedimentary sequences. 1976. Detailed geologic. geochemical. o Indaian´ polis. during Tonian taphrogenesis. (2000)..g. 1999). the Goi´ s Massif. ı . etc. 2002). are the o a product of continental rifting processes that transition to open- Fig.. and Barro a Alto. e. following the Nova Brasilˆ ndia accretion and collision event a (Rizzotto. are witness to the ensuing contia nental break-up process. formed ı during the Late Neoproterozoic Brasiliano collage.. Fuck et al. They have been disrupted subsequently. 2000). covered by folded younger Proterozoic supracrustal rocks (Fig.g. and volcanic-sedimentary sequences of Palmeir´ polis. and isotopic data have shown that the upper layered series of the layered complexes of Cana Brava. 8. 1981).. 1992a. These covers appear to have been laid down in a large basin at the end of the Mesoproterozoic. It comprises Archean granite-greenstone terrains in the south and Paleoproterozoic orthogneiss basement in the north. / Precambrian Research 160 (2008) 108–126 115 imentary covers. besides being the most complete geological record of Rodinia agglutination in South America. 2002. Available data indicate that the western border of the S˜ o Francisco Craton was a passive margin. The original sedimentary pile is now part of the Bras´lia Belt. Resultant graben. The core of the Bras´lia Belt includes an apparı ently allochtonous older crust fragment. Central and Eastern Brazil Geological records of Mesoproterozoic age in central Brazil are scarce. Opening of the former basin is not well constrained.b. associated with intraplate anorogenic granite magmatism (e. of a unknown provenance. Pimentel et al. dated at 1250–1280 Ma.R. Uopiones. Earlier assumptions of a Mesoproterozoic orogenic event. 8). 900 Ma (Pimentel and Fuck. 5. Rondonia Younger Granites). were proved wrong. 2002). the western domain of the Amazonian Craton displays also the best record of its break-up (Brito Neves.. which mark the transition from Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic times.

(2) Cryogenian Una Gr. Folding of the Espinhaco Supergroup before the Neoprotero¸ zoic Brasiliano orogeny is controversial (Brito Neves. 2003). (7) Espinhaco Supergr. Adapted from Schobbenhaus (1993). Rb–Sr age determination of phlogopite from kimberlite intruded at the base of the Tombador Formation. (6) Espinhaco Supergr. (8) Basement rocks (>1. reliable ages are scarce (Brito Neves and Alckmim. but later developments are poorly constrained.15 Ga). Paraguacu Group. Intracratonic basin related units of the Chapada Diamantina plateau. However. represented by the lower layered series of Cana Brava. 2004). 9./felsic volcanics.5 Ga). Infilling of the precursor basin of the Espinhaco ¸ range started around 1750 Ma (Schobbenhaus et al..116 R. (9) Thrust fault.. Chapada Diamantina Group. the foreland fold-and-thrust belt recorded in Irecˆ e basin (Fig. 800 Ma are also recorded in this area. mainly because reliable age determinations are lacking. which ¸ cut through the Espinhaco Supergroup. 1999). ¸ 1500 Ma (Babinski et al. . approximately at right angles with NNW-SSE folding observed in the underlying Espinhaco strata. pelite. Closing of the basin infilling between 1200 and 1100 Ma is based on poorly constrained Rb–Sr age determinations (Babinski et al. (5) Basic intrusive (∼1. Despite the presence of intrusive and volcanic rocks within the Espinhaco Super¸ group sedimentary pile. 2004).75 Ga).1 Ga) Chapada Diamantina Gr. 9) in the central-northern part of the S˜ o Francisco a Craton is characterized by E–W structures. BM: Brotas de Maca´ bas. Mafic intrusions. 9) Mesoproterozoic a events are poorly known./Rio dos Rem´ dios Gr. Fuck et al. pelite. quartzite. (3) Probably Stenian (∼1.. diamictite. 1996)./Paraguacu Gr. 2006.. 2003.. 1150 Ma (Pereira and Fuck. 2003.8 Ga). u RC: Rio de Contas./carbonate rocks.A. (4) Kimberlite (1. sets a maximum age of ca. quartzite ¸ ¸ ¸ e (1. suggesting a unconformity (Romeiro Cesar ¸ and Zal´ n. quartzite. pelite. kimberlite age from Pereira and Fuck (2005)./conglomerate. 1993). E Brazil: (1) Neogene sediments. Break-up events at ca. was dated at ca. Unconformity relations are less clear within a the Espinhaco range in Minas Gerais.. Pimentel et al. The Brotas de Maca´ bas gabbro sill within u the Mangabeira Formation. a Within the S˜ o Francisco Craton (Fig. / Precambrian Research 160 (2008) 108–126 ing of ocean basins (Moraes et al. 2005) for the deposition of this formation. 1999)./diamond bearing conglomerate. 2005).2–1. Niquelˆ ndia and Barro Alto complexes (Pimentel et al. but not the overlying ¸ Fig.

2005).35.. The northern crust segment (Rio Grande do Norte terrane) and the southern segment (S˜ o Francisco Craton) have preserved most a of their Paleoproterozoic framework (Brito Neves.R. However. Riacho Gravat´ . 2004). according to the Coward and Ries (1986) statement. In the intermediate central domain or transversal zone. therefore being prone to regeneration during the following Brasiliano collage. 6. between two major lineaments. Terranes: RGN. An apparently complete Wilson cycle was developed in the area. metamorphism. Almeida et al.A. Apart from very few exceptions. This explains why Mesoproterozoic rock units and structures are well preserved in Bolivia.1. Meso-Neoproterozoic events recorded in the basement of the Brasiliano collage The South American platform is the product of the Neoproterozoic Brasiliano collage (Brito Neves and Cordani. 2000). The Cariris Velhos orogenic system is Fig. metamorphism. indicating a ca. a e o ı a u o Pernambuco-Alagoas (Brito Neves et al. 200 Ma gap between both sequences. ending with ocean closure ca. Brito Neves et al. is a typical branched system of orogens of the ca. These events are accounted as part of the Paleoproterozoic collage. 2000). The largest reworked Mesoproterozoic remnants were found in the Borborema Province. Because of this. in this area all structures became parallel during the Brasiliano orogeny. like the precursor basin of the Or´ s-Jaguaribe belt (Brito Neves et o al.. whereas they are hard to find and to characterize within the Brasiliano domain. important continental and oceanic volcanicsedimentary basins were developed during the Mesoproterozoic. PB. 2000. 2.97 Ga. which took place at ca. Transversal Domain of central Borborema Province singling out the Alto Paje´ Terrane and Cariris Velhos Ortogneiss in NE Brazil. These rocks were completely reset and intruded by numerous granite bodies during the Brasiliano collage. Alto Moxot´ . Fuck et al. Alto Paje´ . Pianc´ -Alto Br´gida. 2005). / Precambrian Research 160 (2008) 108–126 117 Neoproterozoic Jequita´ glacial deposits and Bambui Group ı carbonates.. 1991. 900 Ma (Machado et al..b). during the Cariris Velho orogeny (Brito Neves et al. and 2. AM. 1996).and Neoproterozoic events. Rondonia and Mato Grosso. Rio Capibaribe. the South American platform has been divided schematically in two major domains: the Brasiliano domain includes the central and central-eastern parts of the platform. other Mesoproterozoic rock units were not detected up to now probably due to their regeneration. Borborema province–Cariris Velhos orogeny The Borborema Province. basement rocks of the Brasiliano mobile belts were deeply reworked during Neoproterozoic folding. within the so called Transversal Domain. which admittedly led to the hypothetical Atlantica Supercontinent (Rogers. Incipient break-up and formation of extensional basins occurred subsequently during the Statherian. melting and magmatism events. The basement of the province is the product of three major Paleoproterozoic orogenic events.0 Ga (Fetter et al. 1991). limited to the north by the Patos lineament. 2002. leading to the formation of different crust segments.8 and 1.15. 6. 600 Ma Brasiliano (Pan African) collage. in the northeast of South America.. Bearing in mind that Mesoproterozoic remnants have younger thermal ages. mainly in the Ribeira river valley and in Uruguay.. 0. and to the south by the Pernambuco lineament. 2000. melting.. were dated at ca. AP. u Rio Grande do Norte: SJC. are factors for obscuring previous Meso. S˜ o Jos´ Caiano. RC. between 1. and especially the widespread granite plutonism. and the suggestion of a previous Espinhaco defor¸ mation and its origin became the core of much debate and controversy. 1995a. Evidence for extension and fragmentation of the basement. Related deformation. where reworking occurred frequently deep within the crust. is recorded in the central part of the Borborema Province. and in the Mantiqueira Province. whereas the pre-Brasiliano domain comprises the northwestern (Amazonian craton) portion of the platform (Brito Neves. 2. PEAL. . or the more recently proposed Columbia Supercontinent (Rogers and Santosh. 10. 2000). 1989). RG.6 Ga. We suggest that these findings do not represent everything there is.

. Southeastwards from the Alto Paje´ is a Paleoproterozoic remnant u hundreds of kilometers long (>20. To the west it disappears below the Phanerozoic Paran´ a Basin (Fig. Cingolani and Dalla Salda. WSW-ENE trending. 800 km long. Southwards it is separated by the Pien magmatic arc from the Lu´s ı Alves Craton (Fig. 2. east Brazil to southern Uruguay. Judging from scarce isotopic data of drill-core samples (Cordani et al. The basement is intruded by a . linear belt. 2. Brito Neves et al. 11). late Mesoproterozoic-early Neoproterozoic arc-related granites intrude Paleoproterozoic basement. and to the south it served as basement for the Itaja´ foreland ı basin. Adjacent reworked Paleoproterozoic orthogneiss (Porteirinha and Mantiqueira complexes) and granulite (Juiz de Fora Complex) have been interpreted as possible fragments of a large Paleoproterozoic belt. Eastwards. 6. which also indicate that it is separated from the Rio de la Plata and Lu´s Alves cratons.. According to the authors. including a few arc-related intrusions to the south and southeast of the Pernambuco-Alagoas massif..1 Ga granulite facies metamorphism. The ca. 2000. 2000. 2004. Its size and form have been inferred a from gravimetric data (Mantovani and Brito Neves. The core of the craton is represented by the Piedra Alta terrane. the Paran´ a a block basement is Paleoproterozoic in age. Lu´s ı Alves is bordered by Neoproterozoic magmatic arc granitoids. these rocks display T-MORB geochemical signature and were formed in extensional environments. Lu´s Alves has not lost its cratonic ı character. capped by a large unit of quartzite and arkose. Mantiqueira Province The Mantiqueira Province is a complex Brasiliano orogenic system.. the Alto Moxot´ o terrane. with the later units associated with ocean closure. 10). which comprises juvenile Paleoproterozoic orthogneiss associated with three Paleoproterozoic E-W-trending supracrustal belts. 1997a. Silva Filho et al.and Ferich metapelite. deeply reworked and restructured during the Brasiliano collage. 11). carbonate rocks. volcaniclastic rocks.. Basei et al. In this belt. hyaloclastite. as well as mafic volcanics and occasional ultramafic rocks (Santos et al. whereas. Riacho Gravat´ comprises mainly felsic metavolcanics (60% or a more) associated to psamitic and pelitic metasedimentary rocks. 2005). 2000. Although affected by late Neoproterozoic tectonics and intruded by a number of late.b). To the south the Mesoproterozoic units are abutted against the Curitiba Massif (Fig. 1973..8 Ga igneous rocks deeply reworked during the Brasiliano collage. It comprises at least two Archean nuclei. 2000). 2002). representing metagreywacke and associated felsic and intermediate metavolcanic rocks. metapelite. Basei et al. 2000). 11). related to the evolution of the Brasiliano Dom Feliciano fold belt. Reworked Archean terrains of the Gouveia and Guanh˜ es a blocks appear to be fragments of the nearby S˜ o Francisco Craa ton (Pedrosa Soares and Wiedemann-Leonardos. Southwards the Neoproterozoic Ribeira Belt includes other stratigraphic units which also contain mafic rocks of Mesoproterozoic age (Fig. Main basement exposures are in Uruguay.. The Rio de la Plata Craton (Almeida et al. extending from southern Bahia. To the west it appears to be limited by the ı southwards continuation of the Goi´ s Magmatic Arc. Alto Paje´ is mainly made of orthogneiss and u migmatized schist and paragneiss. Uruguay (Fig.48 Ga U-Pb zircon ages (Weber et al. 3) is also hidden below the Paran´ basin.3 and 2. overprinted by ca. developed at the margin of the S˜ o Francisco Cra¸ ı a ton. marked by hundreds of granite intrusions of different size and shape (Fig. 2000. 1988. 11) within the Ribeira Belt has been dated at 1395 ± 10 Ma (U-Pb zircon. metamorphosed a andesite from the Serra do Itaberaba Group (Fig. partially preserved within the S˜ o a Francisco Craton in Bahia and Minas Gerais. The Curitiba Massif served as continental margin for the Ribeira Belt and acted as a microplate.. are probably present within the Brasiliano collage. Further south. 2000) is mostly covered by Phanerozoic deposits.. exposed diagonally across the Transversal Domain. Mafic volcanic rocks. 1984) and TDM model ages from Cretaceous flood basalts of the Paran´ basin (Mantovani and Brito Neves. another Brasiliano microplate. 1. Juliani et al. Heilbron et al. tuff. comprising Paleoproterozoic orthogneiss and aluminous metapelite. especially along the Lancinha fault zone (Basei et al.. 11). Widespread premetamorphic hydrothermal alteration has been recorded (Juliani et al. submitted). with a few late Neoproterozoic granite intrusions. felsic volcanics. initially related to a mid-ocean ridge. 2005). with minor ones in Argentina and south Brazil. Late Mesoproterozoic-early Neoproterozoic metamorphosed supracrustal sequences and granite intrusions are exposed also within the Brasiliano Riacho do Pontal Belt bordering the S˜ o a Francisco Craton westward of the Pernambuco-Alagoas massif. / Precambrian Research 160 (2008) 108–126 presently represented by a ca. A very complex crustal fragment.000 km2 ). surrounded by fragments of Paleoproterozoic belts and remnants of late Mesoproterozoicearly Neoproterozoic orthogneiss (Brito Neves et al. Similar large blocks as yet not recognized. which is underlain by mostly Archean orthogneiss protoliths with a few mafic and ultramaphic layered bodies. A few are of Mesoproterozoic age.1 Ga migmatized orthogneiss and amphibolite intruded by ca. rhyolite. To e the east it bears features of an Atlantic-type continental margin partially preserved in the Brasiliano Ribeira fold belt. post-tectonic granites. The basal part of this group comprises MORB-type mafic metavolcanic rocks.. andesite.000 km2 Paranapanema block (Fig. 1. is exposed southwards of the Pernambuco lineament. Dalla Salda et al. a its northeastern border is marked by arc rocks which make up the late Neoproterozoic Socorro-Guaxup´ high-grade nappe.. 300. but most are Neoproterozoic in age. 2000). 12). as well as late Mesoproterozoic metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks of the Alto Paje´ and Riacho Gravat´ terranes (Santos u a et al.A. The upper units of the sequence include Mn. The sequence is interpreted as having been laid down in an ocean basin environment.118 R. including pillowed basalts.. The northernmost part of the province is made of the Aracua´ Belt. reset and reworked during the Neoproterozoic orogeny. close to the city of S˜ o Paulo. dikes and sills ´ within the Agua Clara and Votuverava formations and the Perau Complex have ca. 2004). which comprises ca. the Pernambuco-Alagoas massif. tuff.b.2. 2005)... Tens of large granite batholiths intrude the orthogneiss complexes. and banded iron formation. Fuck et al. as was the case of the Curitiba Massif.

. which a is part of the magmatic arc of the Neoproterozoic Dom Feliciano Fold Belt (Basei et al.A. The crystalline basement of the microplate.. 2001). emergent part of a fragment of continental crust known as the Falkland Microplate (Fig. ı Buenos Aires Province. Uruguay blocks.. occasionally associated with metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks. 2004). Geologic map showing distribution of Mesoproterozoic and other units within the Ribeira belt in SE Brazil (adapted from Juliani et al. The Sarandy del Y shear zone separates these rocks from the adjoining Nico Perez block (Fig. 12). 1. The basement of the Rojas belt in eastern Uruguay is called Punta del Este terrane (Fig.. Westwards the Punta del Este terrane is overthrusted by the Neoproterozoic Aigu´ batholith (Fig.. intruded by the 1. 1).. 2000). felsic volcanics and a number of Neoproterozoic to Cambrian granite intrusions. which give place southwards to amphibolite facies orthogneiss and supracrustal sequences. Paleoproterozoic orthogneiss and supracrustal volcano-sedimentary sequences. the Ibar´ shear zone separates the juvee nile Neoproterozoic S˜ o Gabriel block from the Taquaremb´ . They are covered by Neoproterozoic and Ordovician platform sequences. / Precambrian Research 160 (2008) 108–126 119 Fig. Further north. which is intruded by late Neoproterozoic isotropic granites. Argentina (Cingolani and Dalla Salda. Middle to late Neoproterozoic granite intrusions. Paleoproterozoic orthogneiss. containing Archean protoliths. . 2000.9 and 1. unconformably overlain by Phanerozoic deposits. suggesting that it is related with the Namaqua belt of southwest Africa (Preciozzi et al. which are a small.R. Paleoproterozoic granulite facies rocks are exposed. 1999). Southwards the Precambrian rocks are limited against the Paleozoic Sierra de la Ventana fold-and-thrust belt.. Mesoproterozoic crust underlies the Malvinas-Falkland Islands. Ca.0 Ga. 2000). which comprises remnants of Archean granitegreenstone terrain (Hartmann et al. 1250 Ma K–Ar muscovite age from mylonite suggests Mesoproterozoic thermal-tectonic events (Basei et al. 2000 and references therein). Brasiliano orogeny-related reworking is indicated by sedimentary cover.78 Ga old. It is divided in two parts by the Falkland Sound fault. undeformed mafic dyke swarm ca. Fuck et al. as well as young K–Ar and Rb–Sr age determinations are evidence of strong reworking during the Neoproterozoic Brasiliano orogeny. In the latter blocks. It comprises high-grade tonalite gneiss and migmatite formed between 0. 12). 2000). 11. Preciozzi et al. Basei et al.. Perrotta et al. 12. Enclaves of mafic and ultramafic rocks and garnet-sillimanitecordierite-bearing gneiss have been found within the orthogneiss and migmatite terrain.76 Ga Illescas rapakivi granite. is only exposed on land at Cape Meredith. 1999. a o Brazil and Rivera. is also exposed in the Martin Garc´a Island and in the Sierra Tandilia.

interpreted as representing a volcanic pile of calcalkaline affinity (Thomas et al. U-Pb SHRIMP zircon age of 1118 ± 8 Ma is interpreted as age of extrusion of rhyolite protolith of felsic gneiss (Jacobs et al. Syn.78 Ga mafic post-tectonic granitoid intrusions are comparable in age to similar rocks from the Natal Metamorphic Province.. a recorded in the Puncoviscana and Tucavaca belts. In the southern Espinhaco range the Pedro Lessa mafic mag¸ matism.0–0. (5) Shist belt and intrusive granites (Lavalleja Group). leading to break-up (Correa Gomes et al. 1999). probably younger than 1.. 2000. occurring at different time intervals in different blocks.... 1994. 2000). as yet unknown. and post-tectonic granite at ca. Dardenne. 2001. 1989). rare calc-silicate rock and schlieren of sillimanite-garnet-biotite gneiss.. 1996). ı Badelleyte U-Pb age of ca. anorogenic granite intrusions.0 Ga. but not through Neoproterozoic diamictite and carbonate deposits of the Bambu´ Group. (6) Piedra Alta Terrane (PA) and Nico Perez a Block (NP). Basei et al. 1999. (4) 1. 1. Pimentel et al. Along the coast of Bahia.A. break-up and drifting in the several descendant blocks of Rodinia in South America is scarce and controversial. cuts through Espinhaco ¸ Supergroup sedimentary formations. However. mafic dyke swarms from Salvador to Ilh´ us seem e to be the result of a mantle plume active ca. However. at the eastern edge of the S˜ o Frana cisco Craton. 2000.. 1997). Intrusive granodiorite gneiss was dated at ca. 12. is much younger. 1). Fuck et al. mafic and alkaline magmatism. indicating break-up and dispersion since ca. 1993a. SE Africa and West Dronning Maud Land. 1000 Ma (Jacobs et al. but there are no reliable age determinations available. Valeriano et al.. and basin subdivision. (2) Neoproterozoic isotropic granites. It comprises a sequence of layered. soon after closing of the late Mesoproterozoic Nova Brasilˆ ndia orogeny. 1999). 1070 Ma. Similar fissural tholeiitic magmatism is also recorded in northern Minas Gerais and Bahia... continental mass and was facing a large ocean basin to the (present) west. represented by dykes and sills. Baldo et al.. / Precambrian Research 160 (2008) 108–126 Fig. having been constrained to the end of the Neoproterozoic (see Ramos. 1000 Ma. At the western border of the S˜ o Francisco Craton there is a stratigraphic record of a continental passive margin (Fuck et al.120 R. West Falkland. 2006).b. 1999).0 Ga. There does not seem to be a magical age number for break-up and dispersal (Fig. The same is true for dispersal and later collage. the main rifting episode. (8) shear fault. from available data we do know that break-up was diachronous. Dispersal of Rodinia Evidence of rifting. 7. This is clear indication that the former S˜ o Francisco paleoa continent or peninsula had been rifted apart and separated from some other. (3) Dom Feliciano Belt (A. amphibolite facies felsic and intermediate gneisses and amphibolite. Sketch map showing relationship of tectonic units of Uruguay and southern Brazil: (1) Phanerozoic cover. Aigu´ batholith). (7) Punta del Este Terrane (PET) (1. 1090 Ma..9 Ga): Mesoproterozoic basement covered by low-grade supracrustal rocks of Rocha Group. 906 Ma was obtained in one of these intrusions (Machado et al. 2004) of uncertain age. (9) thrust fault (adapted from Preciozzi et al. Age data of detrital zircon grains from samples of several units from the southern part of the . In southwestern Amazonia there is evidence of rifting. syntectonic granite gneiss at ca. East Antarctica (Jacobs et al.

subduction of oceanic lithosphere of this large ocean basin was underway at ca. 900 Ma. 350 Ma or more to be completed in the case of Gondwana. 1230 to 955 Ma (Gower. 2000. and in Mato Grosso (Puga Formation) there is evidence of later break-up events. 2005). Obtaining paleomagnetic poles older than 600 Ma has been difficult.. 2001). AUSWUS (Brookfield. From available data. in eastern Minas Gerais. which is the age of the oldest island arc rocks dated so far in the Goi´ s Magmatic Arc (Pimentel and a Fuck. like Australia (Myers et al. more evident becomes the diachronic and long-living character of amalgamation of Rodinia Supercontinent. Stern. According to recent reviews (D’Agrella Filho et al. has allowed a large degree of freedom for supercontinent reconstitution.. 2001). Pedrosa Soares et al. 650–630 Ma. since it appears to have been developed diachronically. The paleomagnetic data set for Western Gondwana is generally of poor quality and distribution (D’Agrella Filho et al. 600–580 Ma. The quest of paleomagnetic data Insufficiency of paleomagnetic data for the Proterozoic.. Therefore.R. going back to ca. In the same way as there are problems . and Rio de la a Plata blocks are hampered by varied problems. they need conceptual revision. whose APW is rather well constrained for that time interval. 2001. 1993). Borborema o Province. according to international convention. diachronism and overlapping of Rodinia break-up and amalgamation of Gondwana was also the case of South America. Geochronologic data tell us of many orogenic events. 2004). 520 Ma (Brito Neves et al. and ca. 2004). Even so. Position of Congo and Kalahari blocks is generally uncertain. 1991). their beginnings are not well constrained. starting with formation of precursor basins and subsequent interaction of lithosphere plates in each province. Available data show that there is great diversity in space and time. Heilbron et al. 2001). 2001).. and the Mocambique Belt in ¸ eastern Africa (900–550 Ma. 1995). 9. as well as of its break-up and subsequent dispersal of resulting continental masses. and AUSMEX (Wingate et al. Concurrently. paleomagnetic data are still unable to discriminate the ideal alternative. Although all these proposed fits were based on coherent geologic and geochronologic data sets. Discussion and interpretation rely on the supposed connection with Laurentia. These events represent orogenic peaks and are well recorded in the evolution of Neoproterozoic structural provinces in South America.. Pimentel et al. 1998. as was also the case of its assembling. At least four different positions have been suggested in the last years (Powell et al. 520–490 Ma. S˜ o Francisco. 2004). 8. The possibility of natural divisions is recognized in most of them. having taken for instance ca. Reworking imposed on Rodinia descendants The so-called Brasiliano provinces display a very complex scenario of tectonic setting and paleogeography. reconstitution of the Australia–East Antarctica–Laurentia connection during Rodinia time resulted in three different formulations. Among others. Within the Borborema Province (M´ dio Corea´ and Cene u tral Cear´ domains). probably only then completing dispersal of continental blocks formerly belonging to Rodinia. 2001). best data sets refer to Laurentia. 1999. not least of which are the poor age constraints. and therefore it is not possible as yet to ratify a limiting age for Rodinia. On the other hand. where the process lasted from ca. there is record of break-up and separation of continental masses diachronically between 810 and 750 Ma.. 1992a. namely SWEAT (Moores. as well as in several other areas. Available data sets for Congo.. Moreover. Fuck et al. and their connections in South America and Africa (Almeida et al. Ramos.. Also useful data for large time intervals of important geotectonic units are lacking. both processes overlap in time.. However. and East Gondwana. it appears that amalgamation processes are rather long. when post-orogenic extension processes were occurring in many parts of South America (Brito Neves et al. Further west. 1981).b. 2000). due to activation and regeneration processes during Brasiliano orogeny. 1994). where inferred fluid circulation at the end of the Neoproterozoic lead to important resetting (Trindade et al. 1999. Definition of a formal succession of common orogenic events in each province bears many problems. Consequently. mainly Australia. / Precambrian Research 160 (2008) 108–126 121 Neoproterozoic Bras´lia Belt give a maximum age of ca. 2004. Diachronism appears to be more the rule than the exception. concurring events of amalgamation of one supercontinent and dispersal of the other were taking place in the same time span in different parts of what is now South America. distribution is not uniform in space and time.. 2001). 900 Ma. and distribution in time and space (Meert. 2000. rather well constrained orogenic events were taking place in other parts of South America at 900–850 Ma. leading to resetting of paleomagnetic and isotopic data of both basement and Proterozoic cover. 2000) need to be reassessed. quality.. Defined 25 years ago (Almeida et al. and precision is not as one would like it to be. a unique age for the break-up of Rodinia does not seem to be the case. The same appears to be true for break-up and dispersal in the case of Rodinia. where APW is well known for the period between 770 and 550 Ma. this is the case of the Neoproterozoic Bambu´ Group covering the S˜ o ı a Francisco Craton. until ca. Meert. and in northwest a Argentina (Puncoviscana domain). Laux et al. and lasting well into the Cambrian. in agreement with the dynamics of our planet.. in terms of their number. There are no reliable paleomagnetic data for the Amazonian Craton between 800 and 600 Ma. leading to the many existing disagreements. As knowledge of the late Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic Brasiliano orogenic systems in South America increases. 790–750 Ma. which took place between 650 and 630 Ma. In spite of scarcity of data.. 2004. adequate both in terms of increasing knowledge and diversity of geographic and tectonic paleoenvironments.. in the Serid´ and Riacho do Pontal fold belts..A. The same insight comes from better known areas in other continents. 1998.. eastern Grenville in North America. On the other hand. 2000. in parallel with Rodinia break-up events. Paleomagnetic poles are of low ranking. with reliable apparent polar wander path (APW) known for the period between 830 and 500 Ma. Pimentel et al. hampering their adequate use and inequivocal interpretation. 980 Ma ı for sedimentation at this margin (Valeriano et al.

tectonic and magmatic Brasiliano processes Infra-structure of the Brasiliano fold belts cropping out. it is not easy to understanding the crust levels of reworking to which Rodinia descendants were submitted. Rio de la Plata. Rio Apa Deformation. absence or deficiency of geophysical and geochronological data. thermal and magmatic) 2 3 Rio Grande do Norte (+ Central Hoggar).122 R. Quirino-Dorˆ nia. 2002). Guanh˜ es.. Choja. The discrimination list (Table 1) follows suggestions by Marschak et al. blocks. Comparison is risky due to heterogeneity of knowledge. a quest for caution should be beared in mind. Alto Moxot´ o Blocks/areas strongly reworked. (1999) type A. Punta del Leste Garz´ n-Santa Marta. we have to recognize that problems of the same order will be met in gradual assembly of Gondwana. Juiz de Fora. 2004). Tr´ ia-Tau´ . which have been partially or completely regenerated during Brasiliano Orogeny (Pimentel et al. presence of Proterozoic and Phanerozoic cover. Fuck et al. a Paranapanema. activated. S˜ o Lu´s-West Africa. / Precambrian Research 160 (2008) 108–126 Table 1 Saga of Rodinia descendants in the building up of West Gondwana No. It is worth also mentioning the case of the Goi´ s block. like inadequate geologic mapping. Amazonia behaved as a relatively rigid block. adequate tectonic zoning of many blocks has yet to be done. Evidence of Archean. It is known that Amazonia served as foreland for the Araguaia-Paraguay orogenic system at the end of the Neoproterozoic. Pre-Neoproterozoic litho-structural and isotopic traces are displayed in the bottom part of Table 1 as recognized cases of extreme reworking. reworking Segments/descendants with maximum preserved integrity Segments with preserved important litho-structural integrity. Paleoproterozoic. and takes reference to tectonic-magmatic activity imparted by the Brasiliano Orogeny. For several reasons. and . Original shapes and dimensions of the continental blocks difficult to reconstitute Mostly Paleoproterozoic terranes with Archean seed-nuclei.. Pampia Abundant occurrences within the basement of the Brasiliano Provinces 6b Mesoproterozoic-Early Neoproterozoic belts reworked during the Brasiliano collage Paleoproterozoic and early Mesoproterozoic belts reworked during the Hercynian and Andean orogenies Litho-structural features and isotopic signatures of pre-Neoproterozoic terranes in stipulating a precise age of Rodinia break-up. Only in case 6b (Table 1) is there clear incidence of Marschak et al.. (1999). decratonized areas. (1999) type I: continental crust not submitted to penetrative deformation or metamorphism after the Proterozoic (post-Ordovician time would be the more proper term for the South American Platform in West Gondwana). 1984). Curitiba. foreland zones.. etc. at least to boast debate and stimulate improved formulations in the future. However. its classification among those of lowest reworking level (Table 1) may be merely consequence of lesser knowledge. Some territorial losses Additional aspects Minimum territorial losses by “regeneration” near surrounding Brasiliano Belts.A. Adopted subdivision is based on Marschak et al. a Pernambuco-Alagoas. but it will be done. Goi´ s Massif. therefore requiring tectonic zoning differentiation. An interesting exercise was developed for the S˜ o Francisco Craton (Alkmim et al. and by a dike swarm in the Tapaj´ s o river area at that time (Santos et al. only local exhibition of the original structures Brasiliano reworking could exist. Many cratonic areas held as preserved from later orogenic events were not really entirely preserved. Lu´s Alves o a a ı Blocks/areas entirely reworked during the Brasiliano collage. Strong but partial ductile deformational processes 4 Sobradinho. etc. including collision with Neoproterozoic island arc systems. Verde. Similar developa ments should be available for other blocks in the near future. regenerated. by local tectonic and erosional contingencies. As already observed above. a Aurizona/Ticunzal 6a Espinhaco Belt. In the case of the Amazonian block. previously thought to be older basement. e L. Original segments of Paleoproterozoic Belts (minor Archean nuclei) may occur Preponderant Brasiliano overprint. Recent studies show a the presence of Archean and Paleoproterozoic domains. the largest segment derived from Rodinia break-up in South America. among others. terranes Amazonian. Reworking of marginal and even interior portions of the original block. Mafic dike swarms Substantial territorial losses. Advanced ductile deformational processes Blocks/areas with complete ductile deformation 5 Gouveia. The Phanerozoic deformational processes are dominant Multiple and complex deep crustal reworking (structural. 2000.). a ı Kalahari S˜ o Francisco-Congo. Terreno Occidentalia (Bel´ m. Important structural episodes and granitic plutonism The smaller blocks seldom behave as allochthonous terranes Paleoproterozoic terranes (minor Archean seed-nuclei) exhibiting Brasiliano structural trends Preponderant thermal. o Arequipa-Antofalla. having been penetrated by alkaline mafic-ultramafic magmatism along the axis of the Amazon Basin (Cordani et al. 1 Cratons. but affected by Proterozoic thermo-tectonic activity. with continental crust presently residing in an active margin. This should include discriminating and mapping of full cratonic areas (orthoplatforms). Serra do ¸ ´ Itaberaba/Aguas Claras. 1993). Pie de Palo.

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