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1) Indicate True(T) or False(F) • a). Unicellular organisms have one-celled body. • b). Muscle cells are branched structures. • c.

) The basic living structure of an organism is an organ. • d.) Amoeba has irregular shape. Ans: a)T b)T (spindle shaped structures) c)F d)T. 2) State a difference between eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Ans: Prokaryotes do not have a well designed nuclear membrane while, eukaryotes have a well designed nuclear membrane. 3) ‘Cells are the basic structural units of living organism’. Explain. Ans: In Biology, the basic unit of which all living things are composed is known as ‘cell’. The ‘cell’ is the smallest structural unit of living matter that is capable of functioning independently. A single cell can be a complete organism in itself, as in bacteria and protozoans. A unicellular organism also captures and digests food, respires, excretes, grows, and reproduces. Similar functions in multi-cellular organisms are carried out by groups of specialized cells which are organized into tissues and organs such as, the higher plants and animals. Hence, ‘cell’ is known as the basic structural and functional unit of life. 4) Define Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. Ans: Prokaryote: The cells having nuclear material without nuclear membrane are termed as prokaryotic cells. An organism with these kinds of cells is called a Prokaryote e.g. Bacteria and Blue Green Algae. Eukaryote: The cells having well organized nucleus with a nuclear membrane are termed as eukaryotic cells. All organisms other than Bacteria and Blue Green Algae are Eukaryotes. 5) Give three examples of unicellular organisms. Ans: Amoeba, Paramecium and Chlamydomonas. 6): What is the smallest cell size? Ans: The smallest cell is 0.1 to 0.5 micrometer in Bacteria. 7) What is the largest cell? Ans: The largest cell is 170mm x 130mm, is the egg of an Ostrich. 8):Write a short note on the ‘shape of cells’ or ‘cell shape’. Ans: Cells exhibit a variety of shapes. Some cells have a definite shape while some keep on changing its shape. For example- White Blood Cell (WBC) present in our bodies, Amoeba continuously changes their shape. However, most of the cells maintain a constant shape and the different shapes are related to their specific functions. For example- blood cells are spherical, muscle cells have spindle shape, and nerve cells are long and branched. It is mainly the cell membrane which provides the shape to the cells of plants and animals. [See figure] 9) There are ____ micrometers (µm) in one millimeter (mm). a) 1; b) 10; c) 100; d) 1000; e) 1/1000 10) Human cells have a size range between ___ and ___ micrometers (µm). a) 10-100; b) 1-10; c) 1001000; d) 1/10-1/1000

11) Chloroplasts and bacteria are ___ in size. a) similar; b) at different ends of the size range; c) exactly the same; d) none of these. 12) Which of these materials is not a major component of the plasma membrane? a) phospholipids; b) glycoproteins; c) proteins; d) DNA 13)The theory of ___ was proposed to explain the possible origin of chloroplasts and mitochondria. a) evolution; b) endosymbiosis; c) endocytosis; d) cells 14) What is a cell? Why is a cell like a factory or a city? 15) What does the cell theory state? 16) Who were the developers of the cell theory? 17) How did the cell theory change how biologists thought about living things? 18) What are the characteristics of prokaryotes and eukaryotes? 19) What is the purpose of a microscope? 20) How many types of microscopes are there and how do they differ from one another? 20) What types of organisms are prokaryotes? 21) Why are prokaryotes important in the lives of Eukaryotes? 22). What types of organisms are eukaryotes? 23) Which of these is not a type of cell? a) bacterium; b) amoeba; c) sperm; d) virus 24) The oldest fossil forms of life are most similar to _____. a) animals; b) modern bacteria; c) archaebacteria; d) fungi 25) A prokaryotic cell would not have which of these structures? a) ribosome; b) nucleus; c) cell membrane; d) cell wall 26) Ribosomes are cellular structures involved in ____. a) photosynthesis; b) chemosynthesis; c) protein synthesis; d) carbohydrate synthesis 27) The earliest microscopes used to image the specimens. a) high energy electron beams; b) interatomic forces; c) low energy electron beams; d) light 28) Plant cells have ___ and ___, which are not present in animal cells. a) mitochondria, chloroplasts; b) cell membranes, cell walls; c) chloroplasts, nucleus; d) chloroplasts, cell wall 29) The ___ is the membrane enclosed structure in eukaryotic cells that contains the DNA of the cell. a) mitochondrion; b) chloroplast; c) nucleolus; d) nucleus 30) The mitochondrion functions in ____. a) lipid storage; b) protein synthesis; c) photosynthesis; d) DNA replication; e) ATP synthesis 31) Which of these cellular organelles have their own DNA? a) chloroplast; b) nucleus; c) mitochondrion; d) all of these 32). The most prevalent compound in a living cell is normally: a. Protein b. Nucleic acid

c. Water d. Lipid e. Polysaccharide 33). The basic building block for all lipids is: a. Water b. Acetyl-CoA c. Phosphorus d. Nucleic acid e. Arginine 33). The largest biomolecule in a living cell is usually: a. Glycogen b. Protein c. Cholesterol d. Deoxyribonucleic acid e. Triglyceride 34). Which one of the following is a largely homogenous polymer, and therefore "noninformational"? a. mRNA b. Phospholipid c. Protein d. Hydrogen e. Glycogen 35). Select the FALSE statement below: a. Some inorganic elements are considered to be "essential" nutrients. b. Triglycerides are considered to be "simple" lipids. c. Some polysaccharides are complex polymers in that they contain several different types of sugars. d. Virtually every reaction in a living cell requires an enzyme. e. Only 10 "essential" amino acids are used in the synthesis of proteins. 36). About 50% of the solid matter in a cell is normally composed of: a. Nucleic acids b. Protein c. Carbohydrate d. Lipid e. Inorganic ions