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Caesar and Cleopatra, a play written in 1898 by George Bernard Shaw, was first staged in 1901 and first

published with Captain Brassbound's Conversion and The Devil's Disciple in his 1901 collection, Three Plays for Puritans. It was first performed at Newcastle-on-Tyne on March 15, 1899. The first London production was at the Savoy Theatre in 1907. The famous scene in which Cleopatra, concealed in a rolled-up carpet, is smuggled into Caesar's presence was credited by Otto Skorzeny as the inspiration for his doing the same to his kidnapping victim Miklós Horthy, Jr. in 1944 during Operation Panzerfaust.

Plot
The play has a prologue and an "Alternative to the Prologue". The prologue consists of the Egyptian God Ra addressing the audience directly, as if he could see them in the theater. He draws a contrast between the old Rome, which was poor and little, and the new Rome, which is rich and huge. He says that Pompey represents the old Rome and Caesar represents the new Rome. The gods favored Caesar, according to Ra, because he "lived the life they had given him boldly". Ra recounts the conflict between Caesar and Pompey, their battle at Pharsalia, and Pompey's eventual assassination in Egypt at the hands of Lucius Septimius. In "An Alternative to the Prologue", the captain of Cleopatra's guard is warned that Caesar has landed and is invading Egypt. Cleopatra has been driven into Syria by her brother, Ptolemy, with whom she is vying for the Egyptian throne. The messenger warns that Caesar's conquest is inevitable and irresistible. A Nubian watchman flees to Cleopatra's palace and warns those inside that Caesar and his armies are less than an hour away. The guards, knowing of Caesar's weakness for women, plan to persuade him to proclaim Cleopatra—who may be controllable—Egypt's ruler instead of Ptolemy. They try to locate her, but are told by Cleopatra's nurse, Ftatateeta, that she has run away. (The film version of the play, made in 1945, used the Alternative Prologue rather than the original one.) Act I opens with Cleopatra sleeping between the paws of a Sphinx. Caesar, wandering lonely in the desert night, comes upon the sphinx and speaks to it profoundly. Cleopatra wakes and, still unseen, replies. At first Caesar imagines the sphinx is speaking in a girlish voice, then, when Cleopatra appears, that he is experiencing a dream or, if he is awake, a touch of madness. She, not recognizing Caesar, thinks him a nice old man and tells him of her childish fear of Caesar and the Romans. Caesar urges bravery when she must face the conquerors, then escorts her to her palace. Cleopatra reluctantly agrees to maintain a queenly presence, but greatly fears that Caesar will eat her anyway. When the Roman guards arrive and hail Caesar, Cleopatra suddenly realizes he has been with her all along. She sobs in relief, and falls into his arms. Act II. In a hall on the first floor of the royal palace in Alexandria, Caesar meets King Ptolemy Dionysus (aged ten), his tutor Theodotus (very aged), Achillas (general of

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Ptolemy's troops), and Pothinus (his guardian). Caesar greets all with courtesy and kindness, but inflexibly demands a tribute whose amount disconcerts the Egyptians. As an inducement, Caesar says he will settle the dispute between the claimants for the Egyptian throne by letting Cleopatra and Ptolemy reign jointly. However, the rivalry exists because, even though the two are siblings and already married in accordance with the royal law, they detest each other with a mutual antipathy no less murderous for being childish. Each claims sole rulership. Caesar's solution is acceptable to none and his concern for Ptolemy makes Cleopatra fiercely jealous. The conference deteriorates into a dispute, with the Egyptians threatening military action. Caesar, with two legions (three thousand soldiers and a thousand horsemen), has no fear of the Egyptian army but learns Achillas also commands a Roman army of occupation, left after a previous Roman incursion, which could overwhelm his relatively small contingent. As a defensive measure, Caesar orders Rufio to take over the palace, a theatre adjacent to it, and Pharos, an island in the harbor accessible from the palace via a causeway that divides the harbor into eastern and western sections. From Pharos, which has a defensible lighthouse at its eastmost tip, those of Caesar's ships anchored on the east side of the harbor can return to Rome. His ships on the west side are to be burnt at once. Britannus, Caesar's secretary, proclaims the king and courtiers prisoners of war, but Caesar, to the dismay of Rufio, his military aide, allows the captives to depart. Only Cleopatra (with her retinue), fearing Ptolemy's associates, and Pothinus (for reasons of his own), choose to remain with Caesar. The others all depart. Caesar, intent on developing his strategy, tries to dismiss all other matters but is interrupted by Cleopatra's nagging for attention. He indulges her briefly while she speaks amorously of Mark Antony, who restored her father to his throne when she was twelve years old. Her gushing about the youth and beauty of Mark Antony are unflattering to Caesar, who is middle-aged and balding. Caesar nevertheless, impervious to jealousy, makes Cleopatra happy by promising to send Mark Anthony back to Egypt. As she leaves, a wounded soldier comes to report Achillus, with his Roman army, is at hand and that the citizenry is attacking Caesar's soldiers. A siege is imminent. Watching from a balcony, Rufio discovers the ships he was ordered to destroy have been torched by Achillo's forces and are already burning. Meanwhile, Theodotus, the savant, arrives distraught, anguished because fire from the blazing ships has spread to the Alexandrian library. Caesar does not sympathize, saying it is better that the Egyptians should live their lives than dream them away with the help of books. As a practicality, he notes the Egyptian firefighters will be diverted from attacking Caesar's soldiers. At scene's end, Cleopatra and Britannus help Caesar don his armor and he goes forth to battle. Act III. A Roman sentinel stationed on the quay in front of the palace looks intently, across the eastern harbor, to the west, for activity at the Pharos lighthouse, now captured and occupied by Caesar. He is watching for signs of an impending counter-attack by

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Cleopatra and Pothinus. reports the enemy now controls the causeway and is also approaching rapidly across the island. he casts the bag into the sea. to recall the boat after it departs. knows Cleopatra is hidden in the bundle. Rufio diagnoses Caesar's woes as signs of hunger and gives him dates to eat. Caesar unrolls the carpet and discovers Cleopatra. now occupying Egypt. Meanwhile. Rufio. for the purpose. accompanied by a retinue of porters carrying a bale of carpets. barely allowing time for Appolodorus to drag the carpet. Act IV. as her champion. alerted by Ftatateeta's distress. shows little interest in the carpets. but only Ftatateeta. (a stone causeway spanning the five miles of open water between the mainland and Pharos Island). The porters leave the palace bearing a rolled carpet. and Apollodorus. Britannus cannot swim. He hires a small boat. As Cleopatra's boat arrives. with a single boatmen. A friendly craft soon rescues all the swimmers. deeming it better to convert his enemies to friends than to waste his time with prosecutions. The sentinel. who is not a prisoner. from which Cleopatra is to select a gift appropriate for Caesar. she screaming mightily. They complain about its weight. Swimming to a Roman ship in the eastern harbor becomes the sole possibility for escape. Caesar's outlook brightens as he eats them. He is himself again when Britannus exultantly approaches bearing a heavy bag containing incriminating letters that have passed between Pompey's associates and their army. They do so with great relish. Apollodorus. eating dates and resting after the day's battle. The sentinel's vigil is interrupted by Ftatateeta (Cleopatra's nurse) and Apollodorus the Sicilian (a patrician amateur of the arts). Caesar scorns to read them. after privately instructing Rufio and Britannus to toss Cleopatra into the water so she can hang on while he swims to safety. who is distressed because of the rigors of her journey and even more so when she finds Caesar too preoccupied with military matters to accord her much attention. so he is instructed to defend himself as well as possible until a rescue can be arranged. the falling bag breaks its prow and it quickly sinks. Apollodorus dives in readily and Caesar follows. Six months elapse with Romans and Cleopatra besieged in the palace in Alexandria. Cleopatra is enraged. Cleopatra emerges from the palace. A centurion intervenes and avers Cleopatra will not be allowed outside the palace until Caesar gives the order. The sentinel tells her she is a prisoner and orders her back inside the palace. Matters worsen when Britannus. She is sent back to the palace. suffering paroxysms of anxiety. unsuccessfully. discuss what will happen when Caesar eventually leaves and disagree over whether Cleopatra or Ptolemy should 3 . hears Caesar speaking somberly of his personal misgivings and predicting they will lose the battle because age has rendered him inept. engages in swordplay with the sentinel. becomes suspicious and attempts. and its queenly contents safe ashore. will deliver it since he is free to travel in areas behind the Roman lines. then Rufio takes the plunge.Egyptian forces arriving via ship and by way of the Heptastadion. who is a prisoner of war. however. where she may select a carpet for delivery to Caesar. who has been observing the movements of the Egyptian army. and expresses a desire to visit Caesar at the lighthouse.

But Cleopatra is enraged at Pothinus' allegation and secretly orders her nurse. His forces have swept Ptolemy's armies into the Nile. who was a popular hero. At the feast the mood is considerably restrained by Caesar's ascetic preference for simple fare and barley water versus exotic foods and wines. Caesar approves the execution because it was not influenced by emotion.rule. [edit] Themes Shaw wants to prove that it was not love but politics that drew Cleopatra to Julius Caesar. and values these things above art and love. search out the Nile's source and a city there. That renders her ecstatic as the ship starts moving out to sea. Their shared admiration for men of action shows itself in Shaw's description of Caesar's struggle with Pompey. Act V is an epilogue. The besieging Egyptians. However. but then they learn that reinforcements. and Ptolemy. and Pothinus to tell Caesar that Cleopatra is a traitress who is only using Caesar to help her gain the Egyptian throne. Cleopatra remains unforgiving until Caesar renews his promise to send Mark Antony to Egypt. Rufio admits the slaying. Rufio. conversation grows lively when world-weary Caesar suggests to Cleopatra they both leave political life. In 4 . Ftatateeta.[1] Caesar understands the importance of good government. was drowned when his barge sank. She accuses Rufio of murdering Ftatateeta. to kill him. to be disposed of as mere vermin. Caesar considers that a natural motive and is not offended. pointing out that his clemency towards Pothinus and the other prisoners has kept the enemy at bay. Cleopatra. Caesar draws up a battle plan and leaves to speak to the troops. but says it was not for the sake of punishment. himself. and they begin to storm the palace. Caesar prepares to leave for Rome. revenge or justice: He killed her without malice because she was a chronic menace. followed by a thud: Pothinus has been murdered and his body thrown from the roof down to the beach.[2] Shaw's philosophy has often been compared to that of Nietzsche. both army and civilian. dressed in mourning for her nurse. They part. The festivities are interrupted by a scream. Cleopatra enthusiastically agrees and. to name the city. seeks help from Ra. Cleopatra to be hostess at a feast prepared for Caesar and his lieutenants. so he kills her in turn. commanded by Mithridates of Pergamos have engaged the Egyptian army. left alone and utterly forlorn discovers the bloodied body concealed behind a curtain. Meanwhile. A conversation ensues that foreshadows Caesar's eventual assassination. Caesar appoints Rufio governor of the province and considers freedom for Britannus. Cleopatra claims responsibility for the slaying and Caesar reproaches her for taking shortsighted vengeance. who is her favorite god. are enraged by the killing of Pothinus. Doom seems inevitable. He sees the Roman occupation of ancient Egypt as similar to the British occupation that was occurring during his time. realizes Ftatateeta was Pothinus' killer. Amidst great pomp and ceremony. As the gangplank is being extended from the quay to Caesar's ship. With the threat diminished. who declines the offer in favor of remaining Caesar's servant. Cleopatra. arrives.

S." A second theme. apparent both from the text of the play itself and from Shaw's lengthy notes after the play. John Osborne expressed the rebellious attitude of the "Angry Young Men" in Look Back in Anger.the 20th century literature is characterized by a rebirth of dramatic interest both in Great Britain and in the United States. and many others. is Shaw's belief that people have not been morally improved by civilization and technology. Shaw and in the realism of John Galsworthy and Somerset Maugham. the god Ra says. that men twenty centuries ago were already just such as you. for the spirit of man is the will of the gods. This probably contrasts with historical fact. the events in the plot are less important. Pothinus remarks that Caesar doesn't torture his captives. Caesar lets his enemies go instead of killing them. and spoke and lived as ye speak and live. instead choosing to try to win them to his side. . intellectual speeches through which Shaw's ideas are conveyed to the audience. Tennessee Williams and Arthur Miller gave America a serious drama. His heroes were often created as mothpieces for the playwright's ideas. after your ignorant manner.[3] The murder enrages the Egyptian crowd. and but for Mithridates' reinforcements would have meant the death of all the protagonists. no wiser and no sillier. The wisdom of this approach is revealed when Cleopatra orders her nurse to kill Pothinus because of his "treachery and disloyalty" (but really because of his insults to her). shown as it is confronted by or must be solved by the protagonist. Caesar remarks that he will not stoop to vengeance when confronted with Septimius." Another theme is the value of clemency. T. Shaw said about his plots: "Shavian plots are as silly as Shakespearean plots and. At several points in the play. 5 . They tend to make a lot of witty. . Caesar only endorses the retaliatory murder of Cleopatra's nurse because it was necessary and humane.the modern "drama of ideas" is exemplified in the plays of Ibsen. a philosofic idea. Shaw. Eliot revived and enriched the verse drama. the murderer of Pompey. influenced by the European experiments.Shaw's plays are conflicts of ideas and his characters prime reason for existence is to put forward these ideas. Eugene O'Neill. with modern features. . A line from the prologue clearly illustrates this point. "ye shall marvel.the prologue. . no worse and no better.the true subject of a debate drama being an idea.B. Caesar throws away letters that would have identified his enemies in Rome. "the blood and iron ye pin your faith on fell before the spirit of man. Galswworthy. In England the influence of Ibsen made itself strongly felt in the problem plays of G. The god Ra addresses the audience and says. The problem plays represent in dramatic form a general social problem. like Shakespeare's they are all stolen from other writers".

Irving. the glamorous. ambitious and clever Queen of Egypt. Whitman's poetry was romantic in spirit and innovative in form. Lowell and Thoreau. --. . is seen by Cleopatra as an elderly gentleman.Emerson. Cleopatra. Longfellow. but as simply doing what he naturally wants to do". Longfellow. far from being a heroic figure. Caesar.In the 1850's emerged the powerful symbolic novels of Hawthorne and Melville.America's first great creative period. a full of flowering of the ROMANTIC impulse---. -in Shaw's plays paradox is the most important comical device. he is told by a girl (for that is Cleopatra's image in Shaw's play) how to govern: "You are very sentimental. . Poe practised a symbolist verse that had a great impact on European poetry.the innovatory technique is based on reversal: Shaw takes a familiar theatrical type or situation and reverses it so that his audience is forced to reassess things radically. His Caesar has no trace of heroism and grandeur. In Caesar and Cleopatra Shaw reverses the traditional view on the two legendary characters. Cooper. Emerson). you will soon learn to govern". Shaw explained in his Notes to Caesar and Cleopatra that he intended "to produce an impression of greatness by exhibiting Caesar as a man. Shaw's reinterpretation of history: Shaw's historical plays deglamorize history. underlining the discrepancy between the legend surrounding historical personalities and the reality that lies beneath the "myth". but you are clever. G. Thoreau. a well-educated member of the English middle-class.B.The American transcendentalists . Margaret Fuller. and the 6 . He loos like an old gentleman. Caesar. in America.carried the literary expression of philosophic and religious ideas to a high level in their essays. The technique of reversal functions with great comic effect when applied to famous historical characters like Caesar and Cleopatra. Moral qualities were significantly present in the poems of Emerson. Poe and Hawthorne practiced writing of short stories throughout the period. appears in Shaw's play as a rather common. 46u67tkj9lo8 Melville+Whitman (+Bryant. endowed with a sense of dry humour. Hawthorne. not mortifying his nature by doing his duty. who cannot scare even a girl.The poetry of the period (1830-1865) was predominantly romantic in spirit and form. What is even funnier. Thoreau. timid young girl who has nothing from the majistic figure of the legendary queen. and if you do as I tell you. . Poe.

testing listening comprehension. d) information transfer. Alternative means of evaluation: .. her place as one of the two finest American poets of the 19th century is secure: along with Whitman.. . she literally defines the very era that had so little palpable impact on her poetry. testing speaking) Here are some test items: a) multiple choice. e) identifying order of events/topics/arguments. c) summary cloze. Free writing tasks: a) Opinion/For-and-Against essays. . Writing to given topic. d) Responding to a given context or situation. using the language of the common American. testing reading comprehension. 7 . Today.early prose of Mark Twain established a basis for a realistic literature.Dickenson has tended to occupy a rather uneasy place in the canon of American poetry. C. .portofolio assessment. Controlled writing tasks: a) Cloze/modified cloze Error correction/proof-reding/editing B. c) Creating a text from given notes.selfevaluation (+ testing grammar and vocabulary.projects. cloze or modified cloze. description). 5teuhj tuk uy8k Types of writing tests: A.. Relaying a message. e) Information transfer. Guided writing tasks: a) Form-filling.. writers and critics have not always known what to make of her. c) Free composition (narrative.

-or micro skills such as: INTERPRETATION OF INTONATION APTTERNS (e. early generations of Mannons had sailed to beautiful South Pacific isles. g) identifying referents. Testing listening comprehension: -testing of macro skills: LISTENING FOR SPECIFIC INFORMATION. As a seafaring family. -problem-solving. Marie Brantome. Paradise Paradise is an obsession for many of the play's characters.g. -guided instructions. Orin wants 8 . advice.taking and relaying a message.g. -role play. testing speaking: -reading aloud. recognition of irony). especially Ezra. etc. Seeking to revenge the death of his mother. FOLLOWING DIRECTIONS. h) guessing meaning of unfamiliar words from the context. FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS. -guided conversation/dialogue flowchart. -answering questions. The Mannon family is a complex web of revenge scenarios: Christine wants revenge on her husband for her unhappy marriage. Lavinia wants revenge on her mother for killing her father. -speech/picture description. j) find information.). Orin wants revenge on Brant for sleeping with his mother. -information gap. . -summarizing a conversation/spoken text. i) gapped text. Adam hopes to destroy the Mannon family.f) matching titles with paragraphs or short texts. LISTENING FOR GIST. Tgjutrjr6 ky7kjw47rbhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh Theme Revenge Revenge serves as a primary motivation for the play's actions. requests. RECOGNITION OF FUNCTIONS (e.

Many of O'Neill's plays have expressionistic elements: masks.wrote morality plays and experimented with the tragic form. O'Neill understood his exercises in tragedy as an attempt to find a modern analogue to an ancient mode of experience. or state of mind. Accordingly. 9 . the American Civil War. but would come to maturity with his monumental revision of Aeschylus's Oresteia. a tale of incest. which conceal the actor's faces Eugene O'Neill. Mourning also provided O'Neill with an occasion to abandon the complex set design of the Art Theater. Generally. For O'Neill. They often present background information and represent the community's position or traditional values. O'Neill's interest in tragedy began as early as 1924 with his Desire Under the Elms. but instead tries to create in the viewer a powerful "true" experience of a particular emotion. springs from O'Neill's attempt to negotiate the chasm between ancient and modern. the chorus consists of masked actors who dance and chant. the groups of local people whose conversations and actions open the plays serve as the chorus. Such art does not present a realistic image of world. Style Chorus Traditionally in Greek tragedies. Adam. infanticide. the setting of the trilogy. which allows them to remain objective and offer advice or commentary. O'Neill chose Electra because he felt that her tale had been left incomplete. and fateful retribution. which he had long bemoaned as a constraint on the playwright's creative freedom. In the Mourning Becomes Electra trilogy. Thus Mourning aims to provide a "modern psychological approximation of the Greek sense of fate" in a time in which the notion of an inescapable and fundamentally non-redemptive determinism is incomprehensible.Mourning Becomes Electra (1931). they do not participate in the action itself. Christine wants to go with her lover. More generally. the Civil War provided a setting that would allow audiences to locate the tragic in their national history and mythology while retaining enough distance in time to lend the tale its required epic proportions. as his diary notes indicate. Expressionism Expressionism is a style of art that expresses internal experiences and psychological truth.to run away with his mother Christine an attempt to escape societal norms so that he can sleep with his mother. feeling.

Captain Adam Brant .The Mannon son returned from war. He possesses a boyish charm that invites the maternal favors of women. His brusque and authoritative voice has a hollow and repressed quality. Orin Mannon . Her pale face is also a life-like mask. Brant has a swarthy complexion. a mask that represents both her duplicity and her almost super-human efforts at repression.A powerful. big-boned man of exact and wooden movements. flying into a jealous rage upon the discovery of her love affair that leads to Christine and Brant's deaths.Lavinia Mannon . Christine Mannon . Lavinia is wooden. His various images. His mannerisms suggest the statue-like poses of military heroes. He also of course bares a striking resemblance to the other Mannon men. Orin bears a striking resemblance to his father and Captain Brant. Christine plots his murder with her lover Brant upon his return from the Civil War. innocent. As his nearhomophonic name suggests. Hazel is a pretty.chested. Thus she schemes to take Christine's place and become the wife of her father and mother of her brother. though he appears as a weakened. O'Neill describes her character as frank. thin. and good. She shares her mother Christine's lustrous copper hair and mask-like face. Hazel Niles . sensual mouth. He loves his mother incestuously. dark. angular and dressed in simple black. and long. refined. sharing their same. Brigadier-General Ezra Mannon . She ultimately does so upon her mother's death. a woman he imagines in the image of his mother. healthy. flowing animal grace. reincarnating her in her own flesh.The Mannon's daughter. She functions as Orin's would-be sweetheart. Having long abhorred her husband Ezra. amiable. The severe Lavinia considers herself robbed of love at her mother's hands. romantic sea captain.A longtime friend of the Mannon children. the general returned from war to be murdered by his wife and her lover. He continues to exert his influence in symbolic form. call his family to judgment from beyond the grave. stiff- shouldered daughter. and a mass of beautiful copper hair.A striking woman of forty with a fine. he returns to wreak vengeance on Ezra's household. and oversensitive version of each.The great Union general. She wears green. Ezra is a spare.haired girl of nineteen. and seduces Lavinia to conceal their affair. voluptuous figure. mask-like faces. flat. and his portrait in particular. which symbolizes her envy. coal-black hair. Orin will then force he and his sister to judgment for their crimes in an attempt to rejoin his mother in death. he is Agamemnon's counterpart. He steals Ezra's wife. The child of the illegitimate Mannon line. and both Christine and Lavinia attempting to pass Orin off onto 10 .

unctuous. Emma Borden . Like his employers.D. Captain Peter Niles . wizened man of sixty. The Chantyman . Mrs. and self-effacing minister's wife. Themes++OedipuAlthough O'Neill supposedly derived Mourning Becomes Electra from the Oresteia. Borden is the shrewd manager of the Mannon shipping company.A small. Abner Small . goat-bearded clerk of the town hardware store who breaks into the Mannon house on a wager.Josiah's wife. Joseph Blake . with a horse face. and ingratiating in his demeanor.An artillery captain for the Union. and big teeth.A fat.A drunk. A watchman figure of sorts. Hazel also haplessly attempts to rescue Orin from his fate.Louisa's meek middle-aged cousin and most eager listener.A sallow. flabby. Ames is a typical and relatively benign town gossip-monger. buckteeth. weather-beaten man of sixty-five. Ira Mackel . and good-natured.The well-fed minister of a prosperous small town: snobbish. Seth Beckwith . Everett Hills. Dr. Joe Silva .The Mannon's kindly family physician.A fat carpenter in his fifties. Peter resembles his sister in character.The shrill. stout. Minnie . In his time with the Mannons. Louisa Ames . guileless. failing to apprehend the machinations afoot in the Mannon house until the very end of the trilogy. . selfimportant. He is straightforward." Amos Ames . the myth that actually structures the play's action is overwhelming that of Oedipus. Hills . Seth is stoop-shoulded and raw-boned but still strong. troubadour-of-the-sea air. D. Though dissipated.A sly. and stubbornly opinionated. Louisa is similarly a gossip though much more maliciously. he has learned most of the family's secrets and colluded in keeping them. Emma is a typical New England woman of pure English ancestry. he possesses a romantic. Oedipus was the Theban king who 11 . Her manner is defensively sharp and assertive. Josiah Borden . Critic Travis Bogard considers his cameo appearance in "The Hunted" as O'Neill's farewell to the seaman heroes of his earlier plays. He functions as the suitor Lavinia first rejects and later takes up as a substitute for Captain Brant. boisterous Portuguese fishing captain who also helps goad Small into the house.her so they can flee with their suitors. he is repeatedly seen wandering the grounds and singing the sea chanty "Shenandoah.Amos's wife. cackling farmer who helps goad Small into the house. his gaunt face gives the impression of a life-like mask.The Mannons' aged gardener.

it begins it for the girl. Brant. Christine clings to Orin as that the "flesh and blood. a desire possibly surmounted in the course of the child's development or else subject to repression. But the war. Famously Freud elaborated this myth into his Oedipus complex. is but a substitute for her precious son. Thus. In surmounting his Oedipal desires. that would make good on her castration. bringing ruin to the land. Though titled after Electra. the mother. the Father becomes a figure of the law. the structure through which children are conventionally introduced into the social order and normative sexual relations. for example. Repetition. In other words. Fate. In contrast. By prohibiting incest and instituting the proper relations of desire within the household. and SubstitutionAs Travis Bogard notes. At the center of this complex in what Freud defined as its positive form is the child's incestuous desire for the parent of the opposite sex. As we will see. She then turns to the father in hopes of bearing a child by him that would substitute for her missing penis. yearns to replace Christine as wife to her father and mother to her brother.unwittingly killed his father and murdered his mother. Ezra and otherwise. the male Mannons in some way or another take their female love objects as Mother substitutes. the boy fears that the father would cut his penis off if he continues to cling to the mother who rightfully belongs to her husband. Accordingly. the boy would then abandon his mother as a love object and identify himself with his father. The boy child only moves from the mother upon the threat of castration posed by his rival. where he would finally assume the Mannon name. throughout the trilogy. To her dismay. the father. Lavinia. this "lost island" where Mother and Son can be together. the girl abandons the mother upon realizing both the mother's castration and her own. Put bluntly. the players will remark upon a strange 12 . The Oedipal drama in its many permutations determines the course of the trilogy. the girl would become a mother in her mother's place. and the women pose them as their sons. neither she nor her mother have a penis. Both begin with a primary love object. whereas castration ends the Oedipus complex for the boy. the predominant pair of lovers in Mourning is the Mother-Son. O'Neill wrote Mourning to convince modern audiences of the persistence of Fate. figure as the rival who would break this bond of love. what is primarily being mourned here is the loss of this love relation. Its development is starkly differentiated for boys and girls." entirely her own. Orin yearns to reestablish his incestuous bond with his mother. forces him from their pre-Oedipal embrace in the first place. in turn. The Fathers of the play.

for example. Orin repeatedly killing the same man. In this particular case. Ezra's symbolic form includes his name. the player who believes himself dispossessed convinced that his double stands in his proper place. his symbolic form almost usurps his person. Mourning's male players universally vie for the desire of Mother. The double is also the rival." the Mannons have no choice but to assume the roles of Mother-Son that organize their family history.agency driving them into their illicit love affairs. muses that he has become the statue of a great man. what tears the son away from his incestuous embrace with the mother is the imposition of the father's law. a substitution made most explicit in Lavinia and Orin's reincarnation as Christine and Ezra. The Double/the RivalThe various substitutions among the players as structured by the Oedipal drama make the players each other's doubles. yearns to become the mother and bear a child by her father that would redeem her lack. though more in his symbolic form than in his own person. in fearing that he has become numb to himself. producing yet another rival. The players continually become substitutes for these two figures. Orin at once figures as this child as well as the husband she would leave to be with her son. himself. This compulsive series of murders demonstrates the impossibility of the lover ever acceding to his "rightful place" within the Oedipal triangle—Mother will always want another. operating according to a jealous logic of "either you go or I go. horrified by her castration. and his father. the portrait in which he wears his judge's robes. comes to symbolize this struggle. and his ventriloquist voice. Note how Ezra. Ezra. Lavinia considers Christine the wife and mother she should be. the Oedipal drama. Indeed. murders. Mourning's principal father. generally remembered as a war between brothers. Lavinia traces the classical Oedipal trajectory. Thus. and betrayals. the rivals appear as doubles of each other as well. As Orin will remark to Lavinia in "The Haunted. he exercises the law with all the 13 . With the death of his person. To take another example. Ezra's death makes the importance of his symbolic function even more apparent. The Law of the FatherIn the Oedipal myth. in which the daughter. What O'Neill terms fate is the repetition of a mythic structure of desire across the generations. a monument in the town square." Because in these rivalries the other appears as that which stands in the self's rightful place within the Oedipal triangle. The Civil War. serves as figure for this paternal law. The men's rivalries are murderously infantile. Orin's nightmare of his murders in the fog allegorizes this struggle.

The native assumes these proportions when imagined as rivals. in the players' imaginations. It. the time of plentitude and wholeness shared by mother and child. evoking the "life-like masks" the Mannons wear as their faces. Orin offers the most extensive vision of the Blessed Island to Christine in Act II of "The Hunted. Abe Mannon. This mask doubles those of its residents. Orin goes to war to do his duty as a Mannon. Thus. The house is in the style of a Greek temple style. haunting the living in his various symbolic forms. The house is built in the style of a Greek temple. the symbol that dominates the playing space is certainly the Mannon house. the Blessed Island is the realm of the pre-Oedipal. Christine will cringe before his portrait. by natives. designs it as a monument of repression. the Island is a warm. The NativesThe Blessed Islands are also populated. for example. Generally the native appears through two divergent images: the sexual innocent and the sexually depraved. In terms of the trilogy's sexual drama." It functions not only as crypt to the family's dead but also to its secrets." From the rear. with white columned portico covering its gray walls. SymbolsThough Mourning is rife with symbolism. is the trilogy's principal object of mourning." A sanctuary from the war. MotifsThe Blessed IslandsThe fantasy of the Blessed Island recurs among the major players as the lost Mother-Son dyad disrupted by the Oedipal drama. As Christine complaints in Act I of "Homecoming. dancing naked on the beach and loving without sin. Thus Orin can imagine himself with Christine without her being there." the house is the Mannons' "whited sepulcher. columned portico that stands like an "incongruous white mask. Lavinia will invoke his voice and name to command Orin to attention. What symbolizes this repression in turn is the house's distinguishing feature. Lavinia will recall the islands as the home of timeless children." From the town. For Orin. stripping his sister with their lascivious gazes. however.more force. the natives display an almost bestial sexual prowess. which entwine their fantasies of sex with those of race. This island is the perfect home for a prelapsarian love affair. a band is heard playing "John Brown's Body. Its founder. featuring a white. and secure paradise composed of the mother's body. for example. However. building it to cover over the disgrace that sets this revenge cycle in motion. the "incongruous white mask" of a portico hiding its ugliness. peaceful. Thus. the gardener Seth Beckwith is heard singing 14 . Summary It is late afternoon in front of the Mannon house. the prowess and pleasure they would ostensibly provide the lover becoming objects of envy. rather than any of their deaths.

" Louisa urges him to tell Minnie about one of the Mannon's most scandalous secrets.shouldered. He asks where she was last night. Suddenly Christine appears and the trespassers hide. forcing her to admit. Seth tells her that the war is certainly over and her father coming home. that she was in New York. The townsfolk have been saying a mysterious and romantic-looking clipper captain has been courting her. Orin. arrive. Peter insists that he will not lose hope. the story of Abe Mannon's brother David marrying that "French Canuck nurse girl" he got pregnant. Peter muses that the captain reminds of someone."Shenandoah" in the wraith of a baritone." She pauses and listens to the distant music defensively and then passes without having noticed the trio. Hazel worries if Lavinia's brother and her wouldbe sweetheart. Immediately. Christine is "secret lookin'. they will all be celebrating tonight. since her father needs her. She pauses to listen to the music with vindictive satisfaction. Seth returns and then Lavinia appears. Peter fidgets and asks if Orin truly loves Hazel. claiming to not know what Seth is talking about. Seth goes off to meet Mannon's daughter. however. he must realize that she cannot marry anyone. Christine is a distinctly handsome woman of copper and bronze hair: her face gives the impression of a "wonderfully life-like pale mask. a mayor. having taken over the shipping business upon his father Abe's death and become a judge. If Peter is proposing to her again. Impulsively she takes off. however. square. teasingly ordering Lavinia to treat her brother kindly. Lavinia. as if admitting a secret understanding between them. bearing the same mask-like countenance. Lavinia stiffens. Lavinia's guileless childhood friends. his wife Louisa. and militaristic manner. Lavinia declares her hate for him. Louisa remarks that while the town may be proud of Ezra. it has little love for his "furrin lookin' and queer" wife Christine. Lavinia stiffens and declares that she hates love and wants to know nothing of it. and her cousin Minnie follow. Dressed in somber black. Changing the subject. Horribly embarrassed. Seth proclaims that if the news of Ezra Mannon's return is true. Amos Ames. He praises Mannon as uniquely able. Lavinia moves in a wooden. but does all she can to emphasize their difference. Before Seth can continue. a garrulous and gossipy carpenter. 15 . He concedes but wonders if he should warn her against Captain Brant. and then brigadier-general for the Union. She looks strikingly like her mother. They have come to spy on the Mannons. Peter and Hazel. Ames remarks upon how like all Mannons. unless she has fallen for another. has been wounded.

As the stage notes indicate. Moreover. within Western myths of origin. For O'Neill. As we will learn in the following act. 16 . appears to haunt us from its inception. The most important symbol of repression is certainly the house. its façade evoking the "life-like masks" the Mannons wear as their faces. Similarly. In Mourning. jealousies. be they the gods or spirits. bringing ruin to the land. Already take note of Lavinia's rather unnerving response to Peter's second proposal. before everything. What figures as the "Fate" is the compulsive repetition of this drama. Christine describes the house as a "whited sepulcher. such as the townspeople's gossip over the Mannon family secrets. Famously. that her Father needs her. its role as a marker of or monument to repression symbolizing the repressions staged by the players themselves. like an "incongruous white mask" that hides its ugliness. The sense of Fate the trilogy inspires principally lies in its staging the repetition of a myth that. Oedipus was the Theban king who unwittingly killed his father and murdered his mother. the primary myth rehearsed here is that of Oedipus. The house primarily comes to symbolize its residents through the trope of the mask. The play underscores the repression of the Mannon family history from the outset.AnalysisAs Travis Bogard notes. in the following scene. Notably O'Neill eliminates the more explicit supernatural elements of Fate the Oresteia. the mise-en-scène of the house recurring throughout the trilogy. the house is literally built to cover over the family's disgraces. Here Christine also alludes. As he notes in his work diary." Certainly this metaphor foreshadows the house's ultimate transformation into a family crypt. it is constructed through a number of metaphors that make a symbol of its residents. Oedipus provides the foundational narrative of rivalries. Freud elaborated this myth into his Oedipus complex. At the center of this complex in what Freud defined as its positive form is the child's incestuous desire for the parent of the opposite sex. the structure through which children are conventionally introduced into the social order and normative sexual relations. a desire possibly surmounted in the course of the child's development or else subject to repression. "[Mourning] must. the columned portico. Though Mourning presents itself as a rewriting of Aeschylus's Oresteia. the house wears its most striking feature. and revenges that determines the cast's destiny." This story of this fate is a repressed one. the return of a repressed structure of desire across the generations. the mask most explicitly functions as a symbol of duplicity. remain modern psychological play-fate springing out of the family. O'Neill wrote Mourning as an attempt to convince modern audiences of the persistent of Fate.

to Lavinia in Act I of "Homecoming. Your face is the dead image of hers. In common usage. Brant loves those who substitute for his mother." It situates him square in the Oedipal drama that structures the trilogy. or rather confession. Explanation for Quotation #2Christine complains of the sepulchral nature of the Mannon house in Act I of "Homecoming. stiffening. And look at your hair. Each time I come back after being away it appears more like a sepulcher! The "whited" one of the Bible—pagan temple front stuck like a mask on Puritan gray ugliness! It was just like old Abe Mannon to build such a monstrosity—as a temple for his hatred. As they make clear. and those poses' disintegration. the metaphor refers to an evil person who hypocritically pretends to be holy or good. You won't meet hair like yours and hers again in a month of Sundays.however. to a similes Jesus deploys in Matthew 23:27 in condemning hypocrites exemplified by the scribes and Pharisees. these sepulchral masks do not only conceal evil but often involve a mortification—a congealing. for example. these repressions will culminate in the assumption of death masks or a character's entombment in their various personas. It was my mother. what the stage notes describe as the "incongruous white mask" hiding its ugliness. As Christine laments." Important Quotations Explained You're so like your mother in some ways. It functions as crypt to the family's secrets. and hardening—of the flesh. the stage notes underline the function of the mask. This fixation becomes a recurrent motif the Mannon men. carefully describing the characters' various poses. their manipulation. The Mannon mask is not only one of duplicity. regaining their scornful composure. Thus the temple to Abe's hatred is also a monument of repression. Such mortification is mapped in turn onto the repression of affect and desire. You'll think it strange when I tell you. Thus the mask of "whited sepulcher" will become his own crypt. will continually start and then stiffen. Lavinia and Christine. the defiant Marie Brantôme. Christine refers to this secret history in cursing Abe Mannon. As we will see. Explanation for Quotation #1Brant makes this strange compliment. This 17 . who built the house to cover over the disgrace that sets this revenge cycle in motion. its distinguishing feature is its portico. As Orin later remarks: "Death becomes the Mannons." The house is of course the tragedy's primary mise-en-scène. The point of fixation of his fantasies is the Mannon women's lustrous hair. Throughout the play. how they assume them. similarly locating them in the incestuous Mother-Son relation. I only know of one other woman who had it.

" It allegorizes the lethal rivalries afoot between the play's male doubles. the rivals appear as doubles of each other as well. and that in the end I would discover the man was myself! Their faces keep coming back in dreams—and they change to Father's face—or to mine Explanation for Quotation #3Orin relates his Civil War nightmare to Lavinia in Act III of "The Hunted. comes to symbolize this struggle. the Island is a warm. everything that was peace and warmth and security There was no one there but you and me. This compulsive series of murders demonstrates the impossibility of the lover ever acceding to his rightful place within the Oedipal triangle—Mother will always want another. the metaphor refers to an evil person who hypocritically pretends to be holy or good. Mourning's male players are all at war in an Oedipal drama. and his father. the Blessed Island is the realm of the pre-Oedipal. 18 . himself. The men's rivalries are murderously infantile. In terms of the trilogy's sexual drama. generally remembered as a war between brothers. And yet I never saw you. The breaking of the waves was your voice. The warm sand was like your skin. The whole island was you. In common usage. I had a queer feeling that war meant murdering the same man over and over. Orin goes to war to do his duty as a Mannon. and producing yet another rival." Because in these rivalries the other appears as that which stands in the self's rightful place within the Oedipal triangle. The Civil War. that's the funny part. Here Orin repeatedly kills the same man. Explanation for Quotation #4Orin relates this fantasy of the Blessed Island to Christine in Act II of "The Hunted. and secure paradise composed of the mother's body. vying for the desire of Mother. The war rips Orin from this maternal embrace at his father's behest. Orin's nightmare of his murders in the fog allegorizes this rivalry. I only felt you all around me. It was like murdering the same man twice." A sanctuary from the war.mask makes doubles out of its residents." Here Christine alludes to a simile Jesus uses in Matthew 23:27 in condemning hypocrites exemplified by the scribes and Pharisees. evoking the "life-like masks" the Mannons wear as their faces. Thus Orin can imagine himself with Christine without her being there. The sky was the same color as your eyes. Thus Christine personifies the house when she describes it as a "whited sepulcher. operating according to a jealous logic of "either you go or I go. peaceful. the time of plentitude and imperfect differentiation between mother and child. those Islands came to mean everything that wasn't war.

" rising action consists of the confrontation between Ezra and Christine. There was no hereafter. The other. Here the Island figures again as a paradise apart from the Oedipal tragedy that drives the Mannons to their doom. Lavinia. Adam Brant. Lavinia's reverie is one pole of the trilogy's fantasies of the native. a harbor in East Boston PROTAGONISTS · Lavinia Mannon. They must then suffer the vengeance of the dead. TYPE OF WORK · Drama GENRE · Tragedy/Psychological Drama NARRATOR · None POINT OF VIEW · Not applicable TONE · Tragic TENSE · The play unfolds in the time of the present SETTING (TIME) · Spring or Summer. In "The Haunted. Mannon's daughter. the islands have come to figure as home of the innocent natives who dance naked on the beach and love without sin. There was only this world—the warm earth in the moonlight—the trade wind in the coco palms—the surf on the reef—the fires at night and the drum throbbing in my heart—the natives dancing naked and innocent—without knowledge of sin! Explanation for Quotation #5Lavinia relates this memory of the Blessed Island to Peter in Act I of "The Haunted. Orin Mannon. Christine Mannon." it consists of Orin's incestuous proposition to Lavinia. RISING ACTION · In "Homecoming." it consists of the revelation of Brant's murder to Christine. His duplicitous wife Christine and her lover. sustained by Orin and others. imagines them as figures of bestial sexual prowess. but here it is in terms of race relations." She has just returned with Orin from their trip to the South Sea. the fantasy of the Blessed Island will recur amongst all the major players. 1865–1866 SETTING (PLACE) · The Mannon house in New England.As with the motif of the mother's hair. living in the simplicities of the present. plot his murder. 19 . Ezra Mannon MAJOR CONFLICT · Brigadier-General Ezra Mannon has returned from the Civil War. In "The Hunted. The natives appear as timeless children. and son. Orin. As with Brant. discover their mother's treachery and destroy the two lovers in turn. Each yearns mournfully for the "lost island" removed from the Oedipal tragedy in which they are enmeshed.

In "The Hunted. Depending on the purpose of the text. The Rival and Double. a recipe.· In "Homecoming. All of these examples can be called texts When you are reading or writing any text think about the purpose of the text or why it has been written. A brief interlude with Seth follows the break after Orin's suicide. A letter from school might be to inform you about something. and Substitution." Orin's figures as climax. What might the purpose of a text be? An advert might be trying to persuade you to buy something.I. a poem. different methods will be used to get the message across to the reader. Fate. You might write a letter to persuade a friend to go on holiday with you.What is text? Text is any piece of writing. THEMES · Oedipus. In "The Haunted. instructions for D. 2. a note. FALLING ACTION · Breaks follow the first two climaxes leading into the townsfolk scenes that open the subsequent plays. or to try and get off a parking ticket. a novel. Ezra's apprehension of his imminent death. This could be a letter. Persuasive texts might use: • repeated words • text in capital letters • exclamation marks • rhetorical questions (questions where no answer is needed) • an emotional one-sided argument 20 ." Ezra's murder functions as climax and closes the play." Christine's suicide does the same. the Law of the Father MOTIFS · The Blessed Islands. an article in a newspaper or magazine. an email. A car manual might instruct you how to do something to your car. The Native SYMBOLS · The Mannon house FORESHADOWING · The foreshadowing in Mourning is oppressive and omnipresent. A novel might describe somewhere or someone to you.Y. Persuasive texts A persuasive text is a text that really wants you to do something An advert might want you to buy something. Repetition. and Christine's fear that she will soon lose Brant forever CLIMAX Types of text 1. writing on a webpage or an advert. For example.

" Informative texts An informative text is a text that wants to advise or tell you about something... "I really think that you need this holiday. A novel might want you to imagine the characters and see them in your mind. A newspaper article might give you information about a health issue like giving up smoking. Just think of how nice it will be to lie on the beach in the sunshine. A website might give you information about a movie. Whisk until fully mixed. sounds and tastes 21 . A handout from school might be advising you about what your child will be doing during the next term. Informative texts usually: • avoid repetition • contain facts • give information in a clear way . Instructive texts An instructive text is a text that instructs or tells you how to do something A recipe wants to instruct you how to cook something.something is like something • employ your five senses .introducing the subject and then developing it Examples: Make a plan to help you try and give up smoking. A leaflet with a piece of furniture wants to tell you how to put it together or take care of it. Descriptive texts A descriptive text is a text that wants you to picture what they are describing. how you'll try to deal with temptations and a list of the reasons why you are giving up to keep motivated. looks. band or something that you are interested in. You have been working very hard lately and are so worn out. Instructive texts: • are written as though the reader is being spoken to (although the word 'you' is not usually used) • language is direct and unnecessary words are left out • often use 'must' and 'must not' • sometimes use diagrams or pictures to help understanding Examples: Put all ingredients into bowl together. A travel book will want you to see the country it is describing. Descriptive texts usually: • make use of adjectives and adverbs • use comparisons to help picture it . smells.• humour Examples: SPECIAL OFFER! Buy today! Would you want to miss this SPECIAL offer? Phone NOW. Plan the date you'll give up.how it feels.

the innovatory technique is based on reversal: Shaw takes a familiar theatrical type or situation and reverses it so that his audience is forced to reassess things radically. with modern features. Acum ceva despre "Caesar and Cleopatra": . Eliot revived and enriched the verse drama. -in Shaw's plays paradox is the most important comical device. He loos like an old gentleman. appears in Shaw's play as a rather common. Shaw said about his plots: "Shavian plots are as silly as Shakespearean plots and.the 20th century literature is characterized by a rebirth of dramatic interest both in Great Britain and in the United States. . underlining the discrepancy between 22 . In England the influence of Ibsen made itself strongly felt in the problem plays of G. They tend to make a lot of witty.the true subject of a debate drama being an idea. endowed with a sense of dry humour. Galswworthy. a philosofic idea. the glamorous. Cleopatra. His heroes were often created as mothpieces for the playwright's ideas. The problem plays represent in dramatic form a general social problem. In Caesar and Cleopatra Shaw reverses the traditional view on the two legendary characters. ambitious and clever Queen of Egypt.Shaw's plays are conflicts of ideas and his characters prime reason for existence is to put forward these ideas. influenced by the European experiments. . Shaw.B. . Shaw's reinterpretation of history: Shaw's historical plays deglamorize history. Shaw and in the realism of John Galsworthy and Somerset Maugham. T.the modern "drama of ideas" is exemplified in the plays of Ibsen. shown as it is confronted by or must be solved by the protagonist. John Osborne expressed the rebellious attitude of the "Angry Young Men" in Look Back in Anger. and many others.S. Eugene O'Neill. like Shakespeare's they are all stolen from other writers". Tennessee Williams and Arthur Miller gave America a serious drama. the events in the plot are less important. His Caesar has no trace of heroism and grandeur. timid young girl who has nothing from the majistic figure of the legendary queen. a well-educated member of the English middle-class. intellectual speeches through which Shaw's ideas are conveyed to the audience.Examples: The morning air was crisp and sharp as Sean walked down the road.

not mortifying his nature by doing his duty.. stiluri. he is told by a girl (for that is Cleopatra's image in Shaw's play) how to govern: "You are very sentimental. and if you do as I tell you. G. sa stim foarte bine cap:RECEPTIVE SKILLS Fdhrthjty Nu stiu daca de 10 p dar. is seen by Cleopatra as an elderly gentleman. but as simply doing what he naturally wants to do". etc. ac. Etynjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjn Figure 1discuss 6 specialist receptive skills which readers and listeners employ".. What is even funnier. Caesar. curente. AlinaAntoanela Stefanoiu. (?!). you will soon learn to govern".. din ea.B. Caesar.. Asta e din cartea "Ready for Exams"-your key to literature.to state facts 23 . nu e o carte de referinta pt. eu zic ca sunt: predictive skills extracting specific information getting the general picture extracting detailed information recognising function and discourse patterns deducing meaning from context sunt dintr-o editie mai veche a lui harmer -practice of english language teaching la pag 183-184 Spor la invatat!!!! eu am mai ajuns la o concluzie: avand in vedere ca ni se da un text tb. Indicative. examen. but you are clever. gen. The technique of reversal functions with great comic effect when applied to famous historical characters like Caesar and Cleopatra. far from being a heroic figure. dar mi-am insusit elemente de tehnica. Shaw explained in his Notes to Caesar and Cleopatra that he intended "to produce an impression of greatness by exhibiting Caesar as a man.the legend surrounding historical personalities and the reality that lies beneath the "myth". who cannot scare even a girl.

to insist.( to ask. I am surprised that you should buy those things.. eg:IT`S IMPORTANT THAT THIS BOOK IS BEING WRITTEN/SHOULD BE WRITTEN. I am surprised that you buy those things. to be surprised.(ADVISABLE. I suggest that he should act now.) the verb in the object clause may either be in the Indicative(real fact). to order. in the Present Synthetical Subjunctive or in the Analytical Subjunctive (supposed. hypothetical action): I suggest that he acts now. the verb in the object clause may either be in the Indicative(real fact).....explain eg: I TOLD MARY THAT PAUL WAS RIGHT(REAL TIME . pretend) places events in real time Subjunctive-hypothetical meaning non-realistic backgrounds strong intentional verbs.1) verbs : agree.. MULTA BAFTA! As adauga la explicatiile si exemplele date de Katie Scarlett si urmatoarea varianta de raspuns: 1) If the verb in the main clause expresses feelings (to regret. verbs of command Both(i+s).tell. I suggest that he act now. to suggest.FACT) I TOLD MARY THAT I SHOULD GO(NECESSITY) 2)IT`S. hypothetical action): I am surprised that you are buying those things.assertive. a suggestion. to be dissapointed..state.). weak assertive verbs(claim.. in the Present Synthetical Subjunctive or in the Analytical Subjunctive (supposed. CU SPERANTA CA TI-AM FOST DE AJUTOR.. 2) If the verb in the main clause expresses a request..IMPORTANT). 24 .

Galileo built a telescope with which he observed the planets. All these events were important at the time to those directly involved and to a lesser extent to the wider world."Figure 2 25 . James I had been on the English throne for six years. Bafta! ceva historical context la sonetele lui Shakespeare "In the history of the world the year 1609 seems to be a year of no great consequence. The Dutch signed a twelve year truce with Spain ushering in the Golden Age of the Dutch Republic. However few would regard the publication of Shakespeare's sonnets as an item of great moment.Sper ca exemplele si explicatiile acestea sa fie "more illuminating" pentru toti care sau confruntat cu acest subiect anul trecut. Cosimo II de Medici became the Grand Duke of Tuscany. Construction of the Blue Mosque in Istanbul began in this year.

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