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G.H.

RAISONI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, NAGPUR Department: -Electronics & Communication Engineering Branch: -7thSemester[Electronics] Subject: -UHF and Microwave List of Experiment
CYCLE 1 1) To study the various UHF components. 2) To verify the relationship between power and repeller voltage in reflex klystron. 3) To determine the frequency and tuning range of reflex klystron. 4) To analyze the fixed and variable attenuator and plot the micrometer reading Vs attenuation. 5) To determine the coupling factors and directivity of directional coupler. CYCLE 2 6) To measure the power distribution of various wave guide Tee i.e. E plane, H plane, Magic Tee. 7) To plot standing wave pattern and find guide wave-guide of reflex Klystron. 8) To find load impedances using smith chart. 9) Calibration of indirect type frequency meter using direct frequency meter. 10) To plot the V I characteristics of Gunn diode. 11) Study of various antennas.

Experiment No 1 Aim: - To study the various UHF components. List Of Components:1) Rectangular wave guide 2) Circular wave guide 3) Wave guide stand 4) Flanges 5) Fixed attenuator 6) Micrometer type frequency meter 7) Broad band tuned probe 8) Wave guide matched detector mount 9) Wave guide detector mount (tunable) 10) Precision slide screw tuners 11) Klystron mount 12) Three port ferrite circulator 13) E-H tuners 14) H plane Tee 15) E plane Tee 16) Directional coupler 17) Isolator 18) Match termination 19) Precision movable short 20) Circular rectangular wave guide 21) Load cell 22) Horn antenna 23) Sectoral horn antenna 24) Pyramidal antenna 25) Wave guide twist 26) Liquid dielectric cell 27) Solid dielectric cell 28) Gunn oscillator 29) PIN modulator 30) Slotted section with probe carriage 31) VSWR meter 32) Klystron power supply 33) Gunn power supply

Theory: - Following information regarding the component should be written. Model name and frequency range Draw the diagram of each component Write specification of each component as given in the manual Write application of each Components. Conclusion:-

which retard and finally reflects electron and electron return back through the resonator. The accelerated electron leave the resonator at the increased velocity and the retarded electron leave at the reduced velocity . BNC cable.the transit time at reflex klystron is governed by repeller and anode voltages.The electrons leaving the resonator will need different time to return due to change in velocities .Reflex Klystron.W. so these should be carefully adjusted & regulated. Apparatus: .As a result returning electron group together in bunches.S. Variable attenuator. Each area of graph represents voltage condition permitting oscillators for particular value of ‘n’. Modes. Electron emitted from the cathode are accelerated and passed through the positive resonator toward negative reflector.The reflex klystron make the use of velocity modulation to transform a continues electron beam in to microwave power. First cavity is tuned to connect value of transit time from data supplied by manufacturer repeller voltages. If the bunches pass the grid at such time that the electrons are slowed down by the voltage energy will be delivered to the resonator and klystron will oscillate.The electron traveling forward will be accelerated or retarded.Experiment no 2 Aim: -To verify the relationship between power & repeller voltage in a reflex Klystron. Isolator. VSWR meter. Uses: it is used as signal source in noise wave generator local oscillator in microwave receiver. . As the electron bunches pass through resonator they interact with voltage at resonator grids.R Meter X band microwave bench set up Oscilloscop e Theory: . Block Diagram:Klystron power supply Multimeter Klystron with Mount Isolator Frequency Variable attenuator meter Detector mount V. Klystron power supply. stable oscillator in Radar receiver. Suppose and hi field exist between the resonator . As the voltage at the resonator change in amplitude. frequency meter. Detector mount.

Result:-Plot power output for different modes as a function of repeller voltage. 6) Find the frequency of oscillation by tuning frequency meter & observing dip in VSWR meter. Conclusion:Questions:1) What is reflex Klystron? 2) What are disadvantages of reflex klystron? . 2) Set the attenuator for max attenuation &set the arrange switch on the VSWR meter to 40-db positions. 8) Plot graph between repeller voltage on x-axis &corresponding output on y-axis.set beam voltage to 250v.Now gradually rotate repeller voltage knob to obtained deflection in VSWR meter. minimum position and also repeller voltage knob to minimum position. Limit the beam current to 20mA. 5) On the klystron power supply . Repeller voltage Power For mode 1 Similarly for mode 2&3 Procedure:- 1) Connect the equipment &components as shown in the figure. 7) Now change the repeller voltage &observe output power reading in db in VSWR meter. 3) Set the mid selector switch of reflex klystron power supply to AM MOD position 4) Beam voltage knob fully anticlockwise direction i.No.e.Observation:- Beam voltage= Beam current= Repeller voltage= Sr.

Hence by changing the volume of resonator.As the voltage at the resonator change in amplitude. The accelerated electron leave the resonator at the increased velocity and the retarded electron leave at the reduced velocity . VSWR meter. Electron emitted from the cathode are accelerated and passed through the positive resonator toward negative reflector. Variable attenuator. mechanical tuning range of klystron is possible. Apparatus:. If the bunches pass the grid at such time that the electrons are slowed down by the voltage energy will be delivered to the resonator and klystron will oscillate. As the electron bunches pass through resonator they interact with voltage at resonator grids. Detector mount. The frequency is preliminary determined by the dimension of resonant cavity.The reflex klystron make the use of velocity modulation to transform a continues electron beam in to microwave power.R Meter Oscilloscope X band microwave bench set up Theory:.To verify relationship between frequency of oscillation & repeller voltage of Reflex klystron.frequency meter.Experiment No 3 Aim: . .Klystron power supply .The electrons leaving the resonator will need different time to return due to change in velocities .As a result returning electron group together in bunches. Block Diagram:Klystron power supply Multimeter Klystron with Mount Isolator Frequency Variable attenuator meter Detector mount V.The electron traveling forward will be accelerated or retarded .Isolator . BNC cable.W.Reflex Klystron .S. Also a small frequency change can be obtained by adjusting the reflector voltage. Suppose an hi field exist between the resonator . which retard and finally reflects electron and electron return back through the resonator. This is called electronic tuning.

3) Anti-clockwise direction. repeller voltage knob to minimum position. Result:. 6) Note the corresponding frequency with the help of frequency meter.Set the beam voltage to 250v and limiting beam current to less than 5) Gradually increase repeller voltage &look for sudden deflection in VSWR meter. Note the corresponding variation of the frequency.1)What do you mean by higher mode? 2) What are applications of klystrons? . Conclusion:Questions:. Also note the repeller voltage. 7) Slightly vary the repeller voltage on either side of this reading.Find tuning range for two widely different repeller voltages. VSWR meter &cooling fan .Observation:- Beam voltage= Beam current= Repeller voltage= Frequency Repeller voltage Procedure:- 1) Connect the equipment &component s as shown in the figure 2) Set the variable attenuator to around zero position & set the range switch of VSWR meter to 40-db positions. 8) Find the tuning range after plotting the 3db points on the repeller voltage vs. power o/p graph. 4) On the klystron power supply.

R meter Klystron power supply V.W. Attenuation. Apparatus:-Reflex Klystron.W. Variable & variable attenuator. BNC Cable Matched load Block Diagram:Klystron power supply Klystron with Mount Isolator Frequency meter Variable attenuator Slotted line Attenuator Matched load Attenuation of fixed and variable attenuator V. Isolator. VSWR meter. Klystron power supply. frequency meter. Detector mount.S.Experiment no: 4 Aim: -To verifies the fixed &variable attenuator & plot the micrometer reading vs.R meter Microwa ve source Isolator Frequency meter Variable attenuator Slotted line Matched load Insertion loss and attenuation measurement of attenuator Attenuato r Detector mount .S.

It is so because the electric intensity there is much lower for dominant mode . P2=power absorbed with attenuator. Fixed attenuation is defined as the ratio of power absorbed by the load with attenuation in the line.The attenuator is a two port bidirectional device . which gives out the wave with resistive apposition.It is considerably reduced maxi attenuation . Attenuation (A) =10 log (p1/p2) Where P1=power absorbed without attenuator.So they are made perpendicular to electric field place apart. It is made up of Teflon and Polystyrene material . Attenuator used as variable attenuator . Following characteristics of attenuators can be studied 1) Input VSWR 2) Insertion loss 3) Amount of attenuation offered in to the lines 4) Frequency sensitivity Theory:.power in desired direction .It apposes the power in desired direction.which attenuates some Observation:- Beam voltage = Beam current = Repeller voltage = O/p power (forward direction) O/p power (reverse direction) Average Fixed attenuation Micrometer scale reading O/p power (db) . It consists of rectangular waveguide.

Procedure for variable attenuator:1) Insert the variable attenuator. 3) Plot graph between the micrometer reading & VSWR meter reading in db. 5) Insert the fixed attenuator & note the reading on VSWR meter. 3) Obtained a mode at some value of repeller voltage by observing a sudden deflection in the VSWR meter.1) What are type of attenuator? 2) Where are different applications of attenuators? . 2) Set the Beam voltage between 250 to 300v limiting the beam current below 20 mA. 6) Difference between reading with &without attenuator.Procedure:- Procedure for fixed attenuator: 1) Make a set up on.Value of attenuator 1) Attenuator 1 2) Attenuator 2 Conclusion:Question:. gives the value of attenuation for the fixed attenuator. 2) Observed micrometer reading & VSWR meter reading for different Settings of variable attenuator. Result:. 4) Adjust the reading of VSWR meter to 1db (in the range of 40 db) without fixed attenuator in the set up.

H. BNC cable Matched load.D.H. it samples energy flow in particular direction.frequency meter.e. Here power can be divided into almost in any ratio i.D coupler Measurement of VSWR of M. Slly port 2&3 are also decoupled. Block Diagram:Microwave source Isolator Variable Attenuator Probe Frequenc y meter VSWR meter Matched load Slotted line M.e.Isolator . it means port 4&1 are decoupled i. Detector mount. 1) Coupling(C) = 10 log (pi/pf) db .Klystron power supply .The distance between two aperture must be odd multiple of λg/4 .The performance &characteristics of directional coupler is determine by following parameter. It consist of two wave guide with a suitable coupling aperture located on common wall of wave guide .slly power incident at port 4 coupled with 3&2 only met with 1.Experiment No: 5 Aim: -To find coupling factor & directivity of directional coupler. It has a property that wave incident at port 1 coupler the power in 2&3 but not at port 4.H.D coupler Matched load Matched load M. Apparatus:. isolated port (S14=0). Variable & variable attenuator. VSWR meter.Reflex Klystron .coupler Matched load Theory:- Directional coupler is a four-port device.

6) Insert the directional coupler just before the demodulator with Auxiliary arm (port 3) connected to detector. Port 2 should be terminated with matched load. 2) What are performance characteristics of directional coupler? . 7) The demodulator output taken at port 3 of coupler is observed on VSWR meter. 10) The output of the set up without the coupler is called as pi. 8) This power is called as forward power pf. Find coupling factor and directivity for two couplers Coupling factor = Directivity = Insertion loss Result:- Conclusion: Question:.set mode selector switch to AM position. 3) Set repeller voltage to any value between 50 to 100v 4) Tune the set up to obtained max output on VSWR meter. Observation:- Procedure: Beam voltage = Beam current= Transmitted power= Forward power= Reverse power= Directivity= Coupling factor= Insulation loss= Insertion loss= 1) Connect the set up as per the block dig . Input to the coupler is at port 1.It is defined as insertion Loss = 10 log 10P1/P2 When power is entered at port 1.1) Define directional coupler. This power is called as backward power Pb. 2) Adjust beam voltage between 250 to 300v. 9) Reverse the coupler & observe the output at port 3 while port 1 is terminated with matched load.2) Directivity (D)= 10 log (pf/pb) db 3) Isolation (I) =10 log (pi/pb) db 4) Insertion loss (L)=10 log (pi/pt) db Main line insertion loss is the attenuation introduced in transmission line by insertion of coupler . 5) Adjust the output to the reference level say 1 db.

Reflex Klystron . Detector mount. Apparatus:. 1) Input VSWR. H plane & Magic Tee.frequency meter. Tees are also be used as power divider field.e. Block Diagram: - VSWR meter Microwave source Isolator Freque ncy meter Variabl e attenuat Detecto r mount Tee Slotted line Matched terminati on Matched terminati on Matched terminati on 2 Tee 1 Matched terminati on Matched terminati on Matched terminati on Slotted line Study of Magic Tee Theory:- Wave-guide Tee’s are used for connecting a branch section of wave-guide in series or parallel with the main wave-guide. . H plane & Magic Tee. VSWR meter BNC Cable Matched load E plane.Klystron power supply .Experiment No: 6 Aim: -To measure the power distribution of various magic Tee i. Variable & variable attenuator.Value of SWR corresponding to each port as a load to the line while other ports are terminated in matched load. E plane.Isolator .

3&4 c) Give i/p at port 4.Model 6031 E plane Tee is a type T junction & consist of 3 section wave guide joint together in order to divide & compare power levels . b) Observe output at port Magic Tee a) Give i/p at port 1.2&3. Input at port 1= 2. VSWR of 1. Input at port 1= 2.The signals entering first part of the Π junction will be equally divided at 2nd 3rd port of magnitude but opposite in direction. Output At port2= At port 3= Beam voltage= Beam current= Repeller voltage= . Magic Tee – Model 3045 E-H consist of section of wave-guide with both series & shunt wave-guide are mounted at exact mid point of the main arm. Output At port 2= At port 3= b) E plane Tee 1. This becomes four terminal devices where one terminal is isolated from the i/p. Frequency meter &other detector devices. d) Observe the o/p at port 1. E plane Tee a) Give i/p at port 1.It is defined as Cij=10 – /20 Where is attenuation /isolation in dB when it is input arm and j is output arm Thus = 10 log Pi/Pj Where Pi is power delivered to arm i and Pj is power detected at j arm E plane Tee. Procedure: H-plane Tee: a) Give i/p at port 1 b) Observe o/p on VSWR meter at port 2&3.The isolation between E and H arm is defined as the ration of the power supplied by the generator connected to the E port 4 to the power detected at H arm port 3 Isolation=10 log10P4/P3 3) Coupling coefficient. Observation:a) H plane Tee 1. This is achieved by inserting &connecting piece with stub. b) Observe the output at port 2. H plane Tee-Model 3065 H plane TEE are shunt type T-junction that is used in conjunction with VSWR meter.2) Isolation.40 over +15%freq range.

Output At port 2= At port 3= At port 4= 3. Output At port 1= At port 2= At port 3= Result:-Discuss the power distribution in each Tee. Input at port 4= 4.1) What are different types of Tee? 2) What do you mean by ‘Magic’ Tee? .c) Magic Tee 1. Input at port 1= 2. Conclusion: Question:.

VSWR meter. The presence of two traveling waves. BNC cable Matched load E plane. Apparatus:. frequency meter. H plane & Magic Tee. Detector mount. Isolator. gives rise to standing wave along with the line. The maximum field strength is found two waves are in phase and minimum where the two waves add in opposite phase. The unknown device is connected to slotted line and SWR=S0 and position of one of the max is found. Find the difference between min position and max position obtained due to continuous load slotted line section consist of precision mechanism section of wave guide in which Theory:- . The distance bet two successive minimums or maximum is half the guide wave. The magnitude and phase of reflected wave depends upon amplitude and phase of the reflecting impedance. The reflected wave is setup by reflection of incident wave from a discontinuity on the line or from the load impedance. The ratio of electrical field strength of reflected and incident wave is called reflection coefficient.Experiment No: 7 Aim: -To verifies standing wave ratio using slotted line section. Variable & variable attenuator. The unknown device is replaced by movable short now successive maximal positions are noted.Klystron power supply.length on the line. The device of the difference between min positions is used as reference position for reference position for impedance measurement.Reflex Klystron . The ‘Incident wave’ propagates from generator and the reflected wave propagates toward the generator. Block Diagram:Klystron power supply VSWR meter Klystron mount Isolator Frequency meter Variable attenuator Slotted line section Slide screw Matched tuner termination Standing wave using slotted line section The electromagnetic field at any point of transmission line may be considered as the sum of two traveling waves.

1) What do you mean by standing wave ratio? 2) Which meter we used to measure standing wave? .|Er|) Reflection Coefficient P = Er / Ei = (Z . Hence VSWRS S = Emax/Emin = (|Ei| + |Er|) / (|Ei| .Z0) / (Z + Z0) Where Z is the impedance at a point on line. Thus. |e| = (s-1) / (s+1) Observation:- Beam voltage= Beam current= Repeller voltage= Venire scale reading Total reading Power (db) Main scale reading Procedure: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) First Switch on the supply Tune the bench Move the slotted line section slowly so that SWR meter reading is minimum Now take the reading of VSWR for different position Plot the graph between VSWR and distance. The voltage standing wave Ratio (VSWR) is defined as ratio between maximum and minimum field strength along the line. A built probe has a scale with venire reading of a form 0. The above equation gives following equations.small longitudinal slot has been cut which is basic means of non tearing. standing waves in wave guide is plotted and theoretical practical value of guide wavelength are found. Z0 is characteristic impedance.01 cm. Result:- Conclusion: Question:.

R meter Probe Slotted line 2K25 Klystron mount Isolator Frequency meter Variable Attenuator S.Reflex Klystron . Apparatus:.Experiment No: 8 Aim: . One of the minima is used as reference for impedance measurement.|R|) Where c = (Z/Zo + 1) / (Z/Zo – 1) Z is the impedance at any point.frequency meter. S = (1 + |R|) / (1 . Tuner Matched terminator r Movable short Set up for Impedance measurement Theory: - The impedance at any point of a transmission line can be written in the form R + jX. Then unknown device is replaced by movable short to the slotted line. Two successive minima positions are noted. The measurement is performed in following way. Find the difference of reference minima and minima position obtained form unknown load.Isolator . H plane & Magic Tee. The unknown device is connected to the slotted line and the SWR = so and the position of one minima is determined.W.Klystron power supply . BNC cable Matched load E plane. VSWR meter. S. Mark a point on circumference of chart towards load side at a distance equal (to-d)/λ. Let it be ‘d’.To find load impedances using smith chart. For comparison SWR can be calculated as. Take a smith chart ‘taking ‘1’ as center. draw a circle of radius equal to so. Block Diagram:Klystron power supply V. Detector mount. Join the center with this point. Variable & variable attenuator.S. The twice of the difference between minima position will be guide wavelength. .

The calculated load impedance is = Conclusion: Question:.6&7 after changing the setting of frequency on the direct frequency meter. 5) Keep the direct frequency meter completely open &adjust the attenuator to obtained current of 1 mA at the o/p 6) Move the plunger of indirect frequency meter to obtain adapt in ammeter 7) Note the micrometer reading on the direct frequency meter &observe the corresponding frequency on the direct frequency meter. Observation:Beam voltage= Beam current= Repeller voltage= Repeller voltage Current (mA) Micrometer readings Frequency from calibration chart Result:.1) What are various application of smith chart? 2) How to measure load impedance using smith chart? . 3) On the klystron power supply. 8) Repeat steps 5. . Procedure: - 1) Connect the component and equipment as shown in the diagram 2) Set the modulation switch of the klystron power supply to CW position. The co-ordination of this point will show the normalized impedance of load. 4) Gradually increase the beam voltage up to 250v Limiting the beam current below 20mA. Repeller voltage knob should be at mini. 9) Plot the graph between frequency &micrometer readings.Find the point where it cut the drawn circle. Beam voltage control knob should be kept at mini.

Calibration of indirect type frequency meter using direct frequency meter. Direct frequency meter – In direct frequency meter we get direct reading as by simple observation basically we are aligned horizontal line on the vertical line and particular obtained in between two horizontal line is required frequency. Block Diagram:Klystron power supply Multimeter Klystron with Mount Isolator Frequency Variable attenuator meter Detector mount V. Indirect frequency meter – Here in these we are measuring frequency indirectly that is we are required to calculate least count of frequency meter and corresponding frequency we will get by measuring both the main scale reading and variable scale reading along with the least count. C= (Z/Z0-1)/Z/Z0 The unknown device is connected to slotted line and SWR=S0 and position of one of the max is found.Experiment No: 9 Aim: . Apparatus:.Isolator .R Meter Oscilloscop e X band microwave bench set up Theory:. The device of the difference between min positions is used as .Basically there are two type of frequency meter available in our lab They are Direct frequency meter and indirect frequency meter .W. Detector mount.S.frequency meter. Variable & variable attenuator. The impedance at any point of transmission line can be calculated as S=1-P1 /1-P2.Klystron power supply . H plane & Magic Tee. BNC cable Matched load E plane. VSWR meter.Reflex Klystron .

1) Which type of frequency meter is convenient to use? 2) How we can measure direct frequency meter? .01 cm least counts and can be mounted easily if precision readings are required Procedure: - 1) Tune the test bench 2) Note down the max & min VSWR values by changing slotted line section distance 3) Observation:Beam voltage= Beam current= Repeller voltage= Calculate power by Pmax & Pmin:Pmax= Pmin= R= F= λ= Result:. Find the difference between min position and max position obtained due to continuous load slotted line section consist of precision mechanism section of wave guide in which small longitudinal slot has been cut which is basic means of non tearing. A built probe has a scale with venire reading of a form 0.reference position for reference position for impedance measurement. The unknown device is replaced by movable short now successive maximal positions are noted.Discuss the power distribution in each Tee. Conclusion: Question:.

When DC voltage is applied across the side of Gunn diode.When this high field domains reaches the anode.It was discovered by J B Gunn. So it must be associated with electron rather than holes .Klystron power supply . The time required for domain to travel from cathode to anode gives oscillation frequency.The voltage applied is proportional to the sample length and hence electric field is expressed in v/m.Reflex Klystron .Study of Gunn diode and plot VI characteristics of Gunn diode. greater than electric field higher electron present. A uniform type of uniform type of Gunn diode with same contact as the end surface. Block Diagram:Klystron power supply CRO VSWR meter Gunn diode Isolator PIN modulator Frequency meter Variable attenuator Detector Set for study of a gunn oscillator Theory:-The Gunn oscillator is based on negative differential conductivity effect in bulk semiconductors which has two conduction band minima separated by an energy gap . VSWR meter. Variable & variable attenuator. Actually frequency of oscillation is determined the time that the bunches of electron form and arrive at the end.As the applied potential increases i.frequency meter. hence higher current across the line in short time so acceleration occur in microwave range. It uses bulk property of semiconductor only.Experiment No: 10 Aim: . Above some critical voltage current becomes function of time . BNC Cable Matched load E plane. Apparatus:. H plane & Magic Tee. Actually Frequency of oscillation in determined the time so acceleration occurs in microwave range.A disturbance at cathode gives rise to high field region which travel’s towards the anode . Detector mount.e. . cadmium ferrite in -ve resistance property across at particular voltage range value .Isolator . it disappears and another domain is formed at the cathode and starts moving anode and so on.

Conclusion:Question:. Observation:Beam voltage= Beam current= Repeller voltage= Voltage (volt) Current (mA) Result:. 2) Adjust the bench to get maximum o/p waveform 3) By making voltage initially zero note down the current.Procedure: - 1) Switch on the Gunn power supply.Thus the VI characteristics of Gunn diode is studied.1) How Gunn diode is different from other diode? 2) What are different applications of Gunn diode? .

The surface so generated is called as “Parabolic” Which is also called as “Microwave Dish or Parabolic Reflector” forms practical reflector.One can think of the half wave dipoles an open circuited .It is also a half wave dipole antenna .Antennas are used at all frequency but in actual practice the frequency on which it operates depends on its shape to the large extent .S. Parabolic produces a parallel beam of circular cross section because the mouth of parabolic is circular. Antenna types are 1) Horn antenna. 3) Hertz antenna.W. Meter Detector Frequency meter Set up for antenna measurement Theory:.A horn antenna may be regarded as a flared out or open out wave guide A wave guide is capable of radiating in to open space provided the same is excited at one end and open at other end. 2) Parabolic reflector or microwave dish. Block Diagram:Gunn power supply Gunn oscillator Isolator Pin modulator Variable attenuator V.A parabola is a two-dimensional plane curve . Therefore rotating a parabola about its axis .R.Experiment No: 11 Aim: -To study the various antennas.The dipole antenna dates back to the early half RF experiments in the center so that RF power can be applied to it .A practical reflector is a three dimensional curved surface. However the radiation is much greater through wave-guide than the two-wire transmission the line in waveguide is small in portion of incident wave is radiated and large portion is reflected back by the open circuit.

L=486/F F=Frequency L= length Result:.Thus the different antennas are studied.transmission line that has been spread out so that the transmission line that has been spread out so that transmission can be spread out in space .A dipole can be of any length commonly is just under ½ wavelength long. Conclusion:Question:1) What are different types of antennas? 2) What do you mean by microwave dish? .