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# Introduction To Telecommunication Laboratory

6 FM Modulators
6.1 Objectives
• • • Studying the operation and the chracteristics of varactor diode. Understanding the operation of the voltage controlled oscillator. Implementing a frequecy modulator with voltage-controled oscillator.

6.2 Discussion
Principle of Frequnecy Modulation Operation Frequnecy modulation (FM) is a process in which the carrier frequecy is varied by the amplitude of the modulating signal (i.e, intelligent signal). The FM signal can be expressed by the following equation: t ⎡ ⎤ xFM ( t ) = Ac cos θ ( t ) = Ac cos ⎢ 2π f c t + 2π f Δ ∫ x ( λ ) d λ ⎥ (6.1) ⎣ ⎦ If x ( λ ) = Am cos ( 2π f m λ ) , then

⎡ ⎤ f A xFM ( t ) = Ac cos ⎢ 2π f c t + Δ m sin ( 2π f mt ) ⎥ fm ⎣ ⎦ = Ac cos ⎡ 2π f c t + β sin ( 2π f mt ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦
Where θ ( t ) = instantaneous modulate frequency f c = carrier frequency f m = modulating frequency

(6.2)

β = modulating index = Am ( f Δ f m )
The frequency of FM signal xFM(t) may be expressed as 1 d 1 d ⎡ 2π f c t + β sin ( 2π f mt ) ⎤ f = θ (t ) = ⎦ 2π dt 2π dt ⎣ = f c − f m β cos ( 2π f mt )

(6.3)

From Eq. (6-3) we can find that the frequency of modulated signal occurs frequency deviation from the center frequency of the carrier when the intelligence amplitude is variation.

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Introduction To Telecommunication Laboratory
Varactor Diode The varactor diode, sometimes called tuning diode, is the diode whose capacitance is proportional to the amount of the reverse bias voltage across p-n junction. Increasing the reverse bias voltage applied across the diode decreases the capacitance due to the depletion region width becomes wider. Conversely, when the reverse bias voltage decreased, the depletion region width becomes narrower and the capacitance increased. When an ac voltage is applied across the diode, the capacitance varies with the change of the amplitude.

Fig. 6-1 Relationship between varactor diode and capacitor A relationship between a varactor diode and a conventional capacitor is shown in Fig. 6-1. In fact, a reverse-biased varactor diode is similiar to a capacitor. When a p and n semiconductors combined together, a small depletion region is formed because of the diffusion of minory carries. The positive and negative charges occupy n and p sides of junction, respectively. This just likes a capacitor. The amount of internal junction capacitance can be calculated by the capacitance formula. εA C= (6.4) d Where ε = 11.8ε 0 = dielectric constant

ε o = 8.85 ×10−12
A = cross area of capacitor d = width of depletion region

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this circuit is an oscillator and the tuning circuit at input end determines its oscillating frequency. shown in Fig. capacitors C2 and C3 are the bypass capacitors for filtering noise. approximately several ohms. a small reverse voltage will produce a small depletion region and a large capacitance. In other words.65 (at 3V~30V) Frequency Modulator Based on MC1648VCO In our experiments we will implement the frequency modulator with MC1648 VCO chip shown in Fig. In this circuit. 6-4. Therefore. an ac equivalent circuit of tuning tank. Therefore. we know that the varactor capacitance is inversely proportional to the width of depletion region (or the distance between plates) if the area A is constant.5) TR = v 2 Cv1 Where TR = tuning ratio Cv1 = capacitance of varactor diode at V1.4 MHz) the capacitive reactance of these two capacitors are very small and can be neglected for practical purposes. The Rs is the sum of bulk resistance and contact resistance. an increase in reverse bias will result in a large depletion region and a small capacitance. and it is an important parameter determining the quality of varactor diode. is a paralel 55 . 6-2. When operating at a high frequency (for example 2.6-2 The equivalent circuit of varactor diode A varactor diode can be considered as a capacitor and resistor connected in series as shown in Fig. CV2 = capacitance of varactor diode at V2. The 1SV55 varactor diode is used in our experments and its major charcacteristics are C3V = 42pF (capacitance of varactor diode at 3V) TR = 2.Introduction To Telecommunication Laboratory From the formula above. The Cj is the junction capacitance between p and n junctions. Basically. Tuning ratio (TR) is defined as the ratio of the capacitance of varactor diode at the reverse voltage V2 to that another reverse voltage V1 and can be expressed by C (6. 6-3. Fig.

According to Eq. In the circuit of Fig. 1 1 (6. On the other hand. we know that the change of Cd value will cause the change of oscillating frequency. 6-4 AC Equivalent circuit of tuning tank 56 . the VCO output signal will be a frequency-modulated signal. The value of Cin is approximately 6pF. (6-6). The C can be considered as the capacitance of 1SV55 (Cd) and the input capacitance of MC1648 (Cin) connected in parallel. 6-3 MC1648 FM modulator circuit As mentioned above.Introduction To Telecommunication Laboratory LC resonant circuit.6) fo = = Hz 2π LC 2π L(Cd + 6 ×10−12 ) Fig. the capacitance Cd of varactor diode D1 varies with the amount of its reverse bias voltage. Fig. a small dc bias will produce a large Cd value and a low frequency output. if the bias is fixed and an audio signal is applied to this input. If we neglect the spray capacitance. the oscillating frequency can be calculated by the formula. an increase in dc bias will result in a small Cd value and a high frequency output. Therefore. 6-3.

we can easily tune the VCO center frequency f0. In other words. Conversely. By adjusting the VR1. the output frequency is directly proportional to the voltage difference between pins 8 and 5. this circuit is a typical VCO whose output frequency is determined by the values of C3 and VR1. the voltage divider constructed by R1 and R2 provides a dc level to the audio input (pin5).3 Experiment Equipments • • • Module KL-92001 Module KL-93004 Oscilloscope 57 .Introduction To Telecommunication Laboratory Frequency Modulator Based on LM566 VCO The circuit of Fig. the output frequency will generate frequency deviations around f0 in the variations of audio amplitude. As discussed above the values of C3 and VR1 can also determine the output frequency. that is. the greater the VR1xC3 value the lower the output frequency. Fig. (V8-V5). and the audio input voltage. decreasing the audio input voltage (V5) will cause the output frequency to increase. a freuency-modulated signal is obtained. If the values of C3 and VR1 are fixed. LM566. If the SW1 is open. Thus. 6. an increase in audio input voltage (V5) causes a decrease in the value of (V8-V5) and a decrease in the output frequency. When an audio signal is applied to the audio input. 6-5 LM566 frequency modulator circuit If the SW1 is closed. 6-5 is a frequency modulator based on voltage-controlled oscillator(VCO) IC. which is inversly proportional to the product of VR1 and C3.

Adjust the VR1 until a sine wave appears at athe output and record the frequency in Table 6-1 3. 3.5V sequentially. 3. Locate the LM566 Modulator circuit on Module KL-93004. Insert the connect plug in J2 to set the capacitor to C3 (0. Repeat step 2 for other dc voltages listed in Table 6-1. voltage curve Fig. 2. Adjust VR1 until a sine wave apperars at the output.LM566 Characteristic Measurements 1. Using the results of Table 6-3. 3.3V. Locate the MC1648 FM modulator circuit on Module KL-93004. Change the dc voltages at pin 5 to 2. therefore we recommend the use of the frequency analyzer in such a case. Observe the output frequencies corresponding to the dc voltage inputs and record the results in Table 6-3.6-6.6Vdc to the voltage input (pin5) and adjust the VR1 to abtain an output frequency of 2kHz. Procedure 3.7V. 58 . 4. Using the results af Table 6-1. 6-7. Repat step 3 for audio frequency of 5 kHZ. Insert connect plugs in J1 and J2 to reserve-bias the varactor 1SV55 at 5V and L1=100μH.4 Procedures Procedure 1. plot the frequency vs. Connect a 2Vpp.Introduction To Telecommunication Laboratory 6.0V. 3. This frequency is the center frequency f0.MC1648 Frequency Modulator 1. Connect a 3. the output frequency will be center frequency f0.2V and 4. 3. 2. 4. 4. Insert the connect plug in J2 to set the inductor to L1 (100μH). Under these conditions. Procedure 2. Connect a 3Vdc to dc bias input (I/P2) and observe the output waveform using the oscilloscope. plot frequency vs.MC1648 Characteristic Measurements 1.9V. Note: Since the frequenciy difference between the carrier and the modulated signals is too large to observe an vident variation in time domain on the oscilloscope.1 μF). 3 kHz sine wave of to the audio input (I/P1) and observe the output waveform using the oscillospe. Voltage curve in Fig. 2.

observe the output waveform (O/P) and record the result in Table 6-4. 1 kHz sine wave to the audio input (I/P1). Observe the output waveform and record the result in Table 6-5. 3. Observe the output waveforms corresponding to the audio inputs and record the results in Table 6-4. 59 . 2.Introduction To Telecommunication Laboratory Procedure 4. 1kHZ sine wave. Connect a 500mVp-p. Locate the LM566 FM Modulator circuit on Module KL-93004. Insert connect plugs in J1 and J3 to set the capacitor to C4 (0. Observe the output waveforms corresponding to the audio inputs and record the results in Table 6-5. 4.LM566 Frequency Modulator 1. 5. Turn the VR1 to get the output frequency of 20kHz.01 μF). Change the audio frequency to 3kHz sequentially. Change the audio frequency to 3 kHz sequentially. Using the oscilloscope. Change the audio input to a 1Vp-p.

Introduction To Telecommunication Laboratory 6. 6-6 Input Waveform 3 kHz 5kHz 60 .5 Results Table 6-1 DC Bias 3 Input (V) 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Output Frequency (MHz) Frequency (MHz) DC Bias (V) Table 6-2 (Vm=2V) Input Frequency Fig.

7 3.3 3.Introduction To Telecommunication Laboratory Table 6-3 (C3=0. f0=2kHz) Input voltage (V) Output Frequency (kHz) 2.6 3.9 4.5 Frequency (KHz) Input Voltege (V) Table 6-4 (Vm=500mVp-p. C3=0.0 3.2 4. f0=20kHz) Input Input Frequency Waveform Fig.01μF. 6-7 1 kHz 3 kHz 61 .1μF.

6-6. what is the function of R1 and R2 when SW1 is closed? Before you leave the lab. 6-5. C3=0. which portion on the curve is suitable for implementing a frequency modulator? 3. Voltage curve of Fig.6 Questions 1. Reviewing the circuit of Fig. If the inductance in the tank circuit of Fig. f0=20kHz) Input Input Frequency Waveform 1 kHz 3 kHz 6. 62 .01μF. what capacitance value of varactor diode should be? 2. Examining the Frequency vs.Introduction To Telecommunication Laboratory Table 6-5 (Vm=1Vp-p. Disassemble the circuit and place the Small components in the plastic tray. 6-3 is 80nH and we wish to get a resonance frequnecy of 100MHz. • • • Turn off the power to all the equipment. Straighten up your lab station.

if a carrier frequency drifts due to transmission. a PLL circuit includes the following sections: • Phase Dedector (PD) • Low Pass Filter(LPF) 63 . 7-1. also called frequency discriminator.1 Objectives • • • • Studying the principle of phase-locked loop. Demodulating FM signal using PLL. In radio communication. the PLL in receiver circuit will track the carrier frequency automatically.Locked Loop (PLL) operation The PLL is an electric feedback control sysytem. Understanding the characteristics of the PLL LM565. and phase-shift discriminators and phase-locked loop (PLL) frequency demodulator. Phase. 7-1 PLL block diagram The PLL in the following experiments is used in two different ways: (1) as a demodulator.Introduction To Telecommunication Laboratory 7 FM Demodulators 7. where it is used to follow phase or frequency modulation and (2) to track a carrier signal which may vary in frequency with time. In this experiment we will intoduce the operations of PLL frequency demodulator and FM to AM conversion discriminator. Demodulating FM signal using FM to AM conversion discriminator. balanced. In general.2 Discussion Frequency demodulator. 7. as illustrated by the block diagram in Fig. which converts instantaneous frequency variations to linear voltage changes. of locking the output and input signals in good agreements in both frequency and phase. is a circuit. There are many types of circuit used in communication systems such as FM to AM conversion. Fig.

Introduction To Telecommunication Laboratory • Voltage Controlled Oscillator(VCO) The phase dedector within the PLL locks at its two inputs and develops an output that is zero if these two input frequencies are identical. when passed through the low-pass filter removing the ac components. If the two input frequencies are not identical. The XOR gate can be thought of an inequality dedector which compares the inputs and produces a pulse output when these inputs are unequal. and the control voltage will be zero for as long as the PLL input frequency remains constant. is a dc level applied to the VCO input. The parameter of PLL shown in Fig. As shown 64 . 7-2 Phase Dedection A better understanding of the operation of phase dedector may be obtained by considering that simple EXCULSIVE-OR (XOR) gate is used as a phase dedector. This action closes the feedback loop since the dc level applied to the VCO input changes the VCO output frequency in an attempt to make it exactly match the input frequency. then the output of dedector. 7-1 are as follows: Kd = phase dedector gain in volts/radian Ka = amplifier gain in volt/volt Ko = VCO gain in kHz/volt Kl = KdKaKo = closed loop gain in kHz/volt Fig. the PLL has achieved lock. The width of the output pulse is proportional to the phase error of the input signals. If the VCO output frequency equals the input frequency.

the narrower width of output pulse will cause the low-pass filter obtaining the smaller output voltage 1V. 7-3. say 1kHz.7VR1C2 65 . In designing with the LM565. lock will result.Introduction To Telecommunication Laboratory in Fig. the output dc level is proportional to the phase error of input signals. 7-3 Operation of frequency locking For a further understanding of the operation of the PLL can be obtained by considering that initially the PLL is not lock. If the VCO output frequency equals the input frequency. Consider the signals shown in Fig. 7-2. LM252 PLL Basic Characteristics The LM565 is a general-purpose phase-locked loop and is widely used in frequency demodulation. the higher frequency 1.Free –running Frequency Fig. Fig. 7-2(d) shows the relationship between the input phase error and the output dc level. In order words. In the PLl circuit of Fig. the output frequency of the VCO is called free-running frequency f0. The VCO has an input voltage of 2V and is running at its free-running frequency. In the absence of the input signal.2kHZ of input signal B causes the larger filter output of 3V that increases the VCO frequency output to lock at the input frequency.1) 3. If the VCO frequency and the signal A with the lower frequency 980Hz are applied to the inputs of the phase dedector XOR. 7-4. and can be found by 1 Free running frequency f o = (7. On the contrary. the importamt parameters of interest are as follows: 1. Fig. 7-4 shows a PLL circuit with LM565. This smaller voltage decreases the VCO frequency close to the input frequency. the width of the output pulse of (b) is larger than that of (a) and is smaller than that of (c). When the output of phase dedector is applied to the input of low-pass filter. the output of low-pass filter should be a dc level that is directly proportional to the pulse width. the free-running frequency of LM565 is determined by the time components C2 and VR1.

4) fc = ⎜ ⎟ 3. When the input frequency reaches a specific frequency where PLL locks.Capture Range Initially. The lock range of LM565 can be found by 8f (7. 7-4 LM565 PLL 2. the frequency difference of fi and f0 is called the capture range of the loop. the PLL is in already-locked state and the VCO is running at some frequency if the input frequency fi is away from the VCO frequency f0. unlocking may maintain. The capture range of LM565 can be found by 2π × f L ⎛ 1 ⎞ (7.Lock Range Initially. When the input frequency reaches a specific frequency where the PLL loses lock. the frequency difference of fi and f0 is called the lock tange of the loop.3) fL = 0 Vc 3.2) Where Vc = total supply voltage to circuit = Vcc − ( −Vcc ) = 5V − ( −5V ) = 10V Fig. locking may still occur. If the input frequency fi is close to the VCO frequency f0.6 f o Vc (7.Introduction To Telecommunication Laboratory Closed loop gain K L = K d K a K o = 33.6 ×103 × C ⎝ 2π ⎠ 2 66 . the loop is unlocked and the VCO is running at some frequency.

Introduction To Telecommunication Laboratory Fig. When the input signal increases in frequency. 7-6 Block diagram of the FM-to-AM conversion discriminator In Fig. FM-to-AM Conversion Discriminator Fig. and then the output AM signal is demodulated by the envelope dedector to recover the original audio signal. 7-6 shows the blocks of FM to AM discriminator. if input signal xFM ( t ) is t ⎡ ⎤ xFM ( t ) = Ac cos θ ( t ) = Ac cos ⎢ 2π f c t + 2π f Δ ∫ x ( λ ) d λ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (7. The VCO circuit of the LM565 is equivalent to that of the LM566. 7-6. 7-5 Illustration of lock and capture ranges Frequency Demodulator Based on LM565 PLL The PLL circuit of Fig. the freerunning frequency f0 of the VCO is determined by the values of external components C2 and VR1. The internal resistor 3. The capacitor C4 connected between pins 7 and 8 is a frequency compensation capacitor.5) Then the differentiator output will be 67 .6kΩ (pin7) and the external capacitor C3 form a low-pass filter. 7-4 can be used as a frequency demodulator. The input FM signal is first converted into AM signal by the differentiator. if the input signal decreases in frequency. the output signal decreases in voltage. Fig. the output signal will increase in voltage. Inversely.

R5. C2. 7-7 is a frequency discriminator with FM-to-AM conversion technique. C4 and C5. 7-7 FM to AM conversion discriminator circuit Fig. (7-6) above.Introduction To Telecommunication Laboratory x′ = − Acθ ′ ( t ) sin θ ( t ) FM = −2π Ac ⎡ f c + f Δ x ( t ) ⎤ sin ⎡θ ( t ) + 180 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ (7. The coupling capacitor C6 is used to block the dc level. Thus the x FM (t) signal is an amplitude modulated signal. operate as a differentiator. Fig. The inverting amplifier U2 with gain of –R4/R3. C1. If this AM signal passes through an envelope dedector. 68 . 7-8 Frequency response of bandpass filter Excepting various frequency demodulators mentioned above. LC bandpass filters are popular available in the use of frequency demodulation in ultrahigh and microwave frequency ranges. the audio signal will be recovered. The circuit of Fig. and the AM peak dedector icluding D1. R1 and R2. The components U1. 7-8 shows the response of the bandpass filter. R6. the amplitude of x FM (t) signal vary with the ' variation of x(t) amplitude. Fig.6) ' From the Eq.

Introduction To Telecommunication Laboratory The linear portion on the curve where the voltage variaton is proportional to the frequency variation meets the requirement of a discriminator. 7.3 Experiment Equipments • • • Module KL-92001 Module KL-93004 Oscilloscope 69 .

6. 1kHz. Record the input frequency as fLh in Table 7-1. Remove the connect plug from J1.5kHz.5kHz. 8. Plot output voltages vs. Locate the LM565 PLL circuit on Module KL-93004. Incerase the input frequency to force the VCO output unlocked. 3. Insert the connect plug in J2 to set the capacitor to C2 (0. 70 . 7-9. 5. 1. Record the results in Table 7-1.5kHz sequentially and measure the output voltages corresponding to the input frequencies. Slowly decrease the input frequency until the output signal just unlocks and record the input frequency as fLl in Table 7-1. Using the equation fL=(fLh-fLı)/2. calculate the capture range. Using the equation fc=(fCh-fCı)/2. Locate the LM565 PLL circuit on Module KL-93004. Reinsert the connect plug in J1. Record the results in Table 7-2. calculate the lock range. Observe the PLL input (I/P) and the VCO output (pin 4) signals and slowly increase the input frequency until the output signal just unlocks. connect a 0.5Vp-p. 6.1μF) 2. 2. Slowly increase the input frequency until the PLL just locks. 2kHz square wave to the input (I/P). 2kHz square wave to the input (I/P). 5. Measure and record the output voltage of LM565 (O/P) in Table 7-2.4 Procedures Procedure 1. 3kHz and 3. 3. 10. Insert the connect plug in J2 to set the capacitor to C2 (0. Adjust the VR1 to abtain the VCO free-running frequency f0=2kHz.LM565 V-F Characteristic Measurements 1. Observe the input frequency fCh and record the result in Table 7-1. 4. input frequency curve in Fig.5Vp-p.5kHz. Adjust the VR1 to abtain the maximum free-running frequency foh and the minimum free-running frequency fol at LM565 pin 4 (O/P). Turn the VR1 to get a free-running frequency f0 of 2kHz at VCO output (pin4). Slowly decrease the input frequency until the PLL just locks.Introduction To Telecommunication Laboratory 7. Connect a 0. Decrease the input frequency to force the VCO output unlocked. Observe the input frequency fCl and record the result in Table 7-1. 9. Return the input frequency to the free-running frequency f0 of VCO. 4. Insert the connect plug in J1. Change the input frequencies of 0. Procedure 2.1μF) 2. 7.LM565 PLL Characteristic Measurements 1.

Complete LM565 PLL circuit by inserting the connect plug in J3 to set the capacitor to C5 (0.01 μF). 2. Using the oscilloscope. 4. Insert the connect plugs in J1 and J3 to set the capacitor to C4 (0. 71 . Turn the VR1 to get the output free-running frequency f0 of 20kHz at VCO output. Locate the LM566 Modulator circuit on Module KL-93004. 1kHz sine wave to the input of LM566 FM modulator. Insert connect plugs in J1 and J3 to set the inductor to L1 (220 μH) and the 1SV55 varactor operating at 5V. Procedure 4. Turn the VR1 to get the output free-running frequency f0 of 20kHz.01 μF). Connect 300mVp-p. Connect the LM566 FM modulator output to the LM565 PLL circuit input.PLL Frequency Demodulator 1. 4. Turn the VR1 to get the output amplitude of 600 mVp-p. (pin4) 3. Locate the MC1648 FM Modulator circuit on Module KL-93004. 1 kHz sine wave to the input (I/P1). observe the output waveform of LM565 PLL circuit and record the result in Table 7-3.FM to AM Frequency Demodulator 1. and insert connect plug in J1. 3. Using the osciloscope.Introduction To Telecommunication Laboratory Procedure 3. 2. observe and record the input and output waveforms of frequency demodulator in Table 7-4. Connect the output of MC1648 FM modulator to the input of FM to AM Discriminator Circuit on the lower of Module KL-93004. Connect a 2Vp-p.

5 3.5 1.5 2.5Vpp.0 1.0 3.5 Output Voltage (V) Fig. fo=2kHz.5 Results Table 7-1 C f0 Free-running Frequency Range fOh fOl Lock Range fL fLh fLl Capture Range fc fCh fCl C2 0.0 2. C2=0.Introduction To Telecommunication Laboratory 7.1μF Hz 2kHz Hz Hz Hz Hz Hz fL = Hz fC = Hz Table 7-2 (Vm=0. 7-9 72 .1uF) Input Frequency (kHz) 0.

7-4. does the demodulated signal become smoother? Before you leave the lab. Examining the results of experiment 7-1.Introduction To Telecommunication Laboratory Table 7-3 (Vm=300mVp-p. f0=20kHz) Audio Input Frequency Waveform 1 kHz Output Waveform Table 7-4 (Vm=2Vp-p) Audio Frequency 1 kHz Input Waveform Output Waveform 7. State the function of capacitor C3 in the circuit of Fig. 73 . If replacing the C3 (0. Straighten up your lab station. Report any problems or suggest improvements to your TA. could you find that the VCO frequency would be when the input frequencies of LM565 were outside its lock range? 5.1 μF) by a 0. Comparing the lock range with the lock range of LM565. what is the cjange of the output signal (pin7) of LM565? 7. If a low pass filter is externally connected to the output of LM565 frequency demodulator. Disassemble the circuit and place the Small components in the plastic tray. which is the wider? 6.01 μF capacitor. • • • • Turn off the power to all the equipment.6 Questions 4.