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LECTURE

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Engr. S. A. AHSAN RAJON
Lecturer, Dept. of Computer Science-

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S So of ft tw wa ar re e C Co on nc ce ep pt ts s
Elements i.e. set of programs and instructions that makes the hardware
working is called Software.
A computer is of rarely any use without software.
Software is mainly of two types:
Operating System or System Software
Application Programs

O Op pe er ra at ti in ng g S Sy ys st te em m
Known as System Software
Stands in between Computer hardware and application programs
Operating system may be defined as a set of programs which directly enforces
or instructs the hardware to provide specific desired functionalities and acts as
the basement for executing application programs.

W Wo or rk ki in ng g P Pr ri in nc ci ip pl le es s o of f O Op pe er ra at ti in ng g S Sy ys st te em m
When any instruction is provided through any specific application program, the
instruction is first placed over the system software for reconciliation and then
the system software reconciles the instruction and bridges between the
software and the hardware.


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q4- www.kpcbd.org
i-i-info@kpcbd.org
'- .
' - Computer Software and Operating System

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LECTURE

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Engr. S. A. AHSAN RAJON
Lecturer, Dept. of Computer Science-

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W Wo or rk ki in ng g P Pr ri in nc ci ip pl le es s o of f O Op pe er ra at ti in ng g S Sy ys st te em m

Software may be viewed as below-

For example, if user instructs to open the Microsoft Word, then the operating
system takes the word processing program (from disk) to the main memory.
As long as the word processing program is executed, operating system conveys
the output to the monitor to the monitor.
Similarly, for printing instructions, operating system sends the data to the
printer for printing.
Software
System Software
Time Sharing
Resource
Sharing
Client Server
Application
Software/Program
Package
Program
Customized
Program

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q4- www.kpcbd.org
i-i-info@kpcbd.org
'- .
' - Computer Software and Operating System

e' h q '
'

LECTURE

'

'
/


Engr. S. A. AHSAN RAJON
Lecturer, Dept. of Computer Science-

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Even saving of data, copying, pasting is managed by operati ng system.


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q4- www.kpcbd.org
i-i-info@kpcbd.org
'- .
' - Computer Software and Operating System

e' h q '
'

LECTURE

'

'
/


Engr. S. A. AHSAN RAJON
Lecturer, Dept. of Computer Science-

'


k` q g` q

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F Fu un nc ct ti io on ns s o of f O Op pe er ra at ti in ng g S Sy ys st te em m

Functions of Operating System includes-
Fetch data into main memory
Accepting instructions from users, interpreting instructions and then execution
of the instructions.
Mounting disks and formatting.
Writing data into disks and reading data from disks.
Finding errors in disks and resolving the errors.
Carrying out the disk instructions.
Input-Output device control.
Providing network service.

S St tr ru uc ct tu ur re e/ /O Or rg ga an ni iz za at ti io on n o of f O Op pe er ra at ti in ng g S Sy ys st te em m


'

' '
- -
q4- www.kpcbd.org
i-i-info@kpcbd.org
'- .
' - Computer Software and Operating System

e' h q '
'

LECTURE

'

'
/


Engr. S. A. AHSAN RAJON
Lecturer, Dept. of Computer Science-

'


k` q g` q

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Operating
System
System/contr
ol program
Service
Program
Service/
Processing
Utilities

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q4- www.kpcbd.org
i-i-info@kpcbd.org
'- .
' - Computer Software and Operating System

e' h q '
'

LECTURE

'

'
/


Engr. S. A. AHSAN RAJON
Lecturer, Dept. of Computer Science-

'


k` q g` q

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q
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B
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S St tr ru uc ct tu ur re e/ /O Or rg ga an ni iz za at ti io on n o of f O Op pe er ra at ti in ng g S Sy ys st te em m

Basically two parts-
Control Program
Service Program
Control program is of another 3 parts-
Supervisor Program
Job-Control Program
Input/Output Program

Supervisor Program
Supervisor program is also called Master Program/Monitor
Program/Kernel.
When the computer/OS starts, the supervisor program is loaded into
main memory of central processing unit. Other programs are kept on
secondary memory.
When required, supervisor program brings other programs into main
memory and performs the desired tasks.
When the task completes, the programs other than supervisor program
is sent back to the secondary memory.