This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
MS-404 MIDI Analog Synthesizer User's Guide
Even the MS-404 Service-Manual (only in German language) is available.
Fig. 1: MS-404 Front Panel Controls
01 - Learn Push Button 02 - Learn/Gate LED 03 - Glide LED 04 - VCO Glide Time 05 - VCO Frequency 06 - Pulse Width 07 - Wave Form 08 - VCO/Noise 09 - LFO Effect FM/PWM 10 - LFO 1 Amplitude 11 - LFO 1 LED 12 - LFO 1 Frequency 13 - LFO 1 Frequency Range 14 - VCF Frequency 15 - VCF Tracking 16 - VCF Envelope Amplitude 17 - LFO 2 Amplitude 18 - LFO 2 LED 19 - LFO 2 Frequency 20 - LFO 2 Frequency Range 21 - VCF Resonance 22 - VCA Accent 23 - Envelope Attack Time 24 - Envelope Decay Time 25 - Envelope Sustain Level
1 di 17
(For Service only!) ##### 1 MS-404 Controls No.MIDI Input 34 . 2: MS-404 Rear Panel 27 .44 .CV Output/Input 32 .Audio Output 30 .MIDI Output (Thru) 35 .Envelope Release Time Fig. controlled via MIDI.External Audio Input 29 . reference tone. Label Function Front Panel MIDI 1 LEARN (push button) push button for activating the learning mode in which the MS-404 MIDI functions (MIDI channel.Gate Output/Input 31 .htm 26 .AC Power / Fuse / Power Switch 28 .de/ms404m_e. Re-Trigger on/off) can be set 2 LEARN (LED) Learn / Gate LED displays the receiving of a MIDI note command (gate function) or the learning mode (flashing) 3 GLIDE (LED) Glide LED displays whether the glide function.MS-404 User's Guide (English) http://www.External Audio Input Level 33 . is activated or de-activated VCO 4 GLIDE (rotary control) VCO glide time (portamento) 5 TUNE VCO pitch 2 di 17 21/12/2009 21. control functions for VCF and VCA.doepfer.
MS-404 User's Guide (English) http://www.htm 6 PULSE WIDTH pulse width 7 switch for selection of wave form: high: pulse middle: VCO off low: saw tooth 8 VCO / NOISE switch for selection of sound source: high: VCO middle: VCO and noise off (for use with external audio input or with VCF self-oscillating) low: noise 9 LFO 1 / FM / PWM switch for selection of LFO function. LFO 1 frequency 13 LFO 1 / RANGE switch for selection of LFO 1 fequency: high: slow (up to minutes) middle: fast (up to the audio range. determines whether LFO 1 affects VCO pitch (FM) or pulse width (PWM): high: frequency modulation (FM) middle: no modulation low: pulse width modulation (PWM) 10 LFO 1 / LEVEL LFO 1 amplitude 11 LFO 1 / (LED) LFO 1 LED 12 LFO 1 / FREQU. approx. filter cut-off frequency 15 TRACKING switch for selection of filter frequency tracking: high: full tracking (VCF follows VCO) middle: off low: half tracking 16 ENVELOPE influence of envelope (ADSR) on the filter cut-off frequency 17 LFO 2 / LEVEL LFO 2 amplitude 18 LFO 2 / (LED) LFO 2 LED 3 di 17 21/12/2009 21.de/ms404m_e.doepfer.44 . 5 kHz) low: standard LFO range (several Hz) ##### 2 VCF 14 FREQU.
LFO 2 frequency 20 LFO 2 / RANGE switch for selection of LFO 2 frequency range: high: slow (up to minutes) middle: fast (up to the audio range.de/ms404m_e.44 . 5 kHz) low: standard LFO range (several Hz) 21 EMPHASIS filter resonance VCA 22 ACCENT influence of the envelope (ADSR) on the VCA (accent) ENVELOPE 23 ATTACK envelope attack time 24 DECAY envelope decay time 25 SUSTAIN envelope sustain level 26 RELEASE envelope release level Rear Panel 27 w/o label AC power input / power switch / fuse 28 AUDIO IN external audio input 29 AUDIO OUT audio output 30 GATE gate input / output (depending on jumper position) 31 CV CV input / output (depending on jumper position) 32 INPUT LEVEL level control for external audio input (28) 33 MIDI IN MIDI input 34 MIDI THRU MIDI output (Thru function) 35 CV ADJUST calibration of CV spreading (for service only) ##### 3 4 di 17 21/12/2009 21. approx.MS-404 User's Guide (English) http://www.doepfer.htm 19 LFO 2 / FREQU.
This is where the MS-404 is the solution. The tonal "raw material" either serves the VCO.44 . The MS-404 has the following modules: 1 VCO (voltage-controlled oscillator) 1 NOISE (noise generator) 1 VCF (voltage-controlled resonant filter) 1 VCA (voltage-controlled amplifier) 1 ADSR (envelope generator) 2 LFOs (low frequency oscillator) and 1 MIDI-CV-Interface with 3 control voltages and Gate. it is immediately accessible and can be changed in real-time. it can be integrated into a 19" rackmount system without mechanical problems. the MS-404 can also be controlled by the CV and the gate instead of via the MIDI. you should definetly read the chapters "Advices for Use". The selected signal is fed through the VCF.doepfer. Additionally you have to pay for a MIDI-CV-Interface for controlling the instruments via MIDI.MS-404 User's Guide (English) http://www. The pulse wave can be adjusted in width. The sound synthesis of the MS-404 is orientated on the classical paragons for voltage-controlled modular systems. If you are familiar with analog synthesizers. the MS-404 provides CV and Gate signals. Today you will find synthesizers with pure analog sound synthesis only on the second-hand market . 3) on the next page shows how these modules are inter-connected.with the exception of the MIDI Learn Push Button. The VCO has a glide function (portamento) which can be turned on/off via MIDI. LFO 1 which is provided for the VCO can either modulate the frequency of the VCO (frequency modulation FM) or the pulse width (pulse width modulation PWM). frequency is adjusted from a multi-minute duration upt to the audio range. for getting significant results. the noise generator or the external audio input. Alternatively. since it replaces a correspondingly equipped analog synthesizer and the required MIDI-CV-Interface. You can select between the wave forms saw and pulse with the VCO. However. The controls on the front panel should be well-known to you from other analog synthesizers . Each parameter has its own rotary control or switch. Since the MS-404 has a 19" rackmount case with 1 height level. The LFO provides 3 frequency ranges. 5 di 17 21/12/2009 21. then through the VCA before it reaches the audio output. An envelope generator of the ADSR type is available for both. Therefore. The block diagram (Fig. you will be able to work with the MS-404 ery quickly. In addition to this.htm Introduction The MS-404 is a MIDI-Controllable Monophone Analog Synthesizer which combines the tonal advantages of pure analog sound synthesis with the control benefits of MIDI technology. "MS-404 Connections" and "MS-404 MIDI Functions" before using your MS-404.partially for excessive prices. VCF and VCA . it can also be used as a MIDI-CV-Interface for an additional analog synthesizer having no such interface.de/ms404m_e. Front panel controls are clearly arranged in groups.
All eventual modifications must only be carried out by a qualified person who will follow the valid safety instructions. Due to the fact that these instructions touch on Product Liability. glide on/off. The ADSR envelope generator provides the 4 parameters Attack. The velocity value of the note command can be used for controlling the VCF frequency and the VCA accent (envelope amplitude for VCA). this function can be turned off. Release. The instrument may only be operated with the voltage written on the power input on the rear panel.MS-404 User's Guide (English) http://www. A note command at the MIDI input determines the pitch of the VCO and starts ("triggers") the envelope generator (ADSR). If this should happen the instrument must be disconnected from power immediately and be examined. cleaned and eventually be repaired by a qualified person.44 . Disregard of the instructions can endanger the 6 month warranty. sustain on/off and legato on/off. it is absolutely imperative that they be read carefully. 6 di 17 21/12/2009 21. you must use a fuse with a rating of 1 A max. volume (envelope amplitude for VCA). closed rooms. 3: MS-404 Block Diagram ##### 5 Safety Instructions Please follow the given instructions for use of the instrument because this will guarantee correct instrument operation. The analog sound modules are controlled by the MIDI-CV-Interface. The instrument must never be operated outdoors but in dry. off/half/full). In case of a destroyed warranty seal.de/ms404m_e. Decay. Before opening the case disconnect the power plug. No liquids or conducting materials must get into the instrument. The VCA has an adjustable ACCENT parameter. Inside the case there are highly dangerous voltages. The following functions can also be controlled via MIDI controller commands: VCF frequency. Resonance can be adjusted until self-oscillation occurs. The position of the ACCENT rotary control determines how much the MIDI velocity affects the amplitude of the envelope controlling the VCA. using a conducting object. any warranty claim will be rejected. VCO tracking (switchable.doepfer. Sustain. Fig. The fuse holder is located directly beside the power switch on the rear panel. If the fuse has to be replaced. Never try to get into the case through opening. With the introduction of a third person the warranty will be lost. envelope generator and LFO 2.htm ##### 4 The cut-off frequency of the VCF can be influenced by several factors: manual rotary control. fast. Never use the instrument in a humid or wet environment nor near inflammables. Any claim for defect will be rejected if one or more of the items was observed.
Never place heavy objects on the instrument. Never use the instrument in the immediate proximity of interfering electronic devices (e. The instrument should only be shipped in the original packaging. Due to safety reasons. then it goes out whilst the Glide LED (3) lights permanently. When using the instrument in Germany. DIN VDE 0700 (Teil 1/02. update or examination must be in their original packaging! Any other deliveries will be rejected. If the incoming MIDI data at the MS-404 should fed to another instrument without being modified. synthesizer. DIN VDE 0551 (05.MS-404 User's Guide (English) http://www. power supplies. Therefore.htm Never subject the instrument to temperatures above +50 øC or below -10 øC. DIN VDE 0869 (01. Transport the instrument carefully.83. sequencer). The instrument may only be used for the purpose described in this operating manual. make sure that you use a fuse of the same type (1 A max. Both of the LFO LEDs (11. please refer to chapter "Analog Sound Synthesis with the MS-404 / Trouble Shooting").75).44 . warranty repair.82).. The following standards are of special importance: DIN VDE 0100 (Teil 300/11. If you are not familiar with analog synthesizers and are using the MS-404 for the first time. Teil 207/10. ##### 6 MS-404 Connections The connections of the MS-404 are located on the rear panel of the instrument (see illustration 2). DIN VDE 0711 (Teil 500/10. The Gate LED must light for a short moment. you should keep the original packaging and the technical documentation. otherwise the instrument could be overheated. exchange. DIN VDE 0860 (05. connect the MIDI-THRU jack (34) of the MS-404 with the MIDI-In jack of the subsequent instrument. Teil 410/11.82). MIDI master keyboard.. dumps) because delays in time or loss of data could occur.87)..69).. you should set all 7 di 17 21/12/2009 21. Connect the MIDI-IN jack (33) with the MIDI-Out jack of your MIDI transmitter (e. Connect the audio output (29) with the audio input of your mixer. slip or turn over because persons could be injured. Turn on the MS-404 with the power switch (27) on the rear panel. The power fuse of the MS-404 is also located at the power switch. Make sure that during transport and in use the instrument has a proper stand and does not fall.89). Do not place the instrument into direct sun light. Do not install the instrument near heat sources.72). Teil 481/10.g. Berlin.. never let it fall or overturn. 18) must change their intensity in rhythm to the LFO frequency. fast).89). 240 VAC / 50 . the instrument must never be used for other purposes. DIN VDE 0550 (Teil 1/12. due to the fact that the Thru function is carried out by software.81. Any instruments shipped to us for return. If the fuse has to be replaced. computers) since this could create disturbances within the MS-404 and corrupt memory data.85.g. Otherwise leave the MIDI-THRU jack open. VDE papers can be obtained from the VDE-Verlag GmbH. amplifier or similar. Connect the power input (27) on the rear panel of the MS-404 with mains power (220 .85). If this is not the case.de/ms404m_e. DIN VDE 0532 (Teil 1/03. monitors.g. 60 Hz) by using the delivered power cord.doepfer. The MIDI-THRU jack should not be used for bigger quantities of data (e. DIN VDE 0551e (06. Before operation the instrument should have a temperature of at least 10 øC. the appropriate VDE standards must be followed. Keep the top side of the instrument free in order to guarantee proper ventilation.
the control of VCO and ADSR via MIDI is disabled. The characteristic of the control voltage is 1 V/Octave. The MIDI parameters are set and displayed with these controls. see below). The modification is described in the service documentation.44 . The GATE (30) and CV (31) connections on the rear panel of the instrument can also be modified into outputs. If the synthesizer which you want to control has another voltage characteristic. In the normal operating mode. Pitch Bend on the selected MIDI channel for additional control of VCO pitch Controller #7 on the selected MIDI channel determines volume 8 di 17 21/12/2009 21. Please read this chapter carefully. In this case we recommend one of our MIDI-CV-Interfaces MCV 1 or MCV 8. which will be supplied free of charge on request. In case of saturation the level must be reduced slightly. having a push button and two LEDs inside. The level of the external audio signal must be adjusted with the level control (32) in such a way that the subjective volume is equal to that of the VCO. The velocity values of the note commands can be used for controlling accent and VCF cut-off frequency (see below). Both of the connections GATE (30) and CV (31) are preset as outputs at the factory.de/ms404m_e. If an audio signal is to be used for the MS-404 instead of a VCO or noise generator.MS-404 User's Guide (English) http://www. you cannot use the CV and GATE outputs of the MS-404. the external audio input (29) has to be used. The VCO / NOISE switch (8) must be put into middle position (VCO and noise off) when using the external audio input. indicating the serial number of your instrument.doepfer. the Gate output provides a voltage of +5 V when activated and 0 V when de-activated. ranges from the selected reference note up to a maximum of 5 octaves (refer to 'learning mode'. Behind the opening CV ADJUST (35) there is a potentiometer for calibrating the CV voltage spread. The calibration screw is sealed and must not be turned. Another synthesizer with the appropriate CV and gate inputs can be connected to them. This calibration is provided for service only and may only be carried out by an authorized service center. This modification must only be made by authorized service because the warranty seal will be destroyed when the case is opened. Otherwise warranty will become invalid. After this modification. ##### 7 MS-404 MIDI Functions At the left part of the front panel there is a framed field named "MIDI". and warranty will become invalid.htm controls to their default position which is described in chapter "Analog Sound Synthesis with the MS-404". the following MIDI commands will be recognized and processed: Note on/off on the selected MIDI channel of the MS-404.
If more than one parameter has to be changed. You should choose a variable controller (controller #0 .g. for each parameter the learning mode must be activated and the corresponding MIDI command must be sent to the MS-404. the sustain controller (controller #64).doepfer.e. Within a sequence. The true (absolute) pitch of the lowest tone depends on the position of the TUNE rotary control. When the MS-404 is turned on. The MS-404 volume is solely controlled by controller #7. Doepfer LMK 3 or LMK 4). the glide rotary control determines the gliding time between to subsequent tones with different pitch. if the ACCENT rotary control is not in ccw position. By pressing the LEARN push button you enter the learning mode.de/ms404m_e.g. The tone pitch (MIDI note number) will be interpreted as the lowest tone pitch of the MS-404 (transpose function). Program Change #1 This function only works. the Gate LED goes out and the MS-404 returns to the normal operating mode. The gate signal itself controls the envelope generator (ADSR).independantly of the position of the glide rotary control .MS-404 User's Guide (English) http://www.htm Controller #XX on the selected MIDI channel controls VCF cut-off frequency Controller #64 on the selected MIDI channel controls the sustain hold function Controller #65 on the selected MIDI channel controls the glide function In the normal operating mode the lower LED displays Gate function while the upper LED displays the Glide function. ##### 8 Note-On The MS-404 will take over the MIDI channel of an incoming note command as the new MIDI receive channel (MIDI channel set-up). When the instrument is turned on. the glide function is always activated. indicated by the flashing Gate LED. controller #7 will automatically be set to 127 (maximum volume). It can be turned off/on by receiving a portamento off/on command (MIDI controller #65 with data 0 / 127) on the valid MIDI channel. data = 127 : glide on).44 . Controller #XX The controller number of an incoming controller command will be taken as the controller number for MIDI control of the VCF cut-off frequency (controller XX). 63) but no switch controller like e. i. If the LED is not lit. The Gate LED is lit when the MS-404 receives a valid note-on command and goes out as soon as the note-off command is received. The command establishes MIDI controller #7 (volume) as controller for volume of the MS-404 with velocity having no influence on the accent function (non-dynamic operation).g. In this mode the MIDI parameters of the MS-404 are determined by incoming MIDI commands. E. If you have a keyboard allowing connection of a foot switch which is programmable for MIDI controller #65 (e. 9 di 17 21/12/2009 21.. the glide function is de-activated and the tone jumps .immediately to the next pitch. After receiving one of these MIDI commands. In practice you enter the learning mode by pressing the LEARN push button and press the key on your MIDI keyboard which should be the lowest tone of the MS-404. controller #65 must be sent directly before the note command (data = 0 : glide off. The Glide LED is lit when then glide mode is activated. you may control the glide function during a live performance by using the foot switch. During the learning mode (flashing Gate LED) the MIDI commands listed below have a meaning.. if you work with a sequencer you can use controller #65 in order to determine whether it should glide or jump for each tone of a sequence .
you should read this chapter carefully because the theoretical foundations of analog sound synthesis (subtractive synthesis) are dealt with here. 6 = middle position. Now put all controls to their default position (0 = ccw position. The VCF cut-off frequency is solely controlled by controller #XX .MS-404 User's Guide (English) http://www.htm There is always a small amount of the envelope being sent to the VCA independantly on this function. this chapter will help you to find errors if your MS-404 does not perform in the desired way. connect MIDI input.de/ms404m_e.44 . When the instrument is turned on. audio output and power as described above. Program Change #4 This command establishes MIDI controller #XX (see above) as controller for the filter cut-off frequency with velocity influencing the filter (cut-off frequency = controller #XX data multiplied by velocity of the note command). Controller #7 controls volume while the velocity data of the note commands control the accent. You will find more details in the service documentation which will be supplied free of charge on request. Program Change #5 / #6 These Program Change commands turn the re-trigger function on (#5) or off (#6). the envelope is triggered whenever a key is pressed no matter if the previous key was released or is still being pressed (legato). This principle applies to most of the analog synthesizers (e. Before turning the MS-404 on. and the warranty will become invalid. the highest note will be chosen. Program Change #3 This command establishes MIDI controller #XX (see above) as controller for filter cut-off frequency with velocity having no influence on the filter. controller #XX will automatically be set to 0 (filter totally closed). indicating the serial number of your instrument. In the instrument this offset is fed over a jumper.doepfer. Program Change #2 This function only works. ##### 9 Analog Sound Synthesis with the MS-404 If you are not familiar with analog synthesizers. The command establishes MIDI controller #7 (volume) as controller for MS-404 volume with velocity influencing the accent function (dynamic operation. it can be turned off by removing this jumper. Furthermore. If the jumper will be removed. Mini-Moog). This modification must only be made by authorized service because the case must be opened and the warranty seal will be destroyed. the MS-404 will be mute when receiving a controller #7 command with data = 0 (volume = 0).e. The settings of MS-404 sound parameters are explained using a concrete example. i. 12 = cw position): 10 di 17 21/12/2009 21. if multiple keys are pressed simultaneously. The MS-404 works with high-note-priority. volume = controller #7 data multiplied by velocity of the note command).g. When re-trigger is turned on. if the ACCENT rotary control is not in ccw position.
If this is not the case. 6 20 LFO 2 RANGE low 21 VCF EMPHASIS 0 22 VCA ACCENT 12 23 ENVELOPE ATTACK 0 24 ENVELOPE DECAY 6 25 ENVELOPE SUSTAIN 6 26 ENVELOPE RELEASE 6 Set the MS-404 to this default position when you have adjusted the controls so that no tone appears at the output and you are not certain of the cause. Function Default Position 4 VCO GLIDE 0 5 VCO TUNE 6 6 VCO PULSE WIDTH 6 7 PULSE / SAWTOOTH PULSE 8 VCO / NOISE VCO 9 LFO 1 FM / PWM PWM 10 LFO 1 LEVEL 0 12 LFO 1 FREQU.MS-404 User's Guide (English) http://www.44 . Are both of the LFO LEDs (11 and 18) lit and do they change their intensity corresponding to the LFO frequencies which can be changed with the LFO frequency controls (12 and 19)? 11 di 17 21/12/2009 21.htm No.doepfer. When starting to play on your keyboard after proper setting of MIDI channel and reference tone (see chapter "MS-404 MIDI Functions"). you should check the following: 1. 0 15 VCF TRACKING middle 16 VCF ENVELOPE 12 17 LFO 2 LEVEL 0 19 LFO 2 FREQU.de/ms404m_e. you should hear something at the audio output of your MS-404. 6 13 LFO 1 RANGE low 14 VCF FREQU.
doepfer. 3. LFO. The resulting sound is similar to a beat wave which is the result of two. check all settings Your MS-404 is now ready to play and you can start now with the Introduction to Analog Sound Synthesis. its timbre becomes "nasal". saw-tooth. Is the Gate LED lit when playing on your MIDI keyboard? no MIDI channel and /or reference tone do not correspond with your MIDI keyboard. If the width of a pulse wave is modulated by a low frequency oscillator (LFO). . a VCO provides several wave forms. ##### 10 2. Normally. VCO. the stronger the higher harmonics emboss the sound. i.de/ms404m_e.. the overtone spectrum of the pulse wave continuously changes. A saw-tooth contains all harmonics with descending amplitudes. nearly equally tuned oscillators. i. This introduction is structured in such way that the theoretical fundamentals are treated first (marked with a gray background) before the corresponding setting examples for the MS-404 are described. The MIDI functions which can be set with the push button (1) and are dislayed with the LEDs (2) and (3). triangle and sine. An overtone is called harmonic if its frequency is an integer multiple (2. An unsymmetrical pulse wave (often called "pulse wave") contains all harmonics with their amplitudes being dependant on the pulse width. 3. going from left to right.) of the base tone frequency. Standard wave forms are pulse. NOISE With analog synthesizers the tonal "raw material" is produced either by voltage-controlled oscillators (VCO) or by noise generators. 4). default settings not correct. If you are not interested in the theory. amplifier.. The wave forms differ in their overtone spectrum. The 12 di 17 21/12/2009 21.e. you may skip the chapters marked with a gray background. graphically editable wave forms) are not dealt with here. pulse width = 50 %) contains odd harmonics only (see Fig. set the proper MIDI channel and reference tone as described in chapter "MS-404 MIDI Functions" yes continue with 3.MS-404 User's Guide (English) http://www. The symmetrical pulse wave ("square wave".e.k.htm no instrument is not turned on connection to power not o. The numbers in brackets correspond to illustration 1 ("MS-404 Controls at the Front Panel"). they contain different harmonics. etc. fuse defect yes continue with 2. We will try to stick to the structure of the front panel sytematically as much as possible. Less used wave forms (spaced saw-tooth. 4.44 . Is there any audio signal at your MS-404 when playing your MIDI keyboard? no Your MS-404 is not properly connected with your mixer. The more the pulse width differs from the symmetrical 50 %. are described in chapter "MS-404 MIDI Functions".
"Practice is better than theory" applies here.g. 4: Different wave forms and their harmonics spectrum wave form harmonic spectrum square saw-tooth triangle sine The amount of overtones of the base material is decisive for the possibilities in sound shaping with the subsequent voltage-controlled filter (VCF) since subtractive sound synthesis with a VCF (see below) only allows to cut-out or amplify overtones that exist. i. if both. it can be used in this way if a sine wave oscillator is required for a special sound. If a VCO is modulated with a frequency close to its own. Most probably the resulting wave forms are not suited for sweet. so-called "side bands" around the the VCO frequency are created which are grouped symmetrically around the VCO frequency as integer multiples of the modulation frequency. With other wave forms additional (non-)harmonics will be added. Besides the VCO the MS-404 also has a noise generator. You should try various settings for LFO frequency and LFO amplitude.de/ms404m_e. The triangle and sine wave forms have only a weakly pronounced harmonic structure resp. If a low frequenvy oscillator is available.e.g. 11800 Hz.htm modulation frequency must be very low (approx.. Part of the VCO is the glide function ("portamento") which allows continuous gliding from one tone to the next. Therefore. no harmonics at all (sine).01 Hz to 5 kHz) with switchable frequency bands for better adjustment. are sine wave oscillators. i. a completely new sound characteristic is established. The degree of being unharmonic depends on the strength (amplitude) of LFO modulation as well as on the frequency ratio of VCO and LFO. are also produced by pulse width modulation with high frequencies. is modulated with a frequency of 400 Hz. Unharmonic sounds.e.1 Hz to 10 Hz while better ones have a significantly wider range (0. tones whose frequencies are non-integer multiples of the VCO frequency.44 . the sine and triangle wave only play a minor part here. "vigorous" sounds instead. oscillating at 1 kHz (1000 Hz). a VCO. unharmonic sounds.doepfer. an external audio signal (e. In this case the VCO also produces non-harmonics. Strictly speaking this only applies to pure sine wave frequeny modulation. 1 Hz or lower) since the oscillator seems detuned otherwise. Simple LFOs provide frequencies in the range of 0. coming from a 13 di 17 21/12/2009 21. Normally the glide time can be adjusted with a rotary control from zero (tones will jump) up to several seconds. VCO and LFO. 200 Hz. it can be used for modulating either the VCO pitch (frequency modulation = FM. etc. The triangle wave form contains only the odd harmonics like the saw-tooth but their amplitudes decreases by the power of two while with the saw-tooth they are decreasing linearely in their numerical order and therefore much slower. similar to frequency modulation. For the given example this would result in: 1000 Hz.MS-404 User's Guide (English) http://www. Under the condition that a VCF works as sine wave oscillator when resonance is set to maximum. ##### 11 Fig. If e. In practice this priciple is used for ##### 12 creating extreme. also called "vibrato") or the pulse width (pulse width modulation = PWM). 1400 Hz. "beautiful" sounds but can be used for extreme. Alternatively. Modulation frequencies within the audio range should be dealt with in more detail since their result are very special sounds. This acoustical characteristic is the basis for the so-called FM Synthesis which is used with several digital synthesizers.
see section VCF for more details). Put switch (8) back into the VCO position. You can switch between the wave forms saw-tooth and pulse by using the WAVE FORM switch (7). The remaining frequency ranges reach up to the audio range (approx. If e. it can be determined for each tone of the sequence whether it jumps or glides from the previous tone by defining the controller from tone to tone. Observe the different timbre (amount of harmonics) of the two wave forms. If you now turn the LEVEL rotary control (10) of LFO 1. When turning the instrument on. Make sure that the pulse wave form is selected with switch (7). LFO 1 of the MS-404 can be used either for frequency or for pulse width modulation. you will modulate the VCO pitch (vibrato). With this control you can tune your MS-404 so that it is consistent with the tuning of your other instruments. When the switch is put to its middle position the VCO is turned off.44 . VCF Envelope to zero and the VCF Tracking switch to the upper position. frequencies above 20 Hz cannot be realized anymore. Please put this switch to the FM position (frequency modulation) first. Furthermore this function can be turned on / off with MIDI controller # 65 in real-time. But enough of gray theory.htm sampler or digital synthesizer) can serve as sound source for the MS-404.1 Hz to 10 Hz).g. instead of a normal tone. and recognize the acoustical effects. If you now increase the LFO LEVEL (10) gradually up to maximum. The VCO of the MS-404 provides the wave forms saw-tooth and pulse alternatively. you are working with a sequencer. In the Noise position. You will recognize that subsequent tones glide into each other.doepfer. with Doepfer Analog Sequencer MAQ 16/3). The VCF of the MS-404 can be used as sine wave oscillator. If you do not want this effect you must set either the pulse width control (6) to its middle positon or reduce LFO amplitude (10). Now turn the GLIDE control (4) slowly to the right. you can create a "playable" noise signal by setting the VCF to a higher resonance. 5 kHz) and down to the LFO sub-range with a period of several minutes. the longer the glide time will be. ##### 13 With the LFO function switch (9) you can select whether the LFO should affect frequency or pulse width modulation of the VCO. Adjust the LFO frequency to approximately 1 Hz or less (1 period per second or less) with the frequency control (12). You should also change the LFO 1 frequency. In the low position of switch (13) the LFO works in the standard frequency range while it produces extremely long periods up to minutes in the low position. you will hear noise modified by the VCF and VCA (however. Change the intensity (10) and the frequency (12) of this modulation and listen to the acoustical effects. you will hear a sound similar to a beat wave (chorus effect) created by slow pulse width modulation. using control (12) and the range switch (13).g. Start by playing a connected MIDI keyboard or by playing a sequence (e. The more you turn the control to the right. it may happen that the sound "tears off" in rhythm to the modulation. Due to the inertia of the eye. In this way the sound of two VCOs is simulated although there is only one VCO available. When turning the TUNE rotary control (5) you will see that the pitch of the MS-404 changes. The VCO glide time is adjustable within a wide range from zero to several seconds. The wave forms sine and triangle are not realized in the MS-404 due to the reasons described above. you will create non-harmonics as described above.MS-404 User's Guide (English) http://www. glide is active. either the VCO or the noise generator. When setting switch (13) to the middle position. The reason for this is that the pulse width modulation is so big that the width of the pulse goes to zero. Out of this noise the VCF will cut-out a frequency band which will be shifted when playing on your MIDI keyboard. Turn the pulse width control (6) to its middle position. If the pulse width control (6) is not exactly set to its middle position. With the VCO / NOISE switch (8) you can select the sound source.de/ms404m_e. Let us now transfer the theoretical considerations into practice. Now put switch (13) to the low position (standard LFO range) and switch (9) to Position PWM. The glide function can be turned on / off via MIDI controller #65 (see chapter "MS-404 MIDI Functions"). You should also try out PWM effects within the audio range by 14 di 17 21/12/2009 21. The LFO frequency is displayed by a LED (11). The low frequency oscillator LFO 1 provides 3 frequency ranges with the middle range corresponding to the standard LFO frequency range (0.
Overtones close to the cut-off point are emphasized the bigger the resonance is set (see illustration 5). Another important characteristic of a filter is slope which is measured in dB/Octave. a sterile sounding signal from a sampler should be revalued with the analog filter of the MS-404 or if an additional filter and / or VCA envelope should be added. The high pass works just the opposite way since it passes all frequencies that are above the cut-off frequency and cuts off all frequencies below.de/ms404m_e. the level must be reduced a little. 5: Frequency behaviour of a low pass filter with different resonance amplitude cut-off frequency frequency 15 di 17 21/12/2009 21. This results in the typical resonance and tweet sounds of an analog filter. an external audio signal (e.g.e. If the signal sound distortes. A band pass passes all frequencies within a certain range (band) and cuts off all frequencies outside of this range. The external signal will be fed to the AUDIO IN jack on the rear panel. For musical applications it is very important that the filter resonance is able to be adjusted. 1 Hz for the following experiments. This allows you to use the filter as a sine wave oscillator instead of the VCO for special purposes. VCF With subtractive sound synthesis the further processing of the tonal "raw material" (VCO / noise / external input) will be carried out by a voltage-controlled filter (VCF) first which is usually followed by a voltage-controlled amplifier. A further filter parameter is resonance (emphasis). The filter becomes more of a band pass with an underlaid low pass. 999 Hz would pass totally while 1000 Hz would be supressed totally). from a sampler or digital synthesizer) may serve as sound source with the MS-404. band pass and notch). depending on the filter's slope. For musical purposes the low pass is the most productive filter.g. The filter types differ in how they fed the frequency through. For musical purposes. The use of the external audio input is of advantage if e. If the filter provides an adjustable resonance.htm setting the LFO range switch to its middle position and choosing a high LFO frequency. noise generator or external signal (middle position).44 . With many filters the resonance can be set to such a high degree that self-oscillation of the filter occurs (even without any input). the transition occurs immediately (e.g.doepfer. It describes how fast the transition from passing to supressing occurs. The level of the external signal must be adjusted with the level control (32) on the rear panel in such way that the subjective volume is approximately the same when switching between external audio input and VCO. An all pass passes all frequencies but it performs a phase shift dependant on the frequency.There are different types of filters. i. A low pass passes all frequencies ##### 14 that are below the cut-off frequency and cuts off all frequencies above. frequencies close to the cut-off point can be emphasized. band pass and high pass while the types notch and all pass are less common.MS-404 User's Guide (English) http://www. VCFs without adjustable resonance are seldomly used. the VCO / NOISE switch must be in its middle position so that both. If the external audio input is used. The basic types are low pass. a filter with high a value would have a slope of 24 dB/Octave but 12 dB/Octave are also useful for special applications (usually for high pass. Alternatively to VCO and internal noise generator. A notch cuts out a certain frequency range (inverse function of the band pass). In reality this transition is not a jump but a gliding. VCO and noise are turned off. After this turn back LFO LEVEL control (19) to zero and set the LFO frequency to approx. The "ideal" filter would have an infinite slope. With switch (8) you can choose between VCO. Fig.
You can even create voice-similar sounds when setting the VCF to the appropriate setting and using slowly progressing ADSR envelopes. flute-similar sounds. Now turn RESONANCE control (21) to a position where the sound is convenient for you and turn FREQUENCY control (14) back until the sound becomes dull. You can create typical FM metallic sounds especially with high frequencies whether you use tonal base material (VCO / noise / external audio signal) or not. very often the results are totally surprising. If you now play on your MIDI keyboard. it can be adjusted manually. You should also try the same with different settings for EMPHASIS (21). The same remarks as for LFO 1 apply to LFO 2 but LFO 2 solely affects the cut-off frequency of the VCF. There are several ways to control the filter's cut-off frequency. Depending on the TRACKING switch (15). With these settings the FREQUENCY control (14) works as "tuning" control for the pitch of the sine wave oscillator. Try out all 3 positions. The VCO / NOISE switch (8) should be set to its middle position so that no signal is present at the filter input. Finally. First. using a switch. The more you increase resonance. ENVELOPE (16) must be set to zero and the TRACKING switch (15) must be in the high position (full tracking). Turn the VCF ENVELOPE control (16) to zero. After this turn the RESONANCE (12) to a middle position. For this purpose. For slow LFO modulations. ##### 16 As with LFO 1.doepfer.g. i. if you use frequency modulation with audio frequencies for both VCF and VCO.de/ms404m_e. Turn the VCF FEQUENCY control (14) slowly to its maximum position and listen how the sound is hollow at first and then gets more and more bright. You should also try out both of the extreme cases of filter modulation: LFO frequencies in the audio range with switch (20) in its middle position and very slow filter modulation with switch (20) in its high position.MS-404 User's Guide (English) http://www. keyboard follow). The sound will become realy extreme. half or not at all (keyboard tracking. you can determine whether the VCF cut-off frequency tracks the VCO frequency fully. The proper setting of the TRACKING switch is very important when using the VCF as a sine wave oscillator. due to the fact that more and more high overtones will pass the filter when increasing the cut-off frequency. Furthermore the ADSR as well as LFO 2 can influence the cut-off frequency with any intensity. You will observe that higher notes will sound brighter if you select full or half since the VCF cut-off frequency follows the VCO frequency. nothing will be heard since the filter is closed. The theory of filters should now be translated into practice with the MS-404. Set LFO 2 frequency to a few Hz by turning LFO 2 FREQUENCY control (19). The tonal results are nearly unpredictable. select VCO as sound source with switch (8) and turn control (16) to a low position so that the ADSR affects the VCF slightly. In the middle position notes will become more dull the higher they are since the cut-off frequency remains unchanged. The frequency is displayed by LED (18).e. Now gradually increase the influence of the ADSR envelope on the VCF by turning the ENVELOPE control (16). the filter will sound more and more cutting ("tweety") until it self-oscillates and works as a sine wave oscillator at full resonance. half (low position) or not at all (middle position). Filter resonance can be adjusted until self-oscillation of the filter occurs. Additionally. 16 di 17 21/12/2009 21.htm low resonance medium resonance high resonance ##### 15 With the MS-404 the VCO / noise signal is input to a voltage-controlled low pass filter with adjustable resonance. the VCF follows the VCO fully (high position). You will hear how the VCF cut-off frequency is modulated by LFO 2 if you turn the LEVEL control (17). Vary the modulation intensity with control (17) as well as the modulation frequency with the FREQUENCY control (19) and listen to the acoustical effects. With filter modulations in the audio range and high resonance you can create voice-similar sounds. the frequency of LFO 2 can be adjusted in 3 ranges using the RANGE switch (20). LFO 2 can also produce frequencies up to the audio range. RESONANCE (21) must be turned to the maximum. the more the overtones close to the cut-off frequency are emphasized. its cut-off frequency can be controlled by any MIDI controller and / or by the velocity of the incoming MIDI notes. This setting can be used for e. the filter is controllable via MIDI (see "MS-404 MIDI Functions" for more details). There is only one way: try it out.44 . The tonal results of VCF frequency modulation with audio frequencies are similar to those of the VCO. Similar applies to the VCO-LFO (LFO 1) with regard to the LFO for the filter (LFO 2). Playing on your keyboard you will recognize that the VCF frequency range generated by the ADSR envelope becomes larger the more you turn the control to the right. After this you should turn the ENVELOPE control (16) to a middle position. In the upper part of the resonance.
6). sustain level and release time. produce a signal flow which is used for controlling the VCF cut-off frequency and the VCA passage.decay . Try out different settings for the four controls and observe the acoustical effects. Due to its analog design the VCO of the MS-404 will need a warm up period of approx. you will usually use higher settings for resonance since the change of filtered frequencies will be heard better. We wish you fun and success with your MS-404. the envelope rises within a period of time which can be set by the attack control. dependant on the velocity of the incoming MIDI note and on MIDI volume (controller #7). You can disable the velocity in order to play non-dynamically and for controlling accent by MIDI volume only (see "MS-404 MIDI Functions" for more details). With the ACCENT control (22) you can determine the amount of envelope control for the VCA.de/ms404m_e. standing sounds you should choose longer attack and decay times with a higher sustain level. decay time. typically of the ADSR type (attack . 6: ADSR Envelope attack decay release sustain envelope gate key pressed key released ##### 17 The MS-404 provides an envelope generator of the ADSR type. SUSTAIN (25) and RELEASE (26). Up to now the envelope parameters have not been changed. VCA A voltage-controlled amplifier (VCA) is a module whose feed (volume) is controlled by a voltage.release).44 .sustain . also combined with different settings for VCF envelope (16) and VCF cut-off frequency (14). The envelope consists of 4 parameters: attack time. 17 di 17 21/12/2009 21. You can adjust a required envelope with the controls ATTACK (23). nothing should stand in your way for bringing your instrument into musical use. When pressing a key on a keyboard (note-on command / gate = on). Therefore. Fig.MS-404 User's Guide (English) http://www.20 minutes until its tuning is constant. DECAY (24). The envelope stays on this level until the key is released (note-off command / gate = off). half an hour prior to using it. The VCA control voltage is provided by the envelope generator. you should turn on the instrument approx.htm with periods ranging from seconds to minutes. ADSR Envelope generators. For percussive sounds you should choose short attack and decay times with the sustain level set to zero. After you have become familiar with the meaning of all MS-404 controls. For smooth. After reaching its maximum the envelope decays down to the sustain level within a period of time adjustable by the decay control. 15 . Then it decreases to zero within a period of time adjustable with the release control (see Fig.doepfer. After this turn the modulation intensity to zero with control (17) and put the resonance control (21) to a middle position. The VCF output signal is fed through the VCA whose output is the audio output of the MS-404.