You are on page 1of 84

European Masters Programme for Rural Animators EMRA

DRAFT ACADEMIC GUIDE

2nd version February 2011

Compiled by

Euracademy Association and N. Copernicus University with input by all EMRA partners

Project Nr: 503008-LLP-1-2009-1-PL-ERASMUS- ECDSP With the support of the Lifelong Learning Programme, Erasmus Multilateral Projects, Curriculum Development Projects of the European Union

February 2011

Prepared by: The EMRA Partnership

For more information on EMRA visit the website http://rural-animator.eu/

This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.

2

CONTENTS

PAGE

PART A. ABOUT EMRA
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. INTRODUCTION – MAIN FEATURES OF EMRA THE PROFILE OF RURAL ANIMATOR PEDAGOGICAL APPROACH DELIVERY METHODS, LEARNING SCHEDULE AND EVALUATION ACCREDITATION AND CERTIFICATION

4 4 4 6 8 10

PART B. THE CURRICULUM
MODULE A1. MODULE A2. MODULE A3. MODULE 1. THEORY OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT METHODS OF RESEARCH ON RURAL AREAS RURAL ANIMATION SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

11 12 18 22 27 33 39 47 53 60 67 73 79

MODULE 2. HUMAN AND SOCIAL CAPITAL, WELFARE MODULE 3. INNOVATION AND DEVELOPMENT POLICIES IN RURAL AREAS MODULE 4. CULTURE FOR LOCAL DEVELOPMENT IN RURAL AREAS MODULE 5. SUSTAINABLE RURAL TOURISM MODULE 6. ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT MODULE 7. EDUCATION AND LIFELONG LEARNING FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT MODULE 8. DIVERSIFICATION OF RURAL ECONOMIES MODULE: VILLAGE WORKSHOP

3

PART A. ABOUT EMRA

1.

INTRODUCTION – MAIN FEATURES OF EMRA

This is a second draft of the Academic Guide to the European Masters for Rural Animators (EMRA) following the International Seminar in Warsaw, which took place in November 2010. EMRA is currently being prepared by seven European universities, namely: Nicolaus Copernicus University (Poland). Babes-Bolayi University (Romania); Isztvan Szchenyi University (Hungary); University of Helsinki (Finland); University of Porto (Portugal); University of Rostock (Germany); University of Valencia (Spain), Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Chania (Greece); and by Euracademy Association (Greece). The lead partner is N. Copernicus University. 1.1 Aims and objectives of EMRA The aim of EMRA is to establish a new European programme of studies at postgraduate level, interdisciplinary in nature, which would offer the necessary education, competence building and qualifications to graduates who wish to work as rural animators The objectives of EMRA include • Bestowing rural animator with a wide knowledge and understanding of rural development issues and at the same time equipping them with practical skills that would allow them to encourage and manage rural development initiatives. • Establish the profession of Rural Animator • Make a direct contribution to rural development through rural animators 1.2 Target group EMRA targets graduates in humanities and social sciences (sociology, economics, political science, social psychology) geography, agronomy, land use planning, engineering, management, education etc., both mid-career professionals and people who just completed their first degree, and are willing to work in rural areas. Special emphasis is given to professionals that are active in the field of rural development. 2. THE PROFILE OF RURAL ANIMATOR It is important to define, even briefly, the role and expected tasks that a Rural Animator would be called to perform, in order to understand better the competences required for such a role and the contribution EMRA will make to the aquisition of such competences. The role of Rural Animator The role of Rural Animator can be summarised as follows:

4

The Rural Animator stimulates everyday economic and social activity using a bottom-up approach. Intensive modernisation of rural areas. conflict resolution. • The Rural Animator is an agent of change. 2. information processing skills. The Rural Animator contributes to this re-definition. conducting focus groups and exploratory meetings. • The Rural Animator is a trusted person who can protect and develop the interests of the community and address local development issues including the enhancement of quality of life. web pages etc. showing leadership participating in the implementation of development plans. Finding out the community’s needs and problems: ability to gather knowledge about the community through simple surveys and polls. This confers authenticity as it is based upon grass-roots definitions of local needs and the means necessary for their fulfilment. as a result of urbanisation or the industrialisation of agriculture makes the re-definition of rural development and its agents an important issue.. ecological. stimulation of positive attitudes towards community and himself/herself. thus facilitating sustainable rural development. contributing in discussion fora. rhetorical skills and skills covering the explanation of complicated issues. This gives the Rural Animator the ability to work within the political and cultural context of social. writing and publishing articles. animators working with underprivileged communities in cities) by his/her knowledge and understanding of the paradigm of sustainable rural development. IT skills. investigating individuals’ attitudes towards common • 5 . undertaking coordination and management tasks • fulfilling the function of an intermediary between different stakeholders. • supporting the creation of development plans.g. Social communication: building trust. strong neighbourhood ties and local social capital. • Tasks that a Rural Animator is likely to perform The tasks in which rural animators may be asked to tackle include: • building and maintaining mutual trust in the community. A contemporary Rural Animator can be distinguished from other animators (e. The Rural Animator holds a role that is closely linked to the concept of social capacity traditionally associated with rural communities and utilises the power of mutual help. ability to interact easily with every member of the community.• • The Rural Animator initiates and sustains community activities related to the local economy. being also the link between decision-makers and the local communities. These tasks call for a variety of skills and competences: 1. economic and cultural changes in rural areas. stimulation of innovative thinking. selfpresentation awareness and skills. he/she also encourages the re-establishment of social bonds and the reinforcement or re-establishment of local identity.

environmental protection and management. rather. mediation and advice when and where required. The e-learning section is the longest and most demanding in terms of input from the participating universities. cultural development. will exchange experiences and learn from each other. innovation and support of SMEs. practical knowledge of the functioning of local institutions and organisations (selfgovernment. communication with community leaders. the issue of the distinctiveness of rural culture on the one 6 . The multi-national and multi-cultural team that delivers EMRA will pass this message easily. and provide encouragement. to correspond with the many facets of rural development and the different skills that the rural animator should develop. while a “mentoring tutor” is appointed by NCU for each student to monitor progress and solve problems. basic information about procedures. promoting education and lifelong learning for rural development. community development and welfare. leadership. NGO’s. using a video-conferencing system. conducting and observation. both through the virtual class sessions and by organising small groups of students who will work together on projects. developing sustainable rural tourism. Tutors are assigned by each participating university to guide the students through the different modules. and encouraging the diversification of rural economies. coordination. such as: agriculture and farming. Promoting different aspects of sustainable rural development: possess a good understanding and an inter-disciplinary knowledge of different fields involved in sustainable rural development. PEDAGOGICAL APPROACH 3.1 Learning methodology The learning methodology is based on e-learning combined with hands-on experience (practical work) face-to-face learning in an international seminar and thesis work. exercises and project assignments are uploaded. knowledge of sources of financing. Further to that. Learning materials. he/she is expected to acquire enough knowledge and skills to understand the different aspects of rural development. regional bodies. project management. communicate efficiently with the various actors of rural development. Peer learning is encouraged. ability to perform qualitative data analysis and to compile reports. 3. A strong emphasis is given on the interdisciplinary nature of the studies. Both synchronous and asynchronous learning is employed. The students will also be led to grasp the cultural aspects of rural development at European level. national bodies). motivation techniques. It is made clear. 3. Managing and coordinating local actions and projects: ability to assess different kinds of opportunities and actions. Virtual classes is held regularly. as reference is made to the eight countries participating in the partnership. group management. at the same time that the rural animator will not be expected to became an expert in all theses fields.action. 4.

competences and social abilities that students are expected to acquire are divided to “transversal or key skills” that will stem from the totality of the learning material and activities and “specific” skills that is acquired by each module separately. and related skills. Participate or lead work in groups . The general objectives are: • • Understand rural development. 3. Leadership (capacity to generate and maintain trust). Conflict management. Analytical and critical thinking . Independence and autonomy at work. Time management. and specific objectives. Initiate and maintain networks. that relate separately to each module. Review documentation and extract necessary information and tools .3 Skills and competences to be acquired The skills. The social abilities are: • Responsibility • Cooperation 7 . The specific skills are stated separately in the description of each module and mostly concern: • Working knowledge on a number of disciplines and subjects that are essential to perform the profession of the rural animator. Furthermore a number of “social abilities” is acquired from the experience of attending EMRA. The transversal or key skills are: • • • • • • • • • • • Learning to learn.2 Learning objectives EMRA aims to achieve a number of general learning objectives for students that relate to the totality of the learning material and activities. Obtain the skills necessary for the profession of rural animator: The specific objectives are stated separately in the description of each module 3.hand and multiculturalism in present-day Europe on the other hand is incorporated in all modules and learning tasks. Report writing. Social communication.

cultural development. The language of EMRA is English. The curriculum is organised around a “core” course and 8 “specialist modules”. DELIVERY METHODS. environmental planning and management. Each module is delivered by a different university which will also accredit it. education and LLL for rural development. face-to-face learning in an international seminar and thesis work. to accompany the module they are in charge of. The allocation of work in the four semesters adopts the following pattern: • The first semester is devoted to the core course. Learning materials are compiled in an electronic library to be available to all students on the web. exploiting to a large extent the 8 Thematic Guides produced by Euracademy Association. community development and welfare.1 Delivery model and structure EMRA is delivered jointly as a Master of Arts degree by a consortium of eight universities. diversification of rural economies.• Understanding of and tolerance to different norms and values • Social sensitivity • Ability for decision making • Ability for community building • Ability to tackle problems and suggest solutions. sustainable rural tourism. • Between the 2nd and 3rd semester a 10-day face-to-face seminar is held. • Ability to develop a global understand of the factors that underlie rural societies (economic. • The second and third semesters will include three modules each – six modules in total. socio-cultural. EMRA comprises four semesters. aiming to attract students from all European countries. 4. • Ability to initiate processes and coordinate actions. The main delivery medium is an e-learning platform. The library forms part of the e-learning 8 . Each participating university proposes learning materials in English. The joint degree is granted by Nicolas Copernicus University. LEARNING SCHEDULE AND EVALUATION 4. • Between the 3rd and 4th semester the students will do practical work by placement. combined with hands-on experience through a placement (practical work). innovation and development policies. political and institutional). participation in which is compulsory for all students. environmental. • The fourth semester is devoted to the Masters thesis. in order to gather relevant experience for the writing of their Master Thesis. relating to salient topics of rural development. corresponding to two years of full-time study or three years of part-time study. such as sustainable agriculture.

ppt. NCU library provides access to the international system of libraries. • Lectures (video. chat. Placements Students should find an institution related to rural development in consultation with tutor. leadership skills. • One day presentation of cases. • Individual assignments (essays. making formal presentations to audiences etc). • Group assignments (3-4 students per group). • 3-day fieldwork to identify local problems and suggest solutions. Seminar • Students will have to prepare their own case study of a real-life rural development problem that can be solved through animation. 4. video-conferencing). All students who undertake a placement negotiate with the organization offering the place to carry out a “village project” which is of interest to both the student and the organization.Lectures: practical animation skills: social communication skills. • After the seminar: prepare final reports by the groups. The thesis should include: 9 . practical tasks including fieldwork.2 The components of EMRA The components of EMRA include: Class work: • Delivery of learning materials to students prior to each lecture. or private consultancy or business incubators/technology centres operating in a rural area. • Online. Thesis The results of the placement will be used to identify the thesis topic and provide the overall background for dealing with a specific problem or development need of the area. • Workgroups. cultural or environmental association) or education institutions with local and regional development activities. conflict resolution skills etc.platform. Can be taken from their placement’s experience. • One-day thesis discussion with tutors (one-to-one basis). NGO (village association. The institution could be local and regional authorities and their organizations. LAG. business association. synchronous discussion (forum. virtual class). They may include simulation of real-life situations taken from the cases brought in by students. • 2 days preparation and presentation of fieldwork results – preliminary report. In addition. • 3 days .

5. A theoretical introduction. Evaluation will be performed on a continuous basis using: • online multiple choice test. including literature review about the topic chosen (referring back to appropriate modules).fieldwork carried out. including essay-writing • project work • attitude toward the learning process. effective use of tutorials. • Results of tests and other assignments. including the proposed methods for animation. attitude and contributions to teamwork. problem solving ability. Analysis and discussion of the results. • Placement/village workshop. 2. etc. 4. Description of the action research .2 Student Evaluation A. The allocation of ECTS is planned as follows: Core course: 30 ECTS 6 modules x 7ECTS = 42 ECTS Thesis: 30 ECTS 10-day Seminar: 9 ECTS Practical work (placement): 9 ECTS 10 . The portfolio will be compiled online.). on time delivery of assigned work. preferably through suitable software. • Performance in the seminar and seminar report. animation and participation in forum. 5. 3. quizzes • comparative analysis of case studies • written assignments. Final evaluation will be performed on the student’s portfolio. • On time preparation and delivery of exercises and assignments. 6. and will include: • Proof of participation in the theoretical and practical sessions. exercises. as assessed by the tutor B. • Attitude toward the learning process (significant contributions in theoretical sessions. The research questions/hypotheses.1. Methodology of research. 4. The context: an introduction to the rural area chosen and its problems (from placement work/village project). Conclusions and recommendations for action. • Thesis. ACCREDITATION AND CERTIFICATION EMRA is planned as a two year-Master of Arts programme requiring 120 ECTS.

sustainable agriculture (by MAICH). education and LLL for rural development (by the University of Porto). organised as a “village workshop” The same structure is adopted by all modules. THE CURRICULUM The curriculum consists of a core course and 8 modules. innovation and development policies in rural areas (by the University of Helsinki. environmental planning and management. sustainable rural tourism (by Széchenyi Istvan University). 5. 7. introduction to the module. 8. references and supporting material 11 . 7. Copernicus University and will include three units: • • • theory of rural development. the role and skills of the Rural Animator. 6. as detailed in the next chapter. Copernicus University). conceptual map 4. identification data. An additional module describes the practical placement work. 5. 6. skills to be acquired. methods of rural research. The eight specialist modules (linked with most important problems of European rural development) are delivered by the participating universities who have also prepared the outline modules appearing in the next chapter: 1. 8. volume of work (hrs). 2. consisting of eight sections: 1.PART B. content. human and social capital. 3. 3. specific objectives. Ruralia Institute). 2. diversification of rural economies (by N. welfare (by University Babes-Bolyai. cultural development (by the University of Valencia). The core course is delivered by N. (by the University of Rostock) 4.

IDENTIFICATION DATA Name of the module: Modality of education: Name of the course: Partner responsible: Theory of rural development E-learning European Masters Programme for Rural Animators Institute of Sociology – Nicolas Copernicus University II. Theory of Rural Development I. Its completion should enable to answer the three following questions: 1.. 2. 12 .. What are the characteristics of social transformation in European rural areas at the turn of 20th and 21st which take place in their structure and social functions (structural-functional approach) as well as in various dimensions of every day life and work of their inhabitants (individual perspective). also empirical data that document social transformations of European rural areas during the 20th and 21st centuries.Draft Academic Guide Core Course – Module A1. How do we define rural areas and why different academic disciplines become interested in this type of social environment? What does the development of rural areas involve both in terms of social change and of positivistic and humanistic characteristics? 3.INTRODUCTION TO THE MODULE The module A1 consists of theoretical knowledge of the essence and concepts of development of rural areas.

European legal system III.. Rural development as a form of social development 3. Multidirectorial character of social change in rural areas 4. Different ways of defining rural areas 2. Rural development Policy of the EU 5.CONCEPTUAL MAP Theory of rural development Theoretical and empirical knowledge on the rural areas and concepts of its development 1.VOLUME OF WORK 280 h TOTAL VOLUME OF WORK 10 ECTS Equivalent to 60 h of conventional lectures 13 .

1. Definitions of rural areas. theories. Rural areas as a subject of the European law and object of political activities.Total Lectures attending Chat attending Study and assignment Unit 2 .ACTIVITY Unit 1 .1. Rural areas as a place of everyday and occupational activities.-CONTENTS Unit A1. 1.1. What are rural areas? 1.Total Lectures attending Chat attending Study and assignment Unit 3 .1. concepts) in explaining phenomena that occur in a given social environment of a village or small town.1.Total Lectures attending Case studies analysis Chat attending Study and assignment TOTAL VOLUME OF WORK Workload HOURS 80 18 2 60 90 22 2 66 110 20 18 2 70 280 IV.SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES The completion of the module should enable students to: o acquire orderly theoretical knowledge which ensures comprehension of the essence of the development process in rural areas. 14 . o acquire specific knowledge of social transformation in European rural areas at the turn of 20th and the 21st centuries.1. V.4.2.1.. Rural areas as a subject matter of various academic disciplines. o acquire the ability to use the learned categories (definitions.3. 1.

Interest in learning 2.2.1.rural industrialisation and urbanisation. Theory of modernization .rural industrialisation and urbanisation. 15 . Ability to handle information and to use theoretical framework for analysis of local problems.1. 1. Theory of integrated rural development.2. Ability to search / research / compare further information 3.3. The development of rural areas.3. The rural development as social progress. Unit A1. V. SKILLS TO BE ACQUIRED 1. Theory of the dependent (exogenous) rural development. Positivistic and humanistic theories of social change as the grounds of selected concepts of the rural development: Theory of modernization . Social changes in the European rural areas at the turn of 20th and 21st centuries 1.2. Individual approach – changes in lifestyle and occupational activities of inhabitants of rural areas Analysis of best practices and case studies About 20 case studies (5/6 for each unit) from different countries of Europe is provided. 1.2.2. Regulation theory – fordism and post-fordism. Structural-functional approach: changes in the structure and social functions of rural areas 1.Unit A1. Theory of the knowledge/ information society. Theory of sustainable rural development.3. Theories of endogenous and post –endogenous rural development.

Eastern European Countryside 1993.. 1993. 1999.. Willis K. Van der Ploeg J. Environmental and Resource Sociology: theoretical issues and opportunities for synthesis. Assen: Van Gorcum. Fifteen Selected Articles on Rural Persistence and Change. 16 . Singh K. New York. Principles. Sociologia Ruralis 1990.. Complementary bibliography: Bealer R. Rural Sociology 1965. and others. Sociologia Ruralis 1990. 1995. Sztompka P. No 1. Marsden T. M. Pongratz H.. Co... Van Huylebroeck G.. Rural Sociology 2002.G.. 2003. 1966. New DelhiThousand Oaks – London.. Buttel F.REFERENCES AND SUPPORTING MATERIAL Basic bibliography: Almas R. Bonnano A. No 6. Sociologia Ruralis 1999. Agriculture and Rurality.. Oxford. Bodenstedt A. The grounding of rural sociology. Sociologia Ruralis 2000. No 4.. Barriers to Change: a Sociological study of Rural Development in Ireland. Rural Sociology. The Meaning of “rurality” in American Society: some implications of alternative definitions. In the Search of New Paradigms in the Rural Development. No 3. Beginning the “final separation”. Friedland W. Rural Theory. Social Change in Rural Society. No 1. and other (ed). A NewParadigm for European Agriculture and Rural Development. Rural Culture – a New Concept.. Rural Sociology 1982. D. Cultural Tradition and Social Change in Agriculture.. The Globalization of Agriculture and Food. Van der Ploeg J. Multifunctional Agriculture. No 4. No 1. 1960.. Galway. Rogers E. Norway’s Gift to Europe..H.F. From Columbus to Conagra. Policies and Management. C. University of Kansas Press.VIII. Gilbert J.. Beyond Modernization: The Impact of Endogenous Rural Development. 1993. Rural Development. The Sociology of Social Change.. Ashgate. Durand G. Kuvletsky W. Trondheim. 2009. 1994. Macken Walsh A. No 4. Rural Futures: The consumption countryside and its regulation. Rural Development: from practices and policies towards theory.. Kaleta A...

php&L2=body_membership_ RuralSociologist.org/index.php?L1=left_Home.php&L2=staticcontent/Publica tions/Ruralrealities/publications.wiley.php&outside=y 17 .ruralsociology.php Sociologia Ruralis http://www.Web pages / links: American Sociological Review http://www2.com/bw/journal.springer.asanet.asp?ref=0038-0199 The American Sociologist http://www.php?L1=left_Home.org/journals/asr/ Eastern European Countryside http://www.com/social+sciences/journal/12108 The Rural Sociologist http://www.ruralsociology.soc.org/index.umk.springer.pl/eec/ Handbook of Social Psychology http://www.com/social+sciences/book/978-0-387-32515-6 Rural Realities Publications http://www.

Draft Academic Guide Core Course – Module A2. 2. methods. • • to arrange and systematise student’s previous knowledge of methodology and methods of social research to direct students’ attention towards specificity of rural studies. With completion of the module students will learn about: 1.. the structure of a empirical research process and its diversity unique for rural studies. what we offer is more a complementary than a basic course and it is aimed at achieving two main goals. Methods of Research on Rural Areas I.INTRODUCTION TO THE MODULE The suggested content of methodological module assumes that during BA course students learned the basics of methodology and methods of social research. also possibilities of their implementation in the processes of rural animation activity. their conformity to general rules of scientific research and tools of other social sciences. the procedures.. techniques. 3. 18 .IDENTIFICATION DATA Name of the module: ECTS: Modality of education: Name of the course: Partner responsible: Methods of Research on Rural Areas 10 E-learning European Masters Programme for Rural Animators Institute for Sociology – Nicolas Copernicus University II. the manners of compiling and analyzing the gathered empirical data through the use of quantitative and qualitative procedures. and tools most often applied in rural studies. Hence.

Total Lectures attending Chat attending Study and assignment Unit 3 .CONCEPTUAL MAP III.Total Lectures attending Chat attending Study and assignment TOTAL VOLUME OF WORK Workload HOURS 72 10 2 60 122 30 2 90 86 20 2 64 280 19 .VOLUME OF WORK TOTAL VOLUME OF WORK 10 ECTS 280 h Equivalent to 60 h of conventional lectures ACTIVITY Unit 1 ..Total Lectures attending Chat attending Study and assignment Unit 2 .

and presentation of quantitative data 2. The research procedures: 2.SKILLS TO BE ACQUIRED 1..1.4. The procedures. techniques.3. V. The research tools Unit A2. techniques and research tools in investigations of rural areas in different countries of Europe .1.3. Identifying problems of rural areas 2. The research methods: 2.2.2. 1.. put in and order and systematize their knowledge of methodology and techniques of research applied in rural studies. and tools to study. Compilation.1.1. The structure of empirical research processes 2. Management skills. VI.2.3. including ability to create research tools 3. and presentation of qualitative data 2.SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES With completion of the module students is able to: • • • to arrange.IV. Compiling and analyzing the results of empirical research 2.CONTENTS Unit A2. Specificity of rural studies Unit A2. Ability to plan and conduct social research. Ability to proper use of wide range of methods and techniques in rural research 2. including quality assurance of the research 20 ..3.2.2. to learn the specificity of rural studies.3. methods.3.is provided.1. and the investigative tools of cognition of rural areas 2. analysis. select the most suitable procedure. the methods the techniques.2.examples of use of procedures. the specific phenomena that take place in rural areas. methods.2. analysis. The research techniques 2. Application of the research results in practice of a rural animator Analysis of best practices and case studies About 10 case studies (3/4 for each unit) . Compilation.2.

org/ENG/index_eng. The American Sociologist 1974..com/wps/find/journaldescription... 1967.. Huebner P. No 9. 1994. Heynes R.com/smpp/title~content=t713737293~db=all http://www.. W... Cambridge. Content Analysis. in: Handbook of Social Psychology. vol.socialresearchmethods. Chicago. Moreno J. Foundations of Behavioural Research.. Kerlinger F. Hyman H.edu/centers/socres/ http://www. H. Silverman D. Complementary bibliography: Arensberg C. Holm K.net/kb/index... Interpreting Qualitative Data. W. Research Methods in Social Relations.. Web pages / links: http://www. Mayntz R. 1964.qualitativesociologyreview. 1954. 1970.php http://www. Cook S. New York.. Methods for Analysing Talk. Berelson B... K.org/action/displayJournal?jid=EUR http://www.. Lofland J. J. Bell C. The Sociometry Reader. K. A Theoretical Introduction to Sociological Methods. 1967. Systematic Observational Techniques. 9. Cambidge. American Journal of Sociology 1954. London.VIII. Lofland J.qualitative-research. Thousand Oakes-London-New Delhi. Lipitt R. Newby H. 1993. Deutsch M. 1975. London.cambridge.php http://journals. Glencoe. 1958.. in: Handbook of Social Psychology. 1969. H. Thomson Learning. Community Studies.net/index. (ed. Belmont.. Denzin N.. Introduction to Empirical Sociology. Chicago.).. New York. N. Jahoda M. Cambridge.newschool. Styles of Reporting Qualitative Field Research. Analysing Social Settings. 1971. The practice of social research..php/fqs/index http://www. Lofland L.cws_home/622946/description#de scription 21 . 1994.elsevier. Denzin N.). Text and Interaction. S (ed. 2007. The Community Method. Interviewing in Social Research.. Handbook Qualitative Research.M. A Guide to Qualitative Observation and Analisis.informaworld..REFERENCES AND SUPPORTING MATERIAL Basic bibliography: Babbie B. The Research Act. Lincon Y.

Draft Academic Guide Core Course – Module A3. persuade talk the community into execution of the plan.INTRODUCTION TO THE MODULE Rural animation – according to the assumptions of already classic American theory of community development supplemented with remarkably more recent experiences of the European movements for rural area revitalisation includes five consecutive types of social activities: diagnosis of the situation.. the student should obtain: 1. As a result of execution of module 3. 22 . 2. Practical knowledge of the ways and techniques to act on the local community within all of the five animation stages. discussion.. and finally the execution of the plan.IDENTIFICATION DATA Name of the module: ECTS: Modality of education: Name of the course: Partner responsible: Rural Animation 10 E-learning European Masters Programme for Rural Animators Institute for Sociology – Nicolas Copernicus University II. Systematic theoretical knowledge of the structure and stages of rural animation. drafting the schedule of activities. Role and tools of rural animator I.

Initiation and legitimization 3.Total Lectures attending 23 WORKLOAD HOURS 34 8 2 24 70 12 .Total Lectures attending Chat attending Study and assignment Unit 2 .Stimulatio.. Public decision making 2.Planning for action 4.CONCEPTUAL MAP Rural Animator Rural animation defined as a process of endogenous potential of rural population Diagnosis of the situation In the rural animation process Types of social action in rural animation process 1.VOLUME OF WORK TOTAL VOLUME OF WORK 10 ECTS 280 h Equivalent to 60 h of conventional lectures ACTIVITY Unit 1 .Implement ation of animation plan Measuring social impact of public programmes III.

1.3.SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES As a result of the module the student should: • • have a systematic theoretical knowledge of the structure and phases of the process of mobilization of local communities (rural animation). Execution aspect (social movement) 3.WORKLOAD HOURS Chat attending 2 Diagnosis of rural community preparation 26 Study and assignment 30 Unit 3 .1.1. V.4.1.5. Process aspect 3.1.Total 42 Lectures attending 10 Chat attending 2 Study and assignment 30 Unit 4 – Total 52 Lectures attending 6 Rural renewal plan preparation 28 Study and assignment 18 Unit 5 . Stages of local community animation 24 . Methodical aspect 3.Total 40 Lectures attending 10 Study and assignment 30 Unit 6 . to gain practical knowledge about methods and techniques of impacts on the local community in each phase of mobilization of local communities (rural animation). Local community animation 3. Program aspect 3..1.2..Total 42 Lectures attending 10 Chat attending 2 Study and assignment 30 TOTAL VOLUME OF WORK 280 ACTIVITY IV.1.CONTENTS Unit 3.

5.2. Diagnosis of the existing living conditions of local communities.implementation of the action plan 3.1.1. Public participation Unit 3. 3.3. Rural project management 3.5. public services. Reconstruction of the history of community. www. Execution stage . Cost –effectiveness tools 3. Initiation – awareness of the problem 3.1.4.4. Planning stage .3.5.2. Planning . Diagnosis stage – identification of resources and possibilities 3. Diagnostics tools: Information systems (GIS.5.4. Third sector management 3. interpersonal relations and dominant ways of thinking and patterns of action.4. Stimulation .5.finding means to change the present situation 3. International cooperation 25 .2. Public decision making Unit 3.3. etc) • • • • Own empirical studies Outside expertise Stakeholder analysis SWOT analysis Unit 3.3.2.2. Reconstruction of local social networks 3.finding the way to solve the problem 3.2.5. Discussion stage .2.2.3.3. Dissemination of action plan: • • Personal and impersonal communication channels Creation of social networks 3.4.strategic / regional / local / territorial / spatial / sustainable 3. Fundraising 3.drafting the action strategy 3.5.4.3.Unit 3.2.3. 3.3.4.1. Leadership 3.

Rogl H..6.SKILLS TO BE ACQUIRED 1. VI. harmonic.C. Rogers E. Paper prepard on Eleventh International Rural Development Summer School .6. 1987.assessment of the stage of project implementation and its social efficiency 3.short 26 ..3. Types of evaluation: ex-ante / on-going / ex-post 3. M.REFERENCES AND SUPPORTING MATERIAL Basic bibliography: Karasz J. Complementary bibliography: Kaleta A. T.. A model for the sensitised..Tripoli . Aktywizacja i rozwój społeczności lokalnych i środowiskowych (Animation and Development of Local and Environmental Communities) w: Ruch Prawniczy.M. Greece 8-13 june 1998. Social Change in Rural Society.. Community Development Programs and Methods. Social functions of evaluation Analysis of best practices and case studies About 20 case studies (2/3 for each unit) from different countries of Europe is provided. 3. in: Rogers E..6.6. integrated. Ability to prepare diagnosis of rural community.. Ability to prepare holistic rural renewal plan VIII.. Aktywizacja społeczności lokalnych (Animation of Local Communities). Selected evaluation procedures 3. Evaluation stage . Wien.1.org/content/35/3/199. endogenous local development. Wierzbicki Z.A.Unit 3. Dorferneurung in Niederosterreich – eine erste Zwischenbilantz. New York. Wrocław – Warszawa – Kraków.. 1998. Taylor C. including conceptual map of community’s problems 3. in: Community Development Review 1956.oxfordjournals. Ekonomiczny i Socjologiczny 1987. Rural and Suburban Communities. 1960. Practical knowledge on methods and phases of rural animation 2.2. Papakonstantinidis L. No. Ability to perform SWOT analysis 4. Web pages / links: http://cdj.

. social-cultural). the quality of a rural landscape and biodiversity encompassing essential economical. Sustainable Agriculture I.Draft Academic Guide Module 1. sustainable agriculture comes forward as a way to manipulate agroecosystems in order to maintain or increase productivity within a certain social and economical context for the long term and with fewer negative environmental impacts..INTRODUCTION TO THE MODULE Sustainable agriculture is a relatively new concept that represents a response to natural resources depletion which is associated with capital and technology intensive farming systems (McIsaac and Edwards 1994).IDENTIFICATION DATA Name of the module: Modality of education: Name of the course: Partner responsible: Sustainable Agriculture E-learning European Masters Programme for Rural Animators Dept. Sustainable Agriculture Agronomic Institute of Chania Mediterranean II. As a result. Farming is nowadays viewed as a system with many interacting components (e.g. 27 . environment and current European legislation. cultural and societal values. Agriculture has major and measurable impacts to the environment and amongst others. economic. The module “Sustainable Agriculture” provides students with tools to critically review different management approaches in sustainable agriculture with regards to productivity. environmental.

VOLUME OF WORK Approximation of the amount of time that students will need to dedicate to the module ACTIVITY Unit 1 .Total (e.Total (e. Conceptual map of the module “Sustainable Agriculture” III.Total (e.) Lectures attending Study and assignment Unit 3 ..Figure 1.) Lectures attending Study and assignment TOTAL VOLUME OF WORK HOURS 56 4 52 56 4 52 56 4 52 168 28 .) Lectures attending Study and assignment Unit 2 .

and a brief description of the units and/or key concepts. 29 . ecological) agricultural production systems have grasped the importance of agrobiodiversity. • • V.CONTENTS This section describes the units that integrate the module. Unit 1. students are expected to: • • • • • be familiar with the term “Sustainable Agriculture” be familiar with agroecosystem processes and functioning and be able to differentiate between farming systems have an overview of the legal. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES By the end of the module. low input. And more specifically • • • be familiar with the impacts of different farm management practices and their connection with the term sustainability be familiar with environmental impact assessment applications in agriculture have a general understanding of the methodologies and indicators used to assess sustainability of different (conventional. being able to research international and EU legislation concerning agricultural systems and products but also develop further skills at consultation level.2 Agroecosystems components and interactions. its components and relations with sustainable agriculture. Sustainability in agroecosystems role of biodiversity.3 Nutrient and energy balance in agroecosystems. This includes the relation of theoretical and practical contents.. A general understanding of methodologies assessing agrobiodiversity at field.1 An overview of agricultural production systems. 1. farm and landscape scales is expected. statutory and commercial requirements for agricultural products ability to collate. its components and interactions. Diversity of agricultural systems in Europe and Sustainable Agriculture 1.IV. evaluate and use information for problem solving in agriculture have acquired general knowledge on agrobiodiversity. 1.

g.4 Food quality and safety 3. EN 45011 and EN 45012 Standards for bodies performing Inspections. endangered species. correlation to the Standards presented in 3 and 4 above. Products Denomination of Origin. etc. farmers groups) 3. respectively. bioethanol production.4 Sorting.1 Overview of Legislation: Directive 93/43/EEC on food hygiene.1 Agrobiodiversity degradation (e.5 Inspection and Certification Systems: The EN 45004. European Agro-environmental Legislation and Fund Raising 2.5 Comparing the environmental impact of different farming systems.1. Good Agricultural Practices. Product vs. Codex Alimentarius Commission 2. Packing and Processing Standards 2.3 Agri-environmental policies and supporting programs (e. Unit 2. direct sales. "cross compliance" of the EU) 2.) 30 . Product Certification and System Certification. system certification.3 Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO).4 Transition to sustainable food systems. Standards created and recognised by wholesaler and retailer chains and organisations) 2. Second and Third Party Audits 2.g. Accreditation of such Bodies.g.7 Eutrophication 3.5 Trade of agricultural commodities (e. biodiesel.2 Climate change/global warming and agriculture 3. protected areas) 3.6 Fund raising opportunities and strategies Unit 3.2 Primary Production Standards (Organic Farming.8 Energy plants (e.6 Water quality and soil degradation 3.g. Integrated Crop Management. 1. opportunities and threats 3. fair trade. issues. Issues in contemporary agriculture 3.

(2005). Poehling. (1995) Agroecology: the science of sustainable agriculture. Agriculture. Boca Raton: CRC Press. xiv. E. Keatinge.. T. R. p. Hanson. Matson. C. R. Hepperly. pp. Agriculture. P. pp. B. “A comparison of energy use in conventional and integrated arable farming systems in the UK”. xxii. Tranter. ed.REFERENCES AND SUPPORTING MATERIAL Basic bibliography: Altieri. A. Douds. P. . Park. Energetic. D. J. R. Parton. “Sustainability of Three Apple Production Systems” Nature 410. 429. 241-253. Benckiser.. Second edition. Nicholls. Reganold. Ability to plan and deliver on time (commitment and punctuality) VIII. N. A. Analytical and critical thinking leading to independence 4. M.. J. P. J. D.. D. pp. R. H. eds (2004) Ecological infrastructures: ideabook on functional biodiversity at the farm level: temperate zones of Europe. Lindau: LBL.. .. Glover. (2004) Biodiversity and pest management in agroecosystems.VI. and Swift. W. H. 212. pp. Ecosystems and Environment 77. 236.. Seidel. Boulder. P.. M.. M... Penlington. J. Andrews. Bailey. 31 . W.. Boller. M. D. Schnell Sylvia (2007) Biodiversity in agricultural production systems. and Economic Comparisons of Organic and Conventional Farming Systems”. (1999) “The ecological role of biodiversity in agroecosystems”.. G. 504-509. F. G. . . Basford. New York: The Haworth Press.. J. Sense for collaborative team work 5.SKILLS TO BE ACQUIRED 1. Ecosystems and Environment 97. M. Rehman. Power. Complementary bibliography: Altieri. (2001). Pimentel. p. Yates C. Ability to review literature and extract necessary information and tools 2. F. (1997). consultation and decision making 3.. A. pp. D.M.A. 926-930. 7. 19-31. “Environmental. Hinnan.. BioScience 55. Altieri. Hani. J. Westview Press. “Agricultural Intensifications and Ecosystem Properties”. I. p. xii. P. 573-582. J. Science 277. H.. (2003). Utilization of extracted tools for project development. A. A.K.

eds (2002) Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning: synthesis and perspectives.Flora.org/ 32 . “Functional biodiversity: an agroecosystem approach”.C. pp. (2008). & Petacchi R. Boca Raton.org/organicag/ http://www.eu.) (2001) Integration between Agroecosystems and Rural Communities.. Rossing. Moonen A. A. Inchausti. P.A. (ed. C.. Web pages / links: http://europa. 7-21. M..H. p. S. Bàrberi. Landscape Management for Functional Biodiversity (eds W. 294.int/ http://www. Oxford: Oxford University Press. CRC Press. (2006). Ecosystems & Environment 127 (1-2). Advances in Agroecology Series. Eggenschwiler & H. xii.C. Poehling). pp. N. Naeem. IOBC wprs Bulletin 29. 77-80. Loreau.M. P. L.fao. Moonen. Agriculture. & Bàrberi P. “Field margin structure and vegetation composition effects on beneficial insect diversity at farm scale: a case study on an organic farm near Pisa”. Castro Rodas.ifoam..

Unit 4 overviews the social policies of European states. Also to provide knowledge on rural development and the general frame of resources available for the rural communities to participate in the development process. Unit 5 and Unit 6 are more practical in their aims. Welfare I. obtaining solutions for different social problems and needs and for a real wellbeing of the members of the community. and their respective roles in the preservation of the cultural and environmental heritage. 33 . and the problems of environment. Agriculture has an important role in the rural economy. Rural community development is influenced by two directions: the relations between the agricultural sector and the non-agricultural one. human and social capital (Unit 1) a more detailed discussion of the concepts. Human and Social Capital. human and social capital and welfare problems in rural areas. Romania II. definitions and related theories follows (Unit 2). After a general presentation of the issues of community. as it is sustained much more by political than economic forces. presenting the function of human and social capital as economic agents.INTRODUCTION TO THE MODULE This module proposes to provide basic knowledge on the relationship between sustainable rural development.. Related to the latter. Community development is discussed as a type of selforganization by mobilizing the local resources. Cluj-Napoca. making a distinction between the “bottom-up” and “top down”-type mechanisms. The module is structured in six units.Draft Academic Guide Module 2. presenting also methods of identifying disadvantaged social groups in rural communities.IDENTIFICATION DATA Name of the module: Modality of education: Name of the course: Partner responsible: Human and Social Capital. Welfare E-learning European Masters Programme for Rural Animators University “Babes-Bolyai”.. Unit 3 reviews the mechanisms of creation of social and human capital.

Fig. 1: The conceptual map of Module 2. mechanisms of creation Strategies of local development related to human and social capital Best practices Recommendations 34 . Human and social capital. welfare and local development in rural areas The relationship between human and social capital and rural development (concepts and problems) The social problems of rural areas Agents of social capital.

Total (e. policies.Total (e.SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES • • • To analyse the relationship between human and social capital.)Lectures attending Study and exam preparation Actual Exam Unit 2 . To present the rural social problems. welfare policies and rural development..)Lectures attending Study and exam preparation Actual Exam Unit 3 .Total (e.)Lectures attending Study and exam preparation Actual Exam Unit 6 .)Lectures attending Study and exam preparation Actual Exam Unit 4 . To present the basic means of creating human and social capital. techniques of identifying disadvantaged rural social groups.Total (e.III.VOLUME OF WORK ACTIVITY Unit 1 .)Lectures attending Study and exam preparation Actual Exam TOTAL VOLUME OF WORK HOURS 25 10 10 5 25 10 10 5 25 10 10 5 25 10 10 5 25 10 10 5 25 10 10 5 150 IV.Total (e.)Lectures attending Study and exam preparation Actual Exam Unit 5 . 35 .Total (e.

Facilitating the creation of human capital by social policies 4. Creating social and human capital “from top down” by government agencies and formal organisations. the role of the family and the community in school success (Coleman 1988). o The role of community development in the creation of social capital (Euracademy Guide 4. qualitative and quantitative aspects of human capital (Schultz 1971).a. Chapter 6).CONTENTS Unit 1.• To present possible strategies of using human and social capital in local development. o Community development. Unit 4. 36 . “bottom-up” approach in the creation of social and human capital. cultural and social capital (Goreham 1997). environmental.a. o Forms and components of social capital (Coleman 1988. Human and social capital. Portes-Sensenbrenner 1993). Social policies in comparative perspective. o Financial-material. Mechanisms of creation of social and human capital 3. o The relationship between social and human capital. . o Forms and components. forms. Unit 2. developmental and social policies. Definitions. 3. General introduction o Rural development and the general frame of resources available for the rural communities in development. theoretical debates o The appearance of the concepts of human and social capital in the social sciences. o The role of developmental and social policies in facilitating and strengthening social and human capital (Euracademy Guide 4. human. Endogenous. V. Chapter 3). Unit 3.b. o The extended use of the concept of capital (Bourdieu 1986). The functioning of social and human capital. o The creation and functioning of human and social capital in developmental projects.

Julia (1993) “Embeddedness and Immigration: Notes on the Social Determinants of Economic Action”. Coleman.o Comparisons of social support of social policies o Comparisons of wellbeing regimes 4. people with disabilities. Social Capital. In: J. M. and Schuller. American Journal of Sociology 94:95-120. Autonomy in thinking 2. unemployed.) VI.. Social and human capital.REFERENCES AND SUPPORTING MATERIAL Basic bibliography: Baron. Unit 5. Richardson's Handbook for Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education. Critical Perspectives. S. J. Alejandro . American Journal of Sociology (1320-1350). (1988) “Social capital in the Creation of Human Capital”.b. Ability to work out developmental plans 3. Field.G. Chapter 4. Territorial Restructuring ans Political Change. S. USA. Social and human capital as economic agents The influence of social capital on the cooperation in development and entrepreneurship in local communities (Euracademy Guide 4. Oxford: Oxford University Press. loweducated and unskilled people. P. (1986) The Forms of Capital..) (2000). New Haven: Yale University Press. Bourdieu. Olson.) Unit 6. (1998) The New Regionalism in Western Europe. Delanty. Edward Elgar. New York: Routledge.Sensenbrenner. London. M. (1982) The rise and decline of nations. T (eds. G. (p. SKILLS TO BE ACQUIRED 1. J. 241–258). (2003) Community. Keating. Chapter 5. immigrants. Identification of disadvantaged social groups in rural communities: minorities (both ethnical and social). Portes. economically poor people. cultural and environmental heritage (Euracademy Guide 4. Research ability 4. elderly. women. Persistence in work VIII. 37 .

(2000) Bowling Alone. Brake. Athens. Goreham. C. Complementary bibliography: • • • Euracademy Thematic Guide Four. Published by Euracademy Association. (1971) Investment in Human Capital: The Role of Education and of Research. 100-116). (1995) “Invention and Representation as Cultural Capital. Athens. Deller.. R. New York: Simon & Schuster. R. **** Euracademy Thematic Guide Four. Social Capital and Sustainable Rural Development. Social Capital and Sustainable Rural Development. Ulin. Gary A. W. The Collapse and Revival of American Community. Published by Euracademy Association. Schultz. ABC-CLIO. 38 . American Anthropologist: 519-527. Leverkusen Opladen: Barbara Budrich Verlag. 2005.(eds)(2008) Community Development-A European challenge. Th. Santa Barbara.D. U. New York: Free Press (48-66. Inc. (1997) Encyclopedia of rural America: the land and people.Putnam. California. R. Southwest French Winegrowing History”. 2005.

By small exercises solutions have to be developed and to be presented and discussed in front of fellow students in a virtual classroom.3 obtains methods and fundamental contents of planning and management in the rural areas.. Environmental planning and management I. The strategic recommendation at the end of the village portrait could be combined with contents of other modules of the EMRA program.. The central issues of module No. At least the planning module is able to integrate all electable modules using the skills of the core course and the special skills of the other 7 modules.INTRODUCTION TO THE MODULE Based on economic and ecological basic conditions module No.IDENTIFICATION DATA Name of the module: Modality of education: Name of the course: Partner responsible: Environmental planning and management E-learning. E-classroom. University of Rostock II. urban planning or architecture. work out problems and formulate first development targets.Draft Academic Guide Module 3. Therefore the students will compile short village portraits. 3 are: • Which natural and anthropogenic factors determined the individual development of rural areas in Europe in the past? Are culture landscapes and settlements still inseparably connected with the natural local conditions? 39 . The presentation of the realizations from different nations of Europe sharpens consciousness for similarly problems and increases the own supply of visions and solutions. A comprehensive inquiry method puts the participant into the position to recognize and understand the complexity of the “phenomenon village and landscape”. Depending on personals preference these suggestions is from the range of landscape and garden planning. By an even selected practical example they have to seize the status quo. applied exercise European Masters Programme for Rural Animators Institute for Management of rural areas.

economic and social basic conditions rural areas find themselves confronted with? Which instruments for initiation and management of rural development are available and how do we use them? Which examples do preservation and development strategies for landscape and settlement in our rural areas follow? How do we convert these? Figure 1: Conceptual map of Module 3 III. ACTIVITY Unit 1 Lecture Discussion 40 HOURS 6 3 .VOLUME OF WORK Make an approximation of the amount of time that students will need to dedicate to the module.• • • To which ecological..

understand and evaluate the complex interdependencies of rural settlements and smaller regions. and outline a strategy for implementing them. • Enable students to collect. Based on economic. 41 . –SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES • Provide students with a basic understanding of planning in rural areas. consultation and correction Final presentation in a group session TOTAL VOLUME OF WORK HOURS 12 4 2 8 4 2 8 6 3 12 4 2 8 16 40 10 150 IV. environmental and social considerations of the processes that take place in rural areas they should learn to collect and analyze the strengths and weaknesses of regions and villages. to enable them to formulate development models.ACTIVITY Studying materials Unit 2 Lecture Discussion Studying materials Unit 3 Lecture Discussion Studying materials Unit 4 Lecture Discussion Studying the materials Unit 5 Lecture Discussion Studying the materials Unit 6 Inventory and formulation of development objectives Draft. and finally weigh these scenarios. • Equip students with a supply of good practice examples. On this basis they will be able to formulate goals for conservation and development of structures. in which they discuss opportunities and adversities of possible development scenarios.

1 The ecological approach • The principles of ecology – a guideline for human acting? The adjustment to the location The use of natural resources Building circles of matter and energy Diversity and integration Autonomy and adequate density Macro. and ensure an integrated approach to action. to coordinate strategies of different disciplines.Agricultural policy and control instruments in the rural area 42 . • Provide the skills to students as initiators and managers of rural development processes. The very heterogeneous teaching units in this module make students familiar with the main activity fields of the rural actors.and microclimate “Social ecology” – integrating the inhabitants • Environmental problems of today • Men in the ecosystem • The finiteness of natural resources – we are facing a post fossil epoch Carbon dioxide emissions and the effects on the global and local climate Impacts on the environment Impacts on the agriculture • The decline of biodiversity 1.2 Basics of planning • Legal framework of the European Union . V. conduct dialogue with the local population. – CONTENTS Unit 1 Introduction 1.• Familiarise students with methods of thinking and working in related disciplines that are involved in the development of rural areas. in the context of planning (which provides the methodological basis for this).

1 Networks and cooperation's – in the field of: Direct marketing of agricultural products Contract nature protection Rural tourism Settlement development Road and path networks Bio energy production Neighbourly help and organisation of voluntary work 2. Landscape design and landscape aesthetics 3.2 Landscape planning as a contribution to a sustainable development of rural areas 43 .1 Land development – a global overview 3.• Hierarchy and types of planning processes – from land use regulations to zoning maps 1. Social topics in the village: 2.2 Seniors in rural areas The dimension of the demographic change in Europe’s rural areas The ongoing agrarian structure change Increasing vacancy rates in historic villages Shortfall of supply with everyday’s commodities The problem of medical supply in rural areas Nursing home or wilful aging at home 2.3 Children and youth in rural areas Job situation – reasons for the rural exodus School system and education Unit 3.3 Methods of planning • Time flow of planning – from the idea to the conversion • Stocktaking and SWOT. Landscape planning.Analysis – discussion of development guidelines • Discussion of planning variations • Principles and methods of inhabitant’s participation Unit 2.

4.4 Basic principles of ecological building Preservation of energy Renewable energies Active and passive use of solar energy Wind-.1.3 Rural building structure of today Houses without use – a potential of the future? Conservation of ancient monuments Improvement of accommodation and conversion of historic building Architectural design – do we need a new regionalism? Conversion.3.a short historical review 4.decentralised or centralised Principles of water catchment. Rural settlement and building. redensification or housing development – sustainable settlement development 4.5 European environmental protection law as the basis of landscape planning 3. Village typology as a result of human action in the environment .6 Protection and development of historical culture landscapes Unit 4.2 The rural house and its location Historic house typologies depending on agricultural husbandry Local geographical conditions “Form follows function” – principles of ground plan organisation 4.and bio energy Closed circuits in house and settlements Air budget – local climate and structural requirements Water balance and water supply .4 Integration of the landscape planning in master planning processes .3 Land use planning and landscape development between region and globalization 3. preparation and wastewater treatment Principles of waste treatment and waste minimisation 44 . water.presented at applied case studies 3.

2 History and typology of traffic systems Rural roads – a place of functional varieties Between footpath and highways – typology of traffic systems 5. with the exception of module 6) from different countries of Europe is provided. The case studies are delivered with the teaching material.Unit 5.4 Environmental protection along roads Sealing and infiltration Sound sources and noise protection Animal protection along the road 5. The significance of mobility for rural areas Situation in the area – the need for mobility Individual traffic versus public transportation systems Agricultural traffic. pupil transport. Accessibility of rural areas – traffic planning 5. 45 .5 Traffic calming Constructive measures Measures in the roadside area Unit 6.1 Draft – as a part of the village project – to be compiled during the term Development of functional and creative requirements Correction of preliminary drafts Intermediate presentation and discussion Final presentation and disputation of the results Analysis of best practices and case studies About 20 case studies (4 for each unit. Project based unit 6.1. the drive to purchase – who is the user of traffic systems? Channelization of traffic and exploration systems for new settlements 5.3 Road design under functional and aesthetical criteria 5. commuter traffic.

Ashgate Publishing 2009. Ashgate 2009. Ability to compare different effects of strategic decisions 4.J. 4. Regional Economies Studies in Development and Society. Complementary bibliography: 1. ISBN13: 978-0415882255.. Bruckmeier. . Sargent.N.de/service/publikationen/landinform 46 . ISBN-13: 978-1597266963..L. Gallent.K. Murray. Farming.: Community Character: Principles for Design and Planning. ISBN-13: 978-0754677376..: The Community Planning Event Manual: How to Use Collaborative Planning and Urban Design Events to Improve Your Environment (Tools for Community Planning).dorferneuerung. Critical analysis and planning methods 2. Kending. Burlingham.: Rural Environmental Planning for Sustainable Communities.O.A.php?id=1026&language=2 2. et al: Comparing Rural Development (Perspectives on Rural Policy and Planning). ISBN-13: 978-1559630245. Tovey. Kidd. Demographics.SKILLS TO BE ACQUIRED 1.: Participatory Rural Planning (Perspectives on Rural Policy and Planning).. 2.netzwerk-laendlicher-raum. Earthscan Publications Ltd 2008. F.M.. ISBN-13: 9781844074921 3. Ashgate 2010. Shaw. ISBN-13: 978-0754675181.. ISBN-13: 978-1604564235.. 3. 5. ISBN-13: 978-0754674252 4. M. http://www. Island Press 1991. N. Nova Science Publishers 2008.at/website/output. Keast.REFERENCES AND SUPPORTING MATERIAL Basic bibliography: 1.H.. Ability to link and interpret interdisciplinary knowledge 5. Ability to visualize ideas in plans 3.B. Vergunst. Environment. Ability to search / research / compare further information VIII.J.S. et al: Rural Development Issues. ISBN-13: 978-0415429979 2. Juntti. Routhledge 2010.VI. Web pages / links: 1. Flexibility and creativity 6. Routhledge 2008. http://www.: Rural Sustainable Development in the Knowledge Society.: Introduction to rural planning. Wates. et al: Towards Sustainable Rural Regions in Europe: Exploring InterRelationships Between Rural Policies. Island Press 2010.D. Bryden.

Draft Academic Guide Module 4. Culture for local development in rural areas

I.- IDENTIFICATION DATA Name of the module: Modality of education: Name of the course: Partner responsible: Culture for local development in rural areas E-learning European Masters Programme for Rural Animators Institute for Local Development – University of Valencia

II.- INTRODUCTION TO THE MODULE This Module aims at providing basic and fundamental knowledge, as well as methodologies regarding culture as tool for territorial development of rural areas. The rise and consolidation of the local development paradigm has brought policies, programs, economic resources and technical capacities to the territories. At the same time, the challenges derived from the globalisation process (increased inter-penetration between economic, social and cultural systems) demand effective actions and strategies from local actors that suit best the specificities and needs of each territory. Culture is one of the development factors that have not traditionally been widely incorporated in local development strategies. The diversity of rural areas in the old Europe contains all types of cultural heritage in different states of conservation and use. Much of this “culture” is valued for its uniqueness or because it represents a sign of identity for the population who live there. In other cases, assets can be transformed into a cultural resource and integrated into a development strategy. This module aims to provide students with the knowledge, tools and attitudes needed to tackle the issue of culture as a resource for local development in rural areas. The module is structured on the following units: Unit 1 “Culture and rural development” introduces the main theoretical and conceptual aspects of the relationship between culture and development with special focus on rural areas; Unit 2 “The European Cultural Policy Framework” presents and analyses the main political strategies and instruments for the promotion of culture (ie. The European Agenda for
47

Culture, the Green Paper, etc.); Unit 3 “Strategies and tools to promote cultural development from the territory” is the largest unit gathering a diversity of issues and methods to deal with promotion, management and planning of culture for rural development (ie. Issues like assessing the potential of cultural resources, the Agenda 21 of Culture, citizen participation, networking, promoting cultural entrepreneurship, etc., are included); Unit 4 “Guidelines and recommendations to build an integrated cultural development strategy” guides the student in an “step by step” method to a cultural strategy that works; finally, Unit 5 “Analysis of best practices and case studies” presents a series of examples of good integration between culture and development. The notions acquired from the fields mentioned above are very useful for the “rural animator”. Through this Module, the student must discover the relevance of culture as an element of territorial identity and local development. Become familiar with the 100 regulatory landscape of the European Union and the main tools for local management of 80 culture. At the same time, learn the importance of legitimizing cultural planning process 60 through public participation processes.Este Finally, acquire an applied knowledge related to 40 Oeste elements of study of practical cases.
20 0 1er trim. 2do trim. 3er trim. 4to trim. Norte

Figure 1. Conceptual map of the module

CULTURE AND LOCAL DEVELOPMENT UN RURAL AREAS

Which is the relationship between culture and development? Conceptual Framework

What are the strategic objectives of the EU in terms of culture?

Strategies and tools to promote cultural development from the territory

Best practices

Guidelines and recommendations

48

III.- VOLUME OF WORK The volume of work has been calculated on the basis of the concept of ECTS (European Credit Transfer system). This system focuses on the effort of the student in the learning process and, therefore, includes not only lectures and evaluation but study time and participation in cooperative learning activities (i.e. forum, etc.) and any other stipulated effort.

ACTIVITY HOURS Unit 1 - Culture and rural development 30 E-lectures attending (10%) 3 Study and preparation of units (60%) 18 Discussion in the forum (20%) 6 Evaluation (10%) 3 Unit 2 - The European cultural policy framework 30 E-Lectures attending (10%) 3 Study and preparation of units (60%) 18 Discussion in the forum (20%) 6 Evaluation (10%) 3 Unit 3 - Strategies and tools to promote cultural 30 development from the territory E-Lectures attending (10%) 3 Study and preparation of units (60%) 18 Discussion in the forum (20%) 6 Evaluation (10%) 3 Unit 4 - Guidelines to build an integrated cultural 40 development strategy E-Lectures attending (10%) 4 Study and preparation of units (50%) 20 Discussion in the forum (30%) 12 Evaluation (10%) 4 Unit 5 - Analysis of best practices and case studies 20 E-Lectures attending (10%) 2 Study and preparation of units (40%) 8 Discussion in the forum (30%) 6 Evaluation (20%) 4 TOTAL VOLUME OF WORK 150

49

IV.- SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

Know the role and importance of culture in rural development at different scales, overall at local level. Learn and understand European policies and strategic objectives about culture. Practical illustration of rural communities which succeed or not in enhancing and empowering their cultural identity as an extraordinary symbol of their region. Understand the importance of public participation in territorial development programmes. Be acquainted with Agenda 21 development models.

• •

By the end of the module, the students are expected to:

Build up integrated territorial development approach including culture development as a key issue on the rural territorial development. Know, develop, use and create tools and mechanisms to achieve and promote cultural development in rural territories. Have the ability to assess the conditions and impacts that cultural patrimony suffers in rural regions (e.g. through indicators). Acquire the skills to promote, improve and maintain the cultural patrimony/identity (traditions, monuments, folklore festivities, etc.) of rural regions. Have the ability to monitor, assess and evaluate cultural development strategies and policies.

V.- CONTENTS This section describes the units that integrate the module. This includes the relation of theoretical and practical contents, and a brief description of the units and/or key concepts. Unit 1. Culture and rural development 1.1 Culture and development: concepts and theories 1.2 How culture contributes to local and rural development? 1.3 The relevance of culture beyond economy Unit 2. The European cultural policy framework 2.1 The European Agenda for Culture 2.2 The strategy of the EU: Unlocking the potential of cultural and creative industries
50

2006 ¿???? 51 .REFERENCES AND SUPPORTING MATERIAL Basic bibliography: Kayser. Analysis of best practices and case studies About 30 case studies ( 6 for each unit ) from different countries of Europe will be provided. Guidelines and recommendations to build an integrated cultural development strategy Unit 5. 5.3 Agenda 21 of culture 3. 2. Being able to analyse in a systematic way study cases and extract conclusions. VI.3 EU actions in the field of culture Unit 3. VIII.2.. Being able to summarise key observations in written reports (essays).1 Cultural development policies at the local level 3.. Pike et al.2 Assessing the potential of cultural resources: adding value through local cultural planning 3. 3. Sánchez Maldonado et al.6 Promoting entrepreneurship in the field of cultural and creative industries 3.7 Increasing cultural capital through education and training 3.4 Citizen participation as legitimating tool for cultural development strategies 3. studying and analysing literature and other documents relevant to the topic. Learning the policy framework for culture and local development at the European level. 6. 2006.8 Monitoring and evaluation of cultural development policies and programmes Unit 4. Strategies and tools to promote cultural development from the territory 3.SKILLS TO BE ACQUIRED 1. Identifying. 4. Being able to identify and characterise the stakeholders in the process of cultural development. Learn to build an integrated cultural development strategy in a local context.5 Networking of cultural figures as development factor to enhance tourism and increase attractiveness among rural regions 3.

eu/culture/programme/documents/2010/may/EN. 286 p. EU actions in the field of culture. . C. Downloadable from http://www. 2007.eu/culture/our-programmes-and-actions/doc421_en.ec.eu/agriculture/rur/leader2/rural-es/biblio/culture/contents. Venturelli.htm • 52 . 2006. 2007.htm Sánchez Maldonado et al.htm EU actions in the field of culture.europa.Rausell et al. B. (2003) “From the information economy to the creative economy”.europa. Culture: Strategy for local development. edited by AEIDL and downloadable from http://ec. article from LEADER Magazine. Rausell et al. Culture 2007-2013 Programme. www. 1-7. (2002) Arts e artistes au miroir de l’economie. 4) Kayser.be/rural-es/biblio/culture/contents. The Green Paper of culture for development European Union. http://ec. 1ª ed. X. . ISBN 92-64-00990-6.(Culture and development . Centre for Arts and Culture.org.europa. http://ec. OCDE (2005) Culture and Local Development.aeidl.rural-europe. (2001) Job creation and local development induced by cultural infrastructures and structural changes in Bilbao. 23 cm. http://ec. OECD/LEED Seminar. 2007 Cap 2. cap. 2010.europa. Paris.culturalpolicy. París. http://eacea.htm Del Castillo J. Greffe. Instituto Interuniversitario de Desarrollo Local. Economica.eu/culture/our-policy-development/doc399_en.pdf Europe Innovation 2000 (1998) Article 10 pilot projects presentation: Culture and territorial development: a challenge for the future.Madrid: AECI: Universitat de Valencia. .pdf Web pages / links: • LEADER website. Directorate-General for Education and Culture.eu/regional_policy/innovation/innovating/download/avr99/en_cult. (1994) "La cultura: un incentivo para el desarrollo local" from the proceedings of the LEADER seminar "Cultura y desarrollo rural" held in Molinos (Spain) in july 1994.europa.

All interests and tools of each actor in sustainable rural tourism are described from the supranational level even to the level of local communities. There is a suitable educational material available for further product development and the creation of quality management (Labelling System).with special emphasis on rural tourism . the introduction of new products for both the regions and enterprises. Strong emphasis is put on concept and goals of the sustainable rural tourism and the problems of the affected territories.IDENTIFICATION DATA Name of the module: Modality of education: Name of the course: Partner responsible: Sustainable Rural Tourism E-learning. processes of the tourism market survey and influencing tools which leads to the successful commercialisation of tourism products. In Unit1 the detailed description of tourism .INTRODUCTION TO THE MODULE Since rural tourism is one of the most dynamically developing and colourful sectors of today's rural economy the aim of the module is to make students aware of the different interpretations of rural tourism. Sustainable Rural Tourism I. its establishment processes and goal setting.Draft Academic Guide Module 5. 53 . It contains the most important features.as a determining economic sector and the concept group of sustainable rural development. . . E-classroom. During the course they are given such professional information. Questions posed include: how natural values. applied exercise European Masters Programme for Rural Animators Széchenyi István University Gyır Hungary II. cultural and historical traditions as business profit generation attractions can be preserved in their present state in a manner that it could remain a prospering branch at the same time? Unit2 aims to develop and improve marketing skills of students in order to be able to animate actors in sustainable rural tourism. which make them be able to animate rural actors and activities. the characteristics of its types.

how to encourage the effects of the synergies. – VOLUME OF WORK An approximation of the amount of time that students will need to dedicate to the module is as follows: ACTIVITY Unit 1 . how to be able to cooperate and build networks of sectors according to concept of community-based integrated rural development and how to manage entrepreneurs in rural tourism (integrating them into rural economy as a whole and into the local cultural. CONCEPTUAL MAP III. natural attractions).Unit3 presents how to animate partnership between actors.)Lectures attending Study and exam preparation Actual Exam Unit 2 .Total (e.Total 54 HOURS 60 40 18 2 60 .

)Lectures attending Study and exam preparation Actual Exam Unit 3 . the goals of the sustainable rural development and the problems of the affected territories.2. Tourism – rural tourism 1.)Lectures attending Study and exam preparation Actual Exam TOTAL VOLUME OF WORK 40 18 2 40 20 18 2 160 IV SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES • to be aware of the different interpretations of rural tourism.1. to be able to plan and manage the balance between protection of environment and economy to be able to manage the conflicts o between local inhabitants and tourists o between local inhabitants and businesses in rural tourism o between businesses and local governments • − V. Sustainable rural tourism in the global world 55 .CONTENTS Unit 1 Position of rural tourism between tourism sector and sustainable rural tourism 1. the characteristics of its types. to be able to manage all interests and tools of sustainable rural tourism and its stakeholders. Position of tourism in economic sectors Position of rural tourism in tourism sector Basic concepts to encourage businesses and generate new activity in rural tourism • • • • 2. develop and plan rural attractions and activities. 1.Total (e. from the supranational level down to the level of local communities. 1. .3. to develop professional competences which would make students capable to manage.(e.

Understanding competition and competitiveness o Identify of competitors 56 . Farm tourism (agro. 2.4. cultural heritages etc.1. lifestyle. built environment.1. agri) 1. 3.4. Analyses of o Specific elements of the supply: geographical environment. Marketing and rural tourism 4.4.2. Globalization – Features of globality. 2. regionality. regional management o Demand – consumers: population. Heritage tourism (traditions.2.2. economic actors. developing and marketing the rural tourism products 4.4.3. diversification Improvement of quality of life Retention power of rural population – Income creation – workplaces – service widening 3.4. population. increasing health awareness.2. Protection of identity.2.1. IT o Impact of trends in tourism on rural tourism 4. locality Sustainability and multifunctionality. Village tourism 1. tourists. discretionary income. 2. occassional VIP visits o The factors influencing tourist demand: leisure time. Relation of sustainable rural development and sustainable rural tourism 3. 3.3. Eco tourism 1. Typology and features of rural tourism 1. natural-cultural values – commercialisation of heritage The role of rural tourism in the multifunctional agriculture and rural development EU programmes supporting rural tourism EU organizations and their networks supporting rural tourism 4.1. infrastructure.4. growing needs and demand for leisure time.4. motivations o Trends in tourism: demographic trends.) Unit2 Learning path for creating.3. 3.

sales o Communicational competences: marketing communication tools o Marketing communication: tools and applications: o ATL tools o BTL tools 4. publication of results) o Examination of customer’s satisfaction per target group o Examination of local image 4.5.5. cultural.4. Marketing control: o o o Consumer’s satisfaction Number and change of investments Turnover . locationrelated advantages and disadvantages.1. 5. 57 . definition the information’s cost-effective resources. price. emotion-related advantages and disadvantages. 5. Marketing tools in rural tourism: o 2C instead of 4P: o Competences from demand side: product development. values and products of agriculture Special products types of rural tourism Evaluation of efficiency of local product (financial benefits and costs. 5. 5. The tourism product – and its marketing 5. historical) Composition of tourist package Attractions of rural tourism: natural values. Resources (natural. selection the techniques of information collecting.3. Importance of marketing research in rural tourism o Steps (definition the problem.4.tourism data 5.6. data gathering.2. tangible and intangible heritage.o Definition of competitive factors taking into account the target groups and locations o Local image and values 4. data processing.3. psychic benefits and costs) Tourist product development o Collective role of the tourism product marketing in rural tourism – creating the network of community marketing 5.

7. attitude Social entrepreneurship – concept.4.2. VI.1.1. 6. 7. Understanding spatial aspect in management and planning tourism development 3. 5.4. Conflict management skills 2. Position of SMEs in rural economy The enterprise – context of culture. 6. synergies in rural tourism 6. orientation Strategic & business plan for enterprises Unit 4 Analysis of best practices and case studies About 15 case studies (5 for each unit) from different countries of Europe is provided. 6. Process of building local partnership and involving actors Culture of cooperation Network building – horizontal and vertical cooperation Synergies among the actors 7. Building synergies 6. according to geographic location.7. Importance of labelling systems in rural tourism – quality assurance Unit3 Local partnership. 7.3. motivation.SKILLS TO BE ACQUIRED 1.2.o Networking forms of tourism product development: Thematic routes (eg. . Understanding of rural economy – encouragement of rural tourism as an economic activity 4.3. Management of enterprises in rural tourism 7. Ability for researching the market in rural tourism 58 . topic).

International Perspectives. Jackie Clarke (1999): Marketing Structures for Farm Tourism: Beyond the Individual Provider of Rural Tourism. Bernard Lane (2000): Aspects of tourism.REFERENCES AND SUPPORTING MATERIAL Basic bibliography: 1. Rural tourism and sustainable business. 7. Hall. Page. Colin Michael–Page. place and space. . Stephen (2006): The geography of tourism and recreation. Irene–Mitchell. Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data ISBN 1-873150-79-2. Environment. Morag (ed) (2005): Aspects of Tourism.nau.(1). Practice and Sustainability. ISBN1-415-135117.edu//tg/index. Leslie Roberts.com 2. Ashgate Publishing Company. 26-45. ISBN 1-415-33560-4.interscience. London.VIII. Journal of Sustainable Tourism. Bill Bramwell. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data. International Thompson Business Press. ISBN 1-84541-012-2.geog. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data.wiley. Web pages / links: 1. ISBN 0 7546 3633 X 2.html 59 . Complementary bibliography: 1. Morag Michell (2005): New directions of rural tourism. Derek–Kirkpatrick. Stephen–Getz. 2. International Journal of Tourism Research: www. Tourism collaboration and partnerships: Politics. Derek Hall. 1999 3. Tourism Geographies: www. Donald (1997): The business of rural tourism. Hall. 3.

or a new 60 . Innovation and Development Policies in Rural Areas I. different kind of rural areas have still their own strengths and weaknesses.INTRODUCTION TO THE MODULE Rural areas are not typically understood to be the most innovative environments. Most innovative activities are in many times thought to be taking place in bigger cities.Draft Academic Guide Module 6. the first and the second edition of the OECD Oslo Manual for measuring innovations. .g. or process. Important questions are: What are the differences between innovation. which should be considered when promoting innovations. Despite of this. For rural animator it is also important to be conscious of innovation policies and practical tools when promoting innovations. The broad definition of innovation sees them as the implementation of a new or significantly improved product (good or service). invention and innovativeness? How should the innovation practices be developed among different actors and central players? What kind of innovation tools and creative problem solving techniques can one choose for creating of social (or other) innovation in the rural environment? Narrow interpretation of innovation sees innovation as invention which has been commercialized by a firm or equivalent and it is technologically new or significantly enhanced product from the firm perspective. . a new marketing method. This definition is in line with e.IDENTIFICATION DATA Name of the module: Modality of education: Name of the course: Partner responsible: Innovation and development policies in rural areas E-learning European Masters Programme for Rural Animators University of Helsinki Ruralia Institute II.

). Figure 2: Conceptual map of Module 3 61 .g. Social innovations thus play a crucial part in the innovation activities of the regions. as social innovations open the community to change and can even create new demand for technological innovation.organizational method in business practices. 46. It forms an interface with technological and organizational innovation processes. however. The role of social innovations is not. (OECD Oslo Manual 2005. workplace organization or external relations. social innovations are built e. limited to the sphere of the social. On the other hand. values and norms in short what is considered be good and aspired for the community. through changes in concepts.

• to be able to recognise differences in the terms of innovativeness and innovation policies in different rural areas of Europe. • to know the main objectives of the key European. • to be able to identify the different types of innovations in different sectors. • to be able to set the key concepts of innovation and regional development in the rural context.III. 62 . –SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES • to be able to identify the special characteristics of rural areas as innovation environments. • to understand the role of SMEs in the innovation processes. implementing and reporting the group session TOTAL VOLUME OF WORK HOURS 1 5 20 1 5 49 1 5 49 1 5 9 150 IV. – VOLUME OF WORK Make an approximation of the amount of time that students will need to dedicate to the module ACTIVITY Unit 1 Lecture Discussion on the forum Studying materials and writing the essay Unit 2 Lecture Discussion on the forum Studying materials and writing the essay Unit 3 Lecture Discussion on the forum Studying materials and writing the essay Unit 4 Lecture Studying the materials Planning. national and regional innovation and development policies and programmes relevant to rural areas.

practical work: Set yourself at the position of entrepreneur of SMEs at local rural setting and find out how to develop your own creative idea further up into successful innovation. Key concepts and background of innovation activities and regional development in rural areas Globalization and the needs to remodel local economies to sustain their competitiveness. Rural areas as innovation environments. Innovation processes in rural SMEs and communities. What do 63 . Connection between regional development and innovations. In the end some innovation tools are being introduced and tested in practice. – CONTENTS A deeper look is taken at the innovation environments and innovation processes in rural SMEs and rural communities (different community-based innovation processes and social innovation). In addition innovation and regional development policies (nodes and hubs in national/global networks) and the study of different innovation environments and systems (diversification and differentiation) is introduced. Identifying and supporting the innovations of SMEs and communities at different level of policy making. 2 ETCS Creating the ground and communities of SMEs for innovations From different types of innovation to creative processes and networks of innovation Innovations in the different rural settings and sectors of development Technological. Why does innovation matter in regional development? What are the differences between innovation.1.• to be able to identify and use innovation support tools and mechanisms relevant to rural actors. social. Task suggestion. especially SMEs. Unit 2. Some cases and comparisons. 1 ETCS 1. practical work: Write a short essay concerning possibilities of innovative actions in rural areas based on at least one of the references mentioned in section VIII basic bibliography. creative economy. service sector innovations etc.2. Unit 1. V. Task suggestion. Special characteristics of rural areas as innovation environments What makes rural areas special or challenged for innovation activities? The role of the rural SME’s in innovation processes in general. invention and innovativeness? 1.

structural funds. Innovation and regional development policies. Unit 3. How to support innovativeness in practice? 1. In this unit. Unit 4. STI-policies. Include to the essay a description of what kind of systems and organizations there are in your country supporting new inventions to become successful innovations. 2 ETCS 3. The creating of social (or other) innovation needs concrete innovation tools. innovation environments and innovation systems.1. Write a short essay based on the policy document analysis. as the core of the social innovation is changing the way a certain community acts or sees the world. Analyze also how innovation policy should be developed to support innovations in SMEs. There is: 64 .g. framework programmes. regional policy) Regional and local policy activities Task suggestion: Practical work: Read a selected EU innovation policy document and a national document of your country and reflect the similarities and differences between those policy documents. However. these tools are being introduced and used in practical assignments to help the students to find concrete ways to develop innovations.you find most interesting or challenging in this process keeping in mind the studies of innovation processes in rural SMEs and communities? Write an essay on this from the perspective of rural SME.g.5 ETCS Rural areas are considered somewhat handicapped when it comes to technological innovation capabilities as knowhow is often scattered to vast geographical space and rural regions tend to lack connections to national and international networks. Regional characteristics of innovation activities and policies in European rural areas Regional differences in terms of innovativeness and innovation activities Economic and institutional reasons Policy measures Challenges of measuring innovations and innovativeness Definition of innovation Input and output parameters Changing policy-landscape in terms of innovation activities EU policies (e. community initiatives) National policies (e. in the field of social innovation. tightly knit relatively small rural communities can form a fruitful local innovation environment.

(2000). entrepreneurship and microbusiness. M. knowing and using tools and techniques for innovation and creativity 3. Proximity and Innovation: A Critical Assessment. T. Doloreux. identifying. being able to summarise key observations in written reports (essays). VIII.SKILLS TO BE ACQUIRED 1. Boschma. E. 39. finding practical solutions to the needs of the customers based on theoretical knowledge 5. e. SMEs 4. (2003). 65 . 3: 195-215. R. & Morris. Regional Studies. Vol 2. Kaplinsky. & Baines. some EMRA students may work as a small group and test together one innovation method for a given problem setting and report back their experiences both as a group and individually. S. b) If teleconference possibilities allow. Task suggestion: Practical work: a) Plan and conduct a small innovation workshop for example in your own “practical work” region and test one innovation tool and/or method.g.1: 67–94. R. (2005). identifying innovation tools and services and evaluating their usability to different stakeholders in rural areas. e. Vol.Examples about innovation tools and creative problem solving techniques and choosing a suitable method.g. Networking. policy documents 2..g. Developing capability through learning networks. VI. D.: Mind mapping Brainstorming Creative problem solving etc. studying and analysing literature and other documents relevant to the topic. . 1: 19-38. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development Vol 12. (2003).REFERENCES AND SUPPORTING MATERIAL Basic bibliography: Bessant. evaluate it and report how the workshop was implemented. A list and a short description about commonly used methods including e. International Journal of Innovation Management Vol 7. 1: 61–74 Chell. Regional innovation systems in the periphery: The case of the Beauce in Quebec (Canada). International Journal of Technology Management & Sustainabe Development.

OECD. Innovation activity in SMEs and rural economic development: Some evidence from England. European Planning Studies.net/prosjekt. C.nordicinnovation. A. Architectures of Knowledge. D.. Results of a cross-national analysis of the situation in seven countries. New Jersey. & Kalantaridis. Paris. S. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development 11: 109–127. Chesbrough. K..crlra.. & Niemi.edu.cfm?id=1-829-343&list=519 http://www. Newell. research gaps and recommendations.. (2004). Oxford. Learning from good practices between Nordic countries. W. Virkkala. (eds. D. & Snyder. A. Researching a New Paradigm. Oxford University Press. Harvard Business School Publishing Ltd. Swan. OECD (2005). Journal of Knowledge Management. Philosophy. Nordic Innovation Centre. 1: 87106. & Smallbone. Vol 3. (1999).) (2009).) (2006). 4: 129-150. Soo. OECD Oslo Manual . Cultivating Communities of Practice.. E. Massachusetts. John Wiley & Sons. California Management Review. S.au/ ( see Publications > Discussion Papers).Lindegaard. Innovation processes in agriculture and rural development. Oslo Norway. J. Firms. Knowledge management and innovation: networks and networking. Smallbone. North. Oxford. (eds.. W. M. Capabilities and Communities.nordicinnovation. The Open Innovation Revolution. T. Roadblocks. Adapting to peripheral: a study of small rural manufacturing firms in northern England. D.utas. Net source: http://www. Complementary bibliography: Ash. Essentials. A Guide to Managing Knowledge. Scarborough. D. P. (2000).. Vol 8. Knowledge Management. Open innovation. Web pages / links: http://www. R. Oxford University Press. C. Tisenkopfs. Karlheinz. and Leadership Skills. Boston. T. McDermott. IN-SIGHT research project: Strengthening Innovation Processes for Growth and Development. H. Wenger. (2006). J. West. & Hislop. Inc. H. Midgley. (1999). North. & Deering. (2002). K.cfm?id=1-441547). S. Peripheral location and Innovation Policies. D.insightproject. 66 . Processes and Pitfalls.net/files/IN-SIGHT_final_report. D.pdf. & Cohendent. Peter. Hoboken. (2010). (Net source: http://www... DeVinney.net/projectfolder. & Vanhaverbeke. 4: 262-275. (2002). Vol 44. S.

Are there several strategies for LLL in the different rural areas of the European Union. How can methods cab be used to create proper accreditation of LLL in rural environments? 6.. especially e-learning. What type of courses can be designed that are adequate for LLL in rural development? 67 .. Education and Lifelong Learning for Rural Development I. 7 of EMRA is offered as a support for understanding the challenges placed to promoters of change in rural areas in terms of providing education to all levels and throughout life and to suggest frameworks for provision of education and training concerning access. How can distance learning. contribute to rural development in Europe? 4.INTRODUCTION TO THE MODULE Module no.IDENTIFICATION DATA Name of the module: Modality of education: Name of the course: Partner responsible: Education and Lifelong Learning for Rural Development E-learning European Masters Programme for Rural Animators Universida de do Porto II.Draft Academic Guide Module 7. Examples of these questions that are targeted in this module are: 1. especially in the countries that participate in the EMRA administration? 5. How can Information Society and Sustainable Rural Development be linked and reciprocally be supported? 2. delivery and provision of lifelong learning (LLL). Accreditation of prior learning and informal training can be a major asset for LLL in rural areas. What is the role of LLL in improving the development of rural areas? 3.

LLL tools 3. What sources of funding can be found to support LLL in rural development? 12. The distribution is: 68 . LLL as promoter of development in rural areas 2. What is the solution for management structures of LLL in rural areas? 10. – VOLUME OF WORK As an approximation of the amount of time that learners will need to participate in the module the total expected is 150 hours. LLL models available 4. What types of indicators can be used to evaluate LLL in rural areas? 13. Is there a specific glossary for LLL in rural development? 14. LLL support for rural development III. How can the trainers in LLL for rural areas be prepared and what is the adequate profile? 8. How can costs be evaluated for LLL in rural areas? 11. What types of methods can be used for quality assurance of the LLL provided in rural areas? 9. What is the relation of LLL in rural areas and the European Qualification Framework? Conceptual Map 1.7.

–SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES • • • • • • • • • • How globalization allows training for rural areas? What are the added values of LLL in rural areas? Opportunities of LLL in rural environments. 69 . Be able to integrate LLL courses into a degree. What are the capacities of TEL? How can TEL are used in LLL? How TEL is useful for rural areas? How to handle LLL with TEL in rural areas? Understand the value of APEL. Understanding LLL in rural settings.ACTIVITY Chapter 1 Introduction recorded Chat and Forum Studying materials and quizzes Chapter 2 Introduction recorded Chat and Forum Studying materials and quizzes Chapter 3 Introduction recorded Chat and Forum Studying materials and quizzes Chapter 4 Introduction recorded Chat and Forum Studying materials and quizzes Chapter 5 Introduction recorded Chat and Forum Studying materials and quizzes TOTAL Hours 1 3 16 1 3 32 1 4 32 1 3 32 1 3 18 150 IV.

2. 1. Choose the courses adequately for LLL development.3. Awareness of supporting roles in LLL. 1.3. 2. 1.3. Open and distance learning 3. non-formal and informal training Work based training Training as added value of rural development LLL tools 3.1.CONTENTS The summaries of the different chapters of the module are presented. Characteristics of TEL 3. life long learning programs) Informal education LLL as promoter of development in rural areas Evolution in rural Europe Progress in rural Different forms of training Formal. Be able to understand the learning objectives of LLL.1.4. 2. 2. 2.6.2.6. Capable of working with other participants in rural areas. 3. adult education. E-portfolios 3. community based organisations. 2. TEL in rural areas 70 .5. Each summary includes knowledge and learning objectives expected from each module.5. Added values of TEL 3.• • • • • Be capable of working towards a qualification. V..2.1.4. TEL: Technology enhanced learning 3. Education in rural areas in Europe Formal education (the structured education strategy provided for children) Nonformal education in Europe (after-schooll programs. 1. 2.2.

Chapman. Springer. 3. http://www. Y. Interaction and collaboration IV .REFERENCES AND SUPPORTING MATERIAL Bibliography: 1.5. V.SKILLS TO BE ACQUIRED 1. International Handbook of Lifelong Learning. LLL models available 4. Sawano. Evaluation of LLL programs offered for rural areas 3. M. Mentoring and tutoring in LLL 5. Creating an e-portfolio for LLL 6. Published by the Euracademy Association.com/Continuing-Higher-Education-LifelongLearning/dp/1402096755/ref=sr_1_9?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1281360986&sr=89Continuing Higher Education and Lifelong Learning: An international comparative 71 ..4. Greece. D. Athens.. Degree and non-degree courses 4. 2001. European Qualification Framework and competences 4. Hatton.3. J. Aspin. Barcelona. The Role of Education and Lifelong Learning in Sustainable Rural Development.. Knust. 2000. Mitchell. Papageorgiou. Possibility of choosing adequate LLL 5. Using e-learning as a tool for LLL VIII. Individualized pathways in LLL 5. Ability to research independently 2. M. 2008.2.. Evans.. Accreditation of prior experiential and learning (APEL) 4.amazon.2. R. 2..3..4. LLL support for rural development 5.1. (editors). University Continuing Education Management Handbook. 4. ISBN: 978-0792368151. Exams and assessment in LLL 5. F.. Critical analysis and reasoning about LLL courses 4. Creditation of LLL 4. EUCEN.1. Thematic Guide Five.

ISBN: 978-0071387965. Assessment of Prior Learning: A Practitioner's Guide.eucen.org 4. 2002. (editor). Web pages: 1. M. Nelson Thornes. Springer.org 3. McGraw-Hill. www. 2009. 2002. Rossett. www. www.. organisation and provisions.up. A. www.study on structures.fe.eden-online. ISBN: 978-1402096754. Day.edu 72 .pt/nuce 2. ISBN: 978-0748769339. THE ASTD E-LEARNING HANDBOOK. 5. 6.ucea.

This sustainable perspective of the problem and process of the diversification of sources of income of the rural population is present on the second part of our Module (units 4-7) 73 . It relates to all [. as well as other rural inhabitants. particularly in the rural areas of the 12 countries preparing to absorb CAP resources and those of Structural Funds? 4.). described as a necessary diversification in the sources of income of the rural population and the agricultural population in particular: 1. Diversification of rural economies I.. on this place we can only say that for us Sustainability is not simply a matter of respect for the environment. have to search for ways of diversifying their sources of income? 2.. Why do ever growing numbers of European farmers. Will the enlargement of the European Union.] of the “legs” or “pillar’s” rural development – people. p.INTRODUCTION TO THE MODULE The module no.2-5.IDENTIFICATION DATA Name of the module: Modality of education: Name of the course: Partner responsible: Diversification of rural economies E-learning European Masters Programme for Rural Animators Institute for University Sociology – Nicolas Copernicus II. simplify the diversification of sources of income of the rural population. economy. tradition.. What are the most important fields of diversification of sources of income of rural inhabitants? Because the notion of sustainable rural development is an object of interest of different modules of the EMRA studies. 8 offers the material on the several questions apparently fundamental in order to understand the essence of the most significant feature of the current rural socioeconomic system. if so.. which took place a few years ago. culture. environment and institutions (see: Euracademy Thematic Guide Two. Is this phenomenon influenced by the process of globalisation of the world socioeconomic system and.Draft Academic Guide Module 8.. how? 3. technology etc.

cultural. Conceptual map of the module Diversification of rural economies Historical and sociological perspective Sustainable rural development perspective Pluriactivity and diversification of rural economy Consumer networks Role of SME’s Multifunctionality of agriculture and pluriactivity of rural society Provision of public services and infrastructural capacity of rural areas Know-how of diversification of rural areas EU’s policy as a stimulator of diversification 74 .where we analyse the four more important fields of diversification (farms/ farmers. small and medium-sized businesses. public services and infrastructure. financial and last but not least – from the perspective of local and global economy. particularly those connected with agriculture. technological. human capital) from several sustainable points of view: environmental. and therefore its inhabitants. underlining that rural areas were always pluriactive. carried out certain types of activity. On the first part of the module (units 1-3) we try to look on this question from more general (historical and sociological) perspective. evolving together with changes in the economy in global society.

of sources of income. and of its role as a development strategy to apply in rural areas. acquire knowledge referring the forms of activities undertaken by rural population in order to gain additional sources of income. • 75 .Total Lectures attending Study and assignment Unit 3 .Total Lectures attending Study and assignment Unit 4 – Total Lectures attending Study and assignment Unit 5 ..VOLUME OF WORK 150 h TOTAL VOLUME OF WORK 7 ECTS Equivalent to 30 h of conventional lectures ACTIVITY Unit 1 ..Total Lectures attending Study and assignment Case studies analysis Chat attending TOTAL VOLUME OF WORK WORKLOAD HOURS 24 6 18 24 6 18 24 6 18 24 6 18 54 6 18 30 2 150 IV.SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES The completion of the module should enable students to: • acquire knowledge of the essence of historical and contemporary determinants of process of diversification.III. of inhabitants of rural areas.Total Lectures attending Study and assignment Unit 2 .

Unit 8. Provision of Public Services and Infrastructural Capacity 8. Why must we diversify sources of income? 8. Spontaneous and generally voluntary nature of processes of generating entrepreneurship in rural areas.3. Unit 8. Increase in resources of human capital as an area for diversification of income sources of rural population.2. A farm household as a provider of services. New forms of services. Human and Social Capital 8.4. From Farms to Producer.1.3.3.2.V. 8.4.. Basic requirements for SME’s development in rural areas. What does diversification of income sources mean? 8. 8.3. 8. 8. Unit 8. 8. Diversification of income sources in the context of globalization processes in the world economic system and European integration. Social-economic role of SME as a form of economic activity and diversification of income sources of rural population.4.1.1.5.4.local product. Unit 8.1. 8.1.1.2. Social-cultural aspects of diversification of income sources in farm households.Consumer Networks 8. European policy of stimulating the process of diversification of income sources of inhabitants in rural and agricultural areas.3.5. 8. Diversification of income sources as a historical characteristic of rural economic Systems.1.3.2.1. Small and medium rural enterprise 8. New functions of farm households – preserving legacy. Underdevelopment of technical and social infrastructure as an area for diversification of income sources of rural population.2. Diversification of sources of income in perspective of various cognitive approaches 8.2. 8. 76 .1.2.1.5. Value added to a traditional agriculture production .2. Strengthening of human capital as an area of diversification of income sources of rural population.CONTENTS Unit B 8.2.3.1. 8.2.5.4.

Reluctant Socialists.Analysis of best practices and case studies About 20 case studies (5/6 for each unit) from different countries of Europe is provided (see: Euracademy Thematic Guide Three). 1991. VIII. Multifunctional Agriculture. Cuddy M. 2. Sociologia Ruralis 1997. Van Huylebroeck G. Durand G. 1989. Ashgate. Spring 1999.... 2005. Damianakos S.. 77 . Understanding of the role of cultural and environmental heritage as important tools for diversification of rural economies. Rural Enterpreneurs... Berlin. Papageorgiu F. No 20. 1992.. Ability to analyse farm diversification strategies within the context of post-modern society and globalized economy. 1987. LEADER Magazine... A New Paradigm for European Agriculture and Rural Development. Ipswitch. Galway. Myths and Realities.REFERENCES AND SUPPORTING MATERIAL Basic bibliography: Allen S. 5. Oxford. Diversification of Rural Economies and Suistainable Rural Development in the Enlarged Europe. No 2. Perspectives on Rural Development in Advanced Economies. Ability to link different stakeholders of rural economy into socio-economic network. London. Understanding basic specifics of contemporary rural economies in Europe. The Ongoing Quest for a Model of Greek Agriculture.. Cecora J. Understanding the variety of factors shaping necessity to diversify rural economies. 4. 2003. Athens. Homeworking..SKILLS TO BE ACQUIRED 1. Alternative Farm Enterprises. Kaleta A. 6. In a word. 1991. The Role of ‘Informal’ Activity in Household Economic Behaviour.. Kattelus P.. Nagengast C. VI. Dower M. 3. Brangenfeld U.. Slee B. Complementary bibliography: Champetier Y. Wolkowitz C.. Ability to indicate external funds for diversification of farm incomes and development of rural SME’s..

No 9.org ECOVAST – www.. No 23.org http://www. Aberdeen. No 1.euracademy. Web pages / links: EURACADEMY . Summer 1995. Einkommenskombination und Landespflege.Services for people in rural areas. G’STETTN 1993.pdf 78 .. LEADER magazine. Shucksmith M. 1992 .org/images/stories/doc/GUIDE3_FINAL.www. Pevetz W.ecovast.euracademy. Winter M. Swain N. Eastern European Countryside 1993. Farm Diversification in Britain. Transitions for Collective to Family Farming in post-socialistic Central Europe: a Victory of Politics Over Sociology..

University BabesBolyai. University of Rostock. The approach to the people of rural areas is a lengthy process. The module “Village workshop” has the objective to confront the students with the life and work in rural areas. The intensive survey of the Status Quo is a prerequisite for an interdisciplinary understanding of rural areas.their ideas have to be implemented for shaping their future. MAICH. Reliability and genuine interest build confidence which is necessary for identifying the causes of certain complex problems. Széchenyi Istvan University. By the diversity of the information gathered the understanding of complex problems is growing in the course of time. In close consultation with a supervisor the student selects a village. The affected people in rural areas are to be recognized as the real experts . . Basing on taught approaches and good practice the Rural Animator is able to get into the depth of various processes in villages and the countryside and to develop situation-adapted solutions. which is a basic condition for finding integrated solutions. a community or a small region which he will focus on in the period of two semesters. different inventory methods and. placement European Masters Programme for Rural Animators N.Copernicus University. His chosen modules in semesters 2 and 3 provide questions and methodological advice for finding the answers. . University of Valencia.Draft Academic Guide Module: Village Workshop I. talking to local actors are available.INTRODUCTION TO THE MODULE The educational profile of the Rural Animator aims at an interdisciplinary approach to economic. University of Helsinki. The activities range from inventories 79 . For this purpose. above all. applied exercise. ecological and social phenomena of rural areas in Europe. University of Porto II.IDENTIFICATION DATA Name of the module: Modality of education: Name of the course: Partner responsible: Village Workshop E-classroom seminars.

The central objectives of the village workshop are: • Selection of a study object and collection of relevant data by using selected methods • Communication with local stakeholders • Documentation of survey results in reports.documented on plans to interviews with local actors. in their entirety they will provide a comprehensive picture of the object of investigation. representatives of associations. The internship during the semester will end with an online presentation in front of the class. The village placement consists of 11 different parts which are judged separately. Particularly for the master thesis the village workshop provides a broad knowledge and data base which creates excellent conditions for an interdisciplinary approach. maps and statistics Figure 3: Conceptual map of Village placement 80 . business people and other multipliers are feasible and desirable. The village internship has to be attended during the 2nd and 3rd Semester. In consultation with the supervisors the knowledge and experience gathered in the village workshop can be deepened. Discussions with the local government. The oneyear workshop can be performed independently or within professional activity. The work in the village is supervised and discussed in online seminars. different generations. However. One possibility is to continue the use of the collected data in an optional module.

The awarded 15 credits for this placement include a workload of 450 hours (30 Hours/1 credit) ACTIVITY Core course 1.III. 81 . – VOLUME OF WORK The village placement includes two semesters. with attention to its specifics? What are the most common and useful procedures. What is the nature of the European rural social change on the turn of XX and XXI centuries. QUESTIONS TO BE ANSWERED DURING THE VILLAGE WORKSHOP Core course 1 . What does rural development mean from the humanistic and positivistic perspective of the theory of social change? 3.Theory of rural development 1.placement Core course 2-placement Core course 3. How to define rural areas using different theoretical frameworks? Why do social sciences put growing attention to rural areas and their problems? 2. techniques and tools of rural social research? 2. regarding both its holistic and sectoral aspects? Core course 2 – Methods of rural areas research 1.placement Module 1-placement Module 2-placement Module 3-placement Module 4-placement Module 5-placement Module 6-placement Module 7-placement Module 8-placement Presentation Semester 2 Presentation Semester 3 TOTAL VOLUME OF WORK HOURS 38 38 38 38 38 38 38 38 38 38 38 16 16 450 IV. What is the structure of the process of empirical social research. methods.

Identify and register differences between the different farming production systems used and products. Who can take part in finding solutions? 4. 82 . Interview governmental servants and certification body workers assessing the impact of CAP to the sustainability. How to elaborate and analyse empirical data using both quantitative and qualitative methods? Core course 3 – Rural animation 1. Create a plan of work to register and analyze indicators of sustainability between two of these farming systems 3.).g. 5. 5. active development communities. Find solutions for reduce social exclusion. Module 3 – Innovation and development in Rural areas 1. environment. • What elements of the innovation environments are present in your placement/village? • What programmes and policies are supporting innovative action in your placement/village? • Create a concise delineation of these actors and elements. Interview a farmer group and extract answers about farming practices and agrobiodiversity trying to correlate these concepts. Who are the local human and social capital holders? Identify them. food safety. Which criteria would you use to classify these systems? 2. Which are the most important social problems of the community? Identify and rank them? 3. What is the structure and what are basic phases of the process of rural animation? How to animate local communities using five-stage “community development model”? Module 1 – Sustainable Agriculture 1. find those economic agents which can mobilize financial and other solutions. Identification of social groups exposed to social exclusion. Identify and describe the main actors of the local innovation environment in your placement/village (innovative individuals. climate change). firms etc. 2. Module 2 – Human and social capital welfare 1. Ask their opinions about rural production current issues (e. 4.3. 2. Interview groups within the rural community and identify the manner these are (directly or indirectly) involved in rural production. subsidies.

find those economic agents which can mobilize financial and other solutions. card) in a way that allows you to make an analysis of their current situation and use. why. Module 4 – Culture for local development 1. Who can take part in finding solutions? 4. 5. Module 5 – Sustainable rural tourism 1.) 3. Elaborate a simple action plan to incorporate cultural resources in the development strategy including overall goal.g.2. Module 6 – Environmental planning and management 1. social innovation. Document your findings by using graphic. Detect and document the infrastructure facilities of the village 83 . Describe and access the ecology of the village 4. where. Describe building use and condition of the building 3. Present this synthesis to a group of local stakeholders (decide and justify the best method for doing this) and get their views (agreement/disagreement). and their potential for future uses. which priority. Compile information of between 5 and 10 cultural resources in a standardised way (ie. Develop and comment a SWOT analysis of cultural resources in the village. etc. 2. Identify and describe certain innovation process in your placement/village. 2. Find solutions for reduce social exclusion. Which are the most important social problems of the community? Identify and rank them? 3. radical etc. Determine and describe the appearance of the village. technological. Who are the local human and social capital holders? Identify them. Which is the relevance of the cultural resources of the village/town in terms of • the current development strategy • the potential development strategy • the attraction of tourism/visitors • the generation of local identity 2. Identification of social groups exposed to social exclusion.)? • What is the role of the local elements supporting this innovation process? Create a concise delineation of the process. at which costs. when. 4. how. • What type of innovation is the one in question (e. text and photographs in an explanatory report. main actions (for each action describe who.

Is this phenomenon influenced and shaped by the process of globalisation of the world socio-economic system and. Ability to compare different effects of strategic decisions 4. Critical analysis and planning methods 2. Module 7 – Education and life long learning for rural development 1. degree course. Module 8 – Diversification of rural economies 1. Propose an action plan for the best use of LLL for development in your placement (define goals. how? 3. Ability to visualize ideas in plans 3. . accreditation system. Develop an on-line presentation of education skills and education needs in your placement and make available this presentation to EMRA students (use one of the eLLL tools proposed). How the Common Agricultural Policy and EU Structural Funds can facilitate diversification of rural economies? 4. Flexibility and creativity 6. Discuss what can be the role of LLL in your placement? 2. Present and discuss this synthesis to local actors and document their opinion. Describe formal and non-formal education skills of the main actors of local development in your placement and discuss the relevance of these skills.SKILLS TO BE ACQUIRED 1.5. Why farmers and other representatives of rural population seek for additional incomes? 2. What are the most important fields and means of diversification of income of rural inhabitants? V. methodology and evaluation). Ability to link and interpret interdisciplinary knowledge 5. Develop and comment a SWOT analysis of building and ecological resources in the village. if so. 3. Ability to search / research / compare further information 84 .