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Roma y las provincias

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modelo y difusión
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Trinidad Nogales
Isabel Rodà
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HISPANIA
ANTIGUA
Serie
Arqueológica
HISPANIA ANTIGUA
Collana diretta da
Julián González
Universidad de Sevilla
Serie Histórica

1. Eustaquio Sánchez Salor
Historiografía latino-cristiana. Principios,
contenido, forma.
2. Julián González
Epigrafía Jurídica de la Bética.
3. AA.VV.
El Cardenal Margarit i l’Europa
quatrecentista.
4. Julián González- Pilar Pavón Torrejón
Adriano emperador de Roma.
5. Julián González- Pilar Pavón Torrejón
Andalucía romana y visigoda. Ordenación y
vertebración del territorio.
Serie Arqueológica
1. Trinidad Nogales- Julián González
Culto Imperial: Política y Poder.
2. Trinidad Nogales- José Beltrán
Marmora Hispana: explotación y uso de los
materiales pétreos en la Hispania Romana.
3. Trinidad Nogales- Isabel Rodà
Roma y las provincias: modelo y difusión.
En Mayo de 2009 se celebraba en Mérida el
XI Coloquio Internacional de Arte Romano
Provincial, bajo el lema “Roma y las provincias:
modelo y difusión”. Era la primera vez que la
Península Ibérica acogía este tipo de Coloquios.
Se unieron en el esfuerzo el Departamento
de Investigación del Museo Nacional de Arte
Romano (MNAR-Ministerio de Cultura) y el
Instituto Catalán de Arqueología Clásica (ICAC-
Generalitat de Catalunya).
Hubo una masiva respuesta internacional, y
especialmente de los investigadores hispanos,
portugueses y españoles. El XI Coloquio discurrió
en un agradable y productivo ambiente científico,
y las sesiones académicas se completaron con
unas actividades complementarias en el marco
del Peristilo del Teatro Romano de Augusta
Emerita, el Museo Nacional de Arte Romano y
varios edificios históricos emeritenses. Tras las
sesiones científicas se visitaron dos ejemplos
del patrimonio hispano, las ciudades Patrimonio
de la Humanidad de Evora (Portugal) e Itálica
(Sevilla).
Se culmina el objetivo final: lograr que la
ciencia quede plasmada en unos volúmenes
monográficos que sirvan para el futuro de
herramienta imprescindible de estudio. Dos
volúmenes que recogen el papel de Roma en los
territorios provinciales y viceversa, el notable
protagonismo que las provincias jugaron en el
concierto del Imperio.
Dado el elevado número de participaciones, se
han editado dos volúmenes, que responden a las
divisiones territoriales; el primero, se ocupa de las
provincias no hispanas, dejando el segundo para
la Península Ibérica y los trabajos presentados
en formato poster. Todos los artículos se han
procurado cuidar al máximo, aunque sólo sus
autores son responsables de los contenidos de sus
textos y de sus imágenes. Agradecemos a todas
las entidades y participantes su compromiso, sus
ágiles respuestas a los plazos establecidos y su
interés en que esta empresa, de todos, llegara a
buen final.
JUNTA DE EXTREMADURA
Vicepresidencia Segunda, Consejería de Economía,
Comercio e Innovación
Con el apoyo de:
Edición del volumen:
Trinidad Nogales
Isabel Rodà
Coordinación editorial:
María José Pérez del Castillo
Diseño y maquetación:
Ceferino López
Proyecto PRI06B286
Foros Romanos de Extremadura. Análisis y Difusión del Patrimonio Extremeño.
Vicepresidencia Segunda y Consejería de Economía, Comercio e Innovación de la Junta de Extremadura.
Proyecto PRI09A140
Arte Romano en Extremadura I. Creación de modelos en el occidente hispano.
Vicepresidencia Segunda y Consejería de Economía, Comercio e Innovación de la Junta de Extremadura.
Proyecto HAR2009-08727
Programas decorativos en Lusitania romana: origen y evolución.
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación.
GRUPO DE ESTUDIOS DEL MUNDO ANTIGUO HUM-016
Proyecto HAR2008-04600
Explotación, uso e intercambio de materias primas inorgánicas en el norte de Hispania y los puertos de Roma.
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación.

Proyecto HAR2009-10798
Antiguo o moderno. Encuadre de la escultura de estilo clásico en su periodo correspondiente.
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación.
XI COLOQUIO INTERNACIONAL DE ARTE ROMANO PROVINCIAL
Instituciones Organizadoras:
Instituciones Colaboradoras:
Hispania Antigua, collana diretta da Julián González, Universidad de Sevilla - Departamento de Filología Griega y Latina.
Roma y las provincias: modelo y difusión.
(Hispania Antigua, Serie Arqueológica, 3)
ISBN 978-88-8265-602-7
Copyright 2011 © “L´ERMA” di BRETSCHNEIDER
Via Cassiodoro, 19 – 00193 Roma
http://www.lerma.it
Tutti diritti riservati. É vietata la riproduzione di testi e illustrazioni senza il permesso scrittto dell´Editore.
Los textos e ilustraciones de este volumen son responsabilidad de sus respectivos autores.
Impresión: Artes Gráfcas Rejas (Mérida).
Fotografía cubierta: Cabeza velada de Augusto. Museo Nacional de Arte Romano. Fotografía: Ceferino López.
Roma y las provincias:
modelo y difusión
Trinidad Nogales
Isabel Rodà
Editoras
Vol. I
ÍNDICE
VOLUMEN I
17 Presentación
CONFERENCIA DE INAUGURACIÓN
23 PILAR LEÓN-CASTRO ALONSO: Arte romano provincial: nuevo enfoque y
valoración.
ITALIA, REGIO X
43 LUCREZIA UNGARO: Il cantiere del Foro di Augusto, luogo di sperimentazione e
modello formale.
63 ANTONIO MONTERROSO: Dos imágenes simbólicas. Las estatuas de las puertas
regias de los teatros de Marcelo y Arles.
71 PAOLO BARRESI: La “colonna coclide” di Catania: una testimonianza delle
offcine marmorarie neoattiche in Sicilia.
79 DANIELE MALFITANA y CARMELA FRANCO: “Archeologia dell’artigianato” nella
provincia Sicilia: Nuove prospettive di indagine dal “Roman Sicily Project:
ceramics and trade ”.
93 PAOLO CASARI: Iuppiter Ammon e Medusa nella decorazione architettonica
forense dell’Adriatico nordorientale.
101 FULVIA CILIBERTO: Viri togati: forme di auto-rappresentazione delle élites locali
ad Aquileia.
111 ERWIN POCHMARSKI: Die girlandentragenden Eroten vom Forum in Aquileia.
Reliefs zwischen der stadtrömischen und der provinzialrömischen Kunst.
121 VESNA GIRARDI JURKIć: Statues of Roman Emperors in Pula, Croatia.
129 KRISTINA DžIN: Architectural Decoration of the Capitoline Temples in the Roman
Colony Iulia Pola and the Municipality of Nesactium.
137 ALKA STARAC: Roman sculpture in Pula: the frst results of petrographical
analysies.
ORIENS
149 GEORGIA A. ARISTODEMOU: Sculptured decoration of monumental nymphaea at
the eastern provinces of the Roman Empire.
161 ILONA SKUPINSKA-LOVSET: The Roman Period Funerary Portraiture in Provincia
Syria. A Question of Social Functionality.
169 FILIPPO MASINO y GIORGIO SOBRÀ: A monumental altar from the Hadrianic age at
Hierapolis in Phrygia.
183 EMANUELE M. CIAMPINI: Rifessi imperiali in Sudan: i complessi palatini del
Gebel Barkal (Napata).
GALLIAE
193 ALAIN BADIE, JEAN-CHARLES MORETTI, EMMANUELLE ROSSO y DOMINIQUE TARDY:
L’ornementation de la frons scaenae du théâtre d’Orange: L’élévation de la zone
centrale.
203 DJAMILA FELLAGUE y RENAUD ROBERT: La frise ornée sur l’une des arcades du
forum de Vienne: des représentations du dieu taurin à l’époque julio-claudienne.
213 MELANIE JONASCH: Broterwerb und Weinkonsum. Zur Prominenz des Bechers
auf den Grabstelen des römerzeitlichen Burgund.
223 MARIANNE TABACZEK: Mythologische Themen an Grabdenkmälern der Gallia
Belgica.
233 MARIA-PIA DARBLADE-AUDOIN: Remarques préliminaires à l’étude des sculptures
du sanctuaire gallo-romain de Titelberg (Luxembourg).
241 MARKUS TRUNK: Ein neues Relief mit Kampfszenen aus Trier.
251 HANNELORE ROSE: Typologie und Realität – Zwei Aspekte römischer Kunst,
aufgezeigt am Beispiel der Grabreliefs aus Metz.
GERMANIA
263 TITUS A.S.M. PANHUYSEN: The Maastricht gigantomachy capital and its models.
273 ALFRED SCHÄFER: Votivbleche aus Blei, Silber und Gold. Überregionale
Verbreitung und lokale Formensprache.
279 UTE KLATT: Barbarendarstellungen im Norden des Römischen Reichs. Ein Motiv
zwischen öffentlichem Herrschaftsanspruch und dem Repräsentationsbedürfnis
Einzelner.
DALMATIA, NORICVM, PANNONIA, MOESIA, THRACIA
291 MIRJANA SANADER: Neue Überlegungen über eine Statue aus Aequum in
Dalmatien.
297 BRUNA NARDELLI: Il modello della capitale e la produzione glittica in Dalmatia.
305 JASNA JELIčIć-RADONIć: Venus Victrix in the Salona Urbs Orientalis.
313 MANFRED HAINZMANN: Die norische Grabstele aus Lebing (Steiermark) und ihre
chronologische Einordnung.
323 ANTE RENDIć-MIOčEVIć: Marble Altars of Cautes and Cautopates from the
surroundings of Čakovec in Northwest Croatia.
337 MOJCA VOMER GOJKOVIč: Shapes of roman architectonic elements from Poetovio.
345 IVAN žIžEK: The Roman Ceramic Arts from Poetovio.
351 MARIJA BUZOV: The stone monuments from Siscia.
359 IVANA POPOVIć: Gemma Augustea and Late Antique Marble Relief from Vicinity
of Sirmium.
365 ANNAMÁRIA R. FACSÁDY: Statuettes et reliefs de Venus à Aquincum, Budapest.
373 PIOTR DYCZEK: The “odd adventures” of Maximinus Thrax in Novae.
385 ALEKSANDRA NIKOLOSKA: The iconography of Magna Mater on the monuments
from the Republic of Croatia.
395 CONSUELO MANETTA: Sistemi decorativi delle tombe dipinte di età tardo antica e
paleocristiana della Bulgaria: una proposta di classifcazione tipologica.
DACIA, DARDANIA, GRAECIA
409 EXHLALE DOBRUNA-SALIHU: Coiffure of women on the stone monuments in
Dardania.
419 MARGHERITA BONANNO ARAVANTINOS: Trofei di età romana della Beozia: una base
da Livadeià.
429 IPHIGENEIA LEVENTI: Roman Sculptures from the Sea off the Island of Kythnos,
Greece.
AFRICA, AEGYPTVS
439 MATTHEW M. MCCARTY: Beyond models and diffusion, centres and peripheries:
religious art in Roman Africa.
449 JOSÉ RAMÓN AJA SÁNCHEZ: Uso político de la religión: estelas de ofrenda del
“faraón” Augusto.
463 MYRIAM WISSA: Embellishing Rome: Imperial consumption of Egypt’s granite
Obelisks.
VARIA
473 ANNARENA AMBROGI: Ricezione in ambito periferico e provinciale dei modelli
urbani: il caso dei labra marmorei.
485 MIHAI BăRBULESCU: Libera dans les provinces romaines. Une divinité et plusieurs
models iconographiques.
495 MICHAEL J. KLEIN: Altares en Roma, en Italia y en las provincias. La decoración
fgurativa de los pulvinos.
503 CLAIRE K. LINDGREN: Meanings and Implications in Changing Depictions of
Aphrodite/Venus.
511 TEODORA OLTEANU: Aportaciones sobre el prototipo de la Victoria de la Curia
Iulia.
519 BEATRICE PALMA VENETUCCI: Un modello celebre: le Cariatidi dell’Eretteo a
Roma tra spazio pubblico e privato, loro diffusione in Spagna.
531 ANNA PAULE: Some fragments of Roman equestrian bronze statues: an overview
about their origin and diffusion.
541 MARÍA ISABEL RODRÍGUEZ LÓPEZ: Iconografía de Océano en el Imperio Romano:
el modelo metropolitano y sus interpretaciones provinciales.
551 ALBERTO SEVILLA CONDE: Difusión de los modelos clásicos en la iconografía del
poder a través de la Historia.
559 FABRIZIO SLAVAZZI: Circolazione di tipi scultorei fra Roma e le province: su
alcune copie di opere di età classica e sul loro “monopolio”.
567 MONIKA VERZÁR-BASS: Acheloos associato a Juppiter Ammon nell’edilizia
pubblica romana.
VOLUMEN II
HISPANIAE
HISPANIA: BAETICA
595 ANA RUIZ y DESIDERIO VAQUERIZO: Topografía y espacios funerarios en Baetica:
matices provinciales.
605 LOURDES ROLDÁN GÓMEZ: Esculturas romanas de Carteia (San Roque, Cádiz).
Las excavaciones de Julio Martínez Santa-Olalla en los años cincuenta.
617 MERCEDES ORIA SEGURA: Un nuevo taller hispalense de lucernas. Modelos y
difusión en ámbito provincial.
627 ISABEL LÓPEZ GARCÍA: Miscelánea de piezas “inéditas” del taller de Vrso (Osuna,
Sevilla).
635 IRENE MAÑAS ROMERO: La creación de la escuela musivaria del Guadalquivir:
modelos itálicos e interpretación regional.
HISPANIA: LVSITANIA
645 PEDRO MATEOS, ANTONIO PEÑA, ARMIN STYLOW y ÁNGEL VENTURA: Novedades
arquitectónicas y epigráfcas sobre el recinto de culto imperial provincial de la
Lusitania.
653 TRINIDAD NOGALES BASARRATE: Plástica romana emeritense en el contexto de
Hispania: modelos y difusión.
671 LUÍS DA SILVA FERNANDES: Placas funerarias decoradas del conuentus Emeritensis.
Rutas de difusión de un modelo.
681 VIRGÍLIO HIPÓLITO CORREIA: Metropolitan artistic models in Lusitania: the
examples of the domestic architecture of Conimbriga (Portugal).
693 JOSÉ ESTEVES y LUÍS JORGE GONÇALVES: The sculptors’ technical mastery: two
examples in sculptures of Myrtilis and of Conimbriga.
699 FILOMENA LIMÃO: Los Capiteles de Beja (Pax Julia) y Mértola (Myrtilis):
expresión de la adaptación de modelos romanos en el sur de Lusitania en el
contexto romano de la Antigüedad Tardía (siglos III y IV).
707 LINO TAVARES DIAS: Urbanization and architecture on the outskirts of the Roman
Empire.
715 JESÚS ACERO PÉREZ y ANTONIO PIZZO: Puentes Romanos de Lusitania: Arte y
Técnica.
727 ANTÓNIO CARVALHO y JORGE FREIRE: Cascais y la Ruta del Atlántico. El
establecimiento de un puerto de abrigo en la costa de Cascais. Una primera
propuesta.
HISPANIA: TARRACONENSIS
739 JOSÉ MARÍA BLÁZQUEZ MARTÍNEZ y MARÍA PAZ GARCÍA-GELABERT PÉREZ: Arte
hispano romano en el noroeste de la Península Ibérica.
753 JOSÉ MANUEL COSTA GARCÍA: Revisitando los asentamientos militares en la
antigua Galicia, ¿centros de producción o de consumo artístico?
763 AURELIA BALSEIRO GARCÍA y Mª OFELIA CARNERO VÁZQUEZ: Muestras escultóricas
del arte provincial romano en el Museo Provincial de Lugo.
771 SANTIAGO MARTÍNEZ CABALLERO: El Foro romano de Termes (Hispania Citerior).
Proceso de municipalización y difusión local de modelos arquitectónicos.
787 CESÁREO PÉREZ GONZÁLEZ, EMILIO ILLARREGUI GÓMEZ y PABLO ARRIBAS LOBO:
Nuevos hallazgos de estatuaria en Tiermes.
797 OLIVIA V. REYES HERNANDO y CESÁREO PÉREZ GONZÁLEZ: Cauca: arquitectura
monumental tardoantigua.
807 SEBASTIÁN RASCÓN MARQUÉS y ANA LUCÍA SÁNCHEZ MONTES: Modelos
arquitectónicos de basílicas y edifcios administrativos en el interior de España.
Refexiones a partir de la ciudad romana de Complutum.
817 Mª ÁNGELES GUTIERREZ BEHEMERID: La interpretación de los modelos urbanos en
la ciudad de Clunia.
829 CARMEN MARCKS-JACOBS: Zur Ikonographie einer Kitharaspielerin aus Segobriga.
839 JAVIER ANDREU PINTADO, MARÍA LASUÉN ALEGRE, IRENE MAÑAS ROMERO y ÁNGEL
A. JORDÁN LORENZO: Novedades de arte romano provincial en territorio vascón:
un mosaico marino inédito procedente de Campo Real/Fillera (Sos del Rey
Católico/Sangüesa).
851 JAVIER Á. DOMINGO, ANA GARRIDO y RICARDO MAR: Talleres y modelos decorativos
en la arquitectura pública del noreste de la Tarraconense en torno al cambio de
era: el caso de Barcino, Tarraco y Auso.
863 MARC LAMUÀ, DAVID VIVÓ, RICARDO MAR y JOAQUÍN RUIZ DE ARBULO: La fachada
oriental de la basílica forense de Tarraco. El monumento de los cautivos y el
chalcidicum de culto imperial.
873 JOSEP MARIA MACIAS SOLÉ, ANDREU MUÑOZ MELGAR, INMA TEIXELL NAVARRO y
JOAN MENCHON BES: Nuevos elementos escultóricos del recinto de culto del
Concilium Provinciae Hispaniae Citerioris (Tarraco, Hispania Citerior).
887 JORDI LÓPEZ VILAR, LLUÍS PIÑOL MASGORET y VÍCTOR REVILLA CALVO: Modelos
itálicos y artesanado provincial: las lastras Campana de Tarraco y su territorio.
897 MONTSERRAT CLAVERIA: Recepción de modelos y creaciones locales en el relieve
funerario del nordeste hispano.
907 ROMANA ERICE LACABE: Sobre la iconografía de las Musas en Hispania: un
pequeño aplique de bronce procedente de Bulbuente (Zaragoza).
917 JOSÉ MIGUEL NOGUERA CELDRÁN, MARÍA JOSÉ MADRID BALANZA y ALICIA
FERNÁNDEZ DÍAZ: Nuevas pinturas murales en Carthago Noua (Cartagena.
Hispania Citerior): los ciclos antoninianos del Edifcio del atrio.
927 SANTIAGO MORENO, MARGARITA ORFILA, Mª ESTHER CHÁVEZ y MIGUEL ÁNGEL
CAU: Las áreas residenciales de Pollentia (Alcudia, Mallorca) y sus materiales
fgurados en soportes plásticos.
VARIA HISPANICA
939 ZEYNEP AKTÜRE: Theatre-construction in the cultural milieu of the Roman
provinces of the Iberian Peninsula: precedents and antecedents.
951 BEATRICE CACCIOTTI: Rifessi della metropoli nella diffusione dei culti misterici
nella Hispania romana.
963 LUIS BAENA DEL ALCÁZAR: La tradición clásica en las matronas sedentes de
Hispania.
971 PILAR FERNÁNDEZ URIEL, MARTA BAILÓN GARCÍA y TERESA ESPINOSA: Análisis
histórico e iconográfco de Fortuna Dea en los lararios provinciales hispanos.
981 CRUCES BLÁZQUEZ CERRATO: Paralelismos y divergencias entre la amonedación
hispana provincial y la metropolitana.
CONFERENCIA DE CLAUSURA
991 EUGENIO LA ROCCA: Il foro di Augusto e le province dell’Impero.
POSTERS
1013 JAVIER ANDRÉS PÉREZ: Roma Aeterna. Concepto, iconografía y difusión en las
provincias del Imperio.
1019 MACARENA BUSTAMANTE ÁLVAREZ, EULALIA GIJÓN GABRIEL y ANA MARÍA OLMEDO
GRAJERA: A new terracotta mould in Augusta Emerita.
1025 OLIVIA CHÁVARRI URETA: El culto de Minerva en Hispania: custos urbis de Roma
y las provincias.
1031 ESTHER CHECA GÓMEZ: Vidrio romano en Polonia.
1035 RAMON COLL e ISABEL RODÀ: Ulises en un plato de africana C hallado en Premià
de Dalt (Barcelona).
1039 CHRISTINE ERTEL: Architekturkopien und Imagines clipeatae im Dienste des
Kaiserkults.
1047 FRANCISCO JAVIER HERAS MORA y ANTONIO PEÑA JURADO: Un taller de reciclado
de mármoles en Mérida. Su valoración histórica a través de los “residuos” de
talla.
1053 ESPERANZA MARTÍN HERNÁNDEZ: Nuevas formas cerámicas y talleres militares
del noroeste de la Península Ibérica. El caso de León y Lancia.
1061 PILAR MERCHÁN, SANTIAGO SALAMANCA, ANTONIO ADÁN y TRINIDAD NOGALES: 3D
digitalization of large sculptural pieces. Restitution of Aeneas Group.
1067 RUI MORAIS: Dos bronces de entidades tutelares de la ciudad romana de Bracara
Augusta.
1075 ANGELA PALMENTIERI: La necropoli romana monumentale di Abella. Diffusione
del tipo di tomba ‘a Conocchia’ in Campania.
1081 REBECA CARLOTA RECIO MARTÍN: Deconstruyendo a Diana, una escultura romana
en el Museo Cerralbo.
1087 CLAUDINA ROMERO MAYORGA: Iconografía mitraica en Hispania: semejanzas y
diferencias con los modelos de la metrópolis.
1091 ANA LUCÍA SÁNCHEZ MONTES: Una introducción a la pintura mural romana de la
Casa de los Grifos. Complutum. Alcalá de Henares, Madrid.
1095 BEGOÑA SOLER HUERTAS y JOSÉ MIGUEL NOGUERA CELDRÁN: Urban development
and monumentalisation in the roman colony Vrbs Iulia Nova Karthago
(Cartagena, Hispania Citerior).
— 149 —
SCULPTURED DECORATION OF MONUMENTAL NYMPHAEA AT THE
EASTERN PROVINCES OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE
1
Georgia A. Aristodemou
Monumental fountain structures, built by emperors and wealthy patrons in cities throughout the Roman
Empire, have always been striking features of the roman architecture. They were designed either as
a large basin of water or as an elaborate multi-storied edifce with a columnar façade in the mode
of a theatrical scaenae frons, sometimes with projecting side wings equipped with pavilions
2
. These
imposing edifces were centrally located and functioned as landmarks in major cities of the roman East
3
.
They housed sculptural assemblages that often interacted with the fowing water to create innovative
kinetic displays, carefully arranged to highlight the prestige of the benefactor and the local community
4
.
This paper’s purpose was to approach some issues, such as the defnition of the term fountain fgure,
its position and function in the monument, the selection and in some cases the interpretation of the
sculptural display programs.
Fountain Figures. A sculpted fgure is characterized as a Fountain Figure when it bears visible technical
features (e.g. a water pipe channel) in order to function as a spout, and at the same time it has been
excavated at a nymphaeum
5
. A reclining river god from the Hydrecdocheion of C. Laecanius Bassus
in Ephesus
6
, a seated female fgure holding a spouting bird from the Miletus Nymphaeum
7
or an
1 This paper derives from the author’s PhD Diss. completed at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece). It is based on the study of
ca. 400 sculpture fnds from fountain structures of the eastern roman provinces. I express sincere appreciation to my Professor, Th. Stefanidou-
Tiveriou, for she had the profound insight to construct the perfect lay out of a project among a confused fow of ideas in my mind.
2

For a discussion on the architectonic forms and typology of roman nymphaea, see Neuerburg (1960); Letzner 1990, 17-216; Gros 1996,
418-444; Ginouvès 1998, 92-100; Agusta-Boularot 2001; Dorl-Klingenschmid 2001, 21-61; Longfellow 2005, 334-342. Aristodemou 2008,
15-28. See also, Parra, M. C., (1976): “Per la defnizione del rapporto fra teatri e ninfei”, StClOr 25: 89-118; Burrell, B. (2006): “False Front:
Separating the Aediculated Fassade form the Imperial Cult in Roman Asia Minor”, AJA 110: 437-469.
3 Dorl-Klingenschmid 2001,149-150; Bauer 1996, 392; Uğurlu 2004, 29-33.
4 Berg, D. (1994): “Fountains and Artistic Water Displays in Classical Antiquity. Origins and Development from 700 to 30 B.C.” Arch.Thesis,
University of Texas at Austin.
5 Aristodemou 2008, 88-93. Previous studies on fountain fgures: Curtius 1876; Lange 1920; Kapossy 1969; Kent Hill 1974, 107-108; Kent
Hill 1981, 84ff; Söldner 1986, 295-298; Glaser 1987, 103-113; Fuchs 1987, 141-143; Letzner 1990, 258-262.
6 Ephesus, Archaeological Museum, Inv. Nr.1/36/72: Eichler 1963, 58; Kapossy 1969, 23; Fleischer 1972-75, 422. Aurenhammer 1990,104,
cat.no.85, pl.60b; Klementa 1993,146, cat.no.V1.
7 Constantinople, Archaeological Museum, Inv.Nr.2006: Hülsen 1919, 55, nr.1, fg.1; LIMC II (1984) 94 nr.891, sv. Aphrodite (A. Delivorias).
Abstract
Monumental nymphaea are centrally located in major cities of the roman East and are usually fnanced by the
Emperor or wealthy patrons. Their sculptural assemblages consist of mythological fgures, genre sculpture
and portraits interpreted in relation to water: some fgures connect to water directly (Poseidon, water deities),
others associate with water indirectly, through their deeds (Dionysus, Apollo, Heracles), while others refect
local myths and cults. Imperial and private portraiture underline the imperial power and the prestige of local
Elite. Monumental nymphaea advertise the city’s prosperity while their decoration forms the medium to
reconstruct their essential role in a roman city.
Sculptured decoration of monumental nymphaea at the eastern provinces of the Roman Empire
— 150 —
Aphrodite statue of the Pudica type from the Philadepheia (Amman) Nymphaeum
8
are only three of
the numerous examples. Any sculpture with a visible water outlet, ascertaining a spouting function,
even without a confrmed provenance is also considered a fountain fgure. Such sculptures are a seated
Nymph (or Muse?) form Messene
9
, a sleeping river God from Thasos
10
(Fig. 1), or a standing young man
holding a water vessel from Thessaloniki
11
. Statuary groups found inside the water basin debris during
a nymphaeum excavation, even without preserving a spouting hole, or statues placed at the upper foors
of a multi storey nymphaeum-where they almost never functioned as spouts- are also characterized as
fountain fgures
12
.
Technical Features. Fountain fgures can be distinguished into two main groups, according to their
involvement to the water fow. The main differentiation lies on whether the fgure remains intact or it
has been perforated.
When there is no direct intervention to the statue itself, water fows from a pipe channel drilled at the
plinth or base of the standing, seated or reclining fgure
13
. Among these fgures are seated Pans playing
the syrinx, seated Nymphs, reclining river Gods, sleeping Erotes
14
. (Fig. 2) In some cases water streams
out from a hole at the statue’s support, which is formed as a tree trunk, an animal or a fsh
15
. (Fig. 3)

8 Amman, Archaeological Museum, No Inv.Nr.: Weber 2002, 512 cat.n
o
D14, pl.155C-E; Riedl 2003, 264, 484 cat.n
o
PH.1.
9 Mavromati, Messene (Archaeological Museum Magazine), Inv.Nr.:76: Xagorari-Gleißner 2002, 75-80, fg.1-5.
10 Thasos, Archeological Museum, Inv. Nr.�100: Thouvenot, R. (1974/75): “Divinité des eaux”, Thasos, Archeological Museum, Inv. Nr.�100: Thouvenot, R. (1974/75): “Divinité des eaux”, : Thouvenot, R. (1974/75): “Divinité des eaux”, Thouvenot, R. (1974/75): “Divinité des eaux”, BAParis X/XI: 96, fg.2; Klementa 1990, 153,
cat.n
o
.V 6; Aristodemou 2008, cat.n
o
.78, pl.12.8.
11 Thessaloniki, Archeological Museum, Inv. Nr.895: Despinis et al. 1997, 126-128, cat.no.98, fg. 273-277 (Stephanidou-Tiveriou);
Aristodemou 2008, cat.no.81, pl.13.2.
12 Kapossy 1969, 10, 57; Kent Hill 1981, 84; Dorl-Klingenschmid 2001, 92, 94; Aristodemou 2008, 88. Kapossy 1969, 10, 57; Kent Hill 1981, 84; Dorl-Klingenschmid 2001, 92, 94; Aristodemou 2008, 88. Aristodemou 2008, 88. 2008, 88.
13 Kapossy 1969, 55. Kent Hill 1981, 84-85; Aristodemou 2008, 90-91. Kapossy 1969, 55. Kent Hill 1981, 84-85; Aristodemou 2008, 90-91. Kent Hill 1981, 84-85; Aristodemou 2008, 90-91. 2008, 90-91.
14 Aristodemou 2008, 113, 124, 126, 127, 142, 157. For instance, see 1) Aristodemou 2008, 113, 124, 126, 127, 142, 157. For instance, see 1) Aristodemou 2008, 113, 124, 126, 127, 142, 157. For instance, see 1) Pan with a syrinx, Corinth, Archaeological Museum, Inv.Nr.S23853:
Robinson 2001, 374-377, fg.8.8.; 2) Sleeping Eros, Delphi, Archaeological Museum, No Inv.Nr.: Marcadé, J. (1993): “Éros endormi à
Delphes” In Études de sculpture et d’iconographie antiques, Scripta Varia, 1941-1991, 475-484, fg.1-3. 3.) Reclining river God, Ephesus,
Constantinople, Archaeological Museum, Inv.Nr.E.4281: Klementa 1993, cat.n
o
V3, pl.30.59, 31.62.
15 Standing Standing Satyr once holding a fute, Kisamos, Archaeological Museum Inv.Nr.694: Aristodemou 2008, cat.n
o
.372, pl.50.3.
Fig. 1. Sleeping river God. Thasos, Arch. Museum, Inv.Nr.�100. Photo: Courtesy of the IH´ Ephorate of Kavala.
— 151 —
georgia a. aristoDeMou
In cases of human or mythological fgures (e.g. children, Nymphs, Silens, Satyrs, Erotes) holding
animals, birds and fshes, water vessels, wine-skins, or sea-shells, the water fows from a tube running
through the animal or the object held by the standing, seated or reclining fgure
16
. In the complexes of the
battle between Hercules and the Nemean Lion water runs through the beast’s mouth
17
. (Fig. 4)
When the fgure itself is organically involved with the fow of water the torso is perforated by a pipe, e.g.
a child fgure from Antioch-on-the-Orontes
18
. As a result, water spouts from a natural body opening, e.g.
mouth, breast or genitals
19
. Nymphs holding shells constitute a signifcant group of statues whose torso
is horizontally penetrated by a pipe at the lower abdominal
20
. As a result, the water spouts at a large shell
held by the fgure at the level of the pudenda (Fig. 5).
16 Aristodemou 2008,91. For instance, see 1) Aristodemou 2008,91. For instance, see 1) 2008,91. For instance, see 1) Crouching Silen,Athens, National Museum, Inv.Nr.7053: Stephanidou-Tiveriou, Th., (1995):
“Σιληνός Καθεύδων”, ArchEph: 67-70, πίν.30b-33b. 2) Satyr holding a wine skin, Herakleion, Archaeological Museum, Inv.Nr.46:
Aristodemou 2008, cat.n
o
371, pl.50.2.
17 Aristodemou 2008, 205-207. For instance see, Isthmia, Archaeological Museum, Inv.Nr. ΙS 405: Sturgeon 1987, 117 cat.no 30, pl.52, 53a.
18 Art Museum, PrinstonUniversity, Inv.Nr 2000-38: Michael Padgett J., Ed, (2001): Roman Sculpture in the Art Museum Princeton University, Art Museum, PrinstonUniversity, Inv.Nr 2000-38: Michael Padgett J., Ed, (2001): Roman Sculpture in the Art Museum Princeton University, Art Museum, PrinstonUniversity, Inv.Nr 2000-38: Michael Padgett J., Ed, (2001): Roman Sculpture in the Art Museum Princeton University, , PrinstonUniversity, Inv.Nr 2000-38: Michael Padgett J., Ed, (2001): Roman Sculpture in the Art Museum Princeton University, PrinstonUniversity, Inv.Nr 2000-38: Michael Padgett J., Ed, (2001): Roman Sculpture in the Art Museum Princeton University, onUniversity, Inv.Nr 2000-38: Michael Padgett J., Ed, (2001): Roman Sculpture in the Art Museum Princeton University, University, Inv.Nr 2000-38: Michael Padgett J., Ed, (2001): Roman Sculpture in the Art Museum Princeton University, Inv.Nr 2000-38: Michael Padgett J., Ed, (2001): Roman Sculpture in the Art Museum Princeton University, Inv.Nr 2000-38: Michael Padgett J., Ed, (2001): Roman Sculpture in the Art Museum Princeton University, 2000-38: Michael Padgett J., Ed, (2001): Roman Sculpture in the Art Museum Princeton University, Museum Princeton University,
224-225 cat.n
o
74.
19 Kapossy 1969, 54; Kent Hill 1981, 90-91; Aristodemou 2008, 92.
20 Kapossy 1969, 54-55; Aristodemou 2008, 92, 149. Kapossy 1969, 54-55; Aristodemou 2008, 92, 149. Aristodemou 2008, 92, 149. 2008, 92, 149.
Fig. 2. Sleeping Eros. Delphi, Arch. Museum, Inv.Nr. Photo: G.
Aristodemou.
Fig. 3. Standing Satyr. Kisamos, Arch. Museum, Inv.
Nr.694. Photo: Courtesy of the KE´ Ephorate of Chania.
Sculptured decoration of monumental nymphaea at the eastern provinces of the Roman Empire
— 152 —
Some sculptures have been converted into fountain fgures at a later phase
21
. In such cases water often
spouts awkwardly, as shown in a child fgure holding a rabbit from Isthmia
22
. A group depicting the
blinding of Polyphemus is remarkable
23
. Dated at the 1
st
century A.D. it was reused in the Domitian
Fountain in Ephesus after having been converted to function as a spout and to decorate a fountain
structure of a later date
24
.
Reconstruction. Reconstructing the original position of a sculpture in a monument’s façade is a
challenging process. A general diffculty is that most monumental nymphaea preserve only a small
part of their original sculpture assemblage
25
. Moreover and although fnd-spot data is preserved for
many examples, the original settings are often diffcult to establish, as many of these where found in
21 Aristodemou 2008, 92-93. Aristodemou 2008, 92-93. Aristodemou 2008, 92-93. 2008, 92-93.
22 Isthmia, Archaeological Museum, Inv. Nr. IS 136: Sturgeon 1987, 116 cat.no.26, pl.54c, f.
23 Ephesus, Archaeological Museum. Inv. Nr.1093, 1557, 1558, 1559, 1560, 1561, 1562, 14/38/72: Andreae 1977, 1-11; Andreae 1982,
69-90; Andreae 1985; Aurenhammer 1990, 168-177 cat.no.147.1-19, pl.102-109; Alvino 1996, 200-209; Andreae 1999a,162-177; Andreae
1999b,531-533; Longfellow 2005, 97-102.
24 The reuse of sculpture and architectural elements in civic monuments is well documented in late antiquity. The Fountain of Domitian
provides visual connection with the classical past and monumentalizes the governor’s connections with the emperor in Rome, Longfellow, B.
(2009): “The Reuse of Statues in Ancient Roman Fountains”. A Public Lecture given at Creighton Univercity (27 March 2009). Also, Auinger
and Rathmayr (2007).
25 Richards 2008, 270. Richards 2008, 270.
Fig. 4. Heracles and the Nemean Lion. Isthmia, Arch.
Museum, Inv.Nr.IS405. Photo: Sturgeon 1987, pl. 52.
Fig. 5. Nymph holding see-shell. Corinth, Arch.
Museum, Inv.Nr.2063. Photo: G. Aristodemou.
— 153 —
georgia a. aristoDeMou
late, or poorly understood contexts, or they lack technical features, e.g. pipe holes, that would help
restore the fgure’s position at the monument
26
. Sometimes the monument itself presents us with helpful
information. For example, the niches of the so called Πα Nymphaeum in Nikopolis (Epirus) preserve
the square shaped holes which indicate the exact spots where the fountain statues once stood
27
. Although
there is no evidence of the monument’s sculptural assemblage, the architectural remains provide proof
of their existence.
Three equally important and indicative factors are a sculpture’s fnding spot, its iconography and its
function
28
. According to B. Kapossy, the higher a fgure stands in the hierarchy of the Olympian Gods
the lesser is connected with the water function
29
. This hierarchy can by observed in the display program
of a nymphaeum since the most important fgures tend to be placed at the upper foors. Furthermore, it
is usually considered that sculpture depicting water related themes are normally placed in contact to the
water of the basin below. Water spouting statues are usually placed at the lower foor, so that the water
from the shell, the vessel or the wine-skin held by the fgure runs directly into the basin below
30
. The
same also holds for the seated and reclining fgures. In this way the fgure correlates to the monument
visually, organically as well as thematically. A statue’s preservation state is also suggestive, since a well
preserved statue assumingly stood at a lower storey and, respectively, a statue broken in many pieces
had most possibly fallen from above.
The Miletus Nymphaeum, a three-storied lavishing monument, presents a typical arrangement of
sculpture in a roman monumental nymphaeum
31
. Based on the archaeological data, the excavators
proposed that seated, reclining and water related (by function or subject) fgures stood at the frst foor
in order to have direct connection with water. It is not a coincidence that exactly these sculptures are the
best preserved among the others found at the monument. At the second and third foor, excavators placed
fgures of local Gods and heroes, as well as the imperial and private portraits. Exactly these statues were
broken in many pieces, indicating that they had fallen from a high altitude.
Iconography. The sculptured decoration of a monumental nymphaeum derives from a large repertoire
of decorative themes, known from the majority of public roman edifces
32
: 1) Idealistic-mythological
fgures. This group includes Olympian and local Gods, minor deities and mythological fgures related to
water and nature
33
. 2) Genre sculpture and animal fgures
34
. Among them are child fgures and everyday
people (e.g. fshermen, shepherds, elders). 3) Imperial and private portraits. This group consists of
honorifc statues of the Emperor and his family members, as well as portraits of Roman and local
offce-holders, priests, military commanders and local aristocrats
35
. These individuals have usually been
fnancially involved to the construction or the embellishment of the monument.
26 Aristodemou 2008, 3, 93-95. Aristodemou 2008, 3, 93-95. Aristodemou 2008, 3, 93-95. 2008, 3, 93-95.
27 Walker 1979, 140; Zahos, K. and Georgiou, A. (1997): “Ν��ός Π���ε�ας”, Walker 1979, 140; Zahos, K. and Georgiou, A. (1997): “Ν��ός Π���ε�ας”, Ν��ός Π���ε�ας”, Π���ε�ας”, Π���ε�ας”, ”, , ΑΔ 52: 576-600; Chrysostomou and Kephallonitou 2001,
29-33, fg.22-25; Longfellow 2005, 174-180.
28 Letzner 1990, 260; Aristodemou 2008, 95. Letzner 1990, 260; Aristodemou 2008, 95. Aristodemou 2008, 95.
29 Kapossy 1969, 83. Kapossy 1969, 83.
30 Fleischer 1982, 124; Aristodemou 2008, 94. Fleischer 1982, 124; Aristodemou 2008, 94. Aristodemou 2008, 94. 2008, 94.
31 Hülsen 1919; Koster, R. (2004): Die Bauornamentik der frühen und Mittleren kaiserzeit In Milet, V: Die Baurornamentik von Milet, 1, 65- Hülsen 1919; Koster, R. (2004): Die Bauornamentik der frühen und Mittleren kaiserzeit In Milet, V: Die Baurornamentik von Milet, 1, 65- ; Koster, R. (2004): Die Bauornamentik der frühen und Mittleren kaiserzeit In Milet, V: Die Baurornamentik von Milet, 1, 65-
77. Berlin-New York: W. de Gruyter; Aristodemou 2008, 413-414. Also, R. Bol Skulpturen der römischen Kaiserzeit aus Milet, in Funde aus
Milet, V,2 (forthcoming).
32 For the sculptural decoration of theaters, see Schwingenstein 1977 and Can Özren 1996; for sculptured decoration in roman thermae, see For the sculptural decoration of theaters, see Schwingenstein 1977 and Can Özren 1996; for sculptured decoration in roman thermae, see For the sculptural decoration of theaters, see Schwingenstein 1977 and Can Özren 1996; for sculptured decoration in roman thermae, see he sculptural decoration of theaters, see Schwingenstein 1977 and Can Özren 1996; for sculptured decoration in roman thermae, see Schwingenstein 1977 and Can Özren 1996; for sculptured decoration in roman thermae, see ; for sculptured decoration in roman thermae, see for sculptured decoration in roman thermae, see
Manderscheid 1981; for sculptured decoration in Italian roman villas, see Neudecker 1988. On the Purpose and Setting of Graeco-Roman Art in
Italy and the Greek Imperial East, see Vermeule 1977; for the Setting of Greek Sculptures and Garden Sculpture, see Ridgway 1971, Ridgway
1981 and Kent Hill 1981.
33 Kapossy 1969, 12-40; Aristodemou 2008, 104-232; On water deities, Becatti, G. 1970/71): “Ninfe e divinità marine. Richerche mitologiche Kapossy 1969, 12-40; Aristodemou 2008, 104-232; On water deities, Becatti, G. 1970/71): “Ninfe e divinità marine. Richerche mitologiche , 12-40; Aristodemou 2008, 104-232; On water deities, Becatti, G. 1970/71): “Ninfe e divinità marine. Richerche mitologiche Aristodemou 2008, 104-232; On water deities, Becatti, G. 1970/71): “Ninfe e divinità marine. Richerche mitologiche Richerche mitologiche
iconografche e stilistiche”, St.Misc. 17: 17-58; Lattimore, St. (1976): The Marine Thiasos in Greek Sculpture (Monumenta Archaeologica,
9); Amedick 2007.
34 Kapossy 1969, 41-45, 48-53; Aristodemou 2008, 233-242; Recently on genre sculpture, Kunze 1999; Kunze 2002.
35 Kapossy 1969, 46-47; Aristodemou 2008, 251-300; Kapossy 1969, 46-47; Aristodemou 2008, 251-300; Aristodemou 2008, 251-300; For roman portraits in context, Smith 1998; Eule 2001; Fejfer 2008.
Sculptured decoration of monumental nymphaea at the eastern provinces of the Roman Empire
— 154 —
Interpretation. The decorative program of a roman nymphaeum can be understood through the interactive
relation between sculpture and water. Gods like Poseidon and Aphrodite, mythological fgures and water
deities like river Gods and Nymphs, or even ordinary people, like fshermen, are directly connected to
water because of their watery habitat
36
. Many of these function as water spouts. However, the majority
of fgures associate with water indirectly, through their duties and deeds
37
. Such fgures are Dionysus
and Apollo and their Thiasoi, Erotes, Olympian Gods (Zeus, Hermes), healing Gods (Asclepius, Hygeia),
Eastern Gods (e.g. Isis), heroes (e.g. Heracles). There are also fgures whose presence at the monument
is interpreted through local myths and cults
38
. These consist of major or minor Olympian and local gods,
heroes and mythical city-founders, whose connection to the city is equally important to their connection
with water and they are usually mentioned at the monument’s inscription
39
. Their presence at the sculptural
display program of a nymphaeum expresses the city’s gratitude for the divine protection and stresses the
belief that local gods support and sustain not only the imperial family but the citizens too, providing them
with all the necessary goods for a prosper life. Additionally, statues of local gods at nymphaea fnanced by
local benefactors underline the city’s confdence and power
40
.
Imperial and private portraiture follow an almost standardized typology in order to refect the imperial
power and the prestige of local Elite
41
. Male statues are portrayed in divine or heroic nudity, wearing
cuirass, himation, toga or chlamys. The vast majority of the female statues wares chiton and himation,
following, more or less closely, fgure schemes derived from late classical and Hellenistic statue types
(Large and Small Herculaneum Women, Pudicitiae, etc.)
42
. The fgure types were chosen according to the
different poses and actions they embodied
43
.
Display Programs. Sculptures adorning the monumental façades of roman nymphaea deploy according
pre-scheduled iconographical programs, which differ between regions and monuments. Each nymphaeum
is unique because its construction and embellishment are a combination of various important factors: the
wealth and the intentions of the patron, his educational and cultural background, the capability of the
architect, along with the local historical, cultural and geomorphologic particularities.
Different decorative programs refect different purposes: Some nymphaea are targeted on the glorifcation
of the Emperor
44
. Most of them are fnanced by the Emperor himself. His image is placed at the most
prominent place at the monument, or is visually connected with the fow of water. The Nymphaeum in
Argos (Greece) was fnanced by the emperor Hadrian
45
. His colossal statue, fnanced by the city for the
imperial visit of 124 A.D., depicts Hadrian in a glorifed nudity
46
. The water few from a hole at the wall
36 Kapossy 1969, 70; Aristodemou 2008, 303-332. Kapossy 1969, 70; Aristodemou 2008, 303-332. Kapossy 1969, 70; Aristodemou 2008, 303-332. 1969, 70; Aristodemou 2008, 303-332.
37 Kapossy 1969, 71; Aristodemou 2008, 326-372. Kapossy 1969, 71; Aristodemou 2008, 326-372. Kapossy 1969, 71; Aristodemou 2008, 326-372. 1969, 71; Aristodemou 2008, 326-372. 1; Aristodemou 2008, 326-372. ; Aristodemou 2008, 326-372.
38 Aristodemou 2008, 372-384. See also Robinson, B. A. (2001): “Fountains and the Culture of Water at Roman Corinth”. Ph.D., University
of Pennsylvania, about the connection between fountains and the formation of cultural identity at Roman Corinth.
39 The Nymphaeum of Herodes Atticus in Olympia is dedicated to Zeus: Bol 1984,109 cat.no.1, pl.2.3. The Trajanic Nymphaeum in Ephesus
is dedicated to the Ephesian Artemis, just as the majority of the ephesian nymphaea: IvE II, nr.424 (also, IvE II, nr.424A, nr.413, nr.414). The
South Nymphaeum [F2] in Perge is dedicated to Artemis Pergaia: ΙΚ Perge I, α�.195-196.
40 The same applies for the majority of civic edifces fnanced by locals. For the civic pride and patriotism see Macro 1980, 682-684. The same applies for the majority of civic edifces fnanced by locals. For the civic pride and patriotism see Macro 1980, 682-684.
41 As demonstrated at Aristodemou (2008: 433) at least 111 fgures are recognized as portraits (imperial and private), which rises almost at the As demonstrated at Aristodemou (2008: 433) at least 111 fgures are recognized as portraits (imperial and private), which rises almost at the t least 111 fgures are recognized as portraits (imperial and private), which rises almost at the
¼ percentage of the total amount of the 400 sculpture studied. According to the statistics private portraits in the eastern nymphaea outnumber
the imperial.
42 Aristodemou 2008, 384-403. Aristodemou 2008, 384-403.
43 Stewart 2003, 79-175. Stewart 2003, 79-175.
44 Longfellow 2005, 88-140; Aristodemou 2008, 403-410. Longfellow 2005, 88-140; Aristodemou 2008, 403-410.
45 Vollgraff, W. (1944-45): “Inscriptions d’Argos”, BCH 68-69: 397-400 cat.n Vollgraff, W. (1944-45): “Inscriptions d’Argos”, BCH 68-69: 397-400 cat.n Vollgraff, W. (1944-45): “Inscriptions d’Argos”, BCH 68-69: 397-400 cat.n cat.n
o
.7; Maderna 1988, 220; Glaser 1983, 89 cat.no.60, fg.164-167;
Walker 1987, 64, pl.VI.a; Longfellow 2005, 150-159; Aristodemou 2008, 439.
46 Vollgraff 1958, 550-555, fg.25-27; Marcadé-Raftopoulou 1963, 49 cat.no.53, fg.16-18; Walker 1979, 100, 105, fg.30; Niemeyer 1968,
35, 111 cat.no.113; Maderna 1988, 220, cat.no UD8, pl.25.1; Papazapheiriou 2004, 134, 279-280, cat.no.ΓΗ8, pl.28; Aristodemou 2008, 439,
cat.no.9, pl.2.3.
— 155 —
georgia a. aristoDeMou
creating the illusion that it was running through the Emperor’s raised right hand. The Trajan’s Nymphaeum in
Ephesus was fnanced by the priest Ti. Claudius Aristion around 102-114 A.D. and was dedicated to Ephesus,
Artemis and the Emperor Trajan
47
. The primary water outlet was located underneath the colossal statue of the
Emperor Trajan, which was housed at the central niche of the nymphaeum. In both nymphaea the Emperor’s
image works as a symbol of power. He who controls the water, controls the life of his subjects
48
.
Other nymphaea present the Emperor in a prominent place at their façade, however the signifcance of local
Gods is now highly emphasized. At the North Nymphaeum (F3) of Perge the Emperor Hadrian is represented
by two statues, a naked and a cuirassed one
49
. Yet, the dominating presence of the reclining River God Kestrus
is here undisputable
50
. His statue, placed at the very centre of the monument, is organically connected with
the fow of water. This is a visual statement that Perge is a robust city with citizens depending only on their
natural sources, hence, the river Kestrus
51
.
Fewer nymphaea, like the Three Basin Nymphaeum in Side or the Nymphaeum of C. Laecanius Bassus in
Ephesus, are restricted to mythological subjects, probably alluding local cults, however presenting us with
diffculties on detecting specifc statements or intentions
52
.
Certain nymphaea accentuate the role of the local Elite. The two-storied nymphaeum of Herodes Atticus in
Olympia was built in ca. 153 A.D. by Herodes Atticus in the memory of his wife Regilla
53
. The bronze river
God Alpheios in animal form, dominates the central water basin, stating that he supplies Olympia with his
water. Two statues of Zeus, the patron god of the Altis, are placed at the centre of each foor
54
. The statues of
the imperial family deploy along the niches of the lower 1
st
foor, while the statues of the family of Herodes
Atticus are placed at the prominent 2
nd
foor, surprisingly standing not only above the imperial statues, but
next to the Father of the Gods. It is impressive how powerful Herodes’ family consider themselves to act in
a so provocative manner
55
. This reveals the prominent position of local aristocrats in the political and social
structure of the roman society. As a result they dare to place themselves next to their Emperor and moreover,
next to their Gods.
Monumental nymphaea were fnanced by Emperors and wealthy patrons
56
. Financing the construction of a
nymphaeum and (or) its decoration is a politically motivated action. As an imperial benefaction, nymphaea
proclaim the imperial power, virtue and culture. As objects of private patronage they signaled the donor’s
wealth, fame and connections to the imperial regime
57
.
47 IvE, II, nr.424. Scherrer 2000, 116; Halfmann 2001, 65 -68; Dorl-Klingenschmid 2001,97, 188-189 cat.n
o
.26; Uğurlu 2004, 63. Longfellow
2005, 107-125. Quatember 2006, 73-77; Auinger and Rathmayr 2007, 250; Ti. Claudius Aristion: Pliny the Younger, Ep. 6, 31, 3; Cramme
2001, 146-150; Quatember, U. (2005): Ti. Claudius Aristion und seine Bauten in Ephesos, Forum Archaeologiae 35/VI (http://farch.net).
48 Winter 1996, 184; Longfellow 2005, 117. Winter 1996, 184; Longfellow 2005, 117.
49 Antalya, Archaeological Museum,Inv.Nr.A3861�3863 and A3730: Inan-Rosenbaum 1979, 95-98, cat.n Antalya, Archaeological Museum,Inv.Nr.A3861�3863 and A3730: Inan-Rosenbaum 1979, 95-98, cat.n Antalya, Archaeological Museum,Inv.Nr.A3861�3863 and A3730: Inan-Rosenbaum 1979, 95-98, cat.n : Inan-Rosenbaum 1979, 95-98, cat.n
o
.45-46, pl.38-40; Maderna 1988,
203, cat.n
o
.D9; Evers 1994, 82-83, cat.n
o
.6-7; Papazapheiriou 2004, 269, cat.n
o
KM 5, pl.23.
50 Perge, North Nymphaeum (F3) Perge, North Nymphaeum (F3) in situ: LIMC VI (1992) 39 nr.6, s.v.Kestros (H. A. Cahn); Longfellow 2005, 200-203.
51 The statue of Kestrus is here accompanied by two female portrait statues, most possibly of the two female patrons: Antalya, Archaeological
Museum, Inv.Nr.A3865 and A3864: Inan 1974, 652 cat.no.4-5, pl.202-203; Alexandridis 2004, 239, cat.no.15-16; Aristodemou 2008, cat.
no.253-254, pl.37.7-8.
52 Side, Three Basin Nymphaeum: Dorl-Klingenschmid 2001, 242, cat.n
o
.105; Hydrekdocheion of C. Laecanius Bassus: Dorl-Klingenschmid
2001, 186, cat.n
o
.24; Jung 2006,79-86; Auinger and Rathmayr 2007, 252.
53 Bol 1984.
54 One naked as One naked as naked as Zeus Katachnonios and one in the type of Dresden Zeus: Olympia, Archaeological Museum, Inv.Nr.�170 and �108: Bol
1984, 28-30, 187-193 cat.n
o
.48-49, pl.59-63; LIMC VIII (1997) 350 nr.282, s.v. Zeus (P. Karanastassi) and 326 nr.78b, s.v. Zeus (M. Tiverios);
Aristodemou 2008, 187-188, cat.n
o
.41-42, pl.7.2-3.
55 For the family of Herodes Atticus, see Tobin, J. (1997): For the family of Herodes Atticus, see Tobin, J. (1997): For the family of Herodes Atticus, see Tobin, J. (1997): , J. (1997): J. (1997): . (1997): Herodes Attikos and the City of Athens: Patronage and Confict under the Antonines
(Archaia Hellas, 4), Amsterdam: Gieben.
56 For the patronage issue, see also For the patronage issue, see also For the patronage issue, see also Gauthier 1985; Winter 1996; Ando, Cl. (2000): Imperial Ideology and Provincial Loyalty in the Roman
Empire. Berkeley: University of California Press; Cramme 2001; Halfmann 2001, 1-10; Eilers 2002. Longfellow 2005; Thomas 2007, 71-90.
57 Wealthy local families used monumental architecture to compete for social prestige and serve their political ambitions: Häusle, H. (1980): Wealthy local families used monumental architecture to compete for social prestige and serve their political ambitions: Häusle, H. (1980): Wealthy local families used monumental architecture to compete for social prestige and serve their political ambitions: Häusle, H. (1980): Häusle, H. (1980):
Sculptured decoration of monumental nymphaea at the eastern provinces of the Roman Empire
— 156 —
Obviously, fountain fgures do not cover practical needs. A nymphaeum’s water supply is ensured by the
city’s water distribution network
58
. However, the selection of the iconographical subject, the involvement
of the fgure with the water fow and its placement at the monuments façade, underline the organic
relationship between the building, sculpture and water. The artistic composure that derives from this
interaction exceeds the monument’s architectural context and connects it with the natural environment
or the cityscape where the monument belongs
59
. Monumental nymphaea and their decorative programs
are a refection of a city’s image and transmit specifc messages throughout the roman world
60
. Their
study tries to reconstruct the social, political as well as cultural role that they held in the Eastern Roman
Provinces.
BiBliograPhy
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Roma y las provincias:
modelo y difusión
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Editoras
Trinidad Nogales
Isabel Rodà
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HISPANIA
ANTIGUA
Serie
Arqueológica
HISPANIA ANTIGUA
Collana diretta da
Julián González
Universidad de Sevilla
Serie Histórica

1. Eustaquio Sánchez Salor
Historiografía latino-cristiana. Principios,
contenido, forma.
2. Julián González
Epigrafía Jurídica de la Bética.
3. AA.VV.
El Cardenal Margarit i l’Europa
quatrecentista.
4. Julián González- Pilar Pavón Torrejón
Adriano emperador de Roma.
5. Julián González- Pilar Pavón Torrejón
Andalucía romana y visigoda. Ordenación y
vertebración del territorio.
Serie Arqueológica
1. Trinidad Nogales- Julián González
Culto Imperial: Política y Poder.
2. Trinidad Nogales- José Beltrán
Marmora Hispana: explotación y uso de los
materiales pétreos en la Hispania Romana.
3. Trinidad Nogales- Isabel Rodà
Roma y las provincias: modelo y difusión.
En Mayo de 2009 se celebraba en Mérida el
XI Coloquio Internacional de Arte Romano
Provincial, bajo el lema “Roma y las provincias:
modelo y difusión”. Era la primera vez que la
Península Ibérica acogía este tipo de Coloquios.
Se unieron en el esfuerzo el Departamento
de Investigación del Museo Nacional de Arte
Romano (MNAR-Ministerio de Cultura) y el
Instituto Catalán de Arqueología Clásica (ICAC-
Generalitat de Catalunya).
Hubo una masiva respuesta internacional, y
especialmente de los investigadores hispanos,
portugueses y españoles. El XI Coloquio discurrió
en un agradable y productivo ambiente científico,
y las sesiones académicas se completaron con
unas actividades complementarias en el marco
del Peristilo del Teatro Romano de Augusta
Emerita, el Museo Nacional de Arte Romano y
varios edificios históricos emeritenses. Tras las
sesiones científicas se visitaron dos ejemplos
del patrimonio hispano, las ciudades Patrimonio
de la Humanidad de Evora (Portugal) e Itálica
(Sevilla).
Se culmina el objetivo final: lograr que la
ciencia quede plasmada en unos volúmenes
monográficos que sirvan para el futuro de
herramienta imprescindible de estudio. Dos
volúmenes que recogen el papel de Roma en los
territorios provinciales y viceversa, el notable
protagonismo que las provincias jugaron en el
concierto del Imperio.
Dado el elevado número de participaciones, se
han editado dos volúmenes, que responden a las
divisiones territoriales; el primero, se ocupa de las
provincias no hispanas, dejando el segundo para
la Península Ibérica y los trabajos presentados
en formato poster. Todos los artículos se han
procurado cuidar al máximo, aunque sólo sus
autores son responsables de los contenidos de sus
textos y de sus imágenes. Agradecemos a todas
las entidades y participantes su compromiso, sus
ágiles respuestas a los plazos establecidos y su
interés en que esta empresa, de todos, llegara a
buen final.
JUNTA DE EXTREMADURA
Vicepresidencia Segunda, Consejería de Economía,
Comercio e Innovación
Con el apoyo de: