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# Book: Automotive mechanics by s.

Srinivasan
Engine performs work Although this is for cars from the 50's, the basics haven't been changed much and you could use this info for learning how a car engine works. The manner in which the engine performs its work is illustrated below. The crank of the bicycle and the crank in the engine work in similar fashion. When the rider pushes down on the pedal of the bicycle, A, the force exerted on the crank causes the sprocket to be turned. The turning or rotary force thus developed is called "torque." Torque then is that which produces or tends to produce rotation. The pressure developed in the cylinder, B, when the fuel charge is burned, results in force being delivered to the crank of the engine through the piston and connecting rod so that power is developed in the engine. This force or power causes the rotation of the crankshaft and the flywheel. If a weight, C, is attached to a rope, and the rope attached to the flywheel which is being turned by the power secured from the burning fuel, the weight will be lifted. The amount of force thus developed is termed "footpounds of torque." For instance, if the radius of the flywheel were 12 inches or one foot and the weight lifted were 200 pounds then the torque would be 200 foot-pounds. This ability taken in conjunction with the speed at which the rim of the flywheel is moving is the basis of calculation of horse power. What is horse power? One horse power is the ability to lift 150 pounds a distance of 220 feet in one minute. The total amount of work performed is 33,000 foot-pounds a minute. The same amount of work would be performed if the horse were to lift one pound 33,000 feet a minute, or if his work resulted in lifting 33,000 pounds one foot in one minute. Due to the fact that in the case of early mechanical devices use was made of the horse as a source of power, the practice of speaking in terms of horse power, with reference to engines, has long had acceptance in the engineering fraternity. In the days when horses were used for power, if one horse could not do the work required, additional horses were added to make available the amounts of power required. Likewise, in the case of early engines, if a single cylinder would not do the work, other cylinders were added. In automobile engines, when it is necessary to increase the amount of power, other pistons are added. Of course, the bore and stroke of the engine have much to do with the power developed.

one of these being an arbitrary method of getting the S. of course. so the student of automotive mechanics understands that two cylinders of the same size will do more work than one. As a matter of fact. rating which has to do with the licensing requirements in all states and in fact in most countries. when it is being operated under its own power. The camshaft gear and the crankshaft gear likewise are essential. These features will be discussed at a later point. it would likely develop more than four times the power for the simple reason that the larger number of cylinders makes for a more continuous flow of power.A. may be entirely ignored. causes the car to be driven along the highway. and work in relation to the automobile and thus be in a position to understand the need of knowing the theory on which the construction of the gasoline automobile is made. considering the first throw of the crankshaft and the first rod and piston. Engine and ignition time Only those parts which are essential to engine or ignition timing are shown. Other parts of the engine are nonessential and. is occurring at all times in the engine. This in turn is dependent upon the capacity of the engine. This in turn will drive the axle shafts which are geared 5 to 1 with reference to the propeller shaft and turn the rear wheels to drive or propel the car forward in the case of forward speed. . The other is the actual power developed which is measured as brake horse power. Four similar engines connected together. or. It may be said that the horse power developed in the engine is used to do work in propelling the car. There are two methods of rating horse power of engines. Just as it is readily understood that a team of horses will do more work than one horse. is used to turn the flywheel and transmission gears. the greater the displacement of the engine and naturally the more fuel which will be drawn in and compressed to be burned. A single-cylinder engine. up to engines developing as much as 1. for the sake of the study and actual engine-timing process. The two cams. such as the washing machine. or in a reverse direction in the case of reverse speed. The manner in which the parts of automobile engines are designed and work together to develop power is explained in the following pages of this chapter. the two valve lifters. and finally is delivered through the rear axle to the rear wheels. in contact with the road. has a certain capacity. let us say. Engine timing is done from cylinder Number 1. If the student will remember that the same kind of action as that illustrated at A and B. and. The larger these two items. and the two valves belonging to this cylinder are considered for this work. The ability of an engine to do work is dependent upon the power or the horse power developed. the friction of which. The student should now have an elementary understanding of just what is meant by power. and the light power requirements.Horse power developed by the engine.200 horse power for aircraft and marine uses. torque. has four times the capacity for work. cream separator.E.000 or 2. and this in turn gives the total displacement of the engine and determines in no small Way the capacity of the engine to do real work. the greater the power which will be developed. Most automobile engines fall between the lower power ranges. seldom developing over 200 horse power. Engine capacity Gasoline engines are made in sizes varying from the fractional horse-power engines used about homes for the operation of small machines. The size of the engine is ordinarily spoken of as having to do with the bore of the cylinder and the stroke of the piston. For this reason we have all engines rated by bore and stroke and the number of cylinders. a more even torque. and further understands that a larger cylinder or a cylinder with a greater capacity will do more work than a single cylinder of smaller capacity. he can appreciate just how the power passing from the engine into the transmission line may be used to turn the propeller shaft.

Eight cylinders in V form or in line in a single block are designed and produced without eliciting any comment in modern practice. or eight cylinders. in the instruction stand illustrated. it is easily possible to build a 100-horse-power engine with four. but the intake ports and exhaust ports are cored out in the casting. For instance. and with the development of the six-cylinder engine the cylinders were cast in two blocks. Airplane and marine. Ball bearings have been used with success. Each power impulse gained from burning fuel charges would need to be approximately twice as heavy for like engine speeds of an eight. While it is true that inherent balance and other engineering data enter into this picture. the manufacturers were casting the four cylinders in one block for the four-cylinder engine. Perhaps the greatest improvement. and other parts are cast as part of the single-block casting. steel-backed bearings are claimed to show a longer life under conditions of hard service. the ignition drive shaft and gears. the distributor (part of the ignition head). the tendency in cylinder design has been along the line of arranging them all in one block. six. Engine bearings In practically all instances. Otherwise the cycle of operation is the same as for the gasoline engine. Shortly. . Compression ignition is used to fire the mixture. functions of parts. is no slight feat. but this construction is seldom used for passenger-car engines. Casting the cylinders in one block helps to maintain an even operating temperature throughout the entire block and assures approximately the same operating temperature to all cylinders. Not only are the water jackets and other passageways cast about the cylinders for their cooling. However. but the practice of casting the six cylinders together was a bit slower in being made practical. Casting cylinder blocks Since the earliest successes of the motor car. as well as truck engines. brackets. the main bearings of motor-car engines are cast or fitted into the webs and ends of the crankcase. These bearings are usually of the babbitt-lined type. are using them with complete success. it is generally conceded that the forces of the power impulses are the largest factor in smooth or rough engines. in most cases. and interrelation of those parts essential to engine and ignition timing. other parts are necessary for ignition timing. The babbitt and bronze bearings are what is termed the split-bushing or plain-bearing type. which are needed when cylinders are cast separately and assembled on a crankcase. as complicated as are the castings for a modern motor-car engine. Lead-bronze. A block so cast is without a multitude of joints and connections. Diesel engine principle Fuel is not drawn in with the air but is injected after the air charge has been compressed. Heavier impulses result in greater strains and consequently more vibration. They are also used with success in passenger-car engines. and the high-tension wiring. is one of engine operation. These are the timer-distributor. three to a block. The earliest designs called for single cylinder castings. all spark plugs. Power impulses The number of cylinders in an engine has less to do with the power of the engine than with its smoothness. mounted individually on a crankcase casting. but rather illustrates exact timing of parts. ammeter. Next came the cylinders cast in pairs for the four-cylinder engine. Naturally the pistons in the four would have approximately twice the head area of those in the eight.In addition to the parts named above. spark-retard device. however. These units have all been gathered in compact. yet visible form. the matter of turning out perfect castings. The stand does not illustrate engine-building practice. All manner of bosses. ignition switch and the primary wiring.