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Book: Automotive mechanics by s.

Srinivasan
Engine performs work Although this is for cars from the 50's, the basics haven't been changed much and you could use this info for learning how a car engine works. The manner in which the engine performs its work is illustrated below. The crank of the bicycle and the crank in the engine work in similar fashion. When the rider pushes down on the pedal of the bicycle, A, the force exerted on the crank causes the sprocket to be turned. The turning or rotary force thus developed is called "torque." Torque then is that which produces or tends to produce rotation. The pressure developed in the cylinder, B, when the fuel charge is burned, results in force being delivered to the crank of the engine through the piston and connecting rod so that power is developed in the engine. This force or power causes the rotation of the crankshaft and the flywheel. If a weight, C, is attached to a rope, and the rope attached to the flywheel which is being turned by the power secured from the burning fuel, the weight will be lifted. The amount of force thus developed is termed "footpounds of torque." For instance, if the radius of the flywheel were 12 inches or one foot and the weight lifted were 200 pounds then the torque would be 200 foot-pounds. This ability taken in conjunction with the speed at which the rim of the flywheel is moving is the basis of calculation of horse power. What is horse power? One horse power is the ability to lift 150 pounds a distance of 220 feet in one minute. The total amount of work performed is 33,000 foot-pounds a minute. The same amount of work would be performed if the horse were to lift one pound 33,000 feet a minute, or if his work resulted in lifting 33,000 pounds one foot in one minute. Due to the fact that in the case of early mechanical devices use was made of the horse as a source of power, the practice of speaking in terms of horse power, with reference to engines, has long had acceptance in the engineering fraternity. In the days when horses were used for power, if one horse could not do the work required, additional horses were added to make available the amounts of power required. Likewise, in the case of early engines, if a single cylinder would not do the work, other cylinders were added. In automobile engines, when it is necessary to increase the amount of power, other pistons are added. Of course, the bore and stroke of the engine have much to do with the power developed.

one of these being an arbitrary method of getting the S. of course. so the student of automotive mechanics understands that two cylinders of the same size will do more work than one. As a matter of fact. rating which has to do with the licensing requirements in all states and in fact in most countries. when it is being operated under its own power. The camshaft gear and the crankshaft gear likewise are essential. These features will be discussed at a later point. it would likely develop more than four times the power for the simple reason that the larger number of cylinders makes for a more continuous flow of power.A. may be entirely ignored. causes the car to be driven along the highway. and work in relation to the automobile and thus be in a position to understand the need of knowing the theory on which the construction of the gasoline automobile is made. considering the first throw of the crankshaft and the first rod and piston. Engine and ignition time Only those parts which are essential to engine or ignition timing are shown. Other parts of the engine are nonessential and. is occurring at all times in the engine. This in turn is dependent upon the capacity of the engine. This in turn will drive the axle shafts which are geared 5 to 1 with reference to the propeller shaft and turn the rear wheels to drive or propel the car forward in the case of forward speed. . The other is the actual power developed which is measured as brake horse power. Four similar engines connected together. or. It may be said that the horse power developed in the engine is used to do work in propelling the car. There are two methods of rating horse power of engines. Just as it is readily understood that a team of horses will do more work than one horse. is used to turn the flywheel and transmission gears. the greater the displacement of the engine and naturally the more fuel which will be drawn in and compressed to be burned. A single-cylinder engine. up to engines developing as much as 1. for the sake of the study and actual engine-timing process. The two cams. such as the washing machine. or in a reverse direction in the case of reverse speed. The manner in which the parts of automobile engines are designed and work together to develop power is explained in the following pages of this chapter. the two valve lifters. and finally is delivered through the rear axle to the rear wheels. in contact with the road. has a certain capacity. let us say. Engine timing is done from cylinder Number 1. If the student will remember that the same kind of action as that illustrated at A and B. and. The larger these two items. and the two valves belonging to this cylinder are considered for this work. The ability of an engine to do work is dependent upon the power or the horse power developed. the friction of which. The student should now have an elementary understanding of just what is meant by power. and the light power requirements.Horse power developed by the engine.200 horse power for aircraft and marine uses. torque. has four times the capacity for work. cream separator.E.000 or 2. and this in turn gives the total displacement of the engine and determines in no small Way the capacity of the engine to do real work. the greater the power which will be developed. Most automobile engines fall between the lower power ranges. seldom developing over 200 horse power. Engine capacity Gasoline engines are made in sizes varying from the fractional horse-power engines used about homes for the operation of small machines. The size of the engine is ordinarily spoken of as having to do with the bore of the cylinder and the stroke of the piston. For this reason we have all engines rated by bore and stroke and the number of cylinders. a more even torque. and further understands that a larger cylinder or a cylinder with a greater capacity will do more work than a single cylinder of smaller capacity. he can appreciate just how the power passing from the engine into the transmission line may be used to turn the propeller shaft.

Eight cylinders in V form or in line in a single block are designed and produced without eliciting any comment in modern practice. or eight cylinders. in the instruction stand illustrated. it is easily possible to build a 100-horse-power engine with four. but the intake ports and exhaust ports are cored out in the casting. For instance. and with the development of the six-cylinder engine the cylinders were cast in two blocks. Airplane and marine. Ball bearings have been used with success. Each power impulse gained from burning fuel charges would need to be approximately twice as heavy for like engine speeds of an eight. While it is true that inherent balance and other engineering data enter into this picture. the manufacturers were casting the four cylinders in one block for the four-cylinder engine. Perhaps the greatest improvement. and other parts are cast as part of the single-block casting. steel-backed bearings are claimed to show a longer life under conditions of hard service. the ignition drive shaft and gears. the distributor (part of the ignition head). the tendency in cylinder design has been along the line of arranging them all in one block. six. Engine bearings In practically all instances. Otherwise the cycle of operation is the same as for the gasoline engine. Shortly. . Compression ignition is used to fire the mixture. functions of parts. is no slight feat. but this construction is seldom used for passenger-car engines. Casting the cylinders in one block helps to maintain an even operating temperature throughout the entire block and assures approximately the same operating temperature to all cylinders. Not only are the water jackets and other passageways cast about the cylinders for their cooling. However. but the practice of casting the six cylinders together was a bit slower in being made practical. Casting cylinder blocks Since the earliest successes of the motor car. as well as truck engines. brackets. the main bearings of motor-car engines are cast or fitted into the webs and ends of the crankcase. These bearings are usually of the babbitt-lined type. are using them with complete success. it is generally conceded that the forces of the power impulses are the largest factor in smooth or rough engines. in most cases. and interrelation of those parts essential to engine and ignition timing. other parts are necessary for ignition timing. The babbitt and bronze bearings are what is termed the split-bushing or plain-bearing type. which are needed when cylinders are cast separately and assembled on a crankcase. as complicated as are the castings for a modern motor-car engine. Lead-bronze. A block so cast is without a multitude of joints and connections. Diesel engine principle Fuel is not drawn in with the air but is injected after the air charge has been compressed. Heavier impulses result in greater strains and consequently more vibration. They are also used with success in passenger-car engines. and the high-tension wiring. is one of engine operation. These are the timer-distributor. three to a block. The earliest designs called for single cylinder castings. all spark plugs. Power impulses The number of cylinders in an engine has less to do with the power of the engine than with its smoothness. mounted individually on a crankcase casting. but rather illustrates exact timing of parts. ammeter. Next came the cylinders cast in pairs for the four-cylinder engine. Naturally the pistons in the four would have approximately twice the head area of those in the eight.In addition to the parts named above. spark-retard device. however. These units have all been gathered in compact. yet visible form. the matter of turning out perfect castings. The stand does not illustrate engine-building practice. All manner of bosses. ignition switch and the primary wiring.

These manifolds carry three exhaust-port flanges which are connected to the cylinder block. while the lower halves are bolted onto the upper halves by means of studs set into the crankcase metal. . passing through the intake passageways. it would stop there. Some manufacturers use two flywheels. For updraft carburetors the intake manifold is fitted with a flange at the centre bottom. The flywheel serves the purpose of acting as a mounting for the starter ring gear. Fuel charges. has been designed to bolt onto the cylinder block. stamped to the general form of the face of the cap where it joins onto the upper half. Shims are carried between the two halves of main bearings in many cases of splash-type lubrication but are not commonly used for bearings in forced-lubrication engines. It will stand the occasional jar or blow better than if it were of cast metal. bronze. pick up this heat. on first glance. is dependent on the flywheel. and without the flywheel to carry it on. with which they are lined. one on each end of the crankshaft. They are thin sheet metal. The first explosion would drive it to bottom dead centre. malleable iron. Manifolds The design of manifolds is of interest since the efficiency of the engine is largely dependent on them. In the first place. This duty of keeping the engine turning at one time was of greater importance than in later design. may be sweated or spun into the cap. or the cap may be machined to accurate limits and the babbitt sweated onto a brass. it is essential to the smooth operation of the engine. strong. much of the stamina of the engine. or steel back. and gives it off at those points where the engine develops no power. it not infrequently is struck by flying stones or receives a blow from some other cause. The exhaust manifold. as well as its flexibility and pickup. Oil pans and oil sumps The lower half of the crankcase is made from pressed sheet metal in practically all cases. and with flanges on the ends where it is attached to the cylinder block. Much more weight is generally carried in the crankshaft than formerly. This makes it light and. Flywheels The design and construction of flywheels. The larger bearing caps are provided with four stud holes. The babbitt metal. In the latter case. It stores up the energy received from the explosions within the cylinder. at the same time. Cylinder heads With the success of the motor car and its adoption by the public came an insistent demand to have the heads made so that carbon could more readily be removed. or drop forgings. and again the wheel is machined to receive a toothed ring. The heater at the centre permits exhaust gases to surround the intake manifold and warm the incoming fuel charge. This led to the rather universal practice of making cylinder heads in separate castings so that they might be removed. would seem to be of slight interest. As a matter of fact. High-speed racing engines use very light flywheels. the ring only is replaced in case of damaged teeth. Sometimes the teeth are cut directly in the flywheel metal. This has the effect of placing the entire job in more even balance — similar to the result obtained by the use of counterbalances. Being in the lowest position of the parts making up the power plant.The upper halves of the bearings appear in the crankcase ends and webs. Heat flows from the exhaust passages into the metal of the manifold. The backs of the bearings may be aluminium. and where counterbalances are used. especially in the out-of-way places and in rough going. they serve to store and give off the required energy. otherwise the engine would not run. cast iron. in a manner which connects the upper part with each exhaust-valve port of the eight-cylinder engine. cast steel.

and the lightness reduces vibration. is well known. When the pin is anchored to the rod. Common practice in piston-pin design seems to be making the pins of large diameter. Cast-iron pistons may be plated with tin or other long wearing metal to promote rapid breaking in and long life. when they are cast and produced along the lines of the cast-iron pistons. These may take the form of soft-metal washers just fitting the pin hole. Piston pins A variety of piston pins is used. The force tending to wind it is delivered from the piston through the connecting rod on each explosion. however. no other provision is needed. Of course. The large diameter insures long wear. and the lower the engine speed the less friction required and induced. Some have oil holes provided. In order to overcome this detrimental feature. That is the reason for calling this particular type constant-clearance pistons. Aluminium expands twice as fast as cast iron. Some are made to anchor in the piston-pin bosses of the piston. the ring lands are relieved so that expansion at that point will not cause the piston to grip the cylinder wall. The aluminium pistons are claimed to be less given to an accumulation of carbon. considering the size of the piston. as the case may be. These pistons are always snug to the cylinder walls. Aluminium pistons of the old solid-skirt type were noisy until they were thoroughly warmed. or they may be in the form of split springs which are sprung into a recessed groove just at the ends of the piston pins. These pistons have overcome the objection to the aluminium piston from the point of expansion. the so-called constant-clearance pistons were evolved. is the excessive clearance. and this is secured by making the pin in tubular form. They are also desirable from the fact that they materially decrease engine vibration. As soon as pressure is released it snaps back. Various devices have been used to secure the pins in position by placing them in the piston-pin boss at the ends of the pins. and some are made to anchor in the upper end of the rods. as in the case of a toy airplane. which has been wound up by twisting.001 in. The higher the engine speed the greater the tension to hold against severe vibration. owing to better heat conducting properties. So it is with a crankshaft. Try this with the yardstick. Dampers may be placed on the forward end of the shaft outside the crankcase or on one of the forward throws of the shaft within the engine case. hold both ends and release gradually. first winding it sharply and then releasing suddenly. to . allowing the shaft to unwind slowly. These pistons are provided with a split skirt and are fitted to the cylinders with just bare clearance. to have the clamping screw properly locked to prevent its loosening. to unwind as soon as released. and then. When the engine warms up the metal expands. The method of securing the pin to the rod or the piston. An engine equipped with them has good pickup and is flexible. Piston design It is generally conceded that cast iron is a good piston material so far as long life and expansion properties are concerned.002 in. is rather immaterial as long as the particular fastening device is secure and does not loosen. A serious objection to the aluminium pistons. on the second trial. . It is essential. say .Vibration dampers The tendency of a rubber band. The next consideration is lightness. but this merely causes the groove to become smaller and allows the piston to retain its close fit in the cylinder bore. Many devices have been evolved to retain the piston pin in its proper position within the piston. They operate on the principle of gradual release of the power stored on the wind-up. If a yardstick is grasped with one hand on each end it is possible to twist or wind it. and on this account twice the clearance must be allowed when fitting the solid-type aluminium piston to the cylinder bore. A lock ring fitted to a groove in the upper end of the piston rod and another groove in the centre of the piston pin is another means of retaining piston pins. Unless a damper is provided it snaps back to position so rapidly as to set up engine vibrations. etc. and others do not.

Aside from the rings made along conventional lines. those in the lower two grooves are oil-control rings. Slots may be cut through the rings for purposes of oil control. and other units. The design of the crankshaft has a determining influence on the design of the crankcase. the usual practice is to screw studs into the case and anchor the cylinder block to it with a gasket between block and crankcase. and has a fine appearance. It requires no finish in the way of paints or enamels. Thus a four-cylinder car will have five main bearings and a sixcylinder car will have seven. One bearing is provided for the crankshaft at each end of the case. While it may be designed in a rather irregular form. there are scores of other designs. three pieces. The style of shaft used also has a determining influence on the camshaft design. since they may be replaced independently of each other. Aside from the mechanical duties which the crankcase must perform. It is light in weight and has good strength. It works readily. It lends itself nicely to cleaning. The crankcase carries the crankshaft. and consequently. Aluminium. the cylinder block. it must be so designed that it can be machined to fine limits. all designed to prevent the loss of compression. the greater the freedom from distortion and vibration of the crankshaft and case. and four pieces. Where the cylinder block and crankcase are cast separately. so that all parts will fit and so that all gear covers and oil pans may be drawn down to a close. A number of expanders on the market are designed to be placed back of the ring to keep it in close contact with the cylinder wall at all times. and the other with seven main bearings. the camshaft and bearings. two pieces. They represent a multitude of special joints. This allows the cylinder block to be handled more readily. A straight-eight would have nine bearings. then the crankshaft and the camshaft must be manufactured according to a design which will give . because of its light weight. thus making it oil-tight. one with three. the case must have webs cast across to receive them.Piston rings Rings in the upper two grooves are compression . Some of these rings give good results. the water pump. other elements of design being equal. such as carrying the crankshaft and bearings. The more webs provided the more rigid the crankcase. There are rings made in one piece. the camshaft. Some engineers provide main-shaft bearings to a number one in excess of the number of cylinders. Many rings are made with square-cut ends. and as a rule. the oil pump. and is an economy if either unit suffers serious damage. Crankshafts and firing orders Figure shows several styles of crankcases which might be used for six-cylinder engines. When the firing order of the engine has been determined by the engine builder. the oil lines. A web in the crankcase is necessary to carry each main except the end ones. the generator. it must act as a retainer for the lubricating oil. and will not rust or tarnish. but a V-8 would not have in excess of five. accurate fit on the gaskets laid on its machined surfaces. They include those which have special oil grooves. one with four. the starting motor. Wherever additional bearings are to be used. is an ideal crankcase metal for use when the cylinder block and crankcase are cast separately. and when clean adds much to the attractiveness of the power plant.

Cylinder Number 1 shows at the end of the firing stroke. Six is shown on intake (suction) so that it will follow next. In the case of the bicycle the force comes on the pedal which is like the crank pin of the shaft A. two rods for each crank pin. In principle of operation this is similar to the crank on the bicycle. the simplest type of crankshaft is shown at A. counterbalances such as are shown at B. The lift of a cam is ordinarily 5/16 in. sometimes running as high as 3/8 in. Five is just firing so we have the beginning of the firing order 1-5. The firing order might be 1-3-4-2.the desired results. Cam action must be such as to open these valves in time and proper order for the firing order. The crank pin carries the connecting rod and this is like the cyclist's leg in transmitting force from the pedal to the crank pin. two crank pins. Cams are forged out as an integral part of the shaft. In figure above here. If the student will remember that each cylinder of any engine must have these working parts working in conjunction with it. he will be able to gain an understanding of the more complicated construction of multicylinder engines. When rocker arms are used the pivot point of the arm has an influence on the total valve lift. A shaft for a single-cylinder engine or one for a two-cylinder engine presents no problem when it comes to an order of firing the cylinders. that is. The early part of this page gives an explanation of the four-stroke cycle with reference to a single cylinder. The valve and valve ports in the cylinder bead above are indicated. The lift of the cam is usually the lift of the valve. The two-throw shaft at C is an example of how a counterbalanced shaft for a twocylinder engine may be built. The shaft shown in figure left has a firing order of 1-2-4-3 as may be traced out by the lines and arrows. This shaft has two throws. In order to balance the weight of the piston-and-rod assembly. This same shaft might be used for a V-8 design if the rods were set side by side.. figure 2 left side illustrates the first throw of a crankshaft and the two cams for the valve action for the first cylinder. or the amount of opening for the valve. these two being connected together and driven in time by means of a silent chain and sprockets. . direction of rotation being indicated by the curved arrow. When a four-cylinder engine is designed the firing order does need consideration. may be used. Three is on compression and will be fired when it reaches top dead centre so we have 1-5-3. For instance. The ratio is two turns of the crank to one of the camshaft. and since 2 has just started intaking and four is on exhaust they will follow in order. The sequence of operations in a six-cylinder engine is illustrated in figure left. 1-5-3-6-2-4. and two mains.

An idler gear. The eccentric-bushing and idler-gear adjustment requires manual adjustment from time to time. This is termed "dwell" because it holds the valve open. It is free from disagreeable noises. but may he detected on the chain and sprockets. The automatic take-up is controlled by spring action. Timing-gear noises are due to the irregular load placed on them from the action of the valve lifters and valve springs. and aluminium. The valve lifters. due to stretching. positive. It is difficult to obtain quick valve lifting and return and at the same time produce a valve action that will remain quiet. and smooth-running for a long time. with the idea of silencing them. when badly worn. Timing marks are placed on chains and sprockets so that the engine (valve) timing may be set. Paper. to knock and rattle. fibre. Most chains have arrows stamped on them indicating the direction of drive.The length of time a valve may be held open is determined largely by the width (dwell) of the cam nose. Stretching is due to wear within the chain links. Camshafts are designed with the journals a bit larger than the cams are high. This is necessary to permit removing the camshaft endwise from its bearings in the crankcase. The chief objection is looseness. which may be adjusted automatically or from an eccentric arrangement controlled from the outside. Designers give much thought and attention to the task of getting the valve lifter to follow over the cam in a proper fashion. Chain drive Silent-chain or link-belt drive is largely used for camshaft and accessory drive. whether they are of the mushroom type. or the hydraulic type. They are not so easily found as in the case of timing gears. causing them. and the chain runs under proper tension at all times. . bronze. and similar metals have been used in attempts to get away from disagreeable timing-gear noises. and similar composition gears. This is especially noticeable at low speeds. Strong valve springs are used to cause the valve lifter to follow the contour of the cam. may be provided to compensate for wear. Camshaft drive Timing gears are the oldest form of camshaft drive. ride directly upon the cams. Many materials have been used for timing gears and timing-gear idlers. on occasion.