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HIROSHIMA NOTES KAITLIN WENDEL P.

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Dwight Eisenhower: "...the Japanese were ready to surrender and it wasn't necessary
to hit them with that awful thing.”

William D. Leahy; Chief of Staff to Presidents Franklin Roosevelt and
Harry Truman: “The lethal possibilities of atomic warfare in the future are
frightening. My own feeling was that in being the first to use it, we had adopted an ethical standard common to the barbarians of the Dark Ages. I was not taught to make war in that fashion, and wars cannot be won by destroying women and children."

Joseph Grew; Under Secretary of State: "If surrender could have been brought
about in May, 1945, or even in June or July, before the entrance of Soviet Russia into the [Pacific] war and the use of the atomic bomb, the world would have been the gainer."

Albert Einstein: “…said that he was sure that President Roosevelt would have
forbidden the atomic bombing of Hiroshima had he been alive”

The Hiroshima Bomb Size: length - 3 meters, diameter - 0.7 meters. Weight: 4 tons. Nuclear material: Uranium 235. Energy released: equivalent to 12.5 kilotons (roughly 28,000,000 lbs.) of TNT. Code name: "Little Boy". Initial Explosive Conditions Maximum temperature at burst point: several million degrees centigrade. A fireball of 15-meters radius formed in 0.1 millisecond, with a temperature of 300,000 degrees centigrade, and expanded to its huge maximum size in one second. The top of the atomic cloud reached an altitude of 17,000 meters. Black Rain Radioactive debris was deposited by "black rain" that fell heavily for over an hour over a wide area. Damaging Effects of the Atomic Bomb Thermal Hear. Intense thermal heat emitted by the fireball caused severe burns and loss of eyesight. Thermal burns of bare skin occurred as far as 3.5 kilometers from ground zero (directly below the burst point). Most people exposed to thermal rays within 1-kilometer radius of ground zero died. Tile and glass melted; all combustible materials were consumed.

as would the psychological effects of the attack. anemia. would linger for the rest of the victims' lives. the exact population is uncertain. it left an estimated 70. Prolonged injuries were associated with aftereffects. on August 9. Maximum wind velocity: 440 meters per second.000 to 400. Using plutonium with an explosive power of 20 kilotons of TNTequivalent. diarrhea. According to data submitted to the United Nations by Hiroshima City in 1976. With an uncertain population figure. Because official documents were burned. nausea. Long-range health dangers associated with radiation exposure. Wooden houses within 2. The estimated pre-bomb population was 300. loss of appetite. loss of hair. An atomic explosion causes an enormous shock wave followed instantaneously by a rapid expansion of air called the blast.Blast.000. 1990.000 people probably died as a result of initial blast. People exposed at distances of 3 to 5 kilometers later showed symptoms of aftereffects. leukemia and other cancers. headaches.000) by the end of December. Radiation. the death toll could only be estimated. numbered 352. Atomic Demographics Population.3 kilometers of ground zero collapsed. fatigue. holders as of March 31. Maximum wind pressure of the blast: 35 tons per square meter. fever. 1945. This included about twenty American airmen being held as prisoners in the city. although both population and the deaths are uncertain. Concrete buildings near ground zero (thus hit by the blast from above) had ceilings crushed and windows and doors blown off. The most serious in this category were: keloids (massive scar tissue on burned areas). People exposure within 500 meters of ground zero was fatal. heat. such as an increased danger of cancer. these represent roughly half the explosion's released energy. . Symptoms appearing in the first four months were called acute. bloody discharge. vomiting. the death count reached 140. By the end of 1945. The atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki exploded at 11:02 A. the Hiroshima death toll was probably over 100.000 dead by the end of 1945. cataracts.550. Persons qualifying for treatment under the A-bomb Victims Medical Care law of 1957 received Health Cards. because of the lingering effects of radioactive fallout and other after effects. Many people were trapped under fallen structures and burned to death.M. Health Card Holders. and radiation effects. abnormally low white blood cell count. including radiation-induced cancers.000. Bodily Injuries Acute symptoms.000 (plus or minus 10. Deaths. Aftereffects. Some 70. Besides burns and wounds. they included: general malaise. Nagasaki.