You are on page 1of 12

Appendix A Site Description

G.T. Patterson
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Truro, Nova Scotia, Canada

J.A. Brierley
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

A1 INTRODUCTION
A site description is a record of observations for a specific locale, where soil and landscape attributes are to be evaluated. A site can be of any size ranging from under a square meter to several square kilometers or more in extent. The amount of data recorded at a site as well as the required precision is dependent upon the purpose of the project. The purpose also determines the selection of an appropriate site. For example, demonstration plots must be easily accessible and preferably visible from the road (Maguire and Jensen 1997). Although there are exceptions, sites are generally chosen to be representative of a typical soil–climate–landscape situation. Information about the site serves as the link between the actual location, associated landscape and soil characteristics, and corresponding relevance of the samples. A site description provides the context for the various soil properties to be analyzed and may help in the final evaluation and interpretation of analytical results (North Dakota State University [NDSU] Extension Service 1998; Schoeneberger et al. 2002). A good site description also defines how information gained at one location can be extrapolated to other areas. Site information can be classified into three categories: basic sampling data, such as (a) who did the sampling, where, when, and why; (b) information about the landscape; and (c) a summary of the soil horizon data (Soil Survey Staff 1951; Taylor and Pohlen 1962; Walmsley et al. 1980; Day 1983; Knapik et al. 1988; USDA 2002). As mentioned previously, the specific site attributes collected depend upon the nature of the project, and thus

ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Purpose. e. Legal description c. Various methods are available for measuring site attributes. Webster and Butler 1976.g. If the results of a study are to be scaled-up to broader areas or interpreted within a regional context.. Soil survey reports. Latitude–longitude in decimal degrees (GPS) 3.g. hydrology reports can provide valuable background information on the landscape and associated soils. Grid c. Latitude–longitude b. Purposeful d. Landscape and soil profile attributes are listed in Table A2 and Table A3.. crop) ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Consider location.g. All site data are not necessarily measured in the field. TABLE A1. Core 7.. Soil Classification Working Group 1998). while legal descriptions might be more appropriate at the farm level. then soil horizon data are necessary in order to apply soil classification systems (Soil Survey Staff 1975. However. Environmental assessments (well-site. pipeline) c. Probe or auger b. and elevation) to within submeter confidence. Sampling plan. The list of GPS Web sites at the end of this chapter is a sample of what is available. Random b. e. a. it is not an endorsement of one product over another.g. e. Sampling date 5. e. surficial. Table A1 is a list of basic information related to sample site and sampling method. longitude. as a minimum. the first two categories should be always included. geographic positioning systems (GPS) are readily available devices for accurately locating a site (latitude. Horizon or depth sampled 8. Name of sampler 6. Location. A2 SITE ATTRIBUTES Tables A1 through A3 provide a list of site attributes applicable to soil-related studies. LLC. Vegetative cover (native. A List of Basic Sampling Data Project ID Regional setting 1. a. . Where more precise location coordinates are required. Latitude–longitude measurements of location based upon National Topographic Survey maps may be appropriate at the national level. Single=composite 4. a. for example. Long-term monitoring 2.. Fertility status b. and bedrock geology maps. a. respectively. Sampling method.there can be no definitive list.

LRRC #82-52. Manitoba. Kind c. Ecological setting Climate Land use Landform Parent material a. J. Aspect b. Depth to water table 6. 3. Mode of deposition including petrology Topography a.M. Canada. N.TABLE A2. Depth to saline conditions 5. 9. 97 pp.. A List of Landscape Attributes 1. Slope pattern Soil moisture regime (e. Organic material composition c. Thickness b.H. Canadian Forest ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Depth to free carbonates 4. 8.com Knapik. W.. Ottawa.B. Steepness of slope d. 5. Ed. 2. seepage. Elevation c. Manual for describing soils in the field.trimble. 1983. Particle size 8. % Area affected REFERENCES Day.. Thickness b. 10. Rooting zone a. Thickness of layers=horizons 2.omnistar. .com=gps http:= =www. The Canada Soil Information System (CanSIS).g.garmin. Slope length e. A List of Soil Profile Attributes 1. 4. K.J. von Post scale of decomposition 3. 1988. Shape=curvature f. Duck Mountain.com. Particle size b. http:= =www. Thickness b. and Stevens.=about GPS= http:= =www. TABLE A3. Site position g. Expert Committee on Soil Survey. LLC. perviousness) Stoniness class Rockiness class Flooding events 6. drainage. Root-restricting layer a. Riddell. 7. Depth to bedrock 7. Russell. L. GPS Web sites (last verified January 2007).. Organic layers a. Forest Ecosystem Classification and Land System Mapping Pilot Project.

R. ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.. Taylor. Washington. and Broderson. 2002. Taita Exp. J. and Butler.H.nsf=all=sag3025 North Dakota State University (NDSU) Extension Service 1998. Last verified January. Victoria. P. http:= =www. 1976. 503 pp. 1980.. SCS. 1646 (Revised).J. Resources Conservation Service. Aust. Soil Survey Manual. New Zealand. Washington. Field Book for Describing and Sampling Soils. Soil Taxonomy. E. Describing Ecosystems in the Field. 14: 1–24. I. 1997. Moon.S. Department of Agriculture Handbook 436.E. W. Ottawa. T. BC. D.edu=extpubs=plantsci= soilfert=sf-990-3. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Publication. Soil Survey Staff. The Canadian System of Soil Classification. Lincoln. and Jensen. LLC. T. Eds. T..nodak.. G. Sta. Ministry of Environment and Ministry of Forests. 1951. Soil Res. and Pohlen. Canada. Natural Resources Conservation Service.ca=$department=deptdocs. DC. N. Maguire.S. Version 2. Soil Classification and survey studies and Ginninderra. Washington. A New Zealand Handbook for the Field Study of Soils. Soil sampling as a basis for fertilizer application. Ottawa.. Soil Survey Staff. gov. J. RAB Technical Paper 2. Hutt Valley. National Soil Survey Center. Webster. Soil Survey Method.htm Schoeneberger. 2002.C.Services and MB Forest Br.J. 187 pp. Soil Classification Working Group..D. Last verified January 2007. USDA. M. Walmsley. Utzig. 7. DC. 1975. Vold.0. Land Management Report No. 2007. 241 pp. DC. Benham. B..agric. and van Barneveld. Soils Bureau Bulletin 25...ab. 1962. NE. http:= =www1.. U. 1998.A. SCS. Wysocki. 224 pp. Guide to Field Experimentation in Agriculture: Site Location. Canada 129 pp. Field Book for Describing and Sampling Soils. National Soil Survey Centre. . Department of Agriculture Handbook 18. Canada. 228 pp.ext. D. 754 pp. U.

Appendix B General Safe Laboratory Operation Procedures P. Follow all policies. Some of these chemicals may become unsafe and=or unstable after the expired date. Most chemicals have a shelf life. LLC. and federal) detailed for your workplace. Level 4 hazards indicate extreme hazard potential. and safety procedures (municipal. . fire (red). . employees. Label chemical bottles and containers when received and opened. Consult the material safety data sheets (MSDS) to learn the hazards of each chemical (MSDS can be obtained from chemical suppliers). Special attention is required if there are any level 4 hazards listed on the chemical’s National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) label regarding health (blue). Ontario. . Special training or safety requirements must be attained before handling these chemicals. . Canada B1 GENERAL SAFETY PROCEDURES Inform yourself: . as per WHMIS guidelines. students. This system informs workers of commonly used warning labels and symbols for chemicals and other agents used in the workplace. and volunteers get Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) certification. provincial= state. regulations. or reactivity (yellow). It is highly recommended (and may be mandatory) that all supervisors. Ensure that there is an adequate supply of the reagents before starting any procedure. . St-Georges Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Ottawa. 1197 ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Verify that the appropriate personal protection equipment (PPE) is available and used as prescribed.

Ingestion: Causes gastrointestinal tract burns.. and CsOH (cesium hydroxide).Do not carry glass bottles only by the finger-ring on the neck of the bottle. shelf life. Transport the bottle using both hands or use an appropriate rubber=plastic bottle holder. There is a small risk of skin burns. Store chemicals in an appropriate location as directed in MSDS. . KOH (potassium hydroxide). Skin contact: Causes skin burns. . penetrating ulcers of the skin. UNIQUE HAZARDS Ammonium Hydroxide . Bases and acids should be stored separately due to incompatibilities (i. May cause perforation of the digestive tract. and ventilation. Volatile: Produces ammonia fumes which are pungent and toxic. and Potassium Hydroxide . Substances are hygroscopic (i. Sodium Hypochlorite (Bleach) . Pay special attention to noncompatible chemicals. This chemical must be used in a fume hood. RbOH (rubidium hydroxide). LLC. . LiOH may boil if 10 M stock solution is made. absorb water from the atmosphere). This ring is meant to help grip bottle when pouring its contents.e. Eye contact: Causes severe eye burns.e. Strong bases include the following: LiOH (lithium hydroxide). NaOH (sodium hydroxide). NaOH and KOH will heat up significantly. Sodium Hydroxide. Avoid skin contact as this can cause irritation. Toxic if ingested in sufficient quantities. May cause irreversible eye injury. These bases are exothermic when dissolved=diluted with water. Avoid inhaling excessive quantities of vapor. May cause deep. B2 BASES GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS AND PRECAUTIONS Bases are caustic and some have low surface tensions. ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Lithium Hydroxide.. . Make sure chemicals are properly labeled and an accurate chemical inventory is kept. potentially violent reaction). making them difficult to wash off. Must be stored in plastic bottles since these bases can fuse glass. .

acids. B3 ACIDS GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS AND PRECAUTIONS Most acids are volatile and produce acidic fumes. Ingestion: Causes gastrointestinal tract burns. Always add acid to water when making up solutions. Corrosive to most metals. LLC. Vapors are visible in high humidity.e. Strong oxidizer: This chemical has several incompatibilities (i. and flammables). glacial). Does not induce vomiting. . ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Strong acids include: HCl (hydrochloric acid). Flammable in its concentrated form (i.e. this reaction can form explosive hydrogen gas. coughing.. May cause irreversible eye injury. wheezing. Store acids and bases separately. and HClO4 (perchloric acid). Chronic effects: Repeated inhalation may cause chronic bronchitis. . shortness of breath. especially in high humidity. Strong oxidizer: Reacts violently with some chemicals. penetrating ulcers of the skin.. HBr (hydrobromic acid). HI (hydroiodic acid). May cause deep. Reacts exothermically with water. . HNO3 (nitric acid). sometimes violently. H2 SO4 (sulfuric acid). UNIQUE HAZARDS Acetic Acid . Eye contact: Causes severe eye burns. hydrogen peroxide. Nitric Acid . Inhalation: May be fatal if inhaled. May cause perforation of the digestive tract. Hydrochloric Acid . Volatile: Vapors are visible. vinegar-like odor. Volatile: Releases toxic chlorine gas. and pulmonary edema. ammoniabased compounds. Effects may be delayed.. Skin contact: Causes skin burns. May cause irritation of the respiratory tract with burning pain in the nose and throat. Highly volatile: Strong pungent.

Extremely hazardous liquid and vapor. while natural gases are lighter than air). (Store below 4 C. violently. Poison.) Lachrymator (i. resulting in auto ignition (e. Strong reducing agent: Fire and explosion risk if in contact with oxidizing agents. depending on the concentration of the acid. .e.. Keep tightly sealed. tetrahydrofuran). Some flammables can become unstable through time due to peroxide formation. . Mists containing sulfuric acid may cause cancer.. since HF can dissolve glass. a substance that produces the flow of tears).g. Hygroscopic: Absorbs moisture from the air. . causing deep tissue and bone damage and can be fatal. .g.Sulfuric Acid . chloroform is heavier than air. diethyl ether. A person’s reaction to exposure may be delayed by 8 h or longer. Keep refrigerated. Any exposure requires hospital care. or explosively with many organic and inorganic chemicals. Both liquid and vapor are combustible. even after neutralizing gel application. Neutralizing HF gel (2.. To avoid potential contact with ignition sources. Special safety training recommended. . Most flammables are volatile and considered to be toxic. Hydrofluoric Acid . Fluoride ions readily penetrate skin. Many flammable solvents affect the central nervous system. . B4 FLAMMABLES AND COMBUSTIBLES GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS AND PRECAUTIONS These substances can result in a fire or explosion if in contact with a heat or ignition source. . Formic Acid .5% calcium gluconate gel) must be kept on your person both at and away from the workplace. ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Sulfuric acid reacts vigorously. Flash Point is 69 C. Hydrofluoric acid must be stored in plastic bottles. LLC. and with water. Strong inorganic acid. it is important to determine whether fumes are lighter or heavier than air (e.

Some gases are asphyxiants (e. All gases (except air and oxygen) can displace breathable air if they are exhausted into nonvented. Certification of fume hoods is often mandatory to ensure that adequate airflow is available for safe working conditions. Incorrect use of pressure regulators can cause fires or explosions. .. High temperatures can cause a buildup of pressure in cylinders. Some gases are flammable (e. or oxidizer sources (including sunlight and room heaters).g.g. Do not use the laboratory as a storage place. carbon dioxide. Store away from ignition. closed areas. The fridge must be labeled as such. Ensure that metal containers are grounded to prevent static discharge. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS Label all cylinders clearly. acetylene. carbon monoxide). Store flammables separately from other chemicals: It is especially important to store flammables separately from oxidizers. Dispense and use flammable or combustible materials in properly working fume hoods or well-ventilated areas. Keep all unused cylinders well sealed. heat. B5 COMPRESSED GAS CYLINDERS GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS AND PRECAUTIONS Some gases support combustion (e. propane).g. oxygen). ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC. Return all containers to the volatile materials storage facility. Do not use a cylinder if its contents cannot be unequivocally identified.. Use appropriate PPE while handling cylinders. If flammables need to be stored cold.SAFETY PRECAUTIONS Store in a vented cabinet or room. hydrogen. Reduce routine handling of large volumes of flammable or combustible materials by dispensing into smaller WHMIS-labeled containers.. they must be stored in a fridge which has been specifically designed by the manufacture to be suitable for the storage of flammables.

consider labeling (e. Person(s) transporting compressed gases in vehicles often requires specific (and mandatory) training and licensing. CGA fittings) are unique and must match.g. color coding) the gas lines. Do not store cylinders near open flame or heat source. Secure cylinders individually by using chains or straps. they will matchup and assemble easily. When opening the high-pressure side. Regulators and gas cylinders are designed so that the fittings (compressed gas association. O2 (oxygen) tanks: Ensure all surfaces on the tank and regulator are absolutely free of grease or any other lubricant. If using multiple compressed gases. CONNECTION OF PRESSURE REGULATORS Once the cap has been removed from the cylinder. a person should face away from the valve gauges. If the fittings are correct. Check for leaks in fittings by applying a leak detection solution (e. Use freight elevators (where available) to transport cylinders. warm soapy water). Do not use force when putting fittings together. TRANSPORTATION OF GAS CYLINDERS The appropriate cap must be in place. Open the valves slowly. resulting in explosion. turn off the low-pressure side of the regulator. .g. inspect the threads for damage and dirt.. Prior to transport: Ensure that suitable tie-down chains or straps are available immediately upon arrival at the destination place.. letting highpressure gas enter the low-pressure side of the valve. An explosion could result if the regulator malfunctions. Use a cloth to clean any dirt or grease from the threads. ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Prior to opening the regulator. Do this by turning the valve counter clockwise. Use only the pressure regulator which has been designed for the particular cylinder and type of gas. LLC.Ventilate storage areas. Person(s) transporting the cylinder should wear gloves and safety shoes or boots (steel-toed or equivalent). Ground all flammable gas cylinders. Do not direct the compressed gas towards your body or any other person’s body. Do not use any cylinder or regulator if the threads have been damaged. Failure to turn off the low-pressure side may force the high-pressure gas into the low-pressure side.

B6 PATHOGENS AND VECTORS GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS AND PRECAUTIONS Precautions are primarily related to human pathogens from untreated fecal waste (e.When a cylinder is empty. make sure that there are no open flammable chemicals in the vicinity. however. ON. 135 Hunter St.e. the cylinder must be labeled as being partially full. Environment and Workplace Health— WHMIS guidelines. If diethyl ether is being used anywhere in the laboratory. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS Lab coats should be dedicated to this workspace and never leave the lab without being autoclaved or disinfected. Available at: www. Hamilton. Most microbes can form airborne particles and therefore should be handled in fume hoods. Available at: www. Health Canada. must be maintained and handled in an aseptic manner to avoid environmental contamination.. Occupational health and safety resource.gc. including transgenic lines (e. If returning a partially used cylinder to the supplier. Lab coats used in these areas should be restricted to the laboratory in order to quarantine potentially dangerous microbes. Before disposal.ca= ewh-semt=occup-travail=whmis-simdut=index_e. coli are attenuated (i. Wear appropriate PPE. verified 14 July 2006).g. East. inhalation.html (last updated 12 June 2006. weakened) and therefore not pathogenic. West. Antibiotics are often used in labs handling pathogens.. including direct skin contact. LLC. 2006. Lab strains of E. ON. If in doubt. Canada. organisms must be killed using a suitable procedure (such as bleach. Workspace (laboratory) areas should have restricted access. in order to limit traffic flow. autoclaving.g. carrying an antibiotic resistance gene).ccohs. Avoid skin and eye contact. care should be taken to avoid any contamination of these organisms.hc-sc. Antibiotics should be treated as if they were toxic. burners must not be used at all. E. coli). Ottawa. Before lighting a Bunsen burner. Workspace and equipment should be decontaminated or sterilized at the end or between procedures. BIBLIOGRAPHY Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS).ca= (verified 14 July 2006). Canada. consult your laboratory supervisor. .. or ingestion. 1010 Somerset St. or 70% ethanol). it must be labeled as such. All bacteria. ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Wash hands frequently.

S. Windholz. Rahway. NJ. MA. LLC. Budavari. ON.asp?categoryID ¼ 928 (verified 14 July 2006).. verified 14 July 2006). 1983. New York. The Merck Index. Inc. Available at: www. Available at: www. reactivity and special related hazards.phac-aspc.. Ottawa.. J. 1 Batterymarch Park. R. Public Health Agency of Canada. Laboratory Biosafety Guidelines. ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 2006. Merck and Co. Blumetti. and Ballinger. 2nd Edition 1996.nfpa. Inc. flammability.National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). G. M. 1996. Frequently asked questions (FAQs) dealing with NFPA 704—addressing the labeling of hazardous materials for health. McGraw-Hill. Shugar. Quincy.ca=publicat=lbg- ldmbl-96 (last updated 10 June 1996. Canada...J. Chemical Technicians Ready Reference Handbook. 130 Colonnade Rd.. . and Otterbein.F. 1996.org=faq.T. S. E.gc..