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K ARLSTAD UNIVERSI TY

Role of Education for Pakistan’s Sustainable Future

Advance Professional Skills: The Craft of Research

U s m a n Ta r i q B h a t t y Usmabhat100@kau.student.se
840415-9256 (R238)

Supervisor Mikael Johnson

U N I V E R S I T E T S G ATA N 2 , 651 88, KARLSTAD, SE

Usman Tariq Bhatty Role of Education for Pakistan’s Sustainable Future Advance Professional Skills: The Craft of Research Page 2 .

Pakistan as being a developing country based very much on its education sector for its sustainable development. Universities like Lahore University of Management Sciences. Since the beginning of this century a lot of efforts have been made for the improvement and enhancement of the higher education level. unlearn and relearn.Usman Tariq Bhatty Role of Education for Pakistan’s Sustainable Future ABSTRACT The illiterate of the 21st century will not be those who cannot read and write. and in relation to the institutional structure. Advance Professional Skills: The Craft of Research Page 3 . Sustainable development is a vision of future that provides us with a road map and helps to focus our attention on a set of values and ethical principles by which we can guide our actions. This report based upon the literature review and analysis of education sector of Pakistan from different perspectives for the sustainable future. with the support of government. 1991). Superior University and a lot more universities with high standards of education providing batter education environment started contributing a lot. but those who cannot learn. Alvin Toffler (1928. At the end of the report conclusion to the whole study has been made comprising to the crust of whole study. A wide range of nongovernmental as well as governmental organizations have embraced it as the new paradigm of development (Lélé. Pakistan‘s education sector was previously neglected by the government official and public institutes were not given much preference in order to provide quality education. University of Management and Technology. ―Sustainable Development‖ (SD) has appeared as the latest development catchphrase. as an individual. towards the sustainable development of the nation.) Over the past few years.

.e. in order to put some light over the effects of education sector for the sustainable future. Whole study surrounded to the main discussion point about Sustainability and what role education sector is playing for a nation and to narrow down the study we discussed the Education Sector of Pakistan” This report provides an overview about the reviewed literature and theories about the Sustainability and education sector of Pakistan in particular the higher education. This report begins with defining the concept of Sustainability from different given definitions and give highlights about education sector of Pakistan. later it provides the background about the research question extracted from the studies of various researchers. What have been learned and observed from this literature review and by going through several case studies is that. Advance Professional Skills: The Craft of Research Page 4 . society and stakeholders …etc. environment. the terminology of sustainable development is not a new concept for developing countries as they are looking forward for a sustainable future leading towards the development and developing countries sustainability is in one way or another supported by the education sector. being adopting service dominant logic. to ensure long term sustainability in the future and development of the nation by supporting the education sector from the societal point of view. economic.Usman Tariq Bhatty Role of Education for Pakistan’s Sustainable Future EXECUTIVE SUMMARY “This provide an overview about the whole report. Different organizations using the latest technique of value co-creation. and being more socially responsible towards their social responsibilities i. In the third section of the report it provides the summarized literature review in connection to the research question. education. At the end evaluation and findings leading to the conclusion of this study.

..... 6 Higher Education Sector of Pakistan .................................................Usman Tariq Bhatty Role of Education for Pakistan’s Sustainable Future TABLE OF CONTENT ABSTRACT ....................................................................12 Income growth...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................10 Institutions of Higher Education And Sustainable Development ............... 8 Pakistans Education Sectors Background and Reforms ......................................................................................................12 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................................. 8 Visualizing a Sustainable Future .......................... 6 Limitation & Layout ......................................................................................................................................... 7 CHAPTER 2 BACKGROUND ...................................... 6 Aim & Research Question ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................11 Partnership And Networking ................................................................................................12 Expanding choices .....................................................................................................................................................................................................12 Enlightened leaders....................13 REFERENCES .............. 7 Education For Sustainable Development.......................... 7 Sustainability ................................................15 Advance Professional Skills: The Craft of Research Page 5 ...................................................................................10 Education For Sustainable Development................................................... 3 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .....................................................................................11 CHAPTER 4 EVALUATION AND FINDINGS ................................12 Providing relevant skills ........................................................................................10 Leadership .......... 9 CHAPTER 3 LITERATURE REVIEW AND STUDY ............................................................................................................................................11 Universities As The Centre Point Of Sustainable Development ....... 4 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION..... 6 Scope of study .........................................................................................................................14 Additional reading resources: ............

Pakistan. recently did a research on the role of NGO‘s in sustain able development and explained the various aspects of sustainability according to her it is a community‘s control of capital. human. We focus on study about Pakistan‘s education sector especially the higher education level and the factors involved in its sustainable future. AIM & RESEARCH QUESTION The main aim of this report is to give a brief description about the education sector of Pakistan in particular to see what roles it is performing in the sustainable future of Pakistan. Advance Professional Skills: The Craft of Research Page 6 . The study has been narrowed down to focusing and discussing the education reforms and higher education aspects.Usman Tariq Bhatty Role of Education for Pakistan’s Sustainable Future CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION “This chapter provides the purpose of our study and illustrates our methodology and way of conducting this research and it also gives a brief introduction about the study of education sector of Pakistan and the concept of sustainability and CSR” Sustainable development is a vision of future that provides us with a road map and helps to focus our attention on a set of values and ethical principles by which we can guide our actions. Our report consists of five main chapters: Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: Background Chapter 3: Literature Review & Study Chapter 4: Evaluation & Findings Chapter 5: Conclusion SCOPE OF STUDY This study describes the concept of the sustainability by improving the education level to attain a successful sustainable future of a nation (in case of this study it‘s Pakistan). To reach the aim following question is considered for the research: ―What is the role of education for Pakistan‘s sustainable future?‖ LIMITATION & LAYOUT We have chosen qualitative research method for this report. as an individual. We have tried to accommodate as much findings as we can in the given time frame and summarized our findings and analysis. The Islamia University Bahawalpur. And studied the literature and previously done case studies about the research question. and cultural life. in all of its forms—natural. human-created social. It ensures that present and future generation can attain a high degree of economic security and achieve democracy while maintaining the integrity of the ecological systems upon which all life and production depend. Adila Shafqat (2010) Department of Geography. Our research is limited to the theoretical and literature review due to the limited time frame. In this paper we will try to discuss about the sustainability of a nation by uplifting the standards and bringing reforms in education sector. and in relation to the institutional structure.

reforms and visualizing of a sustainable future. The situation began to reverse itself in the early 2000s. financial feasibility. supporting and cultivating the higher education sector in Pakistan. 2005 has stated that there are total 1.‖ (NEC 2005) SUSTAINABILITY Following statement from the World Conservation Strategy (IUCN/WWF/UNEP. and the creation of the ideal society. The enlightening endeavor can promote alterations in attitude and perceptions. principles. 1980) appears to be the first actual attempt to define sustainable development: ―For development to be Sustainable. it must take account of social and ecological factors. as well as economic ones. Importance of higher education cannot be neglected by any country but only if it is at its peril. Rio Summit declares that the purpose of education should be for the socio-economic betterment of the society on the whole. The government of Pakistan has therefore set up the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan (HEC) in 2002 in order to restoration the higher education system in Pakistan. Advance Professional Skills: The Craft of Research Page 7 . and goals for the purpose of learning and continuous growth‘. Sabir Michael (2008) in his paper about the role of universities in sustainable development with special focus on Pakistan illustrated that In accordance with UNESCO‘s definition. furthermore there are 114 Universities in Pakistan including 49 general Universities.‖ EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT M. other technical/ professional Universities of both public and private sector. ‗Objective of the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014. in recent years. DESD).‖ (Shafqat 2010) According to Caring for Earth (IUCN/WWF/UNEP) 1991 ―improving the Quality of human living with in the carrying capacity of ecosystem is called as sustainable development.882 colleges out of which 1025 are in the public and 857 are in the private sector. The commission would be primarily accountable for evaluating. (Michael 2008) Next Chapter will provide a bit background study of Pakistan‘s education sectors history. undergone a rebirth.Usman Tariq Bhatty Role of Education for Pakistan’s Sustainable Future HIGHER EDUCATION SECTOR OF PAKISTAN After two decades of severe negligence. It can produce new sustainable opportunity regarding the ecological reliability. with the government showing a clear commitment to improving higher education. The 21st century has witnessed the technological changes. ushering a new era for the educational planners and practitioners. and of the long-term as well as the short-term advantages and disadvantages of alternative actions. of the living and non-living resource base. aims to incorporate the various sets of values. The Higher Education Commission of Pakistan has been assigned the job of facilitating the development of the quality of education of Universities and Colleges in Pakistan so that the youth of the country can become agents of bringing about socio-economic changes in the country. ―In Pakistan higher education means the education being persuaded after the completion of Intermediate level (12th Standard). The Education Census of Pakistan. the higher education sector in Pakistan has.

(ICG 2002) The failure of the public schools to absorb the millions of children who are forced to join the madrasas for lack of a better alternative is acknowledged both domestically and internationally. cit. March 2004 and ICG Report.460 schools in the private sector. Pakistan: Madrasas. PAKISTANS EDUCATION SECTORS BACKGROUND AND REFORMS In March 2002 U. who would serve as intermediaries between ruler and subject. The objective of the British system in colonial India was not mass education but to breed a class of civil servants. This chapter deals with that background to go more deep into the study” This chapter reviews background of the education sector of Pakistan and the concept of Sustainability.1 The higher education system in Pakistan is made up of two main sectors:  The university/Degree Awarding Institutes (DAI) sector and  The affiliated Colleges sector.  Private schools. aid money that's going to Pakistan will be used to help with the education system…‖ (Dawn 2002) This statement. Extremism and the Military. (ICG 2004) Traditionally.Usman Tariq Bhatty Role of Education for Pakistan’s Sustainable Future CHAPTER 2 BACKGROUND “In last chapter a bit introduction is given. teaching methods and examination processes. Education was unevenly distributed. Each of above sector has its own curriculum. The state-run school system's inability to respond to the country's educational needs has benefited the madrasas and private schools in the same manner. The link between international terrorist organizations and the country's religious education system has come under intense scrutiny. Most of the U. 36. reflected international concerns about the spread of religious extremism in Pakistan. op. with rural areas almost deprived of access. Pakistan inherited an under-developed educational infrastructure from the British. through mostly urban schools.686 public schools. Pakistan's education sector has been classified broadly into three parallel systems:  Public or government run schools. At independence in 1947. The current makeup of Pakistan's education sector is fundamentally derived from 1 There are 155.  Madrasas. State Department Spokesperson Richard Boucher said: ―It is our desire to support the changes and reforms that President [Pervez] Musharraf has announced in terms of his moving Pakistan toward a more modern and moderate course where education plays a very key role. and discusses the different theories which we come across during our literature review and given us the foundation to study further and give our findings. Presentation by then Education Minister Zobaida Jalal to the Pakistan Development Forum.S.S. Advance Professional Skills: The Craft of Research Page 8 . Upgrading the secular education sector is the most realistic way of resisting the unchecked and rapid expansion of Pakistan's religious seminaries. coming just six months after the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001.

engineers. Imagine a future where the concept of waste is eliminated because every waste product is a raw material or nutrient for another species or activity or returned into the cycles of nature. Advance Professional Skills: The Craft of Research Page 9 . not its capital. transformative shift in thinking. values. and action by all of society‘s leaders and professionals. catering to the poorer classes. And we can attain them by providing quality education and improving the standard of our education system. What if people truly know where products and services come from.Usman Tariq Bhatty Role of Education for Pakistan’s Sustainable Future that colonial system. and distinguished cultural variety? Think of future scientists. humans could live off nature‘s interest. Imagine that all professionals understand their connections to the natural world and to other humans. So how do we rapidly accelerate these ideas and create this future? We need a fundamental. with elitist English-language institutions such as military cadet and Christian mission schools catering to the privileged classes and vernacular. a suitable life. along with a future where we design our technology inspired by biological models operating on renewable energy. What if every person had fair and equitable access to the Earth‘s resources. Imagine that we are managing human activities in a way that restores and increases the biological diversity and complexity of the ecosystems on which we all depend. Urdu and Sindhilanguage. and business people crafting technology and economic activities that sustain rather than destroy the natural environment and enhance human health and well-being. know where wastes go. To quote Albert Einstein. Many of the factors in education involving in the sustainable development are highlighted in next chapter. schools. ―The significant problems we face cannot be solved at the same level of thinking we used when we created them‖ (Calaprice 2000) Overall from the history perspective education was not that much considers and was overlooked by the government of Pakistan but in the recent past much more consideration has been given to the Education sector for the sustainable future of the country. (ICG 2004) VISUALIZING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE Visualize a society in which all present and yet to come humans are healthy and have their basic needs met. By doing so. for generations to come. including madrasas. as well as the general population. and know the consequences to humans and other living species and how to minimize this ecological footprint (our impact on the Earth)? (Cortese 2003) Most of the people would agree with these ideals.

They are the 2 Task Force on Higher Education. Higher Education in Developing Countries: Peril and Promise [Washington D. In Pakistan it is not accepted that easily because of out of control poverty. regions and generations. and its convenience to the wider economy. 2000)2 Sustainable development demands a long-term perspective in our planning and action. standards and expertise to take part in different mechanisms.” This chapter provides the detail of literature review about the importance of education for the sustainable future from the different perspectives focusing especially on the Higher education perspective. It requires the equity among the individuals.‖ (Peril and Promise. independently and jointly at local level or at the global level. Quite simply. so does higher education…. This poses a serious challenge to the developing world…. countries. (Michael 2008) INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT As we all know the purpose of the higher educational institutions is to prepare the future managers. As they have a responsibility of taking care of the society and surroundings along with getting rid of the all the hurdles in the way of sustainable socio-economic development. people.Usman Tariq Bhatty Role of Education for Pakistan’s Sustainable Future CHAPTER 3 LITERATURE REVIEW AND STUDY “This chapter gives our summarized overview of the literature review and provides the information from the crust of the research about the sustainable development of Pakistan through the betterments and reforms in education sector. many developing countries will need to work much harder just to maintain their position. This can be achieved by developing a sense of ownership and attachment through social participation of community and involving other organizations and agencies in this task.tfhe. The quality of knowledge taught within higher education institutions.: World Bank].net Advance Professional Skills: The Craft of Research Page 10 . People must accept a more equitable distribution of resources. doctors. and social scientists to serve the people at larger level. the challenge is to consider the drawn-out individual interest to manage the resource sustainability. 2000. Sustainable development often deals with all the areas of human activity and is vibrant to deal with the common property and access resources such as water. (Shafqat 2010) EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT There are several concepts of education for continuous growth and sustainable development of a nation and it also facilitates the masses expanding comprehension. As knowledge come to be more important. The World Bank / UNESCO report on Higher Education in Developing Countries: Peril and Promise2 appropriately describes the economic importance of higher education to developing countries sustainability thus: ―The world economy is changing as knowledge supersedes physical capital as the source of present (and future) capital…. forest.C. Available at www. air etc. engineers. let alone to catch up (p: 12). is becoming increasingly critical to national competitiveness….

They are the role models and the public is largely looking forward to these enlightened segments of society to overcome the current issues. and social scientists for the Sustainable future of Pakistan. In Pakistan higher education commission and all the universities are doing their best and providing the nation good future leaders. Electronic and print media both share hands with NGOs and Organization in this context. managers. Hence. seminars. it is obvious that the function of academic groups is very important to the achievement of any arrangement or course of action for sustainably developed society. urges university ties to reconfigure teaching. academia‘s main objective in this matter should be to define the networking structure in a way that gives trend and determination to the engagement schedule. Then again. the academia should design a model of engagement and describe how it is related to the practice of community improvement. the need for having a strong controller and secretariat in each university to hold. LEADERSHIP Leadership has a serious sensible role to play in nurturing the transition to sustainable development. advertisement. With the intention of achieving such status. As a result. by directing institutions‘ strategic planning. workshops. UNIVERSITIES AS THE CENTRE POINT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT It is imperative to recognize that selecting university as an appropriate leader for sustainable improvement cannot promise the triumph of the project exclusively.Usman Tariq Bhatty Role of Education for Pakistan’s Sustainable Future ambassadors of the nation. academic institutions have been in conflict with their societies over their missions and responsibilities. this result in better execution and greater common learning. Leadership also has a abstract role in deploying the vision of staff and students about sustainable development. They are the key to the sustainable and successful future of Pakistan. Going through all the above factor it is clear that how important the education sector is in the development of the nation. In the absence of a clear networking and partnership arrangement and strategies. research. Advance Professional Skills: The Craft of Research Page 11 . It has many forms. systematize and harmonize sustainable development related issues seems imperative. doctors. in a report titled The Engaged Institution: Returning to Our Roots. engineers. efforts to create new relationships are likely to be outof-focus and therefore less effective than they might otherwise be. This is costly but more active as well. Another crucial issue in this matter is to have a resilient coordinator within university for sustainable development activities to direct the researches and execution activities of the other stakeholders. Following this. it is furthermore widely recognized that there are still many hurdles in the communication between academia and society. Over and over again. Keeping this in view. PARTNERSHIP AND NETWORKING The Kellogg Commission on the Future of State and Land-Grant Universities. organizing main capital programmes and leading the institutions‘ interactions with external stakeholders. meetings. extension. Direct inter personal communication is a good mode for education and awareness increasing. it is enormously imperative that leaders have the skills to take decisions which are in agreement with this plan. and service activities and become ―more sympathetically and productively involved with their communities‖ (Michael 2008).

. These benefits not only benefit the society and individuals but also improvers to achieve the sustainable future for the nation. and operating modern technology in all sector by providing individuals relevant essential skills as per their profession. and encourages democratic governance by creating new knowledge and new dimensions of learning and growth. Such as providing the individuals with various fields of studies and specialization as per their interest. flexibility.” Rise of sustainable development requires an official environment in which people are empowered. equity and wise use of public property resources (Shafqat 2010). Case study and common observation all refer to the central importance of higher education to sustainable development. and quality of life. confidence. to grow and bring perfection to the particular type of expertise. The research reviled that the Higher education promotes the following factors: INCOME GROWTH The higher education institutions are providing a lot of contribution to labor productivity. Advance Professional Skills: The Craft of Research Page 12 . Personal communication must be employed to create a supportive environment. And provide a comprehensive detail about our findings about the research question. needed to confront the political realities of the 21st century effectively and abruptly. entrepreneurial energy. boosts political contribution. PROVIDING RELEVANT SKILLS Higher education help in inventing. In Pakistan these are very difficult issues and awareness about them may not only be brought by print and electronic media only. ENLIGHTENED LEADERS Higher education provides leaders the attributes of success e. and technical skills. Sustainability calls for a long term integrity of human support.g. Active participation of educated people to aware the ignored ones are very important. self-governing decision making.Usman Tariq Bhatty Role of Education for Pakistan’s Sustainable Future CHAPTER 4 EVALUATION AND FINDINGS “This chapter contains our evaluation of the studied theories and reviewed literature. breadth of knowledge. improves social movement. adopting. It also depends on the administrative will of the government and the capabilities of state and its people. strengthens civil society. EXPANDING CHOICES Higher Education provides extensive development which is fundamentally concerned with broadening the choices people can make. It also alleviating the poverty and bringing improvements in people‘s life and contributing a lot in the economic growth of the county.

This changeover. but the lighting of a fire. a smooth conversion from the existing system to a system which takes up more of development standards seems to be a very practical and promising answer ahead of the universities in Pakistan. beneficial engagement through a sustainable path with globalization. etc. private sector. As the core of sustainable development is much incorporated and as many universities in Pakistan have yet to implement some fundamentals of sustainable development.Usman Tariq Bhatty Role of Education for Pakistan’s Sustainable Future Chapter 5 Conclusion Education is not the filling of a pail. To make this changeover happen. one need a balanced and harmonious translation of the current system into a more comprehensible action plan. Yeats (1865 – 1939) As it has been described theoretically and also through the experience. individuals. B. they must relate more closely with the society that is coping with globalization. there is no need to change or revolute the whole existing education system. W. Advance Professional Skills: The Craft of Research Page 13 . As universities and colleges in Pakistan thus organize themselves to lead the nation into a positive. the institutions of higher education in Pakistan particularly the public universities seem to be less equipped with taking the leadership role in term of sustainable development and become the center point of coordination between different actors and members of the society (NGOs. In Pakistan the recent developments and achievement of higher education commission setting up and nurturing the roots of its sustainable future ahead.) in attaining sustainable development goals. It‘s motivating and significant to notice that in a direction to regulate the universities with sustainable development standards. The research finally concluded that education sector especially higher education is playing a key role in the development of sustainable future of a nation. adjustment and re-orientation need to be synchronized properly to have its maximum impression on the education system to have higher steps of sustainability.

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