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name: co-amoxiclav route: penicillin antibiotic dose: classification: Antibiotic, Aminopenicillin, Beta-lactam (Beta-Lactam and Beta-Lactamase Inhibitor Combination)

indication: therapeutic actions: Co-amoxiclav is used to treat bacterial infections, such as infections of the chest and throat, by killing or stopping the growth of bacteria. It can also be used in high-risk patients to prevent infections occurring. contraindication: adverse effect:

nursing responsibility: patient's teaching: name: ciprofloxacin ROUTE:oral DOSE: classes: antibacterial; fluoroquinolone INDICATION: for the treatment therapeutic actions: bactericidal; interferes with DNA replication in susceptible bacteria preventing cell reproduction. CONTRAINDICATION: contraindication with allergy to ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin or other fluoroquinolones ADVERSE REACTIONS: headache, dizziness, insomia, fatigue, arrythmias, dry eye, eye pain, nausea, vomiting, renal failure NURSING RESPONSIBILITY: ensure that patient swallows ER tablets whole; do not cut, crush, or chew; monitor clinical response; if no improvement is seen or a relapse occurs, repeat culture and sensitivity PATIENT'S TEACHING: drink plenty of fluid while you are taking this drug GENERIC NAME: RANITIDINE BRAND NAME: ZANTAC route: oral dose: CLASSES: Histamine-2 (H2) antagonist THERAPEUTIC ACTIONS: Competitively inhibits the action of histamine at the H2 receptors of the parietal cells of the stomach, inhibiting basal gastric acid secretion that is stimulated by food, insulin, histamine, cholinergic agonists, and pentagastrin. INDICATION: short-term treatment of active duodenal ulcer; maintenance therapy for duodenal ulcer at reduced dosage CONTRAINDICATION: contraindication with allergy to ranitidine, lactation ADVERSE REACTION: Ranitidine's main side effects are confusion and depression, although these are very rare and are usually only seen in older people. NURSING RESPONSIBILITY: administer the right medication and right dosage prescribed by the physician

PATIENT'S TEACHNG: take drug with meals and at bedside. therapy may continue for4-6 weeks or longer; report sore throat, fever, unusual bruising or bleeding, tarry stools, confusion, hallucinations, dizziness, severe headache, muscle or joint pain. GENERIC NAME: CEFUROXIME BRAND NAME: ceftin ROUTE: oral DOSE: CLASSIFICATION: antibiotic; cephalosporin (second generation) INDICATION: As for the other cephalosporins, although as a secondgeneration it is less susceptible to beta-lactamase and so may have greater activity against Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Lyme disease. Unlike other second generation cephalosporins, cefuroxime can cross the blood-brain-barrier. MECHANISM OF ACTION: bactericidal; inhibits synthesis of bacterial cell wall, causing cell death CONTRAINDICATION: contraindicated with allergy to cephalosporin or penicillins ADVERSE REACTION: Cefuroxime is generally well tolerated and side effects are usually transient. Cefuroxime, if ingested with food, is both better absorbed and less likely to cause its most common side effects of diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, headaches/migraines, dizziness and abdominal pain. NURSING RESPONSIBILITY: discontinue if hypersensitivity reaction occurs PATIENT'S TEACHING: take full course of therapy even if you are feeling better; swallow tablets whole; do not crush them. take the drug with food. GENERIC NAME: CLINDAMYCIN BRAND NAME: ROUTE: oral DOSE: CLASSIFICATION: lincosamide antibiotic INDICATION: systemic administration: serious infections caused by susceptible strains of anerobes, streptococci, pneumococci; reserve use for penicillin-allergic patients or when penicillin is inappropriate; less toxic

antibiotics (erythromycin) should be considered MECHANISM OF ACTION: inhibits protein synthesis in susceptible bacteria, causing cell death CONTRAINDICATION: contraindicated with allergy to clindamycin, lactation ADVERSE REACTION: hypotension, cardiac arrest (with rapid IV infusion) NURSING RESPONSIBILITY: administer oral drug with a full glass of water or with food to prevent esophageal irritation PATIENT'S TEACHING: take full prescribed course of oral drug. do not stop taking without notifying your healthcare provider GENERIC NAME: TRAMADOL BRAND NAME: ultram, ultram ER ROUTE: DOSE: CLASSIFICATION: analgesic (centrally acting) INDICATION: Moderate to moderately severe pain MECHANISM OF ACTION: Physiologic Mechanism:Decreased pain;Pharmacologic Mechanism Binds to mu-opioid receptors; Inhibits reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine in the CNS CONTRAINDICATION: ADVERSE REACTION: NURSING RESPONSIBILITY: Monitor patient for seizures. May occur within recommended dose range. Risk increased with higher doses and inpatients taking antidepressants (SSRIs, tricyclics, or Mao inhibitors), opioid analgesics, or other durgs that decrese the seizure threshold; Assess bowel function routinely. Prevention of constipation should be instituted with increased intake of fluids and bulk and with laxatives to minimize constipating effects. teaching points: Encourage patient to cough and breathe deeply every 2 hr to prevent atelactasis and pneumonia. GENERIC NAME: PARACETAMOL BRAND NAME: biogesic ROUTE: oral

DOSE:Adults and children 5001000 mg orally every 4-6 hours. CLASSIFICATION: antipyretic INDICATION: MECHANISM OF ACTION: CONTRAINDICATION: Contraindicated in patients hypersensitive to drug. Use cautiously in patients with long term alcohol use because therapeutic doses cause hepatotoxicity in these patients.

ADVERSE REACTION: Hematologic: hemolytic anemia, neutropenia, leucopenia, pancytopenia. Hepatic: Jaundice Metabolic: Hypoglycemia Skin: rash, urticaria. NURSING RESPONSIBILITY: Use liquid form for children and patients who have difficulty swallowing. In children, dont exceed five doses in 24 hours. Warn patient that high doses or

unsupervised long term use can cause liver damage. PATIENT'S TEACHING:Advise patient that drug is only for short term use and to consult the physician if giving to children for longer than 5 days or adults for longer than 10 days. Advise patient or caregiver that many over the counter products contain acetaminophen; be aware of this when calculating total daily dose.

MOUTH(ORAL CAVITY) -The mouth is the beginning of the digestive tract; and, in fact, digestion starts here when taking the first bite of food. Chewing breaks the food into pieces that are more easily digested, while saliva mixes with food to begin the process of breaking it down into a form your body can absorb and use. PHARYNX -Pharynx is a tube like structure that connects the nasal and oral cavities to the larynx. Pharynx is nothing but throat.The function of the pharynx is to provide a passageway for the respiratory and digestive tracts. The role of pharynx is very important in our human body because it has to coordinate both inspiration and swallowing while eating, otherwise may lead to aspiration and death. This coordination is maintained with the help of another organ called epiglottis. Epiglottis is a flap like structure that is present at the opening of the larynx. This flap covers the larynx temporarily and prevents the food from entering the lungs during the act of swallowing. ESOPHAGUS -Located in your throat near your trachea (windpipe), the esophagus receives food from your mouth when you swallow. By means of a series of muscular

contractions called peristalsis, the esophagus delivers food to your stomach. STOMACH -The stomach is a hollow organ, or "container," that holds food while it is being mixed with enzymes that continue the process of breaking down food into a usable form. Cells in the lining of the stomach secrete a strong acid and powerful enzymes that are responsible for the breakdown process. When the contents of the stomach are sufficiently processed, they are released into the small intestine. PANCREAS -The pancreas secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum, the first segment of the small intestine. These enzymes break down protein, fats, and carbohydrates. The pancreas also makes insulin, secreting it directly into the bloodstream. Insulin is the chief hormone for metabolizing sugar. LIVER -The liver has multiple functions, but its main function within the digestive system is to process the nutrients absorbed from the small intestine. Bile from the liver secreted into the small intestine also plays an important role in digesting fat. In addition, the liver is the bodys chemical "factory." It takes the raw materials absorbed by the intestine and makes all the various chemicals the body needs to function. The liver also detoxifies potentially harmful chemicals. It breaks down and secretes many drugs. GALL BLADDER -The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile, and then releases it into the duodenum to help absorb and digest fats. SMALL INTESTINE -Made up of three segments the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum the small intestine is a 22-foot long muscular tube that breaks down food using enzymes released by the pancreas and bile from the liver. Peristalsis also is at work in this organ, moving food through and mixing it with digestive secretions from the pancreas and liver. The duodenum is largely responsible for the continuous breaking-down process, with the jejunum and ileum mainly responsible for absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream. LARGE INTESTINE -The colon is a 6-foot long muscular tube that connects the small intestine to the rectum. The large intestine is made up of the cecum, the ascending (right) colon, the transverse (across) colon, the descending (left) colon, and

the sigmoid colon, which connects to the rectum. The appendix is a small tube attached to the cecum. The large intestine is a highly specialized organ that is responsible for processing waste so that emptying the bowels is easy and convenient. CECUM - the cecum or caecum is a pouch connected to the large intestine between the ileum and the colon. It is separated from the ileum by the ileocecal valve (ICV) or Bauhin's valve, and is considered to be the beginning of the large intestine and part of the colon. Its function is to absorb water and salts from undigested food. It has a muscular wall that can knead the contents to speed up absorption. APPENDIX -Appendix is also known as Vermiform Appendix and is a vestigial organ. It is found in the human body in the abdominal area and is located at the junction of small and large intestine. The appendix is a blind tube like structure that is connected to the cecum or caecum. The vermiform word is derived from the Latin language and means 'worm like structure' because of the worm like appearance of the appendix.It acts as a supporter of the immune system of the body and allows the body to fight against the harmful bacteria by strengthening the immunity of the body. RECTUM -The rectum (Latin for "straight") is an 8-inch chamber that connects the colon to the anus. It is the rectum's job to receive stool from the colon, to let the person know that there is stool to be evacuated, and to hold the stool until evacuation happens. When anything (gas or stool) comes into the rectum, sensors send a message to the brain. The brain then decides if the rectal contents can be released or not. If they can, the sphincters relax and the rectum contracts, disposing its contents. If the contents cannot be disposed, the sphincter contracts and the rectum accommodates so that the sensation temporarily goes away. ANUS -The anus is the last part of the digestive tract. It is a 2-inch long canal consisting of the pelvic floor muscles and the two anal sphincters (internal and external). The lining of the upper anus is specialized to detect rectal contents. It lets you know whether the contents are liquid, gas, or solid. The anus is surrounded by sphincter muscles that are important in allowing control of stool. The pelvic floor muscle creates an angle between the rectum and the anus that stops stool from coming out when it is not supposed to.

The internal sphincter is always tight, except when stool enters the rectum. It keeps us continent when we are asleep or otherwise unaware of the presence of stool. When we get an urge to go to the bathroom, we rely on our external sphincter to hold the stool until reaching a toilet, where it then relaxes to release the contents.