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Executive summary The purpose of this report was to analyze Eco-tourism practices in Sri Lanka, identify the

problems and negative gaps in order to create an action plan concentrating on a part of the island which can be implemented to attract more tourists while getting the use of Sri Lankan natural heritage. This report indicates the problems, strengths, weaknesses of the selected location and opportunities and threats from the external parts which are largely uncontrollable. This report describes how to utilize strengths and how to capitalize upon opportunities before they are lost. This report also describes how to minimize weaknesses and different recommendations to overcome threats. The research team conducted researches based on the area which has been located, to identify current trade practices and also conducted web based researches to identify best trade practices of a benchmarking location which is similar or related to the area of Sri Lanka. The research team compared the benchmarking location with the location of Sri Lanka in order to identify negative gaps and also provide recommendations that can be practically implemented by the ministry of environment to bridge the negative gap

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Table of contents 1.0 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………..3 2.0 Background to Eco-friendly tourism in Dambulla …………………………………………………………………………..4 2.1 Current Eco-friendly tourism trade practices Followed by the hotels in Dambulla ...................4 3.0 Strengths- weaknesses –opportunities –threats (SWOT) Analysis………………………………………………….7 3.1 Strengths 3.2 Weaknesses 3.3 Opportunities 3.4 Threats 4.0 Benchmarking…………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………..10 4.1 Preface to Eco-friendly tourism In Lumbini ………………………………………………………………………………10 5.0 Gap analysis…………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………….13 6.0 Conclusions ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………….15 7.0 Recommendations……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………….16 2

8.0 References ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………….….17

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10 Introduction This report was requested by Mr. George Siriwardena deputy general of ministry of environment. This report is a detailed action plan which can be implemented by the ministry of environment to promote eco friendly tourism in Sri Lanka and also provide information from both primary and secondary sources and useful recommendations from the point of view of an environmental sustainability consultant. According to Eco friendly tourism (n.d.)”Ecotourism is Ecological sustainable tourism with a primary focus of experiencing natural areas and fosters environmental and cultural understanding and improves the well-being of local people”. Based on the definition of TIES we conducted primary researches concentrating on Dambulla which is situated in the Mathale District in the Central province of Sri Lanka. The research team Identified Current Eco- friendly practices and Philosophies followed by the hotels and resorts of Dambulla. This report also explains the role of the local people and determines how to get their knowledge and skills towards the development of Eco-friendly Tourism. Therefore the research team examined how hotels and resorts of Dambulla have helped the local communities. Based on the results of the SWOT analysis, the research team identified that there are more opportunities in the present than the past due to end of war in May 2009. Nevertheless there were internal weaknesses of our selected location. Dambulla has only limited number of hotel rooms and only two hotels are certified as Eco-friendly hotels by NGOs. Sri Lankan Government also does not offer a standard certificate for environmental friendly eco-tourism practices. Even though Dambulla is one of the best places for eco-tourism some resorts are not utilizing the strengths of the location to the expected level. The Serendib businesses solutions research team identified different alternatives that can be used to solve problems faced by Dambulla as an eco-tourism destination. Serendib business solutions also analyzed the current trade practices and situation in Dambulla and benchmarked other practices followed in Lumbini In Nepal since the Social, cultural, economical and religious background of two locations are related to one another. The research team compared the practices and policies followed in Lumbini and Dambulla in order to identify negative gaps and also provide recommendations that can be practically implemented by the ministry of environment to bridge the negative gaps.

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20 Background to Eco-friendly tourism In Dambulla According to Eco friendly tourism (n.d.)” Ecotourism is Ecological sustainable tourism with a primary focus of experiencing natural areas and fosters environmental and cultural understanding and improves the well-being of local people”. Ecotourism was first introduced in Africa in the 1950’s with the legalization of hunting (Miller, 2007). Eco Tourism concepts were introduced to Sri Lanka in 1998 by Sri Lanka Ecotourism Foundation (SLEF).SLEF has identified several eco tourism locations in Sri Lanka such as Belihul oya, Arugam Bay, Trincomalee, Bundala National Park and Dambulla( “Sri Lanka Eco-tourism Foundation”, n.d.) According to Serendipty Tours (2007) “Sri Lanka is an eco tourism paradise, with 8th wonder of the world SIGIRYA in Dambulla”. The two main Eco friendly certified hotels in Dambulla are Amaaya Lake Resort and Heritance Kandalama. Heritance Kandalama won Asia’s Responsible Tourism Award for large hotel category in 2010( “Aitken Spence”, 2010). 2.1Current Eco-friendly tourism trade practices Followed by the hotels in Dambulla Heritance Kandalama is a Certified Eco-friendly Hotel which is also one of the best Eco-friendly hotels in Asia. Heritance Hotel represents a unique Green Philosophy that combines responsible tourism with environment friendliness. The Heritance Kandalama has won awards as one of the most eco-friendly hotels in the world. It is by far the most environment friendly hotel in Sri Lanka. Heritance hotels have pioneered eco tourism in Sri Lanka(“Green Philosophy”, n.d.). • Geoffrey Bawa’s visionary architectural design

Heritance kandalama was designed by Geoffrey Bawa, a world famous architecture. Geoffrey Bawa’s visionary architectural design has ensured that no lights are required anywhere in the hotel during daytime. All spaces are designed to receive 5

an adequate amount of natural light. As a result of something as simple as the allowance for lighting, the hotel makes a substantial saving in the energy that is consumed (“Green Philosophy”, n.d.) • Eco-friendly practices followed by heritance Kandalama when building the hotel

The hotel was built between two rock formations and none of the trees on the location were destroyed. The entire hotel is built on a raised platform allowing water to flow under the hotel. It also allows the free flow of animals under the hotel, creating a minimum impact on the eco system.

Energy conservation policy

The hotel has a comprehensive energy conservation policy with power cut-off switches, energy efficient lighting (CFL bulbs), photo active garden lights and solar power hot water systems. Heritance Kandalama uses a bio mass plant which uses renewable sources such as leaves, cow dung and elephant dung provided by villagers instead of depleting source to generate power. Heritance Kandalama also has joined hands with Sri Lankan Sustainable energy authority and also has won certificates from ministry of environment, tourism and energy for the contribution to Environment conservation (“Energy, Water and Waste Management”, n.d.). • Water conservation Policy

The hotel also has a comprehensive water conservation policy where no surface water is utilized. Even though the hotel is surrounded by the 1700 year old reservoirs, this water has been untouched and none of it is used for hotel use. Water is obtained from deep tube wells in a sustainable manner. In addition, rain water is harvested from a maze of gutters. 100% waste water is painstakingly recycled by a state-of-the art facility and reused resulting in reduction of fresh water use Energy, Water and Waste Management”, n.d.). • Environment Conservation Policy

In order to prevent deforestation and the construction of unauthorized artificial structures the hotel has invested in creating the conservational forest of over 200 acres. This includes part of the 50 acres of land within the hotel premises and a dedicated forest conservation of 198 acres. This reservation area would be the home for 128 species of native flora, 183 species of birds, 19 species of reptiles and amphibians, 17 species of mammals and 64 species of butterflies. Furthermore no 6

plants have been introduced by the hotel itself in order to maintain the natural habitat of the area (“Bio Diversity Protection & Conservation Forest”, n.d.). • Eco Parks and other Eco-friendly activities

The Eco Park is one of the unique attractions of Kandalama. It includes a range of features including our wildlife orphanage, state-of-the-art waste water recycling plant, compost fertilizer pits, wet and solid waste recycling centres, elephant dung paper making facility, herbal garden, eco library and open air sports facilities. The Elephant dung paper making plant which is managed by the hotel, Makes handmade writing papers according to international standards and also imported to countries like USA and other Western European counties. Elephant dung paper manufacturing helps the conservation of this endangered and largest of land animals (“elephant dung paper”.n.d.).

Helping Local Communities

Heritance Kandalama provides career opportunities to more than 220 employees from local communities on full time permanent basis and trains and recruits unemployed youth from surrounding villages. Heritance Kandalama also gives a helping hand to Substantial numbers of local craftsmen/women are provided a market place to sell their crafts and local artists, drummers and dancers are encouraged by the hotel by developing and promoting traditional Sri Lankan art forms while earning them a livelihood. This also helps to revive disappearing traditions (“Helping local communities”. n.d.).

Other social work
• • • Helping schools by conducting seminars for teachers and students. Gifting class rooms, books, desks, chairs and other equipments for needy schools. Heritance Kandalama has invested their own funds to provide access to electricity over 750 families, access to safe drinking water to over 600 families. Heritance kandalama has built 6.5 km of road the road access to the village for common public use.

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10 Strengths- weaknesses –opportunities –threats (SWOT) Analysis The research team of Serendib business solutions carried out an analysis to identify internal strengths and weaknesses of Dambulla as an ecotourism destination and also to uncover opportunities and threats faced by Dambulla. This SWOT analysis was analyzed critically to provide recommendation to the ministry of environment. Results gathered from the SWOT analysis would be useful for eco tourism hotels in Dambulla and also for the ministry of environment not only to get the maximum use strengths and opportunities but also to minimize and overcome weaknesses and Threats.

3.1Strengths Dambulla is located in the middle of the island which helps tourist from other countries to reach Dambulla easily. Tourists who visit Dambulla will also find it convenient to visit other tourist destinations. Dambulla also has the direct connectivity to major cities, Airports, seaports and Local markets. Dambulla also has the Sri Lanka’s largest Economic centre established in 1999 for agricultural products (Gunatilleke, 2007).

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Dambulla is a scenic location with vast number of tourist attraction including Rose quartz mountains, Dambulla Rock, Dambulla International Cricket Stadium, Dambulla Tank and Dambulla cave temple which is commonly known as “Dambulu Viharaya” which is the largest and the best preserved cave temple in the world and it is also named as a world heritage site in 1991 by UNESCO. Dambulla is one of the best places to watch animals in their natural habitat and elephant rides along the Dambulla reservoir is a common sight (Michael, 1995).Therefore Dambulla can use these tourist attractions to capture more visitors. 3.1Weaknesses Although Dambulla has many tourists hotels situated across the area, only two hotels are certified and awarded by NGOs and international bodies as eco-friendly hotels and for their practices. The research team identified many small guest houses and lodges in the area which are not financially established. As a result of that these lodges have not reached a greater acceptance by the international bodies or NGOs and also not following any Eco-friendly practices since it is costly. This shows that there are only few eco-friendly hotels rooms in Dambulla, which will be not enough for the increasing number of tourists to Sri Lanka. (Gunatilleke, 2007).

There isn’t any standard certification given for Eco-friendly practices Sponsored by the government or any Sri Lankan authority. A standard certificate for Eco-friendly hotels sponsored by the government would be an important fact especially for small guest houses and lodges which are unable to reach the international level. Offering a certificate would also encourage small hotels and hotels which are under construction to follow eco-friendly practices. Sri Lankan Government should examine the practices and strategies critically according to international criterias and measures before offering the certificate. 3.1Opportunities After the end of civil war in May 2009 Sri Lankan economy shows a growth with 7% GDP in 2010. Sri Lankan government has invested heavily on many development and infrastructure projects including tourist hotels, Highways, Airports and Seaports. Due to these reasons, it shows a development in the banking, shipping, transportation and communication sectors in Sri Lanka.

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These positive conditions have made a positive impact on the trade of tourism (Jayatilleke, 2010). • After the end of civil war in May 2009 Sri Lanka shows an increase in tourist arrivals to Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka is expecting 2.5 million tourists to visit Sri Lanka in 2016. The increasing number of tourist arrivals will certainly provide more carrier opportunities for local communities (Gonetilleke, 2010).

Low Interest rate on long term loans has provided an opportunity for businesses to raise funds for the investment in the trade of tourism. When the inflation is 6.5% in 2010 the interest rates on long term loans was 13.25%p.a showing a real rate of 6.33%p.a (Daniel, 2010).

3.1Threats The Biggest threat that was faced by Sri Lanka was the thirty year civil war and during the time of conflict many countries advised their citizens not to travel to Sri Lanka Due to Security reasons. Therefore many tourists refused to visit Sri Lanka during the time of conflict. When conducting the SWOT analysis, the research team did not identify any threats faced by Sri Lanka which shows that the conditions are now in favor of Sri Lanka and the Negative image of Sri Lanka has totally changed in the international arena. • • • New York Times in2010 indicated that Sri Lanka is the one of the safest place to travel. National geographic Channel in 2010 Ranked Sri Lanka as the Second Best Island In the world. Worldtoursim.com in May 24, 2010shows that Sri Lanka is one of the best eco friendly place to travel

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10 Benchmarking The following Section gives the best Eco tourism practices followed in Lumbini in Nepal. The benchmarking followed in the report due the fact that, these principles are compared against the current practices followed in Dambulla in order to identify negative gaps. 4.1Preface to Eco-friendly tourism In Lumbini This section gives a precise Introduction to the Eco-friendly tourism in Nepal.
• • In Nepal tourism is a major foreign exchange earner. Major tourist destinations are Himalaya, Lumbini, Katmandu, Patan Dubur and Baktapur Dudur.

Nepal is specialized for eco-friendly tourist activities such as trekking, expeditions, Rafting, Safaris, biking and rock climbing.

The reason why the research team of Serendib business solutions chose Lumbini for benchmarking purpose is due to the similarities in the social, cultural and regional areas with the selected Sri Lanka location Dambulla. Both locations are sacred Buddhist destinations.

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Most of the tourists travel to Sri Lanka and Nepal are Indians, which is 70% and 49.3 % respectively. Lumbini is the Birth place of Lord Buddha and named as a world heritage site by UNESCO in 1997(Rathnasinghe, 2010). Dambulla has the world largest best preserved cave temple with 153 ancient Buddha statues which is also named as a world heritage site by UNESCO in 1991 (Handunnetti, 2009). Practices followed in Lumbini The sacred city of lumbini has 12 Eco-friendly hotels which are certified by the government of Nepal, according to universal criterias. Some of these hotels have won many international awards and eco-friendly certifications for their practices. The official data from Lumbini Development Trust, Information Centre shows a mounting rate of tourists in Lumbini with increment by 20.69 % in comparison of 2009. The pilgrims and tourists from 94 countries visited Lumbini this year. SriLanka kept its top position with the total number of 37,645 visitors (“Mounting Rates of tourists to Lumbini”2011). • Special Visa procedures for Sri Lankan Pilgrims. Nepal has identified Sri Lankan pilgrims to Lumbini and introduced special visa procedures. For Sri Lankan Pilgrims visiting Lumbini can get single entry visa for 15 days in US$ 10 or equivalent convertible currency. (“Mountain delights treks and expeditions” n.d.).

Environmental education programs for foreigners who visits Lumbini The government of Nepal has initiated Environmental education programs for foreigners who visit Lumbini. The main objective of this program is to educate foreigners about the natural environment of Lumbini and to bring about awareness about the environmental problems faced (“Ecotourism in Lumbini” n.d.). Environmental conservation fund
Travelers to Lumbini have not only shown concern about their impact on nature, but also a willingness to pay for its conservation. The provided the fund is utilized directly for the protection of the environment. Makalu-Barun National Park and

Kanchenjunga Conservation Projects are funded by entrance fees paid by 12

visitors for National Parks and Conservation Areas. (“Eco-tourism in Lumbini” n.d.). • National Environment Protection Act (EPA) of 1997 and the Environment Protection Rules (EPR) of 1997 of Nepal are strictly implemented in Lumbini
Government of Nepal has banned bottled drinks from the National Parks and Conservation Areas of Lumbini. Moreover, only 20 lodges per five years per conservation area are allowed to be built. The government monitors the construction processes of each hotel and offers an Eco-friendly standard certificate based on their practices. Without the standard certificates, hotels are not allowed to do any business within the conservation area. In order to maintain quality in the lodges, they are allowed to charge only fix rates as determined by the government. (“Ecotourism in Lumbini” n.d.).

Eco friendly standard Certificate issued by the Government of Nepal. Eco-friendly Standard certification is given after analyzing and evaluating the practices according to the international criteria introduced by TIES (The International Eco-tourism Society); ♠ Ecotourism Key Principles-According to International Eco Tourism standards (n.d.) "Ecologically sustainable tourism with a primary focus on experiencing natural areas that fosters environmental and cultural understanding, appreciation and conservation". ♠ The core set of eight principles for ecotourism products – Nature area focus, Interpretation, Environmental sustainability practice, Contribution to conservation, Benefitting local communities, Cultural respect, Customer satisfaction and responsible marketing (“International Eco Tourism standards” ,n.d.).

Helping local communities of Lumbini
Since the Participation of the local people is a major factor in these projects they have been given various training regarding health and conservation of biodiversity. They have also been taught income generating activities like vegetable gardening and sewing. For example Aluminum can left behind by pilgrims are being recycled into pots and pans by local blacksmiths which is an income generating activity. By empowering local people with appropriate financial assistance, the projects help the villagers not only in improving the quality of their lives but also in providing them

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alternatives to their traditional means of income which generally were connected to the surrounding forests conservation.(Bhudhathoki, 2003)

10 Gap Analysis The Research team of Serendib business solutions has identified the current Eco-friendly trade practices followed by the hotels of Dambulla. These trade practices of Dambulla has been further analyzed and compared with the benchmarking research and identified negative gaps which is explained in this section. 1. Eco-friendly standard certificate sponsored by the government would be an important step to promote eco-tourism in Sri Lanka. 14

♠ The Eco-friendly certificate for hotels in conservation areas such as Lumbini is essential to launch a hotel which shows that without the certificate no hotels are allowed in the conservation area in Nepal. The Certificate given by the government of Nepal follows the International criteria. (“Ecotourism in Lumbini” n.d.). ♠ Dambulla also has several conservation areas including the area which is conserved by Heritance Kandalama (200acres). Bordering these conservation areas new non-eco friendly hotels has established (“Bio Diversity Protection & Conservation Forest”, n.d.). ♠ In Dambulla there are two internationally certified eco-friendly hotels which are very popular for their eco-friendly practices. However There isn’t any standard certification given for Eco-friendly practices Sponsored by the government of Sri Lanka or any Sri Lankan authority. A standard certificate for Eco-friendly hotels sponsored by the government would be an important fact especially for small guest houses and lodges which are unable to reach the international level. Offering a certificate would also encourage small hotels and hotels which are under construction to follow eco-friendly practices. Sri Lankan Government should examine the practices and strategies critically according to international criterias and measures before offering the certificate. 1. Environmental education programs which are initiated by the government of Nepal have been Helpful to minimize their impact on the Environment and also to raise funds for their conservation. ♠ Environmental education programs Sponsored by the Government of Nepal In conservation areas such as Lumbini also promotes sustainable tourism and provide environmental and cultural education to travelers through free, impartial information and training programs (“Ecotourism in Lumbini” n.d.). ♠ In Dambulla There are Environmental educational programs held by the hotels in their conservation areas. However there isn’t any environmental education program for foreigners, sponsored by the Government of Sri Lanka or any Sri Lankan authority. (“elephant dung paper”.n.d.). ♠ Conducting such educational programs in Sri Lanka would also help to promote eco-tourism and also to generate funds for Sri Lankan Conservation programs.

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1. Environmental conservation fund. ♠ Environment education programs held in Nepal also raises funds for their conservation. The conservation fund, which is maintained by the donations of foreigners, is utilized directly for the protection of the
environment.

♠ In Sri Lanka there are several Conservation funds in certain areas. In Sinharaja there is a rainforest conservation fund, Founded by the Sri Lankan Wildlife conservation society (“Sri Lankan Wildlife conservation society” 2007). ♠ In Dambulla there isn’t any conservation fund. The research team of Serendib business solutions also found that Sri Lankan authorities are not charging an entrance fee at the entrance to conservation areas or at the entrance of Dambulla Cave temple. 1. National Environment Protection Act (EPA) of 1997 and the Environment Protection Rules (EPR) of 1997 of Nepal are strictly implemented in Lumbini and such conservation areas. Environment protection laws which are enacted in the parliament of Sri Lanka is not Implemented in conservation areas. ♠ ♠ ♠ National Environmental Act No. 47 of 1980 National Environmental (Amendment) Act, No. 56 of 1988 National Environmental (Amendment) Act, No. 53 of 2000 Neglecting the Implementation and necessary application of above mentioned acts has lead to many unethical practices by those hotels in Dambulla bordering the conservation areas of Heritance Kandalama (“Bio Diversity Protection & Conservation Forest”, n.d.).

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10 Conclusion 6.1 Dambulla is one of the best eco-tourism destinations in Sri Lanka with many tourist attractions including Dambulla Cave temple, the largest and the best preserved cave temple. 6.2Some current Eco-friendly trade practices followed by the hotels of Dambulla have made Dambulla as a premier eco-tourism destination in the region of Asia. 6.3The research team of Serendib Business solutions identified different hotels in Dambulla which are not utilizing their Strengths and opportunities and also identified different hotels which are not following eco-friendly trade practices. 6.4 Lumbini, the birth place of Lord Buddha in Nepal, shows similarities to our selected location Dambulla, has been quite successful as a result of their Eco-friendly trade practices and the Involvement of the Government. 6.5Lack of Involvement of the Government of Sri Lanka in the trade of Ecotourism and Inability to Enforce and implement environmental protection Acts has caused a downfall in the trade of Eco-tourism.

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Recommendations 7.1. Introduce an eco-friendly Standard Certificate sponsored by the Ministry of environment, Sri Lanka or by a Sri Lankan Authority after analyzing and examining the Eco-friendly trade practices followed by the hotels according to the International Criteria introduced by TIES (the International eco-tourism society). ♠ Issuing a standard certificate for Eco-friendly practices will promote eco-tourism in Sri Lanka and will motivate small lodges and hotels to practice eco-friendly strategies. ♠ Foreign tourists as well as locals will also tend to consider the ecofriendly certificate before spending their money on holiday packages. 7.1. Initiate Environmental Education programs for foreigners sponsored by the Ministry of environment in order to minimize their impact on the Environment and also to raise funds for Sri Lankan conservation programs. ♠ Ministry of Environment should encourage hotels to continue their Environmental education programs while getting the help of the hotels to initiate a National Environmental education program. ♠ These Environmental education programs should also promote sustainable tourism and provide environmental and cultural education to travelers. 7.1. Establish an Environmental conservation fund In order to collect donations from foreigners who visit conservation areas of Sri Lanka. ♠ By establishing an environmental conservation fund, Sri Lankan can raise funds that can be utilized in Sri Lankan conservation Programs. ♠ Sri Lankan authorities can charge an entrance fee at the entrance to conservation areas or at the entrance of Dambulla Cave temple. ♠ Environmental education programs will also contribute to generate funds by raising awareness of tourists. 7.1. Implement National Environmental acts 1980, 1988 & 2000 which are enacted by the Parliament of Sri Lanka especially in conservation areas of Dambulla in order to stop unethical practices by those hotels in Dambulla bordering the conservation areas of Heritance Kandalama.

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♠ The Research team of Serendib business solutions also found that the hotels, locals and foreigners are not aware of these environmental protection laws enacted in the parliament of Sri Lanka. ♠ Therefore the Ministry of Environment should also include a section to explain environmental protection acts in their Environmental Education program.

10 References 1. Aitken Spence (2010).Retrieved 11 January 2011,from Aitken Spence Site: http://aitkenspencehotels.typepad.com/success_journey_continues/2010/10/a sias-responsible-tourism-award-goes-to-heritance-kandalama-.html 2. Bhudhathoki , P.(2003) Empowering people to secure national resources: An overview of conservation status In Nepal . Journal of forest and livelihood, 2(2), 72-76.

3. Bio Diversity Protection & Conservation Forest.(n.d.) Retrieved 12 January 2011,from Heritance Kandalama Site: http://www.heritancehotels.com/kandalama/green_philosophy/environment_c onservation.html 4. Daniel, D. (2010, May 11) No pressure on inflation, interest rates from govt borrowing for now. The Island. pp 22-23

5. Eco friendly tourism.(n.d.) Retrieved 11 January 2011,from TIES Site: http://www.ecotourism.org/site/c.orLQKXPCLmF/b.4832143/k.CF7C/The_Intern ational_Ecotourism_Society__Uniting_Conservation_Communities_and_Sustain able_Travel.htm 6. Ecotourism in Lumbini. (n.d.). Retrieved 20 January 2011,from Colorful Nepal Site: http://colorfulnepal.com/things-to-do/good-practices-ecotourism-in-thelumbini.html

7. Elephant dung paper.(n.d.) Retrieved 12 January 2011,from Heritance Kandalama Site: http://www.heritancehotels.com/kandalama/browse.php? catId=23 19

8. Energy ,Water and Waste Management.(n.d.) Retrieved 12 January 2011,from Heritance Kandalama Site: http://www.heritancehotels.com/kandalama/green_philosophy/energy_water_ waste_management.html

9. Gonetilleke, B. (2010, September 27) Sri Lanka Tourism in transition. The Island. PP 18-19.

10.Green Philosophy.(n.d.) Retrieved 12 January 2011,from Heritance Kandalama Site: http://www.heritancehotels.com/kandalama/browse.php? catId=16# 11.Gunatilleke, M. (2007, April 22) Rotting vegetables at the Economic Centre at Dambulla pose economic hardships and environmental hazards. Sunday Times. pp 11-12. 12.Handunnetti , D.(2009, July 5) Heritage Sites face delisting threat. The Sunday leader.p34

13.Helping local communities. (n.d.) Retrieved 12 January 2011,from Heritance Kandalama Site: http://www.heritancehotels.com/kandalama/green_philosophy/helping_local_c ommunities.html 14.International Eco Tourism standards.(n.d.)Retrieved 20 January 2011,from Eco-India Site: http://www.ecoindia.com/education/internationalstandards.html

15.Jayatilleke, D. (2010, November 14) Sri Lanka the fastest growing Asian economy after China. The Island .PP 14-15 16.Michael, B. (1995, December 1) Paradise found in Sri Lanka. The architectural review. pp 38-40

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17.Mountain delights treks and expeditions. (n.d.) Retrieved 20 January 2011,from Mountain delights treks and expeditions site: http://www.trekksnepal.com/visa.html 18.Mounting rate of tourist to Lumbini(2011, January 13) Retrieved 20 January 2011,from Lumbini Development trust Site: http://www.lumbinitrust.org/news.php?content_name=News

19.Rathnasinghe, A. (2010, July 30) UNESCO to conserve Lumbini. Daily news.p10. 20.Serendipity Tours (2007) Sri Lanka is an eco tourism paradise, with 8th wonder of the world SIGIRYA in Dambulla. [Brochure]Panadura: Author.

21.Sri Lanka Eco-tourism Foundation (n.d.) Retrieved 11 January 2011,from SLEF Site: http://www.ecotourismsrilanka.net/pgs/about.html 22.Sri Lankan Wildlife conservation Society (2007) Sri Lankan Wildlife conservation Society. [Brochure]Colombo: Author.

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