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Kabir had picked up Gurrnukhi alphabets Punjabi language during his several journeys through Punjab Haj. Prakrit/Pali and Punjabi and gave respective scripts Brahmi and Gurmukhi.1 The Sikh Problem stands today at the same crossroads where Buddhism once at the beginning of the 9th century. This has been intensified Gandhi's aim of physically liquidating it. like the Sikh Gurus. and Guru Nanak later.rr". which is considered the of Hinduism. preached in the popular of the common man._":""_-.. as that of Guru Nanak later. Just as the Buddhists and places of worship came under attack from a reviving Brahminism the inspiration of Adi Shankaracharya. managed to survive by transforming so as to be encompassed within the framework of Hinduism. Jainisrn. J It was designed the monopoly of Sanskrit and strike at the roots ofBrahminical Buddhist concept of egalitarianism and democratic social in the organisation of their Sangha (from which was probably the Sikh concept of sangat . earned the deep-rooted of Brahminism because of his revolt against the Brahminical priestcraft and rituals.-_. Brahminism turned the tables on . which was equally threatened. Sikhism spread outside India and cannot accept the stipulated modifirequired to fall within the framework of Hinduism. Buddha's message of universal and equality.. which had already spread far beyond India. 340-43...- for Punjabi language were prevalent even before Guru Kabir earlier had used Gurrnukhi alphabets when Brahmins of Benaras reacted to his use of devnagri alphabets. pp.congregation) was in sharp to the elitist Brahminical social order... which they contended was vrmrt snrt language of the gods. faced with a struggle for survival. Today. so too have the Sikhs under the assault from not very dissimilar forces. "'" its religious tenets and was exterminated. It also appears in the same form in Kabir containing the collected hymns of Kabir. Buddhism in India during Ashok's reign and later under Kushans. Gautam Buddha. Buddha. could not rr\m". Therefore. . during the Gupta period. in much the way as Buddhism was once liquidated. .. was subversive of varnashram dharma. of Brahminical heAlso. For Kabir's acrostic in Gurmukhi script see Adi Granth or Adi Sri Grantli Sahib.

His reputation of wholesale destruction of Buddhists preceded him. . only built Saiva temples but also destroyed Buddhist monastries Maths in his Kingdom." Shankaracharya. 1888). J This period also saw the advent of Islam with the invading Arabs. A Comprehensive History India. stupas. burnt the Bodhi tree under which he had meditated. The Brahmins took over the temple under their control. Jawaharlal Nehru mentions of one such wave of migration in 526 AD when the grand patriarch ?f Indian Buddhism. Hiuen Tsang talks of Buddhist monasteries in Persia. Ibid. 8 His appetite whetted. in destruction of Buddhist personal property. (Delhi. The death of Harsha in 648 AD saw an intensification of Brahmin-Buddhist confrontation and was in a large measure responsibile for the political degeneration in north India. rather an allout Brahminical onslaught on Buddhism. be mentioned.000 Indian families. Vol. the Buddhists had extended their sway upto Syria. The formation of Mahabodhi society by Ananganika Dharmpala of Ceylon in 1891 signalled start of the proceedings. Bodhidharma. cite an instance. This was reflective of widespread contacts between the Arabs and the Buddhists. On Yuang Chwang. Watters. The object now was the Buddhist centre at Badrinath.Havell. as testified by the contemporary Chachnama. "5 All of them and others who followed later to China. The Buddhists chose to abandon Badrinath. The hatred took many forms. Edward C. This resulted in large scale vandalism. their images and idols. entered the Buddhist Sangha to subvert Buddhism from within: introduction ofTantrakism in Buddhism was a case in point. Alberuni's India. had been a great Buddhist missionary and Nagarjunakonda was "one of the largest and most important Buddhist settlement in southern India". and regular social interaction between the two.H. it may. 5. thereafter.d. because of an intolerant society and constant persecution. The Brahmins propagated that if anyone dies Harramba or Monghyr. Brahmins still control some parts of the shrine.' During the next hundred years.there at this time more than 3. E. he will straight away go to hell. n. led the group of marauders to Mahabodhi temple in Gaya.K. accompanied by other monks sailed from South India for Canton in China. (London. A. Sachau(Ed). Plunder was another factor as the Buddhist monasteries were rich and affluent centres amidst a decadent society. Lord Buddha had breathed his last at near Monghyr. Nagarjuna. Saivite Brahmin King Sasank of Bengal carried out acts of vandalism against the Buddhists.105. p. (London. Majumdar and K.. and devastated numerous monasteries and scattered their monks.Dasgupta (Eds). Shankaracharya himself killed hundreds of Buddhists of Nagarjunakonda in Andhra Pradesh and in the words of A. According to Al-Beruni.837. 165 quoted in R.. Vol I. Glimpses oj World History. then voracious beef eaters. It saw the emergence of small principalities and dynastic rulers who favoured Hindu revivalism. p. II.1982 reprint).54. destroyed the footprints of Buddha at Pataliputra. helped Mohammad Bin Qasim in his conquest in Sind in 710 AD. there was mass scale migration of Buddhist monks and lay Buddhists to China and East Asia. p 21. 8.. No. Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of India. but later with the rise of Zarathustra. to the chagrin of the Buddhists. p.p. Mosul and Khorasan. Buddhism had a short revival under Emperor Harsha. Nehru.' By the time of Fa-Hi en ' s visit to India in the 5th century Kapilvastu had become a jungle and Gaya had been laid waste desolate. they cooperated with Hun invader Mihirgul. Vol. The Hindus still emphasise that Lord Buddha was the tenth Avatar of Vishnu. saw the intensification of Brahmin-Buddhist conflict.the Lao Yang . (Delhi." The Buddhists saw their democratic principles and social egalitarianism adequately reflected in the Islam of the Arabs and there was growing conviviality between Islam and Buddhism in India during the period. It constituted a retrieving feature for the Buddhists who had.2. Longhurst "wantonly smashed" the Buddhist temples there. with an alibi to mobilise the lumpen elements to attack the Buddhists and their monasteries. pp. The rise of Adi Shankaracharya in the late Sth-early 9th century. Tibet or to Korea and Japan were fugitives from oppressive Brahminism. (1934-35) (Delhi. Ill. This was followed by a steady decline.6-7. Longhurst. 4.H.•u.269 Jawaharlal Nehru. Chanakya and others. 3. . Nehru adds "that in one province of China alone . or be a donkey.C. p.4 The Sikhs in History The Sikh Problem 5 Buddhism. Buddhist monasteries. 2. 7. only partially after Indian independence. They have a strangulating control over the management. The Buddhist Sangha which frowned upon the killing of animals for food (in fact during Harsha's reign a state edict had been promulgated prohibiting the slaughter of animals for' food) provided Shankaracharya-Ied Brahmins. Buddhists were pushed back east of Balkh. Puranas and classical works including those of Manu. the ongoing and attack on the Buddhists and their places of worship.llS. The Buddhist Sang has which had been centers of power were persistently attacked in the effort to weaken Buddha and Buddhism were subjected to venomous diatribes amounting to a hate compaign in various Smritis. 1938).000 Indian monks and 10. which threatened their very existence.Cf. Shankaracharya personally led a motivated group through the Himalayas. particularly. Iraq or Mesopotamia rightup to the borders of Syria. .p. History of Aryan Rule in India. Firstly. Part II. The Antiquities of Nagarjunakonda."vv •.). Brahmins did not desist from cooperating with foreign invaders Huns and early Kushans to strike at the roots of Buddhist ~~. n.. and it was restored to the Buddhists after six decades of litigation.a" For instance.12S. and they indulged in large scale destruction of Buddhist monasteries and stupas.B.". 1983). They threw the statue of the presiding deity in Alakananda river at the foot of 6.

i) UU'UllJli)l. Buddhism had become non-violent but in spite of that. An Autobiography. Habib & Nizami. and that was why the Buddhists agreed to give up their faith and be absorbed into Brahminism! The arguments were carried with the help of fire and power.6 The Sikhs in History The Sikh Problem 7 the temple and escaped to Tibet. Sringeri and Tirupati. western part of Punjab and Sind was Islamised. a local Sufi Pir. which. 1974). When Buddhists took over the temple from the Jains. That was the reason why north-western India including Kashmir. 91-93. Address(Medieval Section) Punjabi University. and Brahmins intended to keep the faith within the framework of Hinduism. L. plead indequate understanding of the conversion of the rural elite and large sections of peasantry to Islam in eastern India at that time. Sringeri (and Kanchipuram) in the south. the acclaimed builder of modern India. The Brahminical social order was not always successful. Lagaturman. perhaps because oflack of centralised organisation. the upshot of backlash of violent extermination of Buddhism by Shankaracharya. scale. It was during the course of Hindu vandalism that the Buddhist structures in Bamiyan.500 years of the M ahaparinirvana of Lord Buddha on national. He effected a coup. and other places were disfigured or destroyed. 596. the impact of his militant campaign against Buddhism was all pervasive. But the advent of Islam. it took Hinduism. now became the of Ibn Karami. it flickered in different regions before it finally became extinct. 1987. Balbhadra Jain. and not logic or persuasion.? So was with Buddhist centres at Puri. Kumar. pp. pp. The centre was taken over by the Brahmins. See Madhu Limaye. 11. Kabul was Muslim. indeed international. 14. or Kulusha. like Buddhism. pp. the general mass of them who had been alienated from Brahminism. "Jawaharlal Nehru.the west. Mohammad Habib and Khaliq Ahmad Nizami (Eds). Bharat Varshya Digambar Jain Tirath Kshetra Committee. The author is thankful to Mr. had agreed to function within the framework of Brahminism and accepted Brahiminical ascendancy.i)l~. aptly termed Dark Age. 5. Vol. Buddhism was revived in India during the 20th century with the conversion of some backward classes led by Dr. (Delhi. was no exception and gave expression to his Brahminical proclivities in his presentation of historical processes. the socialist leader.as Buddhist and Jain idols were identical in sitting pose with both hands at the naval in meditating posture. V." That was half a century before Cf. Over the next couple of centuries. Keeping in view its importance amidst a host of ancient places of historical importance. I cannot get rid of that past inheritence . they did not break the idol but treated it as a Buddhist one. Vol II. & 361. 1980). by the time. . however. racial memories of hundred or whatever the numbers may be. 10 for India now became a homogenised Hindu state. Gardez. The fate ofB uddhist property and their places of worship especially in central and southern India was similar. II He later sought to make partial 9." mentions that by 950 AD when the Hindu Shahi Kingdom its zenith. chose to accept Islam which provided them equality and met their natural instincts and aspirations. The Buddhists. The fact that Shankaracharya travelled widely and converted Buddhist centres into Brahminical centres of learning. Bamiyan and Kabul . Afghanistan -Turkistan. Kulusha killed the Buddhists in thousands and levelled and citadels. a statue of Allah on his throne in place of Buddha Lotus. 12 Hindu historians. Jawaharlal Nehru practised both racialism and casteism.the Buddhist faith and Kingdom were stamped outby the Saivite Brahmin Minister. Proceedings.149. several centuries to exterminate it. That also happened to the Buddhists in Bihar and Bengal. were added. despite modern upbringing and outlook. 1989. maths. 138. Justice M. History Conference." In tune with the guidelines laid down by Shankaracharya. and founded Hindu Shahi Kingdom. 13 They fight shy of facing this phenomenon. Jawaharlal Nehru. unlike the Buddhists. (Calcutta). It is remarkable that district gazetteers of the Gangetic valley speak of the existence of Muslim societies in 10th and 11th centuries before the arrival of Muhamad Ghauri. Bharat Ke Digmbar Jain Tirath. 10. It is truism for Hindu historians to say that Shankaracharya defeated the Buddhists because of his superior intellect and arguments. Bhimrao Ambedkar." persecuted harshly by Brahmins. n. "A Wealthy Bania and a: Socialist Brahmin" in the weekend Telegraph. former Judge of Delhi High Court for bringing this to his notice. 179. The contemporary Shunya Purana and Dharm Puja Vithan bear testimony to that. Ghazni H"JUa. 2. Part I. when Saivism asserted its dominance through the armed strength.. 128-29. Later to gi ve it a distinct Hindu frame. 10. overthrew the last Buddhist King. November 21. Sachau. n. p. But.ll. Nehru. Shankaracharya had the idol of Rishabh Dev recovered and reinstalled. The Digambar Jains credibly contend that originally Badrinath was a Jain temple with the idol of Rishabh Dev as the presiding deity.v'The Karami sect was the half-way between Buddhism and assumed great importance in the life of Ghur. Puri in the-east and Dwarka in . Buddhism almost disappeared from India. The fact that Shankaracharya restored the Jain idol at Badrinath signifies that the Jains. Cf. 1987). The Making of A Nation: Essays in Indian History and 1989). two more arms which are quite distinct to the naked eye. was already an international religion.H~..at Badrinath in the north. introduced a discordant element.p. (Delhi. A Comprehensive India. Jawaharlal Nehru traces the "cultural unity of India" and the emergence of "common Indian consciousness" to this period of Shankaracharva's annihilation of Buddhism. Shankaracharya named it as one of the centres of Brahminism. (1936). generations of Brahmins. March 17-19. Nehru wrote. In the words of Madhu Limaye.this was on a limited scale. "Behind me lie somewhere in the sub-conscious. in the second half of 9th century. n. amends by organising the celebration of 2. in face of Brahminical atrocities. p. and were called Karamis.(Bombay. Jain. In a revealing passage about his 'making'. Part Statue at Bamiyan in Afghanistan was disfigured in 16.

5. had devastating effect on recalcitrants who resisted writing of their alongwith their names. the artisans of Archeological Survey of 'India removed a disjointed slab for refixing and found the sculpture of a Hindu goodess on the reverse side. It was in this spirit that later Feroze Shah Tughlaq (who for the first time imposed Jaziya tax on Brahmins) brought Ashok's Pillar from near Meerut. Mahmud appointed teachers to instruct the people of Ghur in the precepts of Islam after his campaign of India in lOlO-lOIUs Mahmud Ghazni's campaigns against the places of Hindu worship in India including the breaking of Hindu idols at Jawalamukhi. in turn. 21 Buddhism became extinct in India around that time. Warren Hastings'. Shankaracharya caused dissensions by laying emphasis on caste as a dominant factor. imposing wholesale caste system and ritualism . In the process." No Buddhist monastery was destroyed as these had already been demolished by the Hindus! Rather. Brahmins collaborated with them and emerged as greatest beneficiaries. son of Jaisen. Whereas Buddhism had helped to harmonise the Indian society. m the absence of English women from home. toll tax. as centres "Ofvillage life. without attracting approbrium. helped in enslavement of the Hindus by the Muslims. and installed it at Kotla Feroze Shah. black superstitions. As quid pro quo. in collaboration with Brahmins. That brought to a creeching halt efforts of social reformers to modernise Hindunism. Vol. appointed Judge of Supreme Court in 1784. He helped in enslavement of the mind. In short.8 The Sikhs in History The Sikh Problem 9 Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni began his campaigns in India. Compilation of Shunya (Zero) Purana during the period was recognition of the Zero sum game. and pushed the Hindu philosophy to Its lowest point. With the overthrow of the bulk of Hindu rulers.on all classes of non-Muslims. For instance. making the temple with Images of gods and godesses. chapters xii to xvi and ad passim. That coloured the Hindu nationalism which was born from a sense of defeat. Canada for bringing this to his notice. Nirad C. Brahminism throughout history has used all contrivances including cooperation with foreigners to uphold Brahminical supremacy and imperialism over the general body of 'Hindus'. It may be mentioned here that Mahmud Ghazni's general. II. Brahmins also interpolated various Shastras. 1946). &c . Sachau. The destruction of Hindu places of worship from now on became a regular feature with the Muslim invaders of India. in the process. though Hinduism too was subjugated for next eight centuries. social inequities and extortion of wealth from a hapless people. on all non-Muslims and non-Christians. . Cf. from 17. 18. dark idolatory. Qutubuddin Aibak demolished 27 Hindu and Jain temples at Delhi and used the material for the construction of Qutab Minar. Brahminism had sowed the seeds of iconoclasm in the sub-continent and now they reaped the whirlwind. The Auto biography of an Unknown Indian (1951). brought out archaic Manu Smriti and other spurious and unjust Shastras. Delhi.) any spiritual advancement. was significant. in retribution to earlier Hindu onslaught on the Buddhist places of worship which rankled in the minds of the people. Chaudhuri. p. Since. In reciprocity.or. . Smrities. placement of the only Buddhists structure. 1987 pA04. The only exeption was Punjab which came under the egalitarian influence of the Sikh movement of Guru Nanak and his successors. 20. a vast body of people. 22. Brahmin's triumph was complete in taking over the management of Hindu temples. or was the price paid by the Hindus for the crime of violent extermination of Buddhism from the land of its birth. The contemporary Hindu was conscious of that. he caused spiritual !nsanity among the Hindus. Brahmins cooperated with the n~w rulers to quieten the countryside. The Menace of Hindu Imperialism (Lahore. In 1988 while carrying on repairs. The auther is thankful to Mr. rank inequities. That also took care of their alignment with Rajput Princes. The Hindus straightaway developed a deep-rooted hatred of the Muslims and in the words of Al-Beruni enclosed themselves in a shell calling the new rulers mlechhas. His lasting contribution was violent espousal of the caste ideology. That buttressed their theocratic overlordship of Hindu society right from Rajputana to IndoGangetic valley to post-Shivaji Maharashtra to Bijapur and Golcunda. Like Hindu and Muslim rulers. there was precisely little original in Adi Shankaracharya' s philosophy. (London. who emerged as the foremost Orientalist and founder of Asiatic Society. 395. 19. establishing Caste Courts.priestcraft. and enforced them as authoritative texts of Hindu law. ONT. he excluded Shudras and the outcastes. Tilak or Tilaka.educated in Kashmir. Jayasena. Paradoxically. Puranas and whole body of religious texts. Ajit Singh Sahota of Nepean. n. the Sultans exempted Brahmins from payment of Jaziya. Ashok's iron pillar. and was indicative of the regard the early Turkish invaders had for Buddhism. With the British divesting themselves of management of religious endowments in 1863. First Governor General. reciting and memorising the Vedas. at the centre of Quwwat-ul-Islam (Power of Islam) mosque in the complex. given the nomenclature of 'Hindu' by the Muslim rulers. was a Buddhist. 15 op cit. This. That was the retribution meted out to Hinduism. varnashramdharma. Muslim rule was not an unmitigated disaster for Brahminism. as enunciated by Manu. pushing humanist philosophers like Ramanuja into the periphery. as they had been prohibited by Manu from hearing. Brahmins gained tremendously as leaders of a decadent society. in part. and enforcing a graded inequitous caste and entry system in to the temples. to excommunicate one from Hindu caste. Sir William Jones. When the Hindu and Muslim rulers came under the Europeans. 21. so that it reminds the Hindus of Buddhism which was now almost extinct. Lord Rama and Lord Krishna as apostles of reformed Brahminical faith. the East India Company derived large annual profits from the management of temples. Cf. with Brahmin as fulcrum of Indian or Hindu society. They discarded Brahminism of Vedic Age which had been overtaken by Buddhism and introduced Kshatriya Pnnces. These twin enslavements helped Adi Shankaracharya to emerge as the main philosopher of modern day Hinduism. he played aleading role in violent annihilation of Buddhism. This helped to buttress Brahminism which now emerged as Hinduism of modern times. In short. and governs his attitude towards the people of non conforming faiths.n. Taking advantage of the Muslim rule. Mathura and Somnath temples were." It is this legacy of Adi Shankaracharya that makes the psyche of modern day Hindu. The English emerged as patrons of Brahminical o priestcraft and idolatory. and of temple-girls to satiate their carnal requirements . Swami Dharma Theertha." Qutab Minar was designed to teach the lesson of subjection to the Hindus! It also marked the end of the Indo-Aryan period ofIndian history. impure.

How will the Sikhs fare now? Will history repeat itself? Or. will it be rewritten. at the state expenses. Attempts have been made earlier as well. Hinduism's extermination of Buddhism did not lead to wholesome results. They are now paying the price for that trust. The first task undertaken immediately after independence by the new government. did not accept Sikhism as a religion distinct from Hinduism.the gruesome time that lies ahead.Munshi(Builders of Modern India)(Delhi. The cost-benefit ratio was in an adverse scale. was the decision to reconstruct. Kulkarni. To begin with. the funds for the temple were raised by voluntary contributions. It was another matter that he was later acclaimed the apostle of Indian secularism. Hindu revivalism underpinned by the state power and machinery resumed its onward march after a hiatus of one thousand years. At Gandhi's instance. and the Sikhs trustingly . the acclaimed father of the nation. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. Sikhism which came up during this thousand-year interregnum. Munshi. V. the Somnath Temple which. The story as to how the Sikhs. had served as a galling reminder of the degradation of the Hindus. makes a grim reading." Only a year earlier in his Discovery of India (1946) he had given expression to his atavistic perception of Hindu revivalism and in the words of Shaikh Mohammad Abdullah (Atish-i-Chinar). As of now. With their back to the wall. Indira Gandhi to launch her Sikh war. That was an upshot of Maul ana Abul Kalam Azad' s working on his megalomania. the leadership of the Indian National Congress (which has been in power during the last 43 out of 47 years) has gradually pushed the Sikhs out of the national mainstream which enabled. especially after Sardar Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel's death in December 1950.216. Publication Division.M. and those who stand up for the mosque would be made to do so. Government of India. has since been the butt of Hinduism. It was contended that protagonists of Allah had migrated to Pakistan. 1982) p. in the words of K. This is not the first time that the Sikhs face extinction in India. thinking Sikhs all over the world are apprehensive of the very existence of Sikhism in India as a vibrant faith. M. and how using the Hindu card. this way or that? Only time will tell. BOOK TWO SIKHISM IN MEDIEVAL HISTORY . the mosque constructed at the site in the 17th century was demolished.10 The Sikhs in History With the Indian independence in 1947. And. But the Hindus have learnt one thing from history that they cannot learn anything. the Sikhs face Hobson's choice. Cf. that old dispensation".placed all their eggs in the Congress basket without suspecting the Hindus. the Cabinet meeting was presided over by Jawaharlal Nehru. once again. avowing secularism and composite nationalism. In retrospect.a trust that immediately after independence was betrayed . 23.B. as a distinct religion. he "regarded himself as an instrument to establish. who were the third party at the time of Indian independence. have been reduced to a non-existent role. Presently. K.

s (195). That was an overr~dmg authonty for of inscription at Baghdad see.. (Oxford. took are three Baghdadi folk sayings about Baba Nanak. 3(5). They were not for acceptance his precept to all.. A. in conson~~ce with of his mission all over the places. was if. One. p. experience of the Lord.. pp. Nanak and the Sikh Religion. also. he was . 1968). and he had the consciousness or moral obligation advocated individual moksha. October-November 1969.1136.confronted Baba Nanak (Are you Baba Nanak?). amounts dishonesty. 16 The Sikhs in History . nor Muslims. He concedes that first six or seven syllables in the second Saba Nanak Faqir or Baba Nanak-i-Faqir but says that this does meter and should be ignored. same. Hindu or a Muslim? To Guru Nanak such type of questions Mu Baba Nanak (I am not Baba Nanak). Guru Nanak launched on four odysseys to "search for who was commissioned by Mcl.). A sor~ of he came under the influence of Guru Nanak. 9. Guru Nanak Fifth Centenary that the Word (of Lord) was the Guru.334by Siddhas as to "Who is thy Guru". a reformed Thug! For his despite some of them including Kabir and Namdev Sajjan was maintaining both a temple and a mosque.. Even the Bhaktas.. vu and Ceylonese history. For Baghdadi common man. These to all parts of the sub-continent and beyond. He was now eminently middle classes. p. 17.surroundings. To ignore because it does not fit into one's contrived thesis. Their pacifism helped to head a socio-religious centre for humanity. He was relying on the r. Sunita Puri. who were critical and Semitic _ in India and abroad. was qurte different. A 'balak Baba Shaikh Brahm or Ibrahim with the cardinal question.e~elation. Ibid.. There 'are It was reserved for Guru Nanak to charter a new order local sources in Assamese Vehis (regarding visit to intermixture in equal measure of religious. 1969.G. 10. or he pretends to be Baba Nanak). Bhairau Mahla (hereinafter M. views he formulated and the course of action he adopted. UH. Vol III. 8. 44." To the specific Punjab Past and_Present (Hereinafter PP&P). 11. He averred. Guru Nanak stated Sikh Review Calcutta Vol XVIII. It was in this vein that Guru Arjan later Singh. pp. what he was saying. 84-85. pp. campanion Mardana. And. from the outer good deeds. ~~. These were the irrelevant.. raised his voice against the prevalent political was headed by Sajjan. The perspective with the Muslim. and induced docility. Allah-Ram is breath of our body. is in the heart of Baghdad) 'to a trans-region journey Shortly. Nonetheless. Guru Nanak did not quote Hindu scnptures as an authonty "Guru Nanak Visited Ceylon".sub-continent and . His metaphysical expenence confirmed hIS also known as Ghaus-i-Pak and Pir Dastgir (whose formulations. (Ed) Sources on the Life and Teachings of Guru Nanak. he established centres for social responsibility. encompassmg both language with an admixture of Arabic in and temporal spheres.G.. Adi Sri Guru Granth Sahib inafter A. 14 Guru would pull down the tyrants and exploi~ers.939. 10 October-November 1969. any other prophet much less a Hindu religious teacher. opposite p. persecution at the hands of the r~lers .. and el~vate th~ the young son of the then successor of Abdul Qadir and the meek.s. he is Baba Nanak. he skirted the question in this century talked about or enquired of the visit of inter-se position of Hinduism and Islam.122. as his revelation had the caste system and repudiated essentials of validity.Political Content of the Teachings of Guru in Studies in Sikhism and Contemporry Religion.58-61.dipeople's common reaction to all those who till the second not a Muslim. when Guru Nanak started on world tour which. "Socio. Sidh. 13 besides an inscription responsibilities into a composite whole. I tell a lie. p. ) 5. April-October 1988. The first center he thought.eod admits his lack of knowledge saints". . Goshati. Reader in Turkish at School of Oriental Studies.. The Sikh Review. Middle East and Central Asia. both Hindus and Muslims in the Co~rt of God world. That suited very well McLeod's Guru Nanak did not travel outside his . he proceeds Cf. b~ing the ruling The odysseys took Guru Nanak to all parts of the sub-continent including the Indian Muslims. p. "Guru Nanak at Puri with Sri Chaitanya and His followers" Kabir's hymn that" We are neither Hindus. Ibid. cutting further consolidate socio-political isolation of the Hindu sectarian lines.131Menage. . 8 He envisioned a social testifying to Guru Nanak's visits to those parts. 18. hi. I am i:m~ri> Bllghlda.G. " Similarly at Mecca. There is also mention of Guru Throughout his discourses in the . forms part of Baghdadi folk lore. A. soc~al and . New Delhi Vol VII ( 2). beyond to Tibet.l1 He went to places for worship of al! language used in the inscription. "If I say I am a Hindu. by saying that some at regular intervals. Ramkali. p.'U'Yi.Evolution of the Sikh Panth 17 parasitic and irresponsible. None of them. only Baba Nanak rue the day. outer-world. he gave up characterised all classes of the Hmdus mcludmg the upper and was a transformed man.943.

more so as they recited Sanskrit expressed within the limitations of human expression. socio-political conditions of the people. much less a section of the society... Neither was relevant. (Agra.. p. without understanding their purport. The Brahmins Guru N anak' s experience was infinite..1964)..uvu..llJ the Issues impinged on social responsibility. introducing new strains theology. (and he said so in digit 1 to prevent a change m an era of discourse within Hinduism" and within Islam? meanings and emphasise that He is indivisible). (Oxford.".Pll'f:. Max Arthur Macauliffe. were obliged to conceal their universe and is the only source of light in all human feelings about their religion. 1000-1707.. Naths or Yogis who reduced nay the whole gamut of Hindu philosophy.L1J1}ia. p. behind the caste hierarchy.qually ... and narrow the parameters of social interactio History of India. if not the validity.. and full of Grace.31O..... .cted the various classes of the people.. asceticism and world-withdrawing doctrines To begin with. J. WhIChe..none of them . neither Hinduism nor the pale of any school of the Hindu thought...1. na Musalman .the Turks and Afghans . Srivastava.t~at agitated th~ minds of the people were naturally The first statement made by Guru Nanak after his di VISIOnswithin Hmduism and Islam.laid down s~cial the supremacy. hA.l. Rather by was reflective of the change in the social milieu.dI>Jl:S on. Hindus declared Muslims mlechhas. the Shastras. of Islam at the close of on anyone. formed an essential part of world. Shastras. p.....BVVal1"I... 1909). Pakpattan.. of Guru Nanak's concept was the sole fulcrum of his and Sirhind emerged as main Sufi centres.. Vol. comprehension and expression. L...l. Our upper and middle class people. 4.. . His infinite wisdom and His of behaviour....... the Hindu socio-religious orders had become armed superiority of Muslims. culture and sundry other matters Universal brotherhood of humankind and common heritage.. Many of our men imbibed low cunning and deceit. And that. "The Turko-Afghan yield the meaning "by the favour of the Guru".llJVH. Guru Nanak was able to make a statement law givers . terse and impregnated with philosophical meanings and .cw<> the Hindus.. there arose third or fourth generation Muslims of and later Mohamad Ghori was gradually followed by lessening who sought equality with Turks/Aghans.1970).'U"U .'.3 values were affected by Brahminical hierachy and they treated as an inferior class. lost manliness of character and of God's greatness. gl. movement broadly produced Bhakts or Saints from lower classes characterise the Hindu society. ~isconcerting to the society was the state of general was the child of one God.w!lbsbUght initiate the process of inner reformation by asserting the futility New Muslim rulers . But the immigrant the harshness of the earlier aggressive Muslim demean . Punj~b ~as in the throes of social convulsions... The Sikh Religion.. 4 Y/>.no".J.. He in the process asserted universal humanism.. what was relevant was his personal experience. The Hindu society's closing itself behind selfishness... inter alia. 35. while traditional and far exceeded the concept of God in Vedas.. "They abandoned honesty and smcent process of discourse within Hindisum that gave birth to Bhakti straightforwardness and integrity of character and imbibed vices in various parts of India. But this had to i~to meaningless rituals.affe.. nor the various reli cious That. "5' participation in human affairs vis a vis his own limitations. Evolution of Indian Culture. to century and go unpunished by the Muslim rulers for b ..N. B. a series of jantra-mantra-tantra fetishes.... cleverness and skill in deceit and evasion" which Dharma had left the Sudras and the outcastes unprotected. These was no true Hindu or true Muslim.. At the time. Ineffable.<.. UO at places between the two.Lunia. to develop a kind of servility of character in order to get on of any limiting angularities. Guru Nanak's declined.there was neither a factor in social interaction between various sections of a Muslim. The study of Sanskrit limitations of the language. p. ..14 The Sikhs in History Evolution of the Sikh Panth 15 in the words of A.. Above all. H H _- IlU 3. in general. In the words of. emergence o~ Sufi mystics on the social horizon helped to in short.. who had to come of cosmic consciousness that divine light permeates the daily contact with the rulers. In the face of sustenance. and relevance of was na koi Hindu... and Smritis. he recited a couple of hymns hpn"+.195.. revelation. is One." produced an unhealthy result on the character and dignity of Guru Nanak during the process of revelation gained new race. knuckled under Sidhas.U withdrawal from productive work and dependence on Muslims reciprocated by declaring Hindus infidels.were in temperament to the early Arab invaders. The mass-s Hy <'! rue mass scale conversion of the Buddhist laity and later of sections destruction of Hindu places of worship under Mahmud to Islam.. (Agra.. . Hindus were quick to' shut tnemselvt '.. At times. This cryptic statement has also been interpreted to mean that « . unclean.

in thanksgiving. that would generate a self-propelling social growth.G. The Governor. a composition of Guru Nanak. set apart Guru Nanak's mission was his on. at a ripe old age. Following him. He highlighted the evils of Brahminical . flowing dress. Qazis .G. the last phase of his life. the political situation.. Var Malar M. not being to birth and death. He struck at the roots of a ashram dharma. Kurukshetra. They have got these by some Qadianis who contend that Guru Nanak was a muslim. Yogis. highlights the salient contradictions uism and Guru Nanak's teachings. He condemned their pusillanimity. The Qoranic verses have since been tampered with because of the petuous actions ofBedi custodians of the shrine.15 . and administrators to dogs. owntrodden to ameliorate their place in society. and renunciation for spiritual attainment. with women equal status in society. 18. who was Secretary in the Indian Embassy in Baghdad during 1989-90. At Baghdad. It was customary for Baghdadi rulers to confer Qoranic Chogas appreciation.1289-90 he brought fusion of all four castes. raised a furore at Mecca by asserting the omnipre of God and oneness of humanity. Vaishnavas.the Naths.. including the maladministration of justice by reprimanded the Kshatriyas (warrior caste amongst giving up their role as defenders of the society and laborating with the oppressive rulers.'? In that context." in the context of the totality of societal involvement Nanak reviewed the contemporary political situation. 16 At Haridwar. Buddhists. Juma-e-Khulfa (Caliph's Mosque).. In the regions. as an evidence of he had experienced... Imam.p. led to the raising of tempers.c'"·Tl·DI'}I". he cooked meat (of a stag killed in game and by a devotee) on the solar eclipse which led to an debate with Brahmins about what constituted legitimate and legitimate or violence and non-violence in human affairs. Shaikh Jalal al Hanafi. Vedantists.1l1~ in Sikh shrines._ .18 The Sikhs in History Evolution of the Sikh Panth 19 knew as he had demonstrated the truth during his visit in the 16th century. He called for sponsibility in public administration and introduction of of welfare state.lUll11>C. Guru Nanak preached universal His teachings were for all. He stood for living the life of a householder and not running from the problems of the world.lf them instead of the aristocracy.. He "H~'U. Another such Qoranic Choga conferred by the ruler of Shaikh Badiuddin Shahmadari is available at Manakpur near 16. the mosque in Baghdad. Sri Rag M. He was for a social ./ 15.vgood.to rise above the mundane c?nsiderations to the essence of religion . irrespective of their present orientations or caste predilections. without any condemned the rampant corruption in the . He severely condemned the practices. he entered into bitter debates. the young boy... probably Zainuddin. with verses from Qoran on it (also as Qoranic Choga) on Guru Nanak. . un-incarnated. In the process. 1. she got pregnant. condemned caste system. 1. In the words of Bhai HHll"VT.. ~ the and exploited the people in and out.. A.. his talk of thou of upper and nether regions invited the wrath of the orthodoxy. di Var.G.3(4).rulers to butchers. a place for practising positive.a social and spiritual interaction with humanity. Guru Nanak at Baghdad blessed the wife of the governor with a son. His repudiation of the concept arvad. Similarly.. simple act of offering water in reverse direction. of ajuni. He regarded this as an abode of God. in several conversations with the author. Shaikhs.. unreasoning and ignorance. A. Throughout his life. At places. 1.25(2). T~"VV . Jains.on. and wanted their protagonists . He gave his own version of what constituted a true yogi. he at times reconstructed both Hinduism and Islam. He repudiated all the essentials of Hinduism. 15 Guru Nanak's mission had all the elements of a protagonist. Bhai Gurdas mentions varn avarn ik karaya. . was served prasad he had with him on coming back from the voyage.. Maulvis. was inherent in one attributes in mul mantra..22(2). a true Brahmin. or delving into. he revealed the superiority of his transcendent experience and vision. of God's taking a human birth. but also taken the son of Pir Dastgir (the then successor of the Dastgirs shrine) to a voyage through his cosmic powers and shown him the regions. This Choga is presently at Dera Nanak in Punjab. A.H. nay those within the caste system and the outcastes. Guru Nanak at Baghdad had not only talked hundreds of thousands of upper and nether regions. however. He .. pp. p. condemned human exploitation and hypocrisy. successor to the First Ashraf who died in 981 A. a true Muslim and what to recite five Muslim prayers. towards (which showed Guru Nanak had some land at that place sustenance of his family and where he finally settled during last two decades or so of his life) challenged the validity of Brahmins' beliefs (they were offering water to the rising sun).1288. The 76 old Shaikh Hanafi who sometimes was Imam of Juma Mosque in in China. According testimony of Bhai Gurdas. in sharp contrast to practices.on and berated the cowardice of the people and many ils of the contemporary society. sung in early hours nAUVU1~J1H. Shaivas. is a renowned authority on Baghdadi folklore. he entered into an acrimonious with Jogis or Yogis at Achal Batala. Brahmins. conferred on Guru a Baghdadi Choga.

he laid down guidelines. and spent the invasion. if need following all over the subcontinent and beyond. "0 Lord. and giving and taking santokh. japo. 417-18 Tilang M. and the head is chopped off the neck. Guru Nanak. He.became the hallmark of the • y~.360. 20. nor of the Bhakti generated national awareness. va'bU' Study of Reli- . higher your head on the palm of your hand. 27.9(1). tilling his land. It was not and disfiguring the gem of Hindustan. free from religious coercion.. to make a which made one's living haram. His emphasis on nam (Name) or shabad (Word) was all the ideology and social cohesion for resistance to oppression. I. 1. n. wand chhako . pp.G. A. man being the other half.. Salok M. A. 1. p. All these had no impact could be judged in terms of standards that the political on Guru Nanak. 1412 refers to capture of Lahore in 1524: "For quarter to four hours. as such. p. Guru Nanak's teachings life. sinful. culmination of Sufi movement of the Muslims. p. pessimism and change into the social scene. He reflected a positive and healthy attitude towards cannot fully control.G. p. Here was Guru Nanak. and reflected a broad spectrum of cynicism.1. 62. dan. wanted the people to oppression. 142. victory. Salok Varan te Vadheek. Rag Majh. Lord was destroyer of the demons. He was setting a new trail of religion.1028. and not look back. It implied that political and escapism of a morally sick society. 11-12. kirat karo.29 III>IILlI- 20. Maru M.•.Salok 27.. 39 (Pause). social bondage and against war.G. humility and service. One need not be afraid of death. pp. he had emerged as a prophet having of forces. elegies. 579-80. inclusive.p. A themselves with sophisticated weapons to create a strategic travelled householder.. tolerance and restraint. AG. A. 1988). A. 1.-" Nihal Singh." These concepts of Guru composite social unit.722-23. to pave the way for an equal contest. Asa M. (2(3).. truthful living. you should not hesitate in cardinal virtues as essentials for the religious discipline down your life. The Dharamsal (the place of religious congregation) he Guru Nanak. like Lord Krishna in Mahabharta. Asa Ashtapadis. and follow my way. a positive gun which according to Babur's Memoirs proved decisive in of equality of all human beings and their right to a .G." He portrayed a heart-rending scene of conditions last 18 years of his life as a householder at Kartarpur off-Ravi.G. Neither was it a judge politicai authorities. A.G. Through freedom of expression. pp. sanjam : faith. he set up a irrespective of creed.2l.. Wadhans M. 24.G. 1.to meditate True to earn through honest and creative earnings with others . i~I".1412. or a balance of terror (which in itself is sufficient "'. He set new standards based on synthesis of Hinduism and Islam.rUIJIJ >/ devotees closely following his teachings. p.. One such cause he mentioned was to five with dignity. Surjit Hans. p. sabar. 10(1) A.>i> . the loss garibi. if it Trilochan Singh sums these up as follows: Thee. if one dies for an approved cause.. Life and death is in the hands of Lord. 97.G. He said. 15(1). Both of these stressed renunciation of elite brought a new level of tension andnew possibility of the world..20 The Sikhs in History Evolution of the Sikh Panth 21 woman or wife as one-half. compas-sion.~u ••• 14(5)." He constructed. that though. was life. A. Ibid: also Rag Majh.. A Reconstruction of Sikh History from Sikh (Jalandhar.'?' As such. hymns depicting conditions of India at the time of Babur' Guru Nanak castoff the costume of a hermit. one plies the sword.both Hindus and town early in 16th century founded by him. "If you want to play the game of devotion. of a you take a step in this direction. dharam. 25. Salok M.5. vicar. the name of God and his philosophy. Here. It was Guru Nanak who laid the foundations of martyrdom Nanak laid down strict ethical tests for his disciples. it is not in the hands of man. however.. p. Asa M. 23. Nanak later laid the foundations of the Khalsa on the basis of selfGuru Nanaks views were made further explicit in his sacrifice and martyrdom. "Truth is higher than everything. tl24 Again. constituted the nerve centre of Sikhism in action. "Guru Nanak's Religion: A Comparative UUIHlI". A.G.A. apart from prevent a war). A. living with his wife Guru Nanak took a special note of Babur's use of and sons. submission to tyranny with disdain. He Sikhism. to give blood and tears. "The differentiation of the movement of the Hindus.39. 360.2. 26. 1.p. the Sikh Panth.G. contentment and reflection. He spoke against tyranny in the human laboratory to practise the new faith. truth. Cf. He condemned the Lodhi rulers for their a practical shape to his over two decades of teachings. die is the right of the brave. the city of was ravaged by the wrath and tyranny" of Babur. (gyan) and work (krit). 21.":" As such. 144-45.. seva : forgiveness. a both the aristocracy and the laity . righteousness and charity. 22.pp.

or congregation. also points to his perfect control over the language.recitation of hymns and singing of shabad. What rightfully belonged to others was likened to swine for the Muslim and kine for the Hindu i. nor middling.r was added to the script to represent sound betwen hard'd' and 'r '.. The texture of Guru Nanak's hymns in multiple Ragas and containing deep philosophical precepts in pithy language. and laid down the rules of grammar closely following those of Prakrit. letter. pp. Singing of shabad (weld) which is synonym with naam (Name). Guru Nanak kindled his own light into that of Lehna who became Angad. was the mixing together of devotees in worship . It was reserved f()rhis successors to build upon that foundation. and Guru Nanak's discourses widened the horizon of devotees and inculcated in them the faculty of discernment and perception. was indicative of the Sikh movement's providing overall leadership to the society. "0 sire. Sangat. The sangats were established all over the places visited by Guru Nanak right from the beginning. sitting together in a row by all the devotees irrespective of caste. Guru Nanak perfected the script with acrophils. of Sikh Community (Oxford. The congregation at Kartarpur was convinced of its relevance to the contemporary world. And.G.. neither low.G.men and women . The use of political terminology.1389-90) for Guru Nanak's establishing jog. power and heroism in the context of. That infused a social spirit and formed an attempt at communal living apart from group moksha. In nominating Bhai Lehna (b. He thus separated the institution from the family and its location. and eventually emerged as missionary centres of Sikhism. 34. 33 It was this concept of an admixture of raj and jog that pointed to miri and piri under Guru Hargobind and eventually led to the emergence of the Khalsa .H. In order to avoid a possible conflict with his 34 Guru Nanak wanted Guru Angad to settle in Khadur where wife and children lived. . of Guru Nanak's establishing raj and Bhai Lehna's patrimony of sword. Gujri Ashtpadis. They constituted a distinct socio-religious and proselytising group. common kitchen. I am God's devotee and seek His protection. and generate a feeling of communal and national consciousness at a time when sense of nationalism was absent among the populace. p. Guru Nanak's instituting the langar. the successor(s) was moulded in the image of Guru Nanak himself to faithfully carryon the master's work. in what is known as ballad of succession in Adi Granth (Ramkali di Var). McLeod. Guru Nanak was unaware that he was separating the personality of the Guru that of his light. which had its own Gurmukhi script". and pang at. (A. "31 They were asked to rise above narrow sectarianism. but it had a perception of ideal living. Guru Nanak had dwelt on multiple passim. including sudras and outcastes. A. Punjabi. Bhai Gurdas tells us that the devout Sikhs of Guru Nanak included persons .Evolution 31. In short. was spiritual successor of Guru Nanak. Coronation Ode by Satta and Balwand. Bhai Lehna 'was eventually chosen not because he was a Khatri in preference to Baba Buddha a Jat. March 1504). Devnagri and Persian scripts later made provision for this sound. and completely himself with the founder-Guru as part and parcel of his His importance lay in the fact that he reemphasised in Nanak's mission. e. in the last few years would imply. I am not high. as Some motivated denigrators. A. was revolutionary in seeking to mitigate the prevalent taboos.of all classes.G. and listening to discourses.Gurumukhi also reminded the people of Guru's mouth. in Sikh Swaye raj and -----W. This was especially so as Guru Nanak preached in the language of the people. The devotees were inculcated to sing. nindaks. Guru Nanak also instituted the concept of sangat and pangat. Guru Nanak had dilated on almost all aspects of human endeavours in religious. ad product of McLeod's malefic mind and never came up earlier history. pp.22 The Sikhs in History Evolution of the Sikh Panth 23 new society.his succession by Bhai Balwand.Bhai Lehna and Baba Buddha. Japji incidentally sums up the entire gamut of Sikh philosophy. both written and spoken.a perfect saint-soldier. guru oriented Kabir's acrostic based on Gurmukhi characters which finds place in A. (deliverance from birth and death) instead of emphasis on individualism and individual moksha in Hinduism. See also Pahle Ke. 30 Guru Nanak wrote an acrostic on the basis of 35 Gurmukhi 'Uf'"'tl)"L~ instance. It also provided the people a platform to exchange views on common problems. morally degrading. Guru N anak' s greatest contribution for consolidation of his mission was appointment of a successor to carryon his work to its fruition. were found wanting. Ibid. or Guru's word and Gurmukh. social and political spheres. Guru Nanak's sons were ignored as they. And they did it without deviation. After strict tests.G. All the more so.340-43 and also in Kabir Bajak does not use the alphabet . 4. as the disciples had an incontrovertible faith in Guru Nanak's spiritual paramountcy." According to contemporary Sikh traditions. 504. Living on alms was positively looked down upon. the part of Guru's body.966-68. pp..r. Recitation of Japji in the morning. sodar at sunset and sohila at night became the regular features of the congregation. eventually two men were shortlisted . creed or sex. 1975). It was aware of its minority character.

He was also told to hold his congregation at Gomdwal. sanyasis and the followers of all the six. Jumna and Haridwar. Salok M. Guru Angad did vigorous preaching and at his behest as many as 131 sangats were established. What goes by the of Bhai Bala janamsakhi was prepared much later. A. He was a preacher. Guru Angad had the hard task to shape up the followers on correct lines and prevent deviation. The spiritual side was taken care of by keeping the dally chore. away from Khadur to avoid conflict with Guru Angad's sons who were not found up to the mark. in the process inculcating martial spirit.c. now brought Guru and hIS Sikhs to Kurukshetra for preaching Guru Nanak's . Sikhism. (newly established by the Guru with assistance Amar Das in 1546).~"<Lu]<. Guru's discourses. Guru Das was essentially devoted to naam. !hen there were Brahmins and other high caste Hindus. In parenthesis. 22(1). The Sikh movement had so much bypassed the udasis that Guru Amar Das was able to put a final seal of separation of the two.aste ~mdu s ~lllh~tmg the long lasting policy." Guru Amar "When rain falls on the earth. schools of 38 L. of then seeking intervention of the provincial and central t? contain. can obtain all they wish from them. as it had done so to several rishis and bhaktas. He chose his devout Amar Das (b.self-centred or ego-oriented . The period of Guru Amar Das (March 1552-August 1574) quite eventful in further development of Sikhism. 1(l).A. Baba Sn Chand contended that Guru Angad.62. though of minor order. illumination and realisation. of sangat and pangat at Khadur. They are just like the e well is dug with great difficulty and when it is "Date of visit of Guru Amar Das to Kurukshetra". of recitation and singing of shabad (hymns). It led to discussions with yogis. valid even today. It is another mater that this biography had been lost. Guru Angad performed the herculean task of strictly the tenets of the founding -Guru and laid down the guidelines his successors. a feeble one.ur~~shf:tra. p. 36. Guru Angad greatly propagated the use of Gurmukhi in his drive for literacy among his followers. (it recurs after about 19 years)" had earlier taken Guru Nanak to Kurukshetra. which brought him 35. aft~r his accession. "1l11Hl!a . That caused first schism in the followers of Guru Nanak. the privileged ones wit~i~ .G. if not annihilate. He was a worthy successor to Guru Nanak and Guru Angad. open cnticism of Sikhism but also lodged complaints against . In words of Kalsahar. it seems a simple task. Guru Angad emphasised the term manmukh .. all.""'''H~Jl' to the vast multitude. April 1509) who had a rigorous training for 8 yea~s to succeed him. the leader of Bhatts (minstrels).G. pp. recorded a hymn which recapitulates Guru Amar Das' s >". This marked the upper .24 The Sikhs in History Evolution of the Sikh Panth 25 strands.. The yogis since "":Ith Guru ~anak at Achal Batala had been fast losing m the Punjab and were on their way out.v<lLIULI~ of Bhai Santokh Singh. he was a great exponent of Guru Nanak's philosophy. The solar eclipse of Abijit Jan. He introd~ced physical well-being of the community by ordaining a wrestling ground including sports for children which incidentally was a small step towards an admixture of bhakti and shakti.for such persons.imbued in deep ascetic traditions of the Hindu social order." Guru Angad after 12 1/2 years (September 1539-March found that his end was drawing near. I~ was not. Guru Nanak's biography (Janamsakhi) was also prepared to serve as a guideline for the Sikhs. G:uru Amar Das left for religious mstruct and emancipate the people at large" which to Kurukshetra.uary 14.148." He steered Sikhism clear from asceticism by reiterating Guru Nanak's message in down to earth manner. one such discussion the question. and Haridwar. Guru Angad did not fall into the trap of over-emphasising some aspects and under-emphasising others.It w~th . known as a for p~lgr~mage on such an occasion. The accession of a humble Sikh provoked diverse elements to try to overwhelm the Sikh movement. 1979. a nominee of Guru Nanak had no right to pass on the succession and for the last time made an attempt.the cast~ h~erarchy. to claim it for himself. is there no He elaborated that "The teachings of the Vedas are accessible only to the few of higher castes and to <~nq.t~e. PP&P.p. an able organiser and an untiring social reformer. 2. Gur~ Angad's son Datu was resentful at his being bypassed. Var Majh. and langar. . who started not only llld~lglI~g m. g~)Vernment of the day. Rag Tukhari MA. Copies Guru Nanak's hymns were made for distribution to various centres.G. According to Prof Teja Singh. 1553. "Why has Guru Nanak preached a when already there exist several Puranas and Vedas.A. eldest son of Guru Nanak who founded the sect of Udasis . He squarely met the threat posed by Baba Sri Chand.$t~w'honzaze in study for a long time.1116a member of the sangat accompanying Guru Amar Das. ppA41-44.

RagTukhari M. had taken firm roots. as they avowed their fealty to' Guru Amar Das. So. 17(2) A. This made the Brahmins (and upper caste Hindus) all the more determined to seek the provincial and central government's intervention to safeguard the Hindu dharma. Guru Amar Das of Goindwal has abandoned the religious and social customs of the Hindus and abolished the distinction of the four castes. Das had made it compulsory for anyone who wanted on him at first to take food in Guru ka Langar. languages and dresses. A. Cf. the institutions of kirtan.r"." This visit to Hindu places of worship added to the stature of Guru Amar Das.A. sweepers.. II..h'h". This is not nor it is religion to deny the world through which alone can find his spiritual possibilities. "43 Akbar was so impressed that he not only dismissed the but called upon the high caste Hindu delegation to ask 44 However. or toll tax. II. while Vedas and Puranas were not. Das later composed the thanks-giving hymn._singing of hymns. n." Var Rag M.whether they are Jats. the Hindus were only following the letter of their scriptures. 1116-17. Akbar the food and at Guru's instance remitted the land revenue hard peasantry. A Short History of Rule in India (Delhi. formless and absolute God in the form of totem.G. p.G. andto condemn the mass of human beings. to insist upon special diets. and his influence was on the rise. Their complaint to Emperor Akbar who was at Lahore in 1566-67 is of interest. for all men. time of his accession. 4. Mehma Parkash (l773). irrespective of caste . the of high caste Hindus became intense. Sorath M. and he ordereth his Sikhs to refrain from doing so for ever more. the toll-gatherers offered presents and the whole multitude crossed over the two rivers without paying a farthing as pilgrims' tax.c.C.UlllJ'". to the status of sub-humans and to deny them the reading of scriptures and even work of every kind is to tear man from man. some of the Guru's followers could up their mind to abandon their previous religion. no pilgrimages. an image or an insignificant or time-bound object of nature. Salok 14. no gayatri. washermen. p. or carpenters. 366-68. or to wash one's sins not through compassion and selfsurrender. God has. "Guru Amar Das Ji". "42 At Akbar's behest. "He maketh the whole 'l. and no one now acteth according to the Vedas or the Smritis. The Guru hath abandoned all these and established the. and people learnt of devotion to God through the teachings of the Guru. 3. 42. Daily there was kirtan. c.314. II. XIII. and fads about what to eat and what not. We pray thee. shopkeepers. 188-93.. (in 1571) when Akbar was visiting various religious he visited Guru Amar Das at Goindwal."~rlrl bow at the feet of those whom He himself maketh great. p. By the time. 41. who felt that 40.c· exposition of humanism did influence Akbar in evolving Din-iGod's Religion. people want rain. Macauliffe. else it will be difficult hereafter. Jatis or Brahmins. Khatris. The Guru reverenceth not Yogis. He seateth all his followers in a line and causeth them to eat together from his kitchen. p.. whose word is intelligible to the masses and within the reach of all". 1970). Ishwari Prasad. 185.26 The Sikhs in History Evolution of the Sikh Panth 27 complete it can serve only a small number. It reads: "Thy Majesty is the protector of our customs and the redressor of our wrongs.UC. 160-61.who "will never find comfort world or the next. pp.rI emancipate the Sikhs from following the empty rituals. he for his followers the ceremonies for births. Gobind Singh Lamba (ed) Bhasha Vibhag Punjab.I. Brahmins. Muhammadans. October 1979. It drops from the heaven alike on the high and the low. barbers. no obsequies and no worship of idols or of the divine Saligram. . Such heterodoxy hath never before been heard of in the four ages. restrain him now.4.649.hostile to and friendly to the wicked . fishermen. He also condemned the traducers . Every man's religion is dear to him.. Guru Amar Das instead of going himself sent Bhai Jetha (later known as Guru Ram Das) whose answers were. quoted in Bhai Jodh Singh. vl""IVJ.I'" As the Guru's influence grew. deaths. Guru Amar Das took decisive consolidate the Sikh movement. but through ablutions. A. Bhai Santokh Singh in Gurpr~tap Surajgranth.repetition of Waheguru instead of Ram. U.G. Patiala. and influence of high caste Hindus reneged Sikhism. He worshippeth no gods or goddesses. 3. 272. Vol. M. 1971. The people of Haridwar came in a body and craved shelter of the Guru.. Pp 134 -35. Bhai Jetha expounded the basics of Sikhism when he said. . sept the Guru. This endeared Guru to the masses. 4. Vol.. The Word of Guru is like the rain. Pertinently. To exploit ignorant people with superstitions and to call it religion is a sacrilege against God and man. To worship the infinite..U the spirit of Brahmins and high caste Hindus. Guru Amar vu' u\. including women. "Birth and caste are of no avail before God. no offering of water to ancestors. In spite of the wells. one who had turned from the Guru. PP&P. whereas the Sikh movement represented the spirit of humanism. Also Sarup Das Bhalla."? Guru Ram Das records that when Guru Amar Das reached Jumna and the Ganges. The toll gatherers knew very well that Guru Amar Das and his followers were not Hindus who were subject to payment of Jazia. sangat. strolling minstrels. It is deeds which make or unmake a man.u for them the word be-mukh. There is now no twilight prayer. found convincing to a liberal-minded Akbar.

There has been some controversy about location of various Manjis.. b) He re-emphasised the irrelevance of when was gone. . Sikhism made rapid strides. He later added divali for annual get together.those who fought for temporal gains fo~d. 14(1) . 467~68.. i. 53. it lay in contemplation over (though he himself partook only saltless rice. castes in the same Baoli helped to create a feeling of vUvW~"" >A. destroyer of the wicked. 21. The Sikh who puts himself Kabul in Afghanistan to Bengal.319. word. 67. removal of ~. he a spmt of fearlessness in his devotees who rose established 22 Manjis. The food was prepared by people of all castes. The manjis covered areas from . b) To cater to the growing need for drinking wa and cosmic music of the formless creator. To kno~ each other and develop fellow feelings among the politics . 63. dioceses or preaching districts. to weld his followers in one human family. discipline for regeneration.49 He also made partaking of food in Guru Ka Langar compulsory actively preached prohibition and encouraged economically for anyone wishing to see him. p. predeces~ors as w~ll as his own and some Bhaktas to prevent 2. 47. XIII. to cater to local congregations. Sadd. ~as a specific form of address in his hymns. see PP&P. p. a mystic way to becoming a universal community.. M. s~o~n his grace to his saints. "the Sikh spirit w~s already spi~ling into the 4.647-48 n.vU > •••. and masterpiece of unbound en these were well-known events to the people who did not keep the True Guru. Guru Amar Das to head Manjis). He reresponsible position conferred upon its head to administer v..He went in for social reform in a major way: a) He was Guru AmarDas called his disciples and members of first social reformer to condemn the practice of sati ( . 0 Brother. Amar Das. in parts.pp. whose His answer was "Read discourses on Hari were being sung by the masses. Guru's place. and the mass awakening was changing the social community. It freed the Sikhs from sectarian 6.•••..:. he go~ constructed a Baoli. with number. Vol. This applied even to emperor beneficial trades and crafts. Baisakhi and diwali were selected because s path of eqmpOIse. in 1556. pp. As against that.3. a) he fixed Bisova Divas.Ul. He recognised the spiritual achievements of call Pandit Kesho Gopal to read old scriptures that Dev the Calico-printer. mentioned in Indian religious traditions.G. O~~ Muslim Allah Yar and some women too occupied to go into the cycle of birth and death. recorded by and shedding of caste prejudices. together WIth covered chambers at Goindwal. marriages and other occasions.P The charanpahul (baptism) and admit new people within the Sikh kings ~ere unreal ..For lists. could very well qualify to rule smaller centres under manjis.ly. 3. When he found G 5. 3. A. A." Bathing of the people of il!IStl~ution of Guruship greatly strengthened. Ashtpadi 5. Song of Bliss." that. Salok M. A. 11(3) A." That was also indicative of Hari. 3.LH'. He advocated widow remarriage. . The Sikhs in History Evolution of the Sikh Panth 29 46. I should be carried in the bier of God'~ ''''. l<. reference may be made here to sadd.XTe<:Olllltmg uru Amar Das's last moments. a large oblong a feeling of being a distinct entity. is in question and answer burning). 594. It was of low level of water. 30. 21(1). He declared that sight of Guru was not Langar which new included choicest food and dainty dishes for one's liberation:. :vas. re.. and advocated inter-caste marriages among a break.? of Baisakh for an annual get together of Sikhs all over at Das c?mposed hymns of vivid spiritual insight. Call. and Kabir the weaver.He got prepared authentic pothis(volumes) of hymns of his services of Brahmins. to reach the water. many well-known Sikh scholars fall into the (veil) and equal treatment to women (as in his part of the composition.. A." Then there were 52 Pirhas. 48. lentils and curd). At that stage.uu. It was later represented that a recitation of Japji with a bath from the of Baoli at each step would lead to salvation from 84 lakh existences. This composition. e. Sri Rag.923-24.28 outcastes becoming his followers in increasing numbers.a . a question was asked: followers.G.G. with a distinctions between 'inferiors' and 'superiors'.u!-'. this pOSItIOn of responsibility.. that was Amar Das produced in his followers .".feelingof brotherhood. p.To administer to the needs of the growing community. it needed 84 steps. Akbar and upper caste Rajput Raja of Haripur during their visit. ~od as asur sanghar.. Ramkali. pp. p.He further improved the quality of food served in Guru ka interpolation. He gave ~nd bathing.G. a grand exposition of gurmat sahaj making it biannual. 51 yer~.. the people should sing God's system. He imbued the sangat of this feeling calender~.G.vrl'. as GurU. first day of month of power.