You are on page 1of 57
6/10/02 Michigan Tech PROCEDURES FOR Respirable Crystalline Quartz Sampling In MetalNonmetal Mines, Developing A Written Respiratory Protection Program And Fit Testing for use by Michigan Mine Safety & Health Training Program Michigan Technological University by Dave Carlson and Phil Eggerding June 15, 2002 0 6/10/02 Michigan Tech DUST SAMPLING PROCEDURES for use by Michigan Mine Safety & Health Training Program Personnel NOTE – Immediately upon arriving at a mine site, the technician must receive site-specific hazard-awareness training from the Company contact person. BACKGROUND This writeup presents procedures and guidelines for conducting dust surveys, evaluating results, reporting to the Company, developing written respiratory protection programs (RPP), and determining who should be placed in a RPP. Consultation with Company Contact Person At least one week prior to sampling, the Company contact person should be consulted by phone to discuss the following: • • • Company must provide our technician with site-specific hazard-awareness training, Company must inform the persons sampled of scope of work – (read paragraph – Appendix 1), What we will provide up front: o Assessment of whether or not the measurements are needed o Assessment of measurement frequency o Assessment of the number of persons who need to be monitored – based on occupations cited o Estimate of scope of work, time and associated costs (as in Appendix 2) o Written agreement o Copy of paragraph explaining scope of work to persons to be sampled. PROCEDURES FOR DUST MEASUREMENTS Dust Survey Equipment All dust surveys will be conducted using personal samplers. The technician will need to wear appropriate PPE. At a minimum, this should include: o o o o Hard Hat Safety Glasses Ear Muffs or Plugs Appropriate shoes which cover and protect feet – Discuss Company requirements 1 6/10/02 Michigan Tech o o Snug fitting shirt & trousers (no shorts), etc No jewelry where there is danger of catching on things The technician’s equipment should include the following: o o o o o o o o Personal Dust Samplers, chargers, cyclones and cyclone assemblies 6 Personal Dust Sampler Manual 1 Pre-weighed filter cassettes (includes 1 spare and 1 control) 7 per day Calibrated hand-held rotameter (0-5 LPM) – adapted to cyclone 1 Copies of procedures and data forms As Needed Pencils & clipboards As Needed Tools (mainly flowrate adjusting screw driver) As Needed Seal-able plastic bags for storing new and used filter cassettes 1 Procedures for laboratory calibration of the hand-held rotameter and personal dust samplers are presented in Appendix 3. Personal sampler rotameters with the complete head assembly and filter attached should be calibrated in the laboratory once/year. The personal sampler rotameter should be marked to indicate the bottom-ball position when the flowrate is at 1.7 liters per minute. The hand-held rotameter, which is used for field calibration, will also be calibrated with the Gilibrator or other primary flowrate standard at least once/year. When the personal sampler is first placed on the person, the flowrate should be adjusted so that the bottom of the ball is at the marked position. Note that as the day progresses, the ball position may indicate an increasing flowrate if filter backpressure increases as particulate collects, while the actual flowrate may remain at the initial 1.7 liter per minute setting. For this reason, it is not recommended that, under normal conditions, the flowrate be lowered to return the ball to the 1.7 liter/minute position. Radical changes in ball position, or any indication of decreasing flowrate should, however, be checked by removing the cyclone grit pot and measuring the flowrate with the calibrated external rotameter (see procedure in Appendix 3). Personal dust samplers should be checked out and maintained at least annually. For this reason all samplers on loan must be sent back to the Program office by September 15, so this annual maintenance can be performed. Protocol for Dust Measurements The technician will sample up to 5 persons per day. The samplers will be worn by the persons sampled for the entire “normal” workshift. Pre-sampling Procedures 1) Always start the day with a freshly-charged sampler 2) Examine all components of the cyclones, and especially the grit pot, to assure that they are clean and free of dust and dirt 2 6/10/02 Michigan Tech 3) Examine the inner surface of the cyclone to assure that it is free of scoring 4) Examine the external tubing to assure that it is clean and free of leaks; and 5) Examine the clamping and positioning of the cyclone body, vortex finder and cassette to assure that they are rigid, in alignment, and firmly in contact. When the person is ready to accept the sampler, the following steps are taken: 1) The head assembly containing the cyclone, cyclone holder, filter cassette and connecting tubing is mounted on the sampler 2) Complete the form in Appendix 4, Table 1 including: a. b. c. d. e. Date Company Mine or Plant Technician Control Cassette no. 3) For each person sampled complete the following: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. Person sampled and Social Security No. Job description Sampler no. Filter no. Flowrate Start Time Stop Time Flowrate checks i. Time ii. Flowrate 4) The “control cassette” mentioned in item 3 is a filter cassette from the same batch as the others. This cassette should be labeled “control” along with the sampling date. The control cassette will not be opened or used, but will be returned to the laboratory for analysis. Any change in the weight of this cassette will be used to correct the weight increases for the other cassettes from the same batch used to sample dust on the particular date. 3 6/10/02 Michigan Tech Placing the Sampler on the Person 1) The sampler is turned on, the rotameter set to 1.7 liters per minute, and the start time recorded 2) When attaching the sampling head assembly to the person’s clothing, the inlet of the cyclone should face away from the person’s body 3) The person should be instructed not to cover the inlet with a coat or other garment, and never to allow the cyclone to be inverted (this will invalidate the sample by contaminating it with course particulate from the grit pot) 4) The person should be told to work as normally as possible, and to let the technician know about any changes from normal; also if the sampling equipment is causing any difficulties 5) The person should be told to let the technician know of any unusual interruptions in production affecting his/her duties, and when and how long the person leaves the work area 6) The technician must ensure that the instrument is not presenting a safety hazard. The unit should be placed on the person sampled such that the sampling tubing will not catch on equipment or other objects 7) The technician must inform the person that the sampler should remain on him/her at all locations throughout the day and about when and where the sampler will be removed 8) The technician should check and record the sampler flowrate as frequently as possible throughout the shift. Sampling Time The person must wear the sampler for the entire “normal” work shift so the dust collected is representative of that for a typical workday. Monitoring the Sampling Process The technician must observe the person being sampled on a frequent basis and take notes. At least 4 times during the shift, the technician should check and record in Appendix 4, Table 1 the flowrate for each of the samplers in use. The technician should take notes on: 4 6/10/02 Michigan Tech 1) Activities of the person sampled 2) Mining activity levels (normal mining period, high production period, etc.) 3) Whether or not working conditions and activities are typical (based on discussion with company persons) 4) Potential dust source(s) in the areas the person worked 5) Dust controls 6) Wind directions – where the dust the person is exposed to is coming from. Post Inspection Procedures NOTE! never invert the cyclone before the filter cassette is removed and sealed! At the end of the sampling day do the following: 1. Check the final flowrate on the rotameter. If the flowrate has changed considerably from the 1.7 liter/minute setting, also check the flowrate using an external rotameter attached to the cyclone grit pot. If this is also off by more than about 0.1 liter/minute, this must be recorded and discussed with Dave Carlson and with the Company contact person Remove the filter cassette, seal the ends and place it in a seal-able plastic bag Clean up the instruments and place them on the charger Wash the cyclones with soap and water using care not to scratch internal surfaces (no brushes), stand them on end and allow them to air dry Follow instructions provided by the analytical laboratory in sending the cassettes in for final weighing and calculation, completing any forms the laboratory requires. 2. 3. 4. 5. Final Report A final report is presented as in Appendix 4. Once the data and calculations are received from the laboratory, complete Appendix 4, Table 2 and the entire report. Send one copy to the Company, one to the technician, one to the Program Manager and one to the Program Clerk. 5 6/10/02 Michigan Tech APPENDIX 1 Paragraph -- Read to Persons Sampled Prior to Sampling A technician from Michigan Technological University will be on our site on (day and date) to conduct respirable crystalline quartz exposure measurements. The measurements, required by law, are being paid for by this company and are for our company’s use to determine whether improvements in dust control are needed to protect your health. The technician will be placing battery-powered dust samplers on up to 5 people. To get results that are meaningful, you should not deviate from your normal work routine, except to answer questions the technician may ask. The samplers should remain on the same person at all times throughout the entire work shift, including breaks, lunch etc. The technician will remain in the work area throughout the shift to collect information about your activities to be used later to explain the readings. If possible, let the technician know when you are leaving your normal work area, where you will be, what you will be doing, and when you will return. Also let the technician know if there are any unusual conditions in your work routine on the day of sampling or other abnormal conditions affecting the amount of dust in the air you are breathing. Please do not tamper with the sampler and never turn either the pump or the sampling head upside down; this will invalidate the sample and result in the company having to pay for another day of sampling. If you notice any problems, please inform the technician immediately. After laboratory analysis of the samples is complete, you will be informed of the results and how they affect you. A1-1 6/10/02 Michigan Tech APPENDIX 2 Estimating Costs for Conducting Dust Monitoring Program Dave Carlson will provide a more accurate cost estimate – For preliminary estimation purposes, the following information may be provided to the Company contact person: The cost will be the cost of wages and travel for the technician. Technician cost will be $45 per hour during work and $35 per hour during travel. Estimate of Technician Time At $45 per hour rate ($60 per hour outside Michigan) • • • • 1 day of full-shift sampling for up to 5 persons sampled Add 1 additional day for each group of 5 person’s sampled Add ½ day for shipping samples and completing the report Travel time At $35 per hour rate ($50 per hour outside Michigan) Estimate of Travel costs (motel & meals may be more depending on area) • • • Total Miles x 0.365/mile or airline fare Meals at $30 to $46 per day depending on location Motel at $65 per day Estimate of Analytical Charges Estimate about $75 per sample for analysis of the filters to determine the respirable crystalline quartz content. Clients will not be charged for supplies and wages for calibrating and maintaining the samplers. Nor will clients be charged for telephone consultation with Dave Carlson on the study and results. A2-1 6/10/02 Michigan Tech APPENDIX 3 Calibration of Dust Samplers A3-1 6/10/02 Michigan Tech LABORATORY AND FIELD CALIBRATION OF PERSONAL SAMPLER Background A soap film calibrator equivalent to the Gilibrator, which is simply an automated version of the old inverted burette, may be used as a primary standard for flowrate measurement in laboratory calibration of flow measurement equipment for field use. The principle of the soap film calibrator is quite simple. The personal sampler (with head assembly attached) is connected to the top of a vertical cylinder of accurately-known dimensions. When using an inverted burette, the sampler is attached to the tip (See schematic Figure 1). Figure 1. Setup for Calibration Using an Inverted Burette Soap Film Calibrater The cylinder is open to the air on the bottom end. A soap film is started on the bottom of the cylinder (such as by placing a small dish of soap solution against the bottom) and this soap film rises to the top as the air moves through the cylinder. Times are recorded when the film passes marks at know volume positions; for example, when using a 500 ml burette, the times when the film passes the 500 ml and 0 ml marks would be recorded. The flowrate is then calculated from the known volume between marks (500 ml) and the elapsed time between marks. For the 500 ml (0.5 L) burette, the calculation would be: A3-2 6/10/02 Michigan Tech Flowrate, L/min = 0.5 x 60 Elapsed time, sec A flowrate of 1.7 L/min is required when sampling respirable dust in metal-nonmetal mines (note that coal mine samplers use a flowrate setting of 2.0 L/min and there are other minor, but significant, differences in the procedure). For calibration, it is necessary to use a burette that has a volume of at least 500 ml between timing marks, where the time for the bubble to travel between marks is long enough to reduce the relative errors in starting and stopping the timer to acceptable levels. The Gilibrator automatically times the travel of the soap film between two points along the cylinder and reads the flowrate out on a digital flowmeter. Automatic timing, as done with the Gilibrator and similar devices, allows smaller cylinders to be used such as those provided by the manufacturers of the automated units. Calibration of each personal sampler must be done with the head assembly (containing the type of filter to be used) attached. The sampler is connected through the sampling head assembly to the top of the flow-measurement cylinder (see Figures 1 and 2). The sampling head assembly causes a slight pressure drop in the system. This pressure drop is detected by the sampler pump, and the pump speed automatically increases to maintain a constant flowrate. Experience has shown that the pump rotameter bottom-ball position may indicate a flowrate that is higher than 1.7 L/min, while, in fact, the flowrate may not have changed at all. Accurate measurement of the flowrate of air through the sampler is only possible when the measurement is made at the cyclone inlet where the pressure drop due to flow resistance in the head assembly has no effect. (Note that the measurement could also be made at the pump outlet if a fitting was available). It is standard calibration practice to connect the flowmeter to the apex of the cyclone, which becomes the inlet for air to the system when the normal cyclone inlet is blocked (taped over) and the grit pot on the apex is removed. Attachment of the tubing from the flow measurement device to the apex of the cyclone is necessary because there is no easy way to attach tubing from the flow measurement device to the inlet. Rotameters on all samplers and all rotameters used for field calibration should be calibrated using the Gilibrator or other soap film device to mark the bottom-ball position when the actual flowrate is 1.7 L/min. Such checks should be made at least annually and more frequently (about once every 200 hours of use) if the samplers are used often. Laboratory Calibration – Step by Step Procedures Using the Gilibrator Calibrating a Personal Sampler Using the Gilibrator Follow the instrument’s operating instructions for adding the bubble solution, connecting the tubing and measuring the flowrate. The flowrate is read out electronically. Figure 2 is a schematic illustrating the setup for laboratory calibration of the sampler rotameters using the Gilibrator. The steps are as follows: A3-3 6/10/02 Michigan Tech 1) 2) Select the appropriate cylinder based on the manufacturer’s instructions Add film solution to the Gilibrator as follows: a) Open the small bottle of film solution b) Gently press the bottle outlet tip against the side arm and squeeze to add solution.Press the bottom bulb occasionally to release trapped air c) Add solution until the bottom rubber bulb is filled and the solution is just below the arm Inlet 3) Wetting the Walls -- The walls of the glass flowmeter must be wet for the film to travel through the cylinder without rupturing. This can be done by turning the entire flowmeter on its side to allow the film solution to run out of the bulb and into the enlarged section. Rotate the flowmeter so that the solution coats the entire inner surface. Figure 2. Setup for Calibration Using a Gilibrator Soap Film Calibrater 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) Connect the cylinder to the base Open the bottom tubing fitting on the cylinder (air inlet) Connect tubing from the sampling head assembly to the top fitting on the cylinder (air outlet) Turn the Gilibrator on Connect the pump to the sampling head assembly Push the soap film starter into the soap solution Record the reading When calibration of all samplers is complete, remove the remaining soap solution, rinse the cylinder out with water and allow it to dry. A3-4 6/10/02 Michigan Tech Laboratory Calibration of the Hand-Held Field-Calibration Rotameter Using the Gilibrator The rotameter to be used for field calibration of the samplers, should be calibrated in the laboratory to correctly measure the 1.7 L/min flowrate. Leave the system as when calibrating the personal sampler. Set the personal sampler flowrate to 1.70 L/min as determined with the Gilibrator connected as in Figure 2. Disconnect the Gilibrator from the apex of the cyclone and connect the hand-held rotameter (Figure 3). Mark the bottom ball position on the hand-held rotameter at this 1.7 L/min flowrate. This is the position the ball should be at when using the hand-held rotameter to calibrate personal samplers in metal and non-metal mines. Figure 3. Setup for Field Calibration Using A Calibrated Rotameter. Field Calibration of Personal Sampler Rotameters Field calibration may not always be necessary if experience shows that the sampler rotameters retain their calibration over time. Before field calibration, the sampler should be cleaned to remove dust inside and out and examined for physical damage and missing parts (switch covers, screws, etc.). If the rotameter walls appear dirty inside or out, they should be thoroughly cleaned. Low flowrate normally results from a decrease in the efficiency of the pump caused by poor valve operation or air leaks. If the pump cannot be adjusted to a flowrate greater than 2.0 liters per minute, it is faulty and the cause should either be found and corrected, or the pump replaced with a properly-working one. A3-5 6/10/02 Michigan Tech The setup for field calibration is that shown in Figure 3 using the laboratory-calibrated rotameter along with the sampler and head assembly (including the filter) to be used for sampling. Perform this procedure in a clean room at the sampling site, if possible, so the filter doesn’t collect significant amounts of particulate during calibration. The procedure follows: 1. The cyclone inlet is taped over, the grit pot removed, and the rotameter attached 2. Adjust the flowrate so that the calibrated rotameter reads 1.7 L/min. The sampler rotameter ball should be very close to the position marked during the laboratory calibration. Note any differences and, if differences persist, it may be necessary to remark the sampler ball position 3. Replace the grit pot and remove the tape covering the inlet. The sampler is now ready for field use. While sampling, as the day progresses, the filter picks up particulate and the resistance to flow of the sampled air through the filter increases. If this increase is significant, the sampler rotameter may indicate that the flowrate has increased, although this may not be the case. Therefore, if either a dramatic increase or a decrease in flowrate is indicated by the sampler rotameter, perform the field calibration again and readjust the flowrate to 1.7 L/min. Record this in your notes and keep a close eye on the sampler -- it may be necessary to replace the pump with a freshly charged one. A3-6 6/10/02 Michigan Tech Appendix 4 Generic Report To Company Developed by Michigan Technological University A4-1 6/10/02 Michigan Tech Results from Dust Measurement Survey at Company Conducted by: Technician Name Michigan Technological University Houghton, MI 49931 Date Questions Should be Directed Either to Technician or To: David H. Carlson Manager, Mine Safety & Health Training Program Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Dept. Michigan Technological University Houghton, MI 49931 Phone – 906/487-2453 email – dcarlson@mtu.edu Technician’s Signature Date A4-2 6/10/02 Michigan Tech INTRODUCTION On date(s), dust sampling was performed at Company name. The employees and occupations sampled were selected in conversations between Michigan Tech and company personnel. Dust samplers were placed on number Company employees to obtain full workshift dust exposure measurements. While the readings accurately represent operating conditions and worker activities at the time the measurements were made, translating the results into employee exposure over time is only accurate to the extent that worker activities and operating conditions during sampling were typical of normal conditions at the Company. Conversations with Company employees indicate that the person activities and conditions during sampling: were not typical for the persons sampled were typical for the persons sampled were not typical for the following persons and/or measurements. Person Sampled Location of abnormal activity Time of Day Differences from Normal Working Conditions A4-3 6/10/02 Michigan Tech RESULTS The data collected during sampling are presented in Table 1. These data and the laboratory results for each of the employees sampled are summarized in Table 2. PEL Overexposures The MSHA standard of primary concern in Company name is the 0.1 mg/m3 time-weighted-average concentration limit for respirable crystalline quartz (RCQ) in the air a person is exposed to. If MSHA cites the Company for overexposure to the 0.1 mg/m3 RCQ PEL, the company must install all feasible engineering controls to reduce a person’s exposure to the PEL. Respiratory protection is required when controls are not feasible, as well as when establishing controls, and during occasional entry into hazardous atmospheres to perform short-term maintenance or investigations. Whenever respirators are required the Company must establish a written respiratory protection program. The MSHA standard which applies (56/57.5005) incorporates ANSI Z88.2-1969. Table 2 indicates that number persons are overexposed, need respiratory protection, and that the Company may need to work with MSHA on additional feasible controls. To use respiratory protection, the Company needs to have a written respiratory protection program in place. A respiratory protection program has a number of elements listed in Attachment 1 which is a generic written respiratory protection program. The company can make arrangements for assistance in preparing the written program, fit testing and training by contacting Dave Carlson (906/487-2453). Annual Respirator training can be included in Michigan Tech’s Part 46 and Part 48 annual refresher mine safety training. To schedule fit testing and/or annual refresher training, contact Dave Carlson also. CONCLUSION Questions on this report should be directed to Dave Carlson (906/487-2453). Questions on dust control should be directed to MSHA’s Industrial Hygienists for this district – Bill Pomroy or George Schorr in the Duluth, Minnesota District office (phone -- 218/720-5448). A4-4 6/10/02 Michigan Tech Table 1. Respirable Dust Sampling Data Sheet Date________ Control Cassette # _____ Mine or Plant ___________ Company __________________________ Pump flow set, L/min _____ Filter Flowrate Checks Technician _________________________ Sam- CasTime Cyclone Person sampled Job pler sette Sampling Time of Pump, inlet, Comments - What person has been doing, Name SS # description no. no. Start Stop Day L/min L/min where working, conditions, controls etc. A4-5 6/10/02 Michigan Tech Table 1 Continued -- Respirable Dust Sampling Data Sheet Date________ Control Cassette # _____ Mine or Plant ___________ Company __________________________ Pump flow set, L/min _____ Filter Flowrate Checks Technician _________________________ Sam- CasTime Cyclone Person sampled Job pler sette Sampling Time of Pump, inlet, Comments - What person has been doing, Name SS # description no. no. Start Stop Day L/min L/min where working, conditions, controls etc. A4-6 6/10/02 Michigan Tech Table 2. Respirable Crystalline Quartz Measurement Results Date Sampled __________ Mine or Plant __________ Filter Cassette No. Control Blank Resp. Person’s Sampling Time Dust, RCQ*, mg/m3 Occupation Start Stop mg/m3 Meas. PEL None None None 0.1 Controls** and RPP Needed? None Company________________________ Technician_______________________ Person’s Name None Person’s SS # None Comments – What person was doing, where working, conditions, controls, etc. * RCQ = Respirable Crystalline Quartz ** Note that others with similar duties may also need to be enrolled. A4-7 6/10/02 Michigan Tech Table 2 Continued. Respirable Crystalline Quartz Measurement Results Date Sampled __________ Mine or Plant __________ Filter Cassette No. Control Blank Resp. Person’s Sampling Time Dust, RCQ*, mg/m3 Occupation Start Stop mg/m3 Meas. PEL None None None 0.1 Controls** and RPP Needed? None Company________________________ Technician_______________________ Person’s Name None Person’s SS # None Comments – What person was doing, where working, conditions, controls, etc. * RCQ = Respirable Crystalline Quartz ** Note that others with similar duties may also need to be enrolled.. A4-8 6/10/02 Michigan Tech Appendix 4. Attachment 1 Generic Written Respiratory Protection Program A4-9 6/10/02 Michigan Tech Respiratory Protection Program Mine Name: Mine I.D.# 1. Written Procedures a. Hazard Identification & Respirator Selection – Air purifying respirators are designed to protect persons from breathing specific airborne contaminants and often provide little or no protection against other contaminants. Table RPP1 lists for each hazard, the respirators this company will use, their limitations, and job duties/areas of use. Program Administrator -- Respiratory protection programs will be administered by ____________________________, who has sufficient knowledge of the subject to properly supervise the program. b. 2. Employee training Training time, min ____ to ____ Teaching Method________________________________________________________ Training Materials _______________________________________________________ Evaluation Method _________________________________________________________ Training will be done by ____________________________________________________ Training will cover all affected employees and supervisors. Training will be conducted before the worker begins work in the area where the respirator is needed. Training will include: 1. Engineering and administrative controls, order of priority of controls, proper use and maintenance of these controls 2. Reason respirators are required -- explanation of the hazard and its effects (i.e. acute or chronic) 3. Selection of a respirator -- fit, comfort, one you can breath through. 4. Health conditions that interfere with respirator use 5. How long can you wear a respiratory device, how to detect breakthrough, excessive resistance to flow etc. 6. Types of respirators and limitations of each including N,R, and P and 95, 99 and 100. 7. Respirators used at particular site and proper procedures for mounting, care and maintenance of each 8. Proper fit a. No facial hair b. Medical conditions affecting skin texture c. Self-fit test d. Professional fit tests 9. Inspection, cleaning/disinfecting and storage – including reusables and throw-aways. A4-10 6/10/02 Michigan Tech Hazard Respirator Manufacturer Model No. Table RPP-1. Respirators Used on Mine Site Respirator Limitations Job Duties/Location Where Protection Will Be Used A4-11 6/10/02 Michigan Tech 3. Fit-testing 1. All persons required to use a respirator will be fit tested first 2. Annual fit testing to be conducted on (date)___________________ by (person/organizatiion conducting test)____________________________________________________________ 3. The test will be conducted by subjecting each person, while wearing the appropriate respirator, to the following fit test procedure: ___Qualitative Fit Test by one of the following methods: a. Stannic Chloride Smoke____ b. Bitrex ____ c. Saccharin____ ____Quantitative Fit Test - the fit is acceptable if the person, while wearing a fitted respirator which has been outfitted with a sample port, is subjected to a test atmosphere (usually mineral oil mist) and the concentration of test atmosphere inside the respirator is negligible. 4. The person will perform exercises while wearing the respirator in the test atmosphere to determine if the respirator fits. Exercises will simulate at least the work of lifting, bending over, talking, movement of the head in all directions and exhibiting various facial expressions. 5. A written record form of the following will be maintained for these employees. (See copy of record form at end of this RPP): a. Name of employee tested; b. Date of testing; c. Respirator manufacturer, model, style, and size worn; d. Fit-test protocol and the name of the person administering the test; e. Fit-test results. 6. If during respiratory fit testing, the employee experiences difficulty breathing through the respirator(s), the employee will be evaluated by a physician to determine his/her medical suitability for wearing a respirator. 4. Respirator cleaning and disinfecting Users will be trained: A4-12 6/10/02 Michigan Tech 1. To inspect respirators prior to each use to determine that they are functioning properly 2. To clean and disinfect or replace the respirator on a regular basis according to manufacturer's recommendations, or after each use if they are used by more than one person. Adequate cleaning and disinfecting facilities will be provided at the following convenient location______________________________________________________ 3. To store respirators in the following convenient, clean and sanitary location ______________________________________________________________ 4. For reusable respirators (person) ______________________________ will be trained to be knowledgeable in the respirator manufacturer recommendations for the use, care and maintenance of each model of respirator provided by the Company 5. Employees will be instructed as to where and how to obtain new disposable respirators or respirator cartridges when theirs become unusable, unsanitary, or exhibit excessive breathing resistance or breakthrough. These respirators will be available at the following locations: ___________________________________________________________________. ___________________________________________________________________ 5. Records of actions taken 1. Records of fit-test which identify: a. The exact model and size respirator b. Date of testing c. The fit-test method and d. Whether the person passed or failed the test. 2. Records of training provided which include at least: a. Identification of persons b. Date of training and c. Topics covered. (See fit testing/training record form at end of this RPP) 6. A statement of use 1. Assigned respirators will be worn by persons at all times while in the normal work areas where persons may be overexposed; These areas will be posted “Respirator Required” and A4-13 6/10/02 Michigan Tech 2. Work area(s) affected will be periodically checked to ensure that employees are using respirators and to check dust controls, employee exposure, and employee stress due to breathing resistance or heat. The area supervisor will include this check on his/her daily walk-around inspection. Procedures to be used for Qualitative Dust Respirator Fit Testing RPP Training 1. 2. Controls and their order of priority -- examples of engineering and administrative controls Reasons respirators are required for the persons being trained a. Protect health from what? b Remove what from breathing zone? c. Acute or chronic effect? d. PPE is considered by MSHA to be for temporary use until feasible controls are installed. Selection a. Use only the correct respirator for the contaminant of concern. b. Make sure the respirator you select is comfortable -- If not, let your supervisor know – you may need to select a different type c. Make sure you don’t need to strain to breathe with the respirator on (1) If you do, ask your supervisor to schedule a medical examination (2) If medical examination shows you can’t wear a respirator, you may need to transfer to a different job Health conditions that interfere with respirator use. a. Heart condition b. Asthma or other breathing condition c. Claustrophobia d. Contact lenses e. Eye glass temples f. Missing teeth g. Skullcaps h. Other How long can you wear a respirator a. Contaminant break through b. High breathing resistance Types of respirators a. Filtering (air purifying) and air supply A4-14 3. 4. 5. 6. 6/10/02 Michigan Tech b. c. Types of filtering respirators Types of particulate respirators and classes (1) N, R, and P and 95, 99, and 100. (2) Other toxins (3) Problems caused when the wrong type is used 7. 8. Types used at this site and proper procedures for putting them on -- Read instructions for and demonstrate each type used Proper fit a. How to get a good fit? (1) Remove all facial hair; cooperate fully during fit testing. (2) How to self fit-test the respirator each time it is put on (a) Breathe out with exhaust valve sealed by hand – should feel respirator lift from face (b) Breathe in with inhalation valve sealed – respirator should cling with no leaks How to inspect respirator and how to clean reusable type, how to store respirator. 9. A4-15 6/10/02 Michigan Tech SACCHARIN/BITREX FIT TESTS Items Needed for Test Selection of respirators to be available at site (the selection should include enough of each type so that each person tested can try one of each and obtain one). 2. Filter cartridges to use when fitting non-dust respirators. 3. Saccharin (or Bitrex) fit test kit including: a. Dilute test solution (to test the person’s sensitivity) and concentrated test solution (for fit testing) b. Test Hood and collar c. Dispensers (nebulizers) for dilute and concentrated solutions and spare parts d. Forms to be used as records that people have been fit tested (copy form at end of this section) (1) Date (2) Fit person’s name (3) Type of respirator person is qualified to use (model and serial no) (4) Type of test used (5) Statement “By my signature, I verify that I did not detect [the sweet taste of saccharin] [the bitter taste of Bitrex] during any of the actions required in fit testing me. However, I did taste the test substance during the sensitivity test” (6) Fit person’s signature (7) Tester’s name (8) Tester’s signature . Room Set up for Qualitative Fit Testing 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Set up Work Table for materials in fit test area, and a work table in another room or at least 20 feet away for the sensitivity test Set up hood assemblies Pour about one teaspoonful of weak solution (#1) into nebulizer labeled #1 Pour about one teaspoonful of strong solution (#2) into nebulizer labeled #2 Set up all the different types of respirators that Company wants to fit test and supply each with a dust filter for fit testing using saccharin or Bitrex Mirror(s) for fitting respirator. 1. Conducting Test 1. 2. 3. Bring in subjects ahead of time, show them how to put on a respirator, how it should be positioned on the face, how to set strap tension and how to determine an acceptable fit Tell them how to select a respirator – hold each chosen facepiece up to the face and eliminate those that obviously do not give an acceptable fit Review the following comfort and fit criteria with each person: a. Position of mask on the nose b. Room for eye protection c. Room to talk. d. Position of mask on face and cheeks A4-16 6/10/02 Michigan Tech 4. 5. 6. e. Chin properly placed f. Adequate strap tension, but not too much. g. Fit across nose bridge h. Respirator of proper size for distance from nose to chin i. Tendency of respirator to slip j. Self-observation in mirror Instruct subject on how to conduct self-fit test and have him/her conduct one; also that if it works proceed with the fit test, otherwise the subject may need to select another respirator Allow subjects to select respirators from a sufficient number of models and sizes and to self-fit test those selected Read the material on the following page. A4-17 6/10/02 Michigan Tech SACCHARIN/BITREX FIT TESTS (continued) Preliminary remarks for test Saccharin only -- If you’ve used sweetener in the past hour, postpone taking this test until later. This includes chewing gum, candy, drinking pop, drinking coffee with sweetener etc. Bitrex & Saccharin -- Please tell me if you suspect you’re unable to taste a weak solution. If you’re unable, the test we’re using won’t work and we’ll need to use another test. Correct respirator fit is serious business. Wearing an improperlyfitting respirator is false security, which makes you think you can go into dusty or other areas without serious consequences. Dust respirators are for dust only. A dust respirator will not filter out toxic gases. Make sure you’re using the correct respirator. Persons with facial hair can’t be fit with a respirator, and can’t legally work in areas where a respirator is required. A caring supervisor is obliged to send you home if you’re not clean shaven and need to work in an area requiring a respirator. Repeat court cases have upheld management’s rights to require persons working in respirator-use areas to be clean-shaven or sent home. How we plan to fit test you 1. You’ll first select a comfortably-fitting respirator by holding it up against your face as it would be when in actual use. This is the respirator you’re legally authorized to use from now on if the remaining steps in the selection procedure are successful. You’ll put the respirator on and properly adjust the straps. Note that if you must wear safety glasses or other head-mounted safety equipment in your work area, you must wear this equipment during these tests. A4-18 2. 6/10/02 Michigan Tech SACCHARIN/BITREX FIT TESTS (continued) 3. You’ll wear the respirator for at least 5 minutes to determine if it’s comfortable. You’ll need to talk, walk, turn your head from side to side and up and down and make other movements that are similar to movements you make during your work in the respirator area of your workplace. You’re then ready to be fit tested. You’ll put the hood over your head and I’ll blow the test mist into one of the openings in the front of the hood. I’ll blow in more test mist every 30 seconds while you’re performing the following movements for 60 seconds each. During the entire test, you’ll breath through your mouth so you are able to taste any test solution that gets past the respirator. a. b. c. d. e. f. 6. Normal breathing Deep breathing (if you feel faint, ease up). Turning head from side to side and inhaling in each position. Nodding head up and down and inhaling in the up position. Counting or reading the rainbow passage. Grimacing while breathing. 4. 5. If during any of the above exercises you taste the test mist, the respirator doesn’t fit and will not provide complete protection. You’ll need to select another respirator and start over. Finally, after you’ve removed the hood, you’ll go to the other end of the room and while you’re breathing through your mouth, I’ll blow a very weak solution of test mist toward your mouth using 10 squeezes of dispenser bulb. If you taste the test mist now, but did not taste it with the respirator on, you’re properly fit. 7. A4-19 6/10/02 Michigan Tech SACCHARIN/BITREX FIT TESTS (continued) For your health’s sake, please be honest – if you taste the test mist at any time while wearing the respirator, stop me immediately and select a different respirator to start the test over with. A4-20 6/10/02 Michigan Tech STANNIC CHLORIDE SMOKE FIT TESTS Items Needed for Test 1. 2. 3. Selection of respirators to be available at site Filter cartridges to use when fitting non-dust respirators Fit test kit including: a. Stannic Chloride Smoke Tubes, Squeeze Bulb and Tubing b. Forms to be used as records that people have been fit tested (copy form at the end of this writeup) (1) Date (2) Fit person’s name (3) Type of respirator person is qualified to use (model and serial no) (4) Type of test used (5) Tester’s name (6) Tester’s signature Room Set up for Qualitative Fit Testing 1. 2. 3. Set up Work Table for materials in fit test area, and a work table in another room or at least 20 feet away for the sensitivity test Adequate ventilation to remove smoke A suitable number of repirators of each type so that each person to be tested can try out each type and select one that is suitable. For disposable respirators, provide a suitable number dust filtering cartridges for the test. These must be either HEPA or P100 filters when using stannic chloride for the test Mirror(s) for fitting respirator. 4. Conducting Test Note – The technician must always cover the free end of the smoke tube with tubing to minimize the likelihood of injury. 1. 2. 3. Bring in subjects ahead of time, show them how to put on a respirator, how it should be positioned on the face, how to set strap tension and how to determine an acceptable fit. Tell them how to select a respirator – hold each chosen facepiece up to the face and eliminate those that obviously do not give an acceptable fit. Review the following comfort and fit criteria with each person: a. Position of mask on the nose b. Room for eye protection c. Room to talk d. Position of mask on face and cheeks e. Chin properly placed f. Adequate strap tension, but not too much g. Fit across nose bridge h. Respirator of proper size for distance from nose to chin i. Tendency of respirator to slip A4-21 6/10/02 Michigan Tech STANNIC CHLORIDE SMOKE FIT TEST (continued) j. Self-observation in mirror Instruct subject on how to conduct self-fit test and have him/her conduct one; also that if it works proceed with the fit test, otherwise the subject may need to select another respirator Allow subjects to select respirators from a sufficient number of models and sizes and to self-fit test those selected Conduct sensitivity test as follows (see instructions next page): a. Advise test subjects that the smoke irritates the eyses, lungs, and nasal passages and keep the eyes shut b. Carefully direct a small amount of the smoke in the test subject’s direction to determine that he/she can detect it c. After detecting the irritant smoke, the subject puts the respirator on and performs the required self-fit check(s) Conduct these tests as on the following pages. The person must still be sensitive after the fit test or the test results are invalid. Complete the test record for each person that is successfully fitted Read the material on the following page 4. 5 6. 7. 8. A4-22 6/10/02 Michigan Tech STANNIC CHLORIDE SMOKE FIT TEST (continued) Preliminary Remarks Correct respirator fit is serious business. Wearing an improperly fitting respirator is false security, which makes you think you can go into dusty or other areas without serious consequences. Dust respirators are for dust only. Each respirator has a specific purpose. A dust respirator will not filter out toxic gases. Make sure you’re using the correct respirator. Persons with facial hair can’t be fit with a respirator, and can’t legally work in areas where a respirator is required. A caring supervisor will feel obliged to send you home if you’re not clean shaven and need to use a respirator. Repeat court cases have upheld management’s rights to require persons working in respirator-use areas to be clean-shaven or sent home. HOW WE PLAN TO FIT TEST YOU 1. Before you select and put on a respirator, we will need to expose you to a small amount of the irritant smoke to see if you are sensitive to it. You will then select the respirator that seems to fit you best following the procedures below. We will then subject you to irritant smoke with the respirator on and while you are performing certain exercises. Finally we will repeat the exposure to a small amount of irritant smoke with the respirator off. 2. 3. 4. A4-23 6/10/02 Michigan Tech STANNIC CHLORIDE SMOKE FIT TEST (continued) Close your eyes now and I’ll blow some in your direction. Let me know what effect it has on you. 1. Now that we’ve determined that you are sensitive to the irritant smoke, you will select a comfortably-fitting respirator by holding it up against your face as it would be when in actual use. This is the respirator you’ll be legally authorized to use from now on if the remaining steps in the selection procedure are successful. You’ll put the respirator on and properly adjust the straps. Note that if you must wear safety glasses or other headmounted safety equipment in your work area, you must wear this equipment during these tests. You’ll wear the respirator for at least 5 minutes to determine if it’s comfortable. You’ll need to talk, walk, turn your head from side to side and up and down and make other movements that are similar to movements you make during your work in the respirator area of your workplace. You’ll do a self-fit test before the stannic chloride fit test. This involves (manufacturer’s recommendations for self-fit testing) ________________________________________ _________________________________________________ If the respirator seems to be OK and to fit your face with no leaks, you are ready to be fit tested with the stannic chloride smoke. Remember -- Breathing stannic chloride smoke is very uncomfortable and will cause you to cough! Also keep your eyes closed during the test – it burns your eyes! I’ll blow stannic chloride smoke around the edges of your respirator from about 12 inches distance. If you don’t cough, A4-24 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 6/10/02 Michigan Tech STANNIC CHLORIDE SMOKE FIT TEST (continued) I’ll blow more smoke around your respirator from 9 and then from 6 inches while you’re performing the following movements for 60 seconds each. a. b. c. d. e. f. 7. Normal breathing Deep breathing (if you feel faint, ease up). Turning your head from side to side and inhaling in each position. Nodding your head up and down and inhaling in the up position. Counting or reading the rainbow passage. Grimacing while breathing. If during any of the above exercises the stannic chloride makes you cough, the respirator doesn’t fit and will not protect you. You’ll need to select another respirator and start over. Since you didn’t cough when subjected to irritant smoke with the respirator on we’ll need to check your sensitivity to irritant smoke once more. Close your eyes now and I’ll blow some in your direction again. Let me know what effect it has on you. The test indicates that you are still sensitive to the irritant smoke, but were unaffected with the respirator on. These results indicate that the respirator fits. Remember, this is the only respirator you are legally approved to wear. Before you can legally use a different respirator, another fit test will need to be conducted. A4-25 6/10/02 Michigan Tech Respirator Fit Testing Record This is to certify that ________________________________, social security number ___________________ has been trained and fitted in the use, limitations, and maintenance of the following respirator: Manufacturer__________ Model number__________ Protection against _____________________ using the following protocol. Bitrex Solution Aerosol Saccharin Solution Aerosol Stannic Chloride Smoke ____ ____ ____ The following test exercises were performed while being tested for at least 60 seconds each. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Normal breathing Breathing deeply Turning head from side to side, inhaling in each position Nodding head up and down, inhaling in the up position Counting or reading the rainbow passage “ I acknowledge that I have received respirator training and have been fit test according to the above instructions. By my signature, I verify: ____Saccharin or Bitrex Protocol -- That I did not detect the test solution during any of the actions required in fit testing me with the respirator on which this test qualifies me for. I did, however, taste the test solution during the sensitivity test”. ____Stannic Chloride Protocol – That I did not smell the stannic chloride smoke with the respirator on and (or) did not need to cough because of it”. I did smell the smoke when tested for sensitivity with the respirator off. . Signature of Person Fit Tested Signature of Tester Date Date A4-26 6/10/02 Michigan Tech APPENDIX 5 FIT TEST PROCEDURES THAT ARE ACCEPTABLE TO OSHA A5-1 6/10/02 Michigan Tech OSHA Regulations (Standards – 29 CFR) Fit Testing Procedures (Mandatory). - 1910.134 App A Standard Number: 1910.134 App A Standard Title: Fit Testing Procedures (Mandatory). SubPart Number: 1 Subpart Title: Personal Protective Equipment Appendix A to § 1910.134: Fit Testing Procedures (Mandatory) Part 1. OSHA Accepted Fit Test Protocols A. Fit Testing Procedures — General Requirements The employer shall conduct fit testing using the following procedures. The requirements in this appendix apply to all OSHA-accepted fit test methods, both QLFT and QNFT. 1. The test subject shall be allowed to pick the most acceptable respirator from a sufficient number of respirator models and sizes so that the respirator is acceptable to, and correctly fits the user. 2. Prior to the selection process, the test subject shall be shown how to put on a respirator, how it should be positioned on the face, how to set strap tension and how to determine an acceptable fit. A mirror shall be available to assist the subject in evaluating the fit and positioning of the respirator. This instruction may not constitute the subject's formal training on respirator use, because it is only a review. 3. The test subject shall be informed that he/she is being asked to select the respirator that provides the most acceptable fit. Each respirator represents a different size and shape, and if fitted and used properly, will provide adequate protection. 4. The test subject shall be instructed to hold each chosen facepiece up to the face and eliminate those that obviously do not give an acceptable fit. 5. The more acceptable facepieces are noted in case the one selected proves unacceptable; the most comfortable mask is donned and worn at least five minutes to assess comfort. Assistance in assessing comfort can be given by discussing the points in the following item A.6. If the test subject is not familiar with using a particular respirator, the test subject shall be directed to don the mask several times and to adjust the straps each time to become adept at setting proper tension on the straps. 6. Assessment of comfort shall include a review of the following points with the test subject and allowing the test subject adequate time to determine the comfort of the respirator: (a) Position of the mask on the nose (b) Room for eye protection (c) Room to talk (d) Position of mask on face and cheeks A5-2 6/10/02 Michigan Tech 7. The following criteria shall be used to help determine the adequacy of the respirator fit: (a) Chin properly placed; (b) Adequate strap tension, not overly tightened; (c) Fit across nose bridge; (d) Respirator of proper size to span distance from nose to chin; (e) Tendency of respirator to slip; (f) Self-observation in mirror to evaluate fit and respirator position. 8. The test subject shall conduct a user seal check, either the negative and positive pressure seal checks described in Appendix B-l of this section or those recommended by the respirator manufacturer which provide equivalent protection to the procedures in Appendix B-l. Before conducting the negative and positive pressure checks, the subject shall be told to seat the mask on the face by moving the head from side-to-side and up and down slowly while taking in a few slow deep breaths. Another facepiece shall be selected and retested if the test subject fails the user seal check tests. The test shall not be conducted if there is any hair growth between the skin and the facepiece sealing surface, such as stubble beard growth, beard, mustache or sideburns which cross the respirator sealing surface. Any type of apparel which interferes with a satisfactory fit shall be altered or removed. 9. 10. If a test subject exhibits difficulty in breathing during the tests, she or he shall be referred to a physician or other licensed health care professional, as appropriate, to determine whether the test subject can wear a respirator while performing her or his duties. 11. If the employee finds the fit of the respirator unacceptable, the test subject shall be given the opportunity to select a different respirator and to be retested. 12. Exercise regimen. Prior to the commencement of the fit test, the test subject shall be given a description of the fit test and the test subject's responsibilities during the test procedure. The description of the process shall include a description of the test exercises that the subject will be performing. The respirator to be tested shall be worn for at least 5 minutes before the start of the fit test. 13. The fit test shall be performed while the test subject is wearing any applicable safety equipment that may be worn during actual respirator use, which could interfere with respirator fit. 14. Test Exercises, (a) The following test exercises are to be performed for all fit testing methods prescribed in this appendix, except for the CNP method. A separate fit testing exercise regimen is contained in the CNP protocol. The test subject shall perform exercises, in the test environment, in the following manner: (1) Normal breathing. In a normal standing position, without talking, the subject shall breathe normally. Deep breathing, in a normal standing position, the subject shall breathe slowly and deeply, taking (2) A5-3 6/10/02 Michigan Tech caution so as not to hyperventilate. (3) Turning head side to side. Standing in place, the subject shall slowly turn his/her head from side to side between the extreme positions on each side. The head shall be held at each extreme momentarily so the subject can inhale at each side. Moving head up and down. Standing in place, the subject shall slowly move his/her head up and down. The subject shall be instructed to inhale in the up position (i.e., when looking toward the ceiling). Talking. The subject shall talk out loud slowly and loud enough so as to be heard clearly by the test conductor. The subject can read from a prepared text such as the Rainbow Passage, count backward from 100, or recite a memorized poem or song. (4) (5) Rainbow Passage When the sunlight strikes raindrops in the air, they act like a prism and form a rainbow. The rainbow is a division of white light into many beautiful colors. These take the shape of a long round arch, with its path high above, and its two ends apparently beyond the horizon. There is, according to legend, a boiling pot of gold at one end. People look, but no one ever finds it. When a man looks for something beyond reach, his friends say he is looking for the pot of gold at the end of the rainbow. (6) Grimace. The test subject shall grimace by smiling or frowning. (This applies only to QNFT testing; it is not performed for QLFT) (7) Bending over. The test subject shall bend at the waist as if he/she were to touch his/her toes. Jogging in place shall be substituted for this exercise in those test environments such as shroud type QNFT or QLFT units that do not permit bending over at the waist. (8) Normal breathing. Same as exercise (1). (b) Each test exercise shall be performed for one minute except for the grimace exercise which shall be performed for 15 seconds. The test subject shall be questioned by the test conductor regarding the comfort of the respirator upon completion of the protocol. If it has become unacceptable, another model of respirator shall be tried. The respirator shall not be adjusted once the fit test exercises begin. Any adjustment voids the test, and the fit test must be repeated. B. Qualitative Fit Test (QLFT) Protocols 1. General (a) The employer shall ensure that persons administering QLFT are able to prepare test solutions, calibrate equipment and perform tests properly, recognize invalid tests, and ensure that test equipment is in proper working order. (b) The employer shall ensure that QLFT equipment is kept clean and well maintained so as to operate within the parameters for which it was designed. 2. Isoamyl Acetate Protocol A5-4 6/10/02 Michigan Tech Note: This protocol is not appropriate to use for the fit testing of particulate respirators. If used to fit test particulate respirators, the respirator must be equipped with an organic vapor filter. (a) Odor Threshold Screening -- Odor threshold screening, performed without wearing a respirator, is intended to determine if the individual tested can detect the odor of isoamyl acetate at low levels. (1) (2) Three 1liter glass jars with metal lids are required. Odor-free water (e.g., distilled or spring water) at approximately 25 deg. C (77 deg. F) shall be used for the solutions. The isoamyl acetate (IAA) (also known at isopentyl acetate) stock solution is prepared by adding 1ml of pure IAA to 800 ml of odor-free water in a 1liter jar, closing the jar and shaking for 30 seconds. A new solution shall be prepared at least weekly. The screening test shall be conducted in a room separate from the room used for actual fit testing. The two rooms shall be well-ventilated to prevent the odor of IAA from becoming evident in the general room air where testing takes place. The odor test solution is prepared in a second jar by placing 0.4 ml of the stock solution into 500 ml of odor-free water using a clean dropper or pipette. The solution shall be shaken for 30 seconds and allowed to stand for two to three minutes so that the IAA concentration above the liquid may reach equilibrium. This solution shall be used for only one day. A test blank shall be prepared in a third jar by adding 500 cc of odor-free water. The odor test and test blank jar lids shall be labeled (e.g., 1and 2) for jar identification. Labels shall be placed on the lids so that they can be peeled off periodically and switched to maintain the integrity of the test. The following instruction shall be typed on a card and placed on the table in front of the two test jars (i.e., 1and 2): "The purpose of this test is to determine if you can smell banana oil at a low concentration. The two bottles in front of you contain water. One of these bottles also contains a small amount of banana oil. Be sure the covers are on tight, then shake each bottle for two seconds. Unscrew the lid of each bottle, one at a time, and sniff at the mouth of the bottle. Indicate to the test conductor which bottle contains banana oil." The mixtures used in the IAA odor detection test shall be prepared in an area separate from where the test is performed, in order to prevent olfactory fatigue in the subject. If the test subject is unable to correctly identify the jar containing the odor test solution, the IAA qualitative fit test shall not be performed. If the test subject correctly identifies the jar containing the odor test solution, the test subject may proceed to respirator selection and fit testing. (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (b) Isoamyl Acetate Fit Test (1) The fit test chamber shall be a clear 55-gallon drum liner suspended inverted over a 2-foot diameter frame so that the top of the chamber is about 6 inches above the test subject's head. If no A5-5 6/10/02 Michigan Tech drum liner is available, a similar chamber shall be constructed using plastic sheeting. The inside top center of the chamber shall have a small hook attached. (2) Each respirator used for the fitting and fit testing shall be equipped with organic vapor cartridges or offer protection against organic vapors. After selecting, donning, and properly adjusting a respirator, the test subject shall wear it to the fit testing room. This room shall be separate from the room used for odor threshold screening and respirator selection, and shall be well-ventilated, as by an exhaust fan or lab hood, to prevent general room contamination. A copy of the test exercises and any prepared text from which the subject is to read shall be taped to the inside of the test chamber. Upon entering the test chamber, the test subject shall be given a 6-inch by 5-inch piece of paper towel, or other porous, absorbent, single-ply material, folded in half and wetted with 0.75 ml of pure IAA. The test subject shall hang the wet towel on the hook at the top of the chamber. An IAA test swab or ampule may be substituted for the IAA wetted paper towel provided it has been demonstrated that the alternative IAA source will generate an IAA test atmosphere with a concentration equivalent to that generated by the paper towel method. Allow two minutes for the IAA test concentration to stabilize before starting the fit test exercises. This would be an appropriate time to talk with the test subject; to explain the fit test, the importance of his/her cooperation, and the purpose for the test exercises; or to demonstrate some of the exercises. If at any time during the test, the subject detects the banana-like odor of IAA, the test is failed. The subject shall quickly exit from the test chamber and leave the test area to avoid olfactory fatigue. If the test is failed, the subject shall return to the selection room and remove the respirator. The test subject shall repeat the odor sensitivity test, select and put on another respirator, return to the test area and again begin the fit test procedure described in (b) (1) through (7) above. The process continues until a respirator that fits well has been found. Should the odor sensitivity test be failed, the subject shall wait at least 5 minutes before retesting. Odor sensitivity will usually have returned by this time. If the subject passes the test, the efficiency of the test procedure shall be demonstrated by having the subject break the respirator face seal and take a breath before exiting the chamber. When the test subject leaves the chamber, the subject shall remove the saturated towel and return it to the person conducting the test, so that there is no significant IAA concentration buildup in the chamber during subsequent tests. The used towels shall be kept in a self-sealing plastic bag to keep the test area from being contaminated. (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) 3. Saccharin Solution Aerosol Protocol The entire screening and testing procedure shall be explained to the test subject prior to the conduct of the screening test. (a) Taste threshold screening. The saccharin taste threshold screening, performed without wearing a respirator, is intended to determine whether the individual being tested can detect the taste of saccharin. (1) During threshold screening as well as during fit testing, subjects shall wear an enclosure about the head and shoulder's that is approximately 12 inches in diameter by 14 inches tall with at least the front portion clear and that allows free movements of the head when a respirator is worn. An A5-6 6/10/02 Michigan Tech enclosure substantially similar to the 3M hood assembly, parts # FT 14 and # FT 15 combined, is adequate. (2) (3) The test enclosure shall have a 3/4-inch (1.9 cm) hole in front of the test subject's nose and mouth area to accommodate the nebulizer nozzle. The test subject shall don the test enclosure. Throughout the threshold screening test, the test subject shall breathe through his/her slightly open mouth with tongue extended. The subject is instructed to report when he/she detects a sweet taste. Using a DeVilbiss Model 40 Inhalation Medication Nebulizer or equivalent, the test conductor shall spray the threshold check solution into the enclosure. The nozzle is directed away from the nose and mouth of the person. This nebulizer shall be clearly marked to distinguish it from the fit test solution nebulizer. The threshold check solution is prepared by dissolving 0.83 gram of sodium saccharin USP in 100 ml of warm water. It can be prepared by putting 1ml of the fit test solution (see (b)(5) below) in 100 ml of distilled water. To produce the aerosol, the nebulizer bulb is firmly squeezed so that it collapses completely, then released and allowed to fully expand. Ten squeezes are repeated rapidly and then the test subject is asked whether the saccharin can be tasted. If the test subject reports tasting the sweet taste during the ten squeezes, the screening test is completed. The taste threshold is noted as ten regardless of the number of squeezes actually completed. If the first response is negative, ten more squeezes are repeated rapidly and the test subject is again asked whether the saccharin is tasted. If the test subject reports tasting the sweet taste during the second ten squeezes, the screening test is completed. The taste threshold is noted as twenty regardless of the number of squeezes actually completed. If the second response is negative, ten more squeezes are repeated rapidly and the test subject is again asked whether the saccharin is tasted. If the test subject reports tasting the sweet taste during the third set of ten squeezes, the screening test is completed. The taste threshold is noted as thirty regardless of the number of squeezes actually completed. The test conductor will take note of the number of squeezes required to solicit a taste response. If the saccharin is not tasted after 30 squeezes (step 10), the test subject is unable to taste saccharin and may not perform the saccharin fit test. (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) Note to paragraph 3. (a): If the test subject eats or drinks something sweet before the screening test, he/she may be unable to taste the weak saccharin solution. (12) (13) (14) (b) If a taste response is elicited, the test subject shall be asked to take note of the taste for reference in the fit test. Correct use of the nebulizer means that approximately 1ml of liquid is used at a time in the nebulizer body. The nebulizer shall be thoroughly rinsed in water, shaken dry, and refilled at least each morning and afternoon or at least every four hours. Saccharin solution aerosol fit test procedure. A5-7 6/10/02 Michigan Tech (1) (2) (3) (4) The test subject may not eat, drink (except plain water), smoke, or chew gum for 15 minutes before the test. The fit test uses the same enclosure described in 3. (a) above. The test subject shall don the enclosure while wearing the respirator selected in section 1. A. of this appendix. The respirator shall be properly adjusted and equipped with a particulate filter. A second DeVilbiss Model 40 Inhalation Medication Nebulizer or equivalent is used to spray the fit test solution into the enclosure. This nebulizer shall be clearly marked to distinguish it from the screening test solution nebulizer. The fit test solution is prepared by adding 83 grams of sodium saccharin to 100 ml of warm water. As before, the test subject shall breathe through the slightly open mouth with tongue extended, and report if he/she tastes the sweet taste of saccharin. The nebulizer is inserted into the hole in the front of the enclosure and an initial concentration of saccharin fit test solution is sprayed into the enclosure using the same number of squeezes (either 10, 20 or 30 squeezes) based on the number of squeezes required to elicit a taste response as noted during the screening test. A minimum of 10 squeezes is required. After generating the aerosol, the test subject shall be instructed to perform the exercises in section 1. A.14. of this appendix. Every 30 seconds the aerosol concentration shall be replenished using one half the original number of squeezes used initially (e.g., 5, 10 or 15). The test subject shall indicate to the test conductor if at any time during the fit test the taste of saccharin is detected. If the test subject does not report tasting the saccharin, the test is passed. If the taste of saccharin is detected, the fit is deemed unsatisfactory and the test is failed. A different respirator shall be tried and the entire test procedure is repeated (taste threshold screening and fit testing). Since the nebulizer has a tendency to clog during use, the test operator must make periodic checks of the nebulizer to ensure that it is not clogged. If clogging is found at the end of the test session, the test is invalid. (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) 4. BitrexTM (Denatonium Benzoate) Solution Aerosol Qualitative Fit Test Protocol The Bitrex TM (Denatonium benzoate) solution aerosol QLFT protocol uses the published saccharin test protocol because that protocol is widely accepted. Bitrex is routinely used as a taste aversion agent in household liquids which children should not be drinking and is endorsed by the American Medical Association, the National Safety Council, and the American Association of Poison Control Centers. The entire screening and testing procedure shall be explained to the test subject prior to the conduct of the screening test. (a) Taste Threshold Screening. The Bitrex taste threshold screening, performed without wearing a respirator, is intended to determine whether the individual being tested can detect the taste of Bitrex. (1} During threshold screening as well as during fit testing, subjects shall wear an enclosure about the head and shoulders that is approximately 12 inches (30.5 cm) diameter by 14 inches (35.6 cm) tall. The front portion of the enclosure shall be clear from the respirator and allow free movement of the head when a respirator is worn. An enclosure substantially similar to the 3M hood assembly, parts # FT 14 and # FT 15 combined, is adequate. A5-8 6/10/02 Michigan Tech (2) (3) The test enclosure shall have a \3/4\ inch (1.9 cm) hole in front of the test subject's nose and mouth area to accommodate the nebulizer nozzle. The test subject shall don the test enclosure. Throughout the threshold screening test, the test subject shall breathe through his or her slightly open mouth with tongue extended. The subject is instructed to report when he/she detects a bitter taste. Using a DeVilbiss Model 40 Inhalation Medication Nebulizer or equivalent, the test conductor shall spray the Threshold Check Solution into the enclosure. This Nebulizer shall be clearly marked to distinguish it from the fit test solution nebulizer. The Threshold Check Solution is prepared by adding 13.5 milligrams of Bitrex to 100 ml of 5% salt (NaCl) solution in distilled water. To produce the aerosol, the nebulizer bulb is firmly squeezed so that the bulb collapses completely, and is then released and allowed to fully expand. An initial ten squeezes are repeated rapidly and then the test subject is asked whether the Bitrex can be tasted. If the test subject reports tasting the bitter taste during the ten squeezes, the screening test is completed. The taste threshold is noted as ten regardless of the number of squeezes actually completed. If the first response is negative, ten more squeezes are repeated rapidly and the test subject is again asked whether the Bitrex is tasted. If the test subject reports tasting the bitter taste during the second ten squeezes, the screening test is completed. The taste threshold is noted as twenty regardless of the number of squeezes actually completed. If the second response is negative, ten more squeezes are repeated rapidly and the test subject is again asked whether the Bitrex is tasted. If the test subject reports tasting the bitter taste during the third set of ten squeezes, the screening test is completed. The taste threshold is noted as thirty regardless of the number of squeezes actually completed. The test conductor will take note of the number of squeezes required to solicit a taste response. If the Bitrex is not tasted after 30 squeezes (step 10), the test subject is unable to taste Bitrex and may not perform the Bitrex fit test. If a taste response is elicited, the test subject shall be asked to take note of the taste for reference in the fit test. Correct use of the nebulizer means that approximately 1ml of liquid is used at a time in the nebulizer body. The nebulizer shall be thoroughly rinsed in water, shaken to dry, and refilled at least each morning and afternoon or at least every four hours. (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (b) Bitrex Solution Aerosol Fit Test Procedure. (1) (2) (3) The test subject may not eat, drink (except plain water), smoke, or chew gum for 15 minutes before the test. The fit test uses the same enclosure as that described in 4.(a) above. The test subject shall don the enclosure while wearing the respirator selected according to section 1. A. of this appendix. The respirator shall be properly adjusted and equipped with any type particulate filter(s). A5-9 6/10/02 Michigan Tech (4) A second DeVilbiss Model 40 Inhalation Medication Nebulizer or equivalent is used to spray the fit test solution into the enclosure. This nebulizer shall be clearly marked to distinguish it from the screening test solution nebulizer. The fit test solution is prepared by adding 337.5 mg of Bitrex to 200 ml of a 5% salt (NaCl) solution in warm water. As before, the test subject shall breathe through his or her slightly open mouth with tongue extended, and be instructed to report if he/she tastes the bitter taste of Bitrex. The nebulizer is inserted into the hole in the front of the enclosure and an initial concentration of the fit test solution is sprayed into the enclosure using the same number of squeezes (either 10, 20 or 30 squeezes) based on the number of squeezes required to elicit a taste response as noted during the screening test. After generating the aerosol, the test subject shall be instructed to perform the exercises in section 1. A. 14. of this appendix. Every 30 seconds the aerosol concentration shall be replenished using one half the number of squeezes used initially (e.g., 5, 10 or 15). The test subject shall indicate to the test conductor if at any time during the fit test the taste of Bitrex is detected. If the test subject does not report tasting the Bitrex, the test is passed. If the taste of Bitrex is detected, the fit is deemed unsatisfactory and the test is failed. A different respirator shall be tried and the entire test procedure is repeated (taste threshold screening and fit testing). (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) 5. Irritant Smoke (Stannic Chloride) Protocol This qualitative fit test uses a person's response to the irritating chemicals released in the "smoke' produced by a stannic chloride ventilation smoke tube to detect leakage into the respirator. (a) General Requirements and Precautions (1) (2) (3) (4) The respirator to be tested shall be equipped with high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) or P100 series filter(s). Only stannic chloride smoke tubes shall be used for this protocol. No form of test enclosure or hood for the test subject shall be used. The smoke can be irritating to the eyes, lungs, and nasal passages. The test conductor shall take precautions to minimize the test subject's exposure to irritant smoke. Sensitivity varies, and certain individuals may respond to a greater degree to irritant smoke. Care shall be taken when performing the sensitivity screening checks that determine whether the test subject can detect irritant smoke to use only the minimum amount of smoke necessary to elicit a response from the test subject. The fit test shall be performed in an area with adequate ventilation to prevent exposure of the person conducting the fit test or the build-up of irritant smoke in the general atmosphere. (5) (b) Sensitivity Screening Check The person to be tested must demonstrate his or her ability to detect a weak concentration of the irritant smoke. A5-10 6/10/02 Michigan Tech (1) The test operator shall break both ends of a ventilation smoke tube containing stannic chloride, and attach one end of the smoke tube to a low flow air pump set to deliver 200 milliliters per minute, or an aspirator squeeze bulb. The test operator shall cover the other end of the smoke tube with a short piece of tubing to prevent potential injury from the jagged end of the smoke tube. The test operator shall advise the test subject that the smoke can be irritating to the eyes, lungs, and nasal passages and instruct the subject to keep his/her eyes closed while the test is performed. The test subject shall be allowed to smell a weak concentration of the irritant smoke before the respirator is donned to become familiar with its irritating properties and to determine if he/she can detect the irritating properties of the smoke. The test operator shall carefully direct a small amount of the irritant smoke in the test subject's direction to determine that he/she can detect it. (2) (3) (c) Irritant Smoke Fit Test Procedure (1) (2) (3) The person being fit tested shall don the respirator without assistance, and perform the required user seal check(s). The test subject shall be instructed to keep his/her eyes closed. The test operator shall direct the stream of irritant smoke from the smoke tube toward the face seal area of the test subject, using the low flow pump or the squeeze bulb. The test operator shall begin at least 12 inches from the facepiece and move the smoke stream around the whole perimeter of the mask. The operator shall gradually make two more passes around the perimeter of the mask, moving to within six inches of the respirator. If the person being tested has not had an involuntary response and/or detected the irritant smoke, proceed with the test exercises. The exercises identified in section 1.A. 14. of this appendix shall be performed by the test subject while the respirator seal is being continually challenged by the smoke, directed around the perimeter of the respirator at a distance of six inches. If the person being fit tested reports detecting the irritant smoke at any time, the test is failed. The person being retested must repeat the entire sensitivity check and fit test procedure. Each test subject passing the irritant smoke test without evidence of a response (involuntary cough, irritation) shall be given a second sensitivity screening check, with the smoke from the same smoke tube used during the fit test, once the respirator has been removed, to determine whether he/she still reacts to the smoke. Failure to evoke a response shall void the fit test. If a response is produced during this second sensitivity check, then the fit test is passed. (4} (5) (6) (7) (8) C. Quantitative Fit Test (QNFT) Protocols The following quantitative fit testing procedures have been demonstrated to be acceptable: Quantitative fit testing using a non-hazardous test aerosol (such as corn oil, polyethylene glycol 400 [PEG 400], di-2-ethyl hexyl sebacate [DEHS], or sodium chloride) generated in a test chamber, and employing instrumentation to quantify the fit of the respirator; Quantitative fit testing using ambient aerosol as the test agent and appropriate instrumentation (condensation nuclei counter) to quantify the respirator fit; Quantitative fit testing using controlled negative pressure and appropriate instrumentation to measure the volumetric leak rate of a facepiece to quantify the respirator fit. 1. General A5-11 6/10/02 Michigan Tech (a) The employer shall ensure that persons administering QNFT are able to calibrate equipment and perform tests properly, recognize invalid tests, calculate fit factors properly and ensure that test equipment is in proper working order. The employer shall ensure that QNFT equipment is kept clean, and is maintained and calibrated according to the manufacturer's instructions so as to operate at the parameters for which it was designed. (b) 2. Generated Aerosol Quantitative Fit Testing Protocol (a) Apparatus. (1) Instrumentation. Aerosol generation, dilution, and measurement systems using particutates (corn oil, polyethylene glycol 400 [PEG 400], di-2-ethyl hexyl sebacate [DEHS] or sodium chloride) as test aerosols shall be used for quantitative fit testing. Test chamber. The test chamber shall be large enough to permit all test subjects to perform freely all required exercises without disturbing the test agent concentration or the measurement apparatus. The test chamber shall be equipped and constructed so that the test agent is effectively isolated from the ambient air, yet uniform in concentration throughout the chamber. When testing air-purifying respirators, the normal filter or cartridge element shall be replaced with a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) or P100 series filter supplied by the same manufacturer. The sampling instrument shall be selected so that a computer record or strip chart record may be made of the test showing the rise and fall of the test agent concentration with each inspiration and expiration at fit factors of at least 2,000. Integrators or computers that integrate the amount of test agent penetration leakage into the respirator for each exercise may be used provided a record of the readings is made. The combination of substitute air-purifying elements, test agent and test agent concentration shall be such that the test subject is not exposed in excess of an established exposure limit for the test agent at any time during the testing process, based upon the length of the exposure and the exposure limit duration. The sampling port on the test specimen respirator shall be placed and constructed so that no leakage occurs around the port (e.g., where the respirator is probed), a free airflow is allowed into the sampling line at all times, and there is no interference with the fit or performance of the respirator. The in-mask sampling device (probe) shall be designed and used so that the air sample is drawn from the breathing zone of the test subject, midway between the nose and mouth and with the probe extending into the facepiece cavity at least 1/4 inch. The test setup shall permit the person administering the test to observe the test subject inside the chamber during the test. The equipment generating the test atmosphere shall maintain the concentration of test agent constant to within a 10 percent variation for the duration of the test. The time lag (interval between an event and the recording of the event on the strip chart or computer or integrator) shall be kept to a minimum. There shall be a clear association between the occurrence of an event and its being recorded. The sampling line tubing for the test chamber atmosphere and for the respirator sampling port shall be of equal diameter and of the same material. The length of the two lines shall be equal. The exhaust flow from the test chamber shall pass through an appropriate filter (i.e., high efficiency particulate filter) before release. (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) A5-12 6/10/02 Michigan Tech (12) (13) (14) (b) When sodium chloride aerosol is used, the relative humidity inside the test chamber shall not exceed 50 percent. The limitations of instrument detection shall be taken into account when determining the fit factor. Test respirators shall be maintained in proper working order and be inspected regularly for deficiencies such as cracks or missing valves and gaskets. Procedural Requirements. (1) When performing the initial user seal check using a positive or negative pressure check, the sampling line shall be crimped closed in order to avoid air pressure leakage during either of these pressure checks. The use of an abbreviated screening QLFT test is optional. Such a test may be utilized in order to quickly identify poor fitting respirators that passed the positive and/or negative pressure test and reduce the amount of QNFT time. The use of the CMC QNFT instrument in the count mode is another optional method to obtain a quick estimate of fit and eliminate poor fitting respirators before going on to perform a full QNPT. A reasonably stable test agent concentration shall be measured in the test chamber prior to testing. For canopy or shower curtain types of test units, the determination of the test agent's stability may be established after the test subject has entered the test environment. Immediately after the subject enters the test chamber, the test agent concentration inside the respirator shall be measured to ensure that the peak penetration does not exceed 5 percent for a half mask or 1percent for a full facepiece respirator. A stable test agent concentration shall be obtained prior to the actual start of testing. Respirator restraining straps shall not be over-tightened for testing. The straps shall be adjusted by the wearer without assistance from other persons to give a reasonably comfortable fit typical of normal use. The respirator shall not be adjusted once the fit test exercises begin. The test shall be terminated whenever any single peak penetration exceeds 5 percent for half masks and 1percent for full facepiece respirators. The test subject shall be refitted and retested. (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (a) (i) Calculation of fit factors The fit factor shall be determined for the quantitative fit test by taking the ratio of the average chamber concentration to the concentration measured inside the respirator for each test exercise except the grimace exercise. The average test chamber concentration shall be calculated as the arithmetic average of the concentration measured before and after each test (i.e., 7 exercises) or the arithmetic average of the concentration measured before and after each exercise or the true average measured continuously during the respirator sample. The concentration of the challenge agent inside the respirator shall be determined by one of the following methods: Average peak penetration method means the method of determining test agent penetration into the respirator utilizing a strip chart recorder, integrator, or computer. The agent penetration is determined by an average of the peak heights on the graph or by computer integration, for each exercise except the grimace exercise. Integrators or computers that calculate the actual test agent penetration into the (ii) (iii) (A) A5-13 6/10/02 Michigan Tech respirator for each exercise will also be considered to meet the requirements of the average peak penetration method. (B) Maximum peak penetration method means the method of determining test agent penetration in the respirator as determined by strip chart recordings of the test. The highest peak penetration for a given exercise is taken to be representative of average penetration into the respirator for that exercise. Integration by calculation of the area under the individual peak for each exercise except the grimace exercise. This includes computerized integration. The calculation of the overall fit factor using individual exercise fit factors involves first converting the exercise fit factors to penetration values, determining the average, and then converting that result back to a fit factor. This procedure is described in the following equation: Overall Fit Factor = Number of Exercises 1/ff1+1/ff2+1/ff3+1/ff4+1/ff5+1/ff6+1/ff7+1/ff8 (C) (D) Where ff1, ff2, ff3, etc. are the fit factors for exercises 1, 2, 3, etc. (9) The test subject shall not be permitted to wear a half mask or quarter facepiece respirator unless a minimum fit factor of 100 is obtained, or a full facepiece respirator unless a minimum fit factor of 500 is obtained. Filters used for quantitative fit testing shall be replaced whenever increased breathing resistance is encountered, or when the test agent has altered the integrity of the filter media. (10) 3. Ambient aerosol condensation nuclei counter (CNC) quantitative fit testing protocol. The ambient aerosol condensation nuclei counter (CNC) quantitative fit testing (Portacount TM) protocol quantitatively fit tests respirators with the use of a probe. The probed respirator is only used for quantitative fit tests. A probed respirator has a special sampling device, installed on the respirator, that allows the probe to sample the air from inside the mask. A probed respirator is required for each make, style, model, and size that the employer uses and can be obtained from the respirator manufacturer or distributor. The CNC instrument manufacturer, TSI Inc., also provides probe attachments (TSI sampling adapters) that permit fit testing in an employee's own respirator. A minimum fit factor pass level of at least 100 is necessary for a half-mask respirator and a minimum fit factor pass level of at least 500 is required for a full facepiece negative pressure respirator. The entire screening and testing procedure shall be explained to the test subject prior to the conduct of the screening test. (a) Portacount Fit Test Requirements. (1) Check the respirator to make sure the sampling probe and line are properly attached to the facepiece and that the respirator is fitted with a particulate filter capable of preventing significant penetration by the ambient particles used for the fit test (e.g., NIOSH 42 CFR 84 series 100, series 99, or series 95 particulate filter) per manufacturer's instruction. Instruct the person to be tested to don the respirator for five minutes before the fit test starts. This purges the ambient particles trapped inside the respirator and permits the wearer to make certain the respirator is comfortable. This individual shall already have been trained on how to wear the respirator properly. Check the following conditions for the adequacy of the respirator fit: Chin properly placed; Adequate strap tension, not overly tightened; Fit across nose bridge; Respirator of proper size to span distance from nose to chin; Tendency of the respirator to slip; Self-observation in a mirror to evaluate fit and respirator position. (2) (3) A5-14 6/10/02 Michigan Tech (4) Have the person wearing the respirator do a user seal check. If leakage is detected, determine the cause. If leakage is from a poorly fitting facepiece, try another size of the same model respirator, or another model of respirator. Follow the manufacturer's instructions for operating the Portacount and proceed with the test. The test subject shall be instructed to perform the exercises in section 1. A. 14. of this appendix. After the test exercises, the test subject shall be questioned by the test conductor regarding the comfort of the respirator upon completion of the protocol. If it has become unacceptable, another model of respirator shall be tried. (5) (6) (7) (b) Portacount Test Instrument. (1) The Portacount will automatically stop and calculate the overall fit factor for the entire set of exercises. The overall fit factor is what counts. The Pass or Fail message will indicate whether or not the test was successful. If the test was a Pass, the fit test is over. Since the pass or fail criterion of the Portacount is user programmable, the test operator shall ensure that the pass or fail criterion meet the requirements for minimum respirator performance in this Appendix. A record of the test needs to be kept on file, assuming the fit test was successful. The record must contain the test subject's name; overall fit factor; make, model, style, and size of respirator used; and date tested. (2) (3) 4. Controlled negative pressure (CNP) quantitative fit testing protocol. The CNP protocol provides an alternative to aerosol fit test methods. The CNP fit test method technology is based on exhausting air from a temporarily sealed respirator facepiece to generate and then maintain a constant negative pressure inside the facepiece. The rate of air exhaust is controlled so that a constant negative pressure is maintained in the respirator during the fit test. The level of pressure is selected to replicate the mean inspiratory pressure that causes leakage into the respirator under normal use conditions. With pressure held constant, airflow out of the respirator is equal to airflow into the respirator. Therefore, measurement of the exhaust stream that is required to hold the pressure in the temporarily sealed respirator constant yields a direct measure of leakage airflow into the respirator. The CNP fit test method measures leak rates through the facepiece as a method for determining the facepiece fit for negative pressure respirators. The CNP instrument manufacturer Dynatech Nevada also provides attachments (sampling manifolds) that replace the filter cartridges to permit fit testing in an employee's own respirator. To perform the test, the test subject closes his or her mouth and holds his/her breath, after which an air pump removes air from the respirator facepiece at a pre-selected constant pressure. The facepiece fit is expressed as the leak rate through the facepiece, expressed as milliliters per minute. The quality and validity of the CNP fit tests are determined by the degree to which the in-mask pressure tracks the test pressure during the system measurement time of approximately five seconds. Instantaneous feedback in the form of a real-time pressure trace of the in-mask pressure is provided and used to determine test validity and quality. A minimum fit factor pass level of 100 is necessary for a half-mask respirator and a minimum fit factor of at least 500 is required for a full facepiece respirator. The entire screening and testing procedure shall be explained to the test subject prior to the conduct of the screening test. a) CNP Fit Test Requirements. (1) (2) The instrument shall have a non-adjustable test pressure of 15.0 mm water pressure. The CNP system defaults selected for test pressure shall be set at — 15 mm of water (-0.58 inches of water) and the modeled inspiratory flow rate shall be 53.8 liters per minute for performing fit tests. A5-15 6/10/02 Michigan Tech (Note: CNP systems have built-in capability to conduct fit testing that is specific to unique work rate, mask, and gender situations that might apply in a specific workplace. Use of system default values, which were selected to represent respirator wear with medium cartridge resistance at a low-moderate work rate, will allow inter-test comparison of the respirator fit.) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (b) The individual who conducts the CNP fit testing shall be thoroughly trained to perform the test. The respirator filter or cartridge needs to be replaced with the CNP test manifold. The inhalation valve downstream from the manifold either needs to be temporarily removed or propped open. The test subject shall be trained to hold his or her breath for at least 20 seconds. The test subject shall don the test respirator without any assistance from the individual who conducts the CNP fit test. The QNFT protocol shall be followed according to section 1.C. 1. of this appendix with an exception for the CNP test exercises. CNP Test Exercises. (1) Normal breathing. In a normal standing position, without talking, the subject shall breathe normally for 1minute. After the normal breathing exercise, the subject needs to hold head straight ahead and hold his or her breath for 10 seconds during the test measurement. Deep breathing. In a normal standing position, the subject shall breathe slowly and deeply for 1minute, being careful not to hyperventilate. After the deep breathing exercise, the subject shall hold his or her head straight ahead and hold his or her breath for 10 seconds during test measurement. Turning head side to side. Standing in place, the subject shall slowly turn his or her head from side to side between the extreme positions on each side for 1minute. The head shall be held at each extreme momentarily so the subject can inhale at each side. After the turning head side to side exercise, the subject needs to hold head full left and hold his or her breath for 10 seconds during test measurement. Next, the subject needs to hold head full right and hold his or her breath for 10 seconds during test measurement. Moving head up and down. Standing in place, the subject shall slowly move his or her head up and down for 1minute. The subject shall be instructed to inhale in the up position (i.e., when looking toward the ceiling). After the moving head up and down exercise, the subject shall hold his or her head full up and hold his or her breath for 10 seconds during test measurement. Next, the subject shall hold his or her head full down and hold his or her breath for 10 seconds during test measurement. Talking. The subject shall talk out loud slowly and loud enough so as to be heard clearly by the test conductor. The subject can read from a prepared text such as the Rainbow Passage, count backward from 100, or recite a memorized poem or song for 1minute. After the talking exercise, the subject shall hold his or her head straight ahead and hold his or her breath for 10 seconds during the test measurement. Grimace. The test subject shall grimace by smiling or frowning for 15 seconds. Bending Over. The test subject shall bend at the waist as if he or she were to touch his or her toes for 1minute. Jogging in place shall be substituted for this exercise in those test environments such as shroud-type QNFT units that prohibit bending at the waist. After the bending over exercise, the subject shall hold his or her head straight ahead and hold his or her breath for 10 seconds during the test measurement. (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) A5-16 6/10/02 Michigan Tech (8) Normal Breathing. The test subject shall remove and re-don the respirator within a one-minute period. Then, in a normal standing position, without talking, the subject shall breathe normally for 1minute. After the normal breathing exercise, the subject shall hold his or her head straight ahead and hold his or her breath for 10 seconds during the test measurement. After the test exercises, the test subject shall be questioned by the test conductor regarding the comfort of the respirator upon completion of the protocol. If it has become unacceptable, another model of a respirator shall be tried. (c) CNP Test Instrument. (1) The test instrument shall have an effective audio warning device when the test subject fails to hold his or her breath during the test. The test shall be terminated whenever the test subject failed to hold his or her breath. The test subject may be refitted and retested. A record of the test shall be kept on file, assuming the fit test was successful. The record must contain the test subject's name; overall fit factor; make, model, style and size of respirator used; and date tested. (2) Part XX. New Fit Test Protocols A. Any person may submit to OSHA an application for approval of a new fit test protocol. If the application meets the following criteria, OSHA will initiate a rulemaking proceeding under section 6(b)(7) of the OSH Act to determine whether to list the new protocol as an approved protocol in this Appendix A. B. The application must include a detailed description of the proposed new fit lest protocol. This application must be supported by either: 1. A test report prepared by an independent government research laboratory (e.g., Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, the National Institute for Standards and Technology) stating that the laboratory has tested the protocol and had found it to be accurate and reliable; or An article that has been published in a peer-reviewed industrial hygiene journal describing the protocol and explaining how test data support the protocol's accuracy and reliability. 2. C. If OSHA determines that additional information is required before the Agency commences a rule making proceeding under this section, OSHA will so notify the applicant and afford the applicant the opportunity to submit the supplemental information. Initiation of a rulemaking proceeding will be deferred until OSHA has received and evaluated the supplemental information. [63 FR 20098, April 23, 1998] A5-17