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Engineering

Table of Contents
INFORMATION Control Valves Selection and Sizing Globe and Ball Valves Butterfly Valve Damper Actuators Selection and Sizing Damper Actuators NeMA Ratings NEMA Descriptions Pneumatic Relays Relay Piping Retrofit Cross Reference Conversion Tables Conversion Factors English to Metric Conversion Guide Pressure Conversion Table Temperature Conversion Table Psychrometric Chart I-23 I-25 I-26 I-27 I-28 I-19 I-22 I-18 I-17 I-2 I-14 PAge #

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Engineering

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Globe and Ball Valves


Selecting Valves: Globe vs. Ball
The control valve is the most important single element in any fluid handling system, because it regulates the flow of fluid to the process. To properly select a control valve, a general knowledge of the process and components is usually necessary. This reference section can help you select and size the control valve that most closely matches the process requirements. The sizing of a valve is very important if it is to render good service. If it is undersized, it will not have sufficient capacity. If it is oversized, the controlled variable may cycle, and the seat, and disc will be subject to wire drawing because of the restricted opening. Systems are designed for the most adverse conditions expected (i.e., coldest weather, greatest load, etc.). In addition, system components (boiler, chiller, pumps, coils, etc.) are limited to sizes available and frequently have a greater capacity than system requirements. Correct sizing of the control valve for actual expected conditions is considered essential for good control.

Pricing Comparison
Today, with equivalent pricing between ball and globe valves, the full port ball valve is falling out of favor for most HVAC control applications. This is also due to its poor installed flow characteristic that leads to its inability to maintain proper control. New flow optimized or characterized ball valves, specifically designed for modulating applications, have been developed. Characterized ball valves are sized the same way as globe valves. They provide an equal percentage flow characteristic, enabling stable control of fluids. Additionally, there are more cost-effective valve actuators now available for globe valves. Better control and more-competitive pricing now puts globe valves on the same playing field as characterized ball valves.

Most Cost-effective by Application


Lets look at a cost comparison as it relates to the decision to select ball or globe valves. For terminal unit applications requiring less than 25 GPM, the globe valve is a more cost-effective choice. However, on larger coils the characterized ball valve is the more cost-effective solution. From a practical standpoint,many jobs will use mostly one type or the other. If the majority of valves on a project tend to be terminal unit valves, then globe valves would offer better control at a lower price. If the majority of the valves are for AHUs (1-1/4" or larger) characterized Ball Valves are the preferred solution from a pure cost standpoint. Different tolerances to temperature, pressure and steam should also be considered in the selection process.

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A basic rule of control valve sizing is: The higher the percentage of drop across the wide open valve in relation to the percentage of pressure drop through the line and process coil, the better the control. Technical Comparison Between Globe and Ball Valves
Technically, the globe valve has a stem and plug, which strokes linearly, commonly referred to as stroke valves. The ball valve has a stem and ball, which turns horizontally, commonly referred to as rotational valves. Early ball valves used a full port opening, allowing large amounts of water to pass through the valve. This gave HVAC controls contractors the ability to select a ball valve two to three pipe sizes smaller than the piping line size. Compared to traditional globe valves that would be only one pipe size smaller than the line size, this was often a more cost-effective device-level solution. In addition, the ball valve could be actuated by a damper actuator, rather than expensive box-style Mod motors.

Selection Guidelines
Globe Valve Lower cost Close off of 50 psi or less (typical for most HVAC applications) High differential pressure across valve Rebuilding of the valve is desired Better control performance Better low flow (partial load) performance Use for steam, water or water/glycol media Smaller physical profile than a comparable ball valve Characterized Ball Valve Tight shutoff or high close offs of around 100 psi* are required Isolation or two position control** Cv ranges from 16 to 250 (equates to line sizes 1-1/4" to 2-1/2") Use for water or water/glycol solution only

* This equates to a pump head pressure of approximately 230 ft. Not very common HVAC applications. ** Valve can be line sized to minimize pressure losses; butterfly valves are also used for these applications.

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Control Valve Sizing


Sizing
Pressure Drop for Water Flow
A pressure drop must exist across a control valve if flow is to occur. The greater the drop, the greater the flow at any fixed opening. The pressure drop across a valve also varies with the disc positionfrom minimum when fully open, to 100% of the system drop when fully closed. To size a valve properly, it is necessary to know the full flow pressure drop across it. The pressure drop across a valve is the difference in pressure between the inlet and outlet under flow conditions. When it is specified by the engineer and the required flow is known, the selection of a valve is simplified. When this pressure drop is not known, it must be computed or assumed. If the pressure drop across the valve when fully open is not a large enough percentage of the total system drop, there will be little change in fluid flow until the valve actually closes, forcing the valves characteristic toward a quick opening form. Figure 1 shows flow-lift curves for a linear valve with various percentages of design pressure drop. Note the improved characteristic as pressure drop approaches 100% of system pressure drop at full flow. It is important to realize that the flow characteristic for any particular valve, such as the linear characteristic shown in Figure 1 is applicable only if the pressure drop remains nearly constant across the valve for full stem travel. In most systems, however, it is impractical to take 100% of the system drop across the valve. A good working rule is, at maximum flow, 25 to 50% of the total system pressure drop should be absorbed by the control valve. Although this generally results in larger pump sizes, it should be pointed out that the initial equipment cost is offset by a reduction in control valve size, and results in improved controllability of the system. Reasonably good control can be accomplished with pressure drops of 15 to 30% of total system pressures. A drop of 15% can be used if the variation in flow is small. Recommended Pressure Drops for Valve Sizing Water 1. With a differential pressure less than 20 psi, use a pressure drop equal to 5 psi. 2. With a differential pressure greater than 20 psi, use a pressure drop equal to 25% of total system pressure drop (maximum pump head), but not exceeding the maximum rating of the valve.
Figure 1.

Pressure Drop for Steam

The same methodology should be applied for selecting a valve for steam with the most important consideration is the pressure drop. First, the correct maximum capacity of the coil must be determined. Ideally, there should be no safety factor in this determination and it should be based on the actual BTU heating requirements. The valve size must be based on the actual supply pressure at the valve. When the valve is fully open, the outlet pressure will assume a valve such that the valve capacity and coil condensing rate are in balance. If this outlet valve pressure is relatively large (small pressure drop), then as the valve closes, there will be no appreciable reduction in flow until the valve is nearly closed. To achieve better controllability, the smallest valve (largest pressure drop) should be selected. With the valve outlet pressure much less than the inlet pressure, a large pressure drop results. There will now be an immediate reduction in capacity as the valve throttles. For steam valves, generally the largest possible pressure drop should be taken, without exceeding the critical pressure ratio. Therefore, the steam pressure drop should approach 50% of the absolute inlet pressure. Examining the pressure drops under Recommended Pressure Drops for Valve Sizing Steam , you might be concerned about the steam entering the coil at 0 psi when a large drop is taken across the control valve. Steam flow through the coil will still drop to vacuum pressures due to condensation of the steam. Consequently, a pressure differential will still exist. In this case, proper steam trapping and condensation piping is essential.

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Recommended Pressure Drops for Valve Sizing Steam 1. With gravity flow condensate removal and inlet pressure less than 15 psi, use a pressure drop equal to the inlet gauge pressure. 2. With vacuum return system up to 7" Hg vacuum and an inlet pressure less than 2 psi, a pressure drop of 2 psi should be used. With an inlet pressure of 2 to 15 psi, use a pressure drop equal to the inlet gauge pressure. 3. With an inlet pressure greater than 15 psi, use a pressure drop equal to 50% of inlet absolute pressure. Example: Inlet pressure is 20 psi (35 psi). Use a pressure drop of 17.5 psi. 4. When a coil size is selected on the basis that line pressure and temperature is available in the coil of a heating and ventilating application, a very minimum pressure drop is desired. In this case, use the following pressure drop:
Initial Pressure 15 psi 50 psi 100 psi Over 100 psi Pressure Drop 5 psi 7.5 psi 10 psi 10% of line pressure

Valve Sizing and Selection Example


Select a valve to control a chilled water coil that must have a flow of 35 GPM with a valve differential pressure ( P) of 5 psi. Determine the valve Cv using the formula for liquids. Cv = Q = 35 GPM = 15.6

Select a valve that is suitable for this application and has a Cv as close as possible to the calculated value. One choice is 277-03186: a 1-1/4" NC valve with a Cv of 16. Refer to Flowrite Valves Reference section.

Valve Selection Criteria


1. Flow characteristicModified Equal Percentage which provides good control for a water coil. 2. Body rating and materialSuitable for water plus a soft disc which provides tight shut-off. 3. Valve type and actionA single seat NC valve with an adjustable spring range which can be sequenced with a NO valve used for heating. 4. Valve actuatorActuator close-off rating is higher than the system P. 5. Valve line sizeIts Cv is close to and slightly larger than the calculated Cv (15.6). 6. For Ball ValvesSelect a ball the same size as the line size.

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The Most Important Variables to Consider When Sizing a Valve:


1. What medium will the valve control? Water? Air? Steam? What effects will specific gravity and viscosity have on the valve size? 2. What will the inlet pressure be under maximum load demand? What is the inlet temperature? 3. What pressure drop (differential) will exist across the valve under maximum load demand? 4. What maximum capacity should the valve handle? 5. What is the maximum pressure differential the valve top must close against? When these are known, a valve can be selected by formula (Cv method) or water and steam capacities tables which can be found in the Valves section, pages D-7 through D-10. The valve size should not exceed the line size, and it should preferably be one to two sizes smaller.

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Control Valve Sizing


Valve Body Rating
The temperature-pressure ratings for ANSI Classes 125 and 250 valve bodies made of bronze or cast iron are shown below.

Pressure Description
Bronze Screwed Bodies Specification #B16.15-1978 ANSI Amer. Std.; USA; ASME

Temperature
-20 to + 150F (-30 to + 66C) -20 to + 200F (-30 to + 93C) -20 to + 250F (-30 to + 121C) -20 to + 300F (-30 to + 149C) -20 to + 350F (-30 to + 177C) -20 to + 400F (-30 to + 204C)

ANSI Class 125


200 psi (1378 kPa) 190 psi (1310 kPa) 180 psi (1241 kPa) 165 psi (1138 kPa) 150 psi (1034 kPa) 125 psi (862 kPa) 175 psi (1206 kPa) 165 psi (1138 kPa) 155 psi (1069kPa) 150 psi (1034 kPa) 145 psi (1000 kPa) 140 psi (965 kPa) 130 psi (896 kPa) 125 psi (862 kPa)

ANSI Class 250


400 psi (2758 kPa) 385 psi (2655 kPa) 265 psi (2586 kPa) 335 psi (2300 kPa) 300 psi (2068 kPa) 250 psi (1724 kPa) 400 psi (2758 kPa) 370 psi (2551 kPa) 355 psi (2448 kPa) 340 psi (2344 kPa) 325 psi (2241 kPa) 310 psi (2137 kPa) 295 psi (2034 kPa) 280 psi (1931 kPa) 265 psi (1827 kPa) 250 psi (1734 kPa)

Cast Iron Flanged Bodies Class A-sizes 1 to 12 Specification #B16.1 1975 ANSI Amer. Std.; USA; ASME

-20 to + 150F (-30 to + 66C) -20 to + 200F (-30 to + 93C) -20 to + 225F (-30 to + 106C) -20 to + 250F (-30 to + 121C) -20 to + 275F (-30 to + 135C) -20 to + 300F (-30 to + 149C) -20 to + 325F (-30 to + 163C) -20 to + 350F (-30 to + 177C) -20 to + 375F (-30 to + 191C) -20 to + 400F (-30 to + 204C)

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2-Way, Full-Port (no flow optimizer) Ball Valve Part Numbers and Flow Coefficients
Valve Line Size Ball Size Valve Part No. 599-10208 599-10210 599-10214 599-10217 599-10219 599-10221 599-10223 599-10225
Effective (Installed) Cv (Kvs) Supply Line Size in Inches (mm)

in.

(mm)

in.

(mm)

1/2 (15) 3/4 (20) 1 (25)

1/2 (15) 3/4 (20) 1 (25)

1/2 (13) 10.0 (8.62)

3/4 (20) 6.94 (5.93) 25.00 (21.55)

1 (25) 6.19 (5.29) 18.66 (15.99) 63.00 (54.31)

1-1/4 (32)

1-1/2 (38)

2 (51)

2-1/2 (63)

3 (76)

4 (102)

5 (127)

6 (152)

15.35 (13.12) 39.78 33.56 (34.00) (28.69) 100.00 (86.21) 69.19 (5.13) 63.00 (54.31) 51.45 (43.98) 55.34 (47.30) 51.00 (43.59) 76.34 (65.25) 86.12 (73.61)

1-1/4 (30) 1-1/2 (40) 1-1/2 (40) 2 2 (50) (50)

1-1/4 (30) 1-1/4 (30) 1-1/2 (40) 1-1/4 (30) 2 (50)

160.00 93.80 (137.93) (80.17)

100.00 94.30 (86.21) (80.60)

250.00 187.47 140.26 (215.52) (160.23) (119.88)

Key Valve may be oversized. Optimal valve size. Valve may be undersized.

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Valve Sizing Formulas The following definitions apply in the following formulas: Cv Valve flow coefficient, U.S. GPM with P = 1 psi P1 Inlet pressure at maximum flow, psia (abs.) P2 Outlet pressure at maximum flow, psia (abs.) P P1 P2 at maximum flow, psi Q Fluid flow, U.S. GPM Qa Air or gas flow, standard cubic feet per hour (SCFH) at 14.7 psi and 60F W Steam flow, pounds per hour (lb./hr.) S G T K Specific gravity of fluid relative to water @ 60F Specific gravity of gas relative to air at 14.7 psi and 60F Flowing air or gas temperature (F) 1 + (0.0007 x F superheat), for steam

Formulas:

Remarks:

1. For liquids (water, oil, etc.): Specific gravity correction

Cv=Q

is negligible for water below 200F (use S=1.0). Use actual specific gravity S of other liquids at actual flow temperature. Use this for fluids with viscosity correction fact. Use actual specific gravity S for fluids at actual flow temperature.

Cv=KrQ

2. For gases (air, natural gas, propane, etc.):

Cv= Cv=

Qa G(T+460) 1360 P(P2) Qa G(T+460) 660 P1

Use this when P2 is greater than 1/2P1. Use this when P2 is less than or equal to 1/2P1.

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V2 Specific volume, cubic feet per pound, at outlet pressure P2 and absolute temperature (T + 460) Kr Viscosity correction factor for fluids (See Page I-4)

3. For steam (saturated or superheated):

Cv=

2.1

WK P (P1 + P2)

Use this when P2 is greater than 1/2P1. Use this when P2 is less than or equal to 1/2P1. When P2 is less than or equal to 1/2P1, use the value of 1/2P1 in place of P and use P2 corresponding to 1/2P1 when determining specific volume V2.

Cv=

WK 1.82 P1

4. For vapors other than steam:

Cv=

WK 63.4

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Control Valve Sizing


Viscosity Factors The relationship between kinematic and absolute viscosity: Centistoke = Centipoise Specific Gravity
Saybolt* Univ Seconds (S.S.U.) 46,350 37,080 27,810 18,540 13,900 11,590 9,270 6,950 4,635 3,708 2,781 1,854 1,390 1,159 927 695 464 371 278 186 141 119 97.8 77.4 58.9 52.1 45.6 39.1 36.0 32.6 31.6 31.3

Specific Gravity of Water


Temp T(F) 60 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 Abs. Pressure 30 67 135 247 423 Specific Gravity S (W=62.4 lb./ft.3 @ 60F) 1.000 0.993 0.981 0.963 0.942 0.920 0.891 0.860 0.827 1.000 0.999 0.985 0.981 0.971 0.959 0.944 0.927 0.910

Engler Time Seconds 10,800 7,100 5,700 4,250 2,820 2,120 1,760 1,400 1,050 700 555 420 290 225 191 157 127 97 85.5 76.0 67.5 62.5 58.0 55.5

Kinematic Viscosity 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 800 600 400 300 250 200 150 100 80 60 40 30 25 20 15 10 8 6 4 3 2 1.5 1.1

Cv Correction
Factors (Kr) 1.93 1.90 1.82 1.78 1.74 1.67 1.63 1.61 1.57 1.43 1.45 1.42 1.37 1.30 1.25 1.22 120 1.16 1.11 1.08 1.07 1.05 1.03

Sizing Formulas and Tables


Process Formulas
For Heating or Cooling Water: GPM = GPM = Btu/hr. (F water temp. rise or drop x 500)

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(H = change in enthalpy of air expressed in Btu/lb. of air)

CFM x .009 x H F water temperature change

For Heating Water with Steam: lbs. steam/hr. = 0.50 x GPM x (F water temp. rise) For Heating or Cooling Water: GPM1 = GPM2 x (F water2 temp. rise or drop) F water1 temp. drop For Heating Air with Steam Coils: lbs. steam/hr. = 1.08 x (F air temp. rise) x CFM 1000 For Heating Air with Water Coils: GPM = 2.16 x CFM x (F air temp. rise) 1000 x (F water1 temp. drop) For Radiation: lbs. steam/hr. = 0.24 x ft.2 EDR (Low pressure steam) EDR = Equivalent Direct Radiation 1 EDR (steam) = 240 BTU/Hr. (Coil Temp. = 215F) 1 EDR (water) = 200 BTU/Hr. (Coil Temp. = 197F) GPM = ft.2 EDR 50 (Assume 20F water TD)

PURE WATER AT 60F

Chart Note *Redwood time (seconds) approximately same as S.S.U.

Refer to Conversion Factors on page I-23.

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Powermite Globe Close-off Pressures

MZ Series
2-way Valve Size
1/2", Cv 1.6 1/2", Cv 4 3/4 to 1", Cv 10 1/2", Cv 1.6 1/2", Cv 4 3/4 to 1" Cv 10

3-way electronic

Normally Open 60 psi (414 kPa) 35 psi (241 kPa) 30 psi (207 kPa) Normally Closed 70 psi (482 kPa) 40 psi (276 kPa) 30 psi (207 kPa) 25 psi (172 kPa) 15 psi (103 kPa) 10 psi (69 kPa) 70 psi (482 kPa) 40 psi (276 kPa) 30 psi (207 kPa)

Table Note: For 3-way valve close-offs, use this chart to determine upper port (NC) and bottom port (NO).

MT Series
Pneumatic electronic SQS 10-15 psi
20 psi (138 kPa) 15 psi (103 kPa) Normally Closed 1/2", Cv 1.6 1/2", Cv 4 3/4 to 1" Cv 10 1-1/4", Cv 16 1-1/2", Cv 25 40 psi (276 kPa) 28 psi (193 kPa) 18 psi (124 kPa) 95 psi (655 kPa) 50 psi (345 kPa) 40 psi (276 kPa) 95 psi (655 kPa) 50 psi (345 kPa) 40 psi (276 kPa) 95 psi (655 kPa) 50 psi (345 kPa) 40 psi (276 kPa) 21 psi (145 kPa) 13 psi (90 kPa) 95 psi (655 kPa) 50 psi (345 kPa) 40 psi (276 kPa) 21 psi (145 kPa) 160 psi (1103 kPa) 85 psi (586 kPa) 70 psi (482 kPa) 28 psi (193 kPa) 14 psi (96 kPa) 120 psi (868kPa) 65 psi (448 kPa) 55 psi (379 kPa) 20 psi (138 kPa) 10 psi (69 kPa)

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2-way Valve Size


1/2", Cv 1.6

599-01088 3-8 psi


95 psi (655 kPa) 45 psi (310 kPa) 35 psi (241 kPa)

SSC

8-13 psi
Normally Open 45 psi (310 kPa) 25 psi (172 kPa) 10 psi (69 kPa)

Engineering

1/2", Cv 4 3/4 to 1", Cv 10 1-1/4", Cv 16 1-1/2", Cv 25

Pneumatic 3-way Valve Size


1/2", Cv 1.6 1/2", Cv 4 3/4 to 1", Cv 10 1-1/4", Cv 16 1-1/2", Cv 25 1/2", Cv 1.6 1/2", Cv 4 3/4 to 1" Cv 10 1-1/4", Cv 16 1-1/2", Cv 25

electronic SQS 10-15 psi


20 psi (138 kPa) 15 psi (103 kPa) 160 psi (1103 kPa) 85 psi (586 kPa) 70 psi (482 kPa) 10 psi (69 kPa) 7 psi (48 kPa) 95 psi (655 kPa) 50 psi (345 kPa) 40 psi (276 kPa) 10 psi (69 kPa) 7 psi (48 kPa) 95 psi (655 kPa) 55 psi (379 kPa) 40 psi (276 kPa) 10 psi (69 kPa) 95 psi (655 kPa) 50 psi (345 kPa) 40 psi (276 kPa) 10 psi (69 kPa)

599-01088 3-8 psi


95 psi (655 kPa) 45 psi (310 kPa) 35 psi (241 kPa) 40 psi (276 kPa) 28 psi (193 kPa) 18 psi (124 kPa)

SSC

8-13 psi
Normally Open 45 psi (310 kPa) 25 psi (172 kPa) 10 psi (69 kPa) Normally Closed 95 psi (655 kPa) 50 psi (345 kPa) 40 psi (276 kPa)

120 psi (827 kPa) 65 psi (448 kPa) 50 psi (345 kPa)

Table Notes: For 3-way valve close-offs, use this chart to determine upper (NC) and bottom port (NO). Normally open close-off pressures are at 20 psi actuator pressure. Normally closed close-off pressures are at 0 psi actuator pressure.

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Siemens Ball Close-off Pressures

Control Valve Sizing

Valve Part No.


in.

Line Size Inches


(mm)

Close-Off P in psi (Kvs)


Cv (Kvs) Cv (Kvs)

599-10203 599-10204 599-10205 599-10206 599-10207 599-10208* 599-10209 599-10210* 599-10211 599-10212 599-10213 599-10214* 599-10215 599-10216 599-10217* 599-10218 599-10219* 599-10220 599-10221* 599-10222 599-10223* 599-10224 599-10225*

1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 3/4 3/4 1 1 1 1 1-1/4 1-1/4 1-1/4 1-1/2 1-1/2 1-1/2 1-1/2 2 2 2 2

(15) (15) (15) (15) (15) (15) (20) (20) (25) (25) (25) (25) (30) (30) (30) (40) (40) (40) (40) (50) (50) (50) (50)

130 130 130 130 130 130 130 130 3/4 100 100 100 100 100 100 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70

(896) (896) (896) (896) (896) (896) (896) (896) (689) (689) (689) (689) (689) (689) (689) (482) (482) (482) (482) (482) (482) (482) (482)

0.4 0.63 1.6 2.5 4 10 10 25 10 25 16 63 16 40 100 25 63 40 160 40 100 63 250

(0.34) (0.54) (1.4) (2.2) (3.5) (8.6) (8.6) (22) (8.6) (22) (14) (54) (14) (35) (86) (22) (54) (35) (138) (35) (86) (54) (215)

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* Denotes a full-port valve with no flow optimizer insert.

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Flowrite Globe Close-off Pressures

Electronic
Valve Size in. (mm)
1/2 (15) 3/4 (20) 1 (25) 1-1/4 (32) 1-1/2 (40) 2 (50) 2-1/2 (65) 3 (80) 4 (100) 5 (125) 6 (150)

SQX62 APC 271


250 (1724) 173 (1193) 112 (772) 69 (476) 44 (303) 27 (186) 25 (172) 18 (124) 250 (1724) 221 (1524) 130 (896) 75 (517) 46 (317) 28 (193) 25 (172) 18 (124)

SQX82 APC 272, 273


250 (1724) 173 (1193) 112 (772) 69 (476) 44 (303) 27 (186) 25 (172) 18 (124) 250 (1724) 221 (1524) 130 (896) 75 (517) 46 (317) 28 (193) 25 (172) 18 (124)

Rack & Pinion APC 298, 299


250 (1724) 231 (1593) 149 (1028) 92 (634) 59 (407) 36 (248) 25 (172) 18 (124) 250 (1724) 250 (1724) 173 (1193) 100 (690) 61 (421) 37 (255) 25 (172) 18 (124)

SKD APC 274, 275, 276


250 (1724) 250 (1724) 201 (1386) 124 (855) 80 (552) 49 (338) 38 (262) 25 (172)

Normally Open

SKB APC 289-291


250 (1724) 250 (1724) 250 (1724) 250 (1724) 250 (1724) 201 (1386) 153 (518) 101 (342) 250 (1724 ) 250 (1724 ) 250 (1724 ) 250 (1724) 208 (1434) 126 (869) 97 (668) 63 (434)

SKC APC 292-294


65 (448) 42 (289) 29 (199) 39 (268) 25 (172) 17 (117)

El/Mech APC 296


250 (1724) 186 (1282) 121 (834) 75 (517) 48 (331) 30(207) 23 (158) 16 (110) 10 (68)

El/Mech APC 295, 297


250 (1724) 186 (1282) 121 (834) 75 (517) 48(331) 30(207) 48 (330) 32 (220) 21 (144)

250 (1724) 238 (1640) 140 (965) 81 (558) 50 (345) 31 (214) 24 (165) 15 (103) 10 (68)

250 (1724) 238 (1640) 140 (965) 81 (558) 50 (345) 31 (214) 50 (344) 32 (220) 20 (137)

Normally Closed

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1/2 (15) 3/4 (20) 1 (25) 1-1/4 (32) 1-1/2 (40) 2 (50) 2-1/2 (65) 3 (80) 4 (100) 5 (125) 6 (150)

250 (1724) 250 (1724) 203 (1400) 117 (807) 73 (503) 44 (303) 34 (234) 22 (152)

Engineering

Table Notes: All valves within table are in psi (kPa) unless otherwise indicated. For 3-way valve close-offs, use this chart to determine upper port (NC) and bottom port (NO).

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Flowrite Globe Close-off Pressures

Control Valve Sizing

Pneumatic
3 to 8 psi (21 to 55 kPa) 8" Actuator
15 psi (103 kPa) 250 (1724) 231 (1593) 150 (1034) 93 (641) 60 (414) 37 (255) 31 (213) 20 (138) 30 psi (207 kPa) 250 (1724) 250 (1724) 250 (1724) 250 (1724) 198 (1365) 123 (848) 100 (689) 66 (444)

Spring Range 12" Actuator


15 psi (103 kPa) 30 psi (207 kPa) 250 (1724) 250 (1724) 250 (1724) 250 (1724) 250 (1724) 200 (1378) 129 (889) 82 (565) 57 (393)

in.

Valve Size

(mm) (15) (20) (25) (32) (40) (50) (65) (80) (100) (125) (150) (15) (20) (25) (32) (40) (50) (65) (80) (100) (125) (150)

4" Actuator
15 psi (103 kPa) 142 (979) 80 (552) 52 (359) 32 (221) 20 (138) 12 (83)

4" Actuator

10 to 15 psi (69 to 103 kPa) 8" 12" Actuator Actuator


0 psi (0 kPa) 250 (1724) 250 (1724) 250 (1724) 148 (1020) 92 (634) 55 (379) 36 (248) 23 (158) 0 psi (0 kPa) 250 (1724) 250 (1724) 250 (1724) 185 (1275) 114 (786) 74 (610) 46 (317) 29 (199) 20 (137)

0 psi (0 kPa) 236 (1627) 155 (1069) 91 (627) 52 (359) 32 (331) 20 (138)

Normally Open 1/2 3/4 1 1-1/4 1-1/2 2 2-1/2 3 4 5 6 1/2 3/4 1 1-1/4 1-1/2 2 2-1/2 3 4 5 6 250 (1724) 250 (1724) 205 (1413) 130 (896) 95 (655) 63 (434) 40 (275) 26 (179) 18 (124) Normally Closed

I-11

Engineering

Table Notes: All values within table are in psi (kPa) unless otherwise indicated. For 3-way valve close-offs, use this chart to determine upper port (NC) and bottom port (NO).

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Cast Iron Flanges

2-1/2 to 8-inch Cast Iron Flange Dimensions (as defined by ANSI standard B16.1)

ANSI Class 125.

ANSI Class 250.

ANSI Class 125

I-12

Flanges Nominal Pipe Size 2-1/2" 3" 4" 5" 6" 8" Flange Diameter A 7" 7-1/2" 9" 10" 11" 13-1/2" Flange Thickness B 11/16" 3/4" 15/16" 15/16" 1" 1-1/8"

Drilling Diameter of Bolt Circle D 5-1/2" 6" 7-1/2" 8-1/2" 9-1/2" 11-3/4" Diameter of Bolt Holes E 3/4" 3/4" 3/4" 7/8" 7/8" 7/8" 4 4 8 8 8 8

Bolting Number of Bolts Diameter of Bolts 5/8" 5/8" 5/8" 3/4" 3/4" 7/8" Length of Machine Bolts F 2-1/2" 2-1/2" 3" 3" 3-1/4" 3-1/2"

Engineering

ANSI Class 250


Nominal Pipe Size 2-1/2" 3" 4" 5" 6" 8" Flanges Flange Diameter A 7-1/2" 8-1/4" 10" 11" 12-1/2" 15" Flange Thickness B 1" 1-1/8" 1-1/4" 1-3/8" 1-7/16" 1-5/8" Diameter of Raised Face C 4-15/16" 5-11/16" 6-15/16" 8-5/16" 9-11/16" 11-15/16" Drilling Diameter of Bolt Circle D 5-7/8" 6-5/8" 7-7/8" 9-1/4" 10-5/8" 13" Diameter of Bolt Holes E 7/8" 7/8" 7/8" 7/8" 7/8" 1" 8 8 8 8 12 12 3/4" 3/4" 3/4" 3/4" 3/4" 7/8" Bolting Number of Bolts Diameter of Bolts Length of Machine Bolts F 3-1/4" 3-1/5" 3-3/4" 4" 4" 4-1/2"

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Steam Saturation Pressure Temperature Table


Vacuum Inches Hg 29.74 29.67 29.56 29.40 29.18 28.89 28.50 28.00 27.88 25.85 23.81 21.78 19.74 17.70 15.67 13.63 11.60 9.56 7.52 5.49 3.45 1.42 Gauge Pressure psi 0.0 0.3 1.3 2.3 3.3 4.3 5.3 6.3 7.3 8.3 9.3 10.3 11.3 12.3 13.3 14.3 15.3 16.3 17.3 18.3 19.3 20.3 21.3 22.3 23.3 24.3 25.3 26.3 27.3 28.3 29.3 Absolute Pressure psi 0.0886 0.1217 0.1780 0.2562 0.3626 0.505 0.696 0.946 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Absolute Pressure psi 14.70 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 Temperature degrees Fahrenheit 32 40 50 60 70 80 90 100.00 101.83 126.15 141.52 153.01 162.28 170.06 176.85 182.86 188.27 193.22 197.75 201.96 205.87 209.55 Temperature degrees Fahrenheit 212.0 213.0 216.3 219.4 222.4 225.2 228.0 230.6 233.1 235.5 237.8 240.1 242.2 244.4 246.4 248.4 250.3 252.2 254.1 255.8 257.6 259.3 261.0 262.6 264.2 265.8 267.3 268.7 270.2 271.7 273.1 Gauge Pressure psi 30.3 31.3 32.3 33.3 34.3 35.3 36.3 37.3 38.3 39.3 40.3 41.3 42.3 43.3 44.3 45.3 46.3 47.3 48.3 49.3 50.3 51.3 52.3 53.3 54.3 55.3 56.3 57.3 58.3 59.3 60.3 61.3 62.3 63.3 64.3 65.3 66.3 67.3 68.3 69.3 70.3 71.6 72.3 73.3 74.3 75.3 76.3 77.3 78.3 79.3 80.3 81.3 82.3 83.3 84.3 85.3 87.3 89.3 91.3 93.3 95.3 Absolute Pressure psi 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 102 104 106 108 110 Temperature degrees Fahrenheit 274.5 275.8 277.2 278.5 279.8 281.0 282.3 283.5 284.7 285.9 287.1 288.2 289.4 290.5 291.6 292.7 293.8 294.9 295.9 297.0 298.0 299.0 300.0 301.0 302.0 302.9 303.9 304.8 305.8 306.7 307.6 308.5 309.4 310.3 311.2 312.0 312.9 313.8 314.6 315.4 316.3 317.1 317.9 318.7 319.5 320.3 321.1 321.8 322.6 323.4 324.1 324.9 325.6 326.4 327.1 327.8 329.3 330.7 332.0 333.4 334.8 Gauge Pressure psi 97.3 99.3 101.3 103.3 105.3 107.3 109.3 111.3 113.3 115.3 117.3 119.3 121.3 123.3 125.3 127.3 129.3 131.3 133.3 135.3 137.3 139.3 141.3 143.3 145.3 147.3 149.3 151.3 153.3 155.3 157.3 159.3 161.3 163.3 165.3 167.3 169.3 171.3 173.3 175.3 177.3 179.3 181.3 183.3 185.3 190.3 195.3 200.3 205.3 210.3 215.3 220.3 225.3 230.3 235.3 245.3 255.3 265.3 275.3 285.3

Control Valve Sizing


Absolute Pressure psi 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 130 132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 150 152 154 156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172 174 175 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 196 198 200 205 210 215 220 225 230 235 240 245 250 260 270 280 290 300 Temperature degrees Fahrenheit 336.1 337.4 338.7 340.0 341.3 342.5 343.8 345.0 346.2 347.4 348.5 349.7 350.8 352.0 353.1 354.2 355.3 356.3 357.4 358.5 359.5 360.5 361.6 362.6 363.6 364.6 365.6 366.5 367.5 368.5 369.4 370.4 371.3 372.2 373.1 374.0 374.9 375.8 376.7 377.6 378.5 379.3 380.2 381.0 381.9 384.0 386.0 388.0 389.9 391.9 393.8 395.6 397.4 399.3 401.1 404.5 407.9 411.2 414.4 417.5

I-13

Engineering

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Butterfly Valves
Introduction
When selecting a butterfly valve for water applications you must first determine the requirements of the valve assembly. The first question to ask is, Will the valve be used for Isolation or Proportional Control of the fluid? and Does the application require a 2-way or 3-way assembly?

Sizing Example
With this information and assuming the media is water or a similar media (glycol/water mix), a control valve can be properly sized for the application by following these steps: 1. Calculate the required Cv: Using the following formula and the information required above, you could calculate the flow coefficient (Cv) of the control valve. Cv= GPM

2-way and 3-way Isolation Valves


When selecting a valve for isolation purposes, it is seldom necessary to calculate flow requirements beyond the published Cvs (flow coefficients)* of the valve. These valves are typically line size and require the lowest pressure drop available in the full open position. It may be possible to supply a valve smaller than the actual line size and still obtain a low-pressure drop. However, the cost of reducing flanges will typically offset any savings incurred by reducing the valve size. The following charts, Tables 1 & 2, provide flow coefficients for the Keystone Figure 222 and AR2 valve assemblies.

Whereas: GPM = The maximum flow requirement P = The max. pressure drop (5 psi) Example The line size is 6" and the required flow is 600 GPM with a maximum pressure drop of 5 psi. The square root of 5 is equal to 2.236. When divided into 600, the required Cv for this application is: 268.336. 2. Select your valve size: Using the Flow Coefficients (Cvs), select the appropriate valve size. If your required Cv is in between valve sizes, choose the larger size valve. When selecting a 3way assembly, the Cv of the run should be selected. Example The line size is 6" and the calculated required Cv is 268.336. The valve selected is a 4" with a rated Cv of 647. Butterfly valves are high capacity valves and require very little pressure drop to control flow, which allows for reduction from the line size when sizing valves. This pipe reduction affects the flow characteristics and will reduce the effective Cv of the valve. This phenomenon is known as the piping geometry factor (Fp), which brings us to the final step in valves sizing.

I-14

2-way and 3-way Proportional Control Valves

Engineering

Control Valves are the most important element of a fluid handling system and proper selection of these valves is crucial for efficient operation of the process. When sizing butterfly valves for control, it is imperative to have certain requirements of the system. You must have: Maximum flow requirement: This would be equivalent to the design flow and provided or converted to gallons per minute. Maximum pressure drop allowed: The Consulting Engineer usually provides this factor and are typically 3 to 5 pounds max. However, the pressure drop should never exceed one half of the inlet pressure. Without these two factors, selection of a control valve would be simply a guess.

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Butterfly Valves
2-way Flow Coefficients (Cvs)
Degrees Open Size 2" 2-1/2" 3" 4" 5" 6" 8" 10" 12" 14" 16" 18" 20" 10 0 0 0.7 1.7 3 4 6 9 12 75 100 130 150 20 1.3 1.4 1.5 15 32 47 84 133 192 340 440 570 710 30 5 6 8 48 99 145 239 360 509 770 1000 1300 1600 40 14 21 29 107 206 295 450 652 899 1400 1800 2300 2900 50 26 44 67 196 362 510 751 1064 1449 2200 2800 3600 4600 60 40 74 115 318 579 810 1190 1683 2288 3400 4500 5800 7200 70 52 107 175 463 832 1160 1754 2524 3470 5600 7400 9600 12000 80 59 138 234 589 1045 1450 2385 3596 5085 7900 10800 15000 18400 90 60 151 262 647 1141 1580 2892 4593 6682 10000 13000 18000 22000

Control Valve Sizing

I-15

Table Note Flow Coefficients (Cv) = The amount of water in gallons per minute, at 60F that will pass through a given orifice with a one pound pressure drop.

Engineering

3- way Flow Coefficients (Cvs)


Size Run Branch 2" 2-1/2" 3" 4" 5" 6" 8" 10" 12" 14" 16" 18" 20" 0 90 54 114 188 385 642 935 1688 2667 3938 5109 6735 9060 11229 10 80 53 108 178 374 627 909 1573 2430 3531 4825 6462 8724 10799 20 70 49 93 148 348 600 867 1424 2132 3019 4416 5832 7650 9545 30 60 43 74 114 313 563 809 1271 1856 2579 3719 4904 6372 7901 Degrees Open 40 50 38 52 55 150 270 483 796 1142 1629 2433 3213 4433 5619 50 40 40 64 95 295 549 780 1175 1685 2312 3514 4498 5778 7339 60 30 44 78 120 345 630 895 1367 1971 2715 3992 5265 6815 8449 70 20 52 102 165 419 740 1051 1661 2439 3401 5259 6943 9056 11309 80 10 57 126 210 482 829 1180 1994 3046 4368 6342 8567 11695 14423 90 0 58 135 229 511 870 1242 2254 3570 5240 7173 9410 12785 15770

Table Notes Three-way valve assemblies Cvs are corrected from published two-way Cvs to account for line losses generated by the tee, and are calculated values only. The pipe friction losses are a function of fluid velocity through the pipe and the three-way Cvs listed are apparent for full flow through the pipe. Operation at less than full capacity (lower velocity) will increase the actual Cvs

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Butterfly Valves
3. Piping Geometry Factor: Reducing pipe sizes for installation of a smaller than pipe size valves will reduce the effective Cv of the valve. The greater the pipe reduction, the greater loss of Cv. Using the Adjusted Cvs for Piping Geometry Factors chart, verify that the corrected Cv, for the valve size selected, meets or exceeds the required Cv calculated in step 2. Note: 3-way Cvs have already been adjusted.

Adjusted Cvs for Piping Geometry Factors


Size 2" 2-1/2" 3" 4" 5" 6" 2-1/2" 47 3" 38 125 4" 79 189 149 505 408 947 685 1138 916 2256 1822 3812 3123 5747 4811 8900 7600 11830 10140 16560 14580 20460 18260 5" 6" 8" Pipe Size 10" 12" 14" 16" 18" 20" 22" 24"

I-16

8" 10" 12" 14" 16" 18" 20"

Engineering

6-inch 3-way Assembly at Constant Valve Differential Pressure (corrected for tee loss)

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Damper Actuators

Damper Actuator Sizing

Introduction
The size and quantity of actuators required depends on several damper torque factors: Type of damper seals (Standard, low or very low leakage) Quality of damper installation Number of damper sections Approach air velocity Static pressure The following procedures can be used to determine the damper torque, actuator size and quantity of actuators required to operate a damper.

Actuator Size
1. From the actuator literature select the actuator type and size whose actuator torque rating (ATR) in lb-in is most appropriate for the application. 2. The ATR is normally based on 90 rotation of the damper. For torque ratings of other than 90f rotation, use the following formula: ATR @ X rotation = Crank Radius @ X ATR @ 90 rotation x Crank Radius @ 90

)
I-17

Determing Damper Torque


1. From the damper manufacturer get the Damper Torque Rating (DTR) for the damper at the most severe operating conditions. If the damper torque rating is not available, Table 1 can be used for estimating purposes only on an interim basis. However, it is very important to get the damper torque rating from the manufacturer as soon as possible to assure accurate torque calculations. 2. Calculate the damper area (DA) in square feet from the damper dimensions. 3. Calculate the Total Damper Torque (TDT) in lb-in using the following formula: TDT = DTR X DA 4. If the damper torque rating is not available, use a torque wrench on the damper shaft while air is moving through the duct to measure the TDT.

3. If the actuator is rated in pounds of thrust, it can be converted to torque using the following formula: Torque = (*Crank arm length x 0.707) x Thrust *The crank arm length is for 90 shaft rotation at nominal actuator stroke.

Engineering

Quantity of Actuators
1. Calculate the number of actuators required using the following formula: Total Damper Torque Number of actuators = SF x Actuator Torque Rating SF = Safety Factor: When calculating the number of actuators required, a safety factor should be included for unaccountable variables such as slight misalignments, aging of the damper, etc. A suggested factor is 0.8 or 80% of the rated torque. 2. If the number of actuators calculated is too large to be practical, select a more powerful actuator or consider using a positioning relay if it is a pneumatic actuator.

Table 1
Damper Leakage at 1" H2O Static Pressure Drop More than 10 CFM/ft.2 5 to 10 CFM/ft.
2

Damper Type Standard leakage Low leakage Very low leakage

Damper Torque for Approach Air Velocities of 1200 ft./min. or less 2.5 lb.-in./ft.2 5.0 lb.-in./ft.2 7.0 lb.-in./ft.2

Contact your local customer service representative for additional application assistance when specific damper factors are known.

Less than 5 CFM/ft.2

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NEMA Ratings
Type 1 2 Intended Use and Description Indoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against limited amounts of falling dirt Indoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against limited amounts of falling water and dirt. Outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against rain, sleet, wind blown dust and damage from external ice formation. Sections 14, and Gasket TestsSection 43 Outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against rain, sleet, and damage from external ice formation. Outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against rain, sleet, windblown dust and to provide for operation of external mechanisms when ice laden. Indoor or outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against windblown dust and rain, splashing water, hose-directed water and damage from external ice formation. Indoor or outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against corrosion, windblown dust and rain, splashing water, hose-directed water, and damage from Indoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against setting airborne dust, falling dirt, and dripping noncorrosive liquids. Requirements or Qualification Tests, Paragraph or Section Numbers Corrosion Protection5.3 or Rust Resistance Section 38 Corrosion Protection5.3 or Rust Resistance Section 38, DripSection 31, GasketsSection 14 and Gasket TestsSection 43 RainSection 30, Outdoor Dust or Hose Section 32 or 35, IcingSection 34, Protective CoatingSection 15, Gaskets RainSection 30, IcingSection 34, Protective CoatingSection 15, GasketsSection 14, and Gasket TestsSection 43 RainSection 30, Outdoor Dust or Hose Section 32 or 35, IcingSection 34, Protective CoatingSection 15, Gaskets Sections 14, and Gasket TestsSection 43 HosedownSection 35, Protective Coating Section 15, IcingSection 34, Gaskets Section 34, and Gasket TestsSection 43 HosedownSection 35, Protective Coating Section 15, Corrosion ResistanceSection 39, IcingSection 34, GasketsSections 14, and Gasket TestsSection 43 Corrosion ProtectionSection 5.3 or Rust ResistanceSection 38, DripSection 31, Indoor Setting Airborne Dust or Atomized Water Method BSection 32 or 33, GasketsSections 14, and Gasket TestsSection 43 HosedownSection 35, IcingSection 34, SubmersionSection 36, Protective Coating Section 15 GasketsSections 14, and Gasket HosedownSection 35, IcingSection 34, Protective CoatingSection 15, Air Pressure Section 40, GasketsSections 14, and Gasket TestsSection 43 Corrosion ProtectionSection 5.3 or Rust ResistanceSection 38,Protective Coating Airborne Dust or Atomized Water Method B Section 32 or 33, GasketsSections 14, and Gasket TestsSection 43 Corrosion ProtectionSection 5.3 or Rust ResistanceSection 38, OilSection 37, Gaskets Sections 14, and Gasket TestsSection 43

3R

3S

I-18

4X

Engineering

Indoor or outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against hose-directed water, and the entry of water during occasional temporary submersion at a limited depth TestsSection 43 Indoor or outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against hose-directed water, the entry of water during prolonged submersion at a limited depth and damage from external ice formation. Indoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against circulating dust, falling dirt, and dripping noncorrosive liquids. Section 15 DripSection 31, Indoor Setting

6P

12, 12K

13

Indoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against dust, spraying of water, oil, and noncorrosive coolant.

Table Notes Refer to specific sections in the UL Standard UL50 Enclosures for Electrical Equipment. NEMA Ratings can be applied by the manufacturer through a self-certification process or through an independent testing house, such as UL. The term, Type, indicates to an inspector that the certification was performed independently.

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Pneumatic Relays
Multi-purpose, Balance-retard and Analog Relays

Relays

Relay Piping
Application Index
In the list below locate the application and type of required to locate the appropriate connections diagram.
Application Reverse Acting Reverse Acting Minimum Pressure Minimum Pressure with Characterized Output Minimum Pressure with Characterized Output Characterized Minimum Pressure Minimum Pressure with Hesitation Adjustable Minimum Pressure Highest Pressure Signal Selector Direct Acting Direct Acting Direct Acting with Positive Positioning Override Signal Advancing Adjustable Advancing Summing Signal Retard Signal Retard Balancing Hesitation Averaging Ratio 1 in = 2 out Ratio 2 in = 1 out Signal Inverting Signal Inverting Lowest Pressure Signal Selector Lowest Pressure Signal Selector Differential Pressure Limit Control Direct Acting Pressure Limiting in Dual Pressure Systems Limit Control Reverse Acting
Key R TD TR

Type of Relay Multi-purpose Analog Multi-purpose Multi-purpose Analog Analog Balance-retard Analog Analog Multi-purpose Analog Analog Multi-purpose Analog Analog Balance-retard Analog Balance-retard Balance-retard Analog Analog Analog Multi-purpose Analog Multi-purpose Analog Analog Multi-purpose Balance-retard Multi-purpose

Figure 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8 9 10 11 12 13 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 1. Figure 2.

I-19

Engineering

Output signal port Direct acting input signal port Reverse acting input port

S SP T

Air supply port Setting of the adjustable screw Direct acting input port

(Continued on next page)

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Relay Piping
(ContinuedRefer to chart on I-19)

Figure 5.

Figure 6.

Figure 7.

Figure 8.

I-20

Engineering

Figure 9.

Figure 10.

Figure 11.

Figure 12.

Figure 13.

Figure 14.

Figure 15.

Figure 16.

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Relay Piping
(ContinuedRefer to chart on I-19)

Relays

Figure 17.

Figure 18.

Figure 19.

Figure 20.

I-21

Engineering

Figure 21.

Figure 22.

Figure 23.

Figure 24.

Figure 25.

Figure 26.

Figure 27.

Figure 28.

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Retrofit Cross Reference

Siemens

Honeywell

Johnson

Robertshaw

Barber-Colman

Discontinued Siemens (Powers)

I-22

Engineering
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General Conversions

Conversion Factors

To Convert From atmospheres atmospheres atmospheres Btu Btu Btu Btu/hour Btu/hour Btu/hour Btu/minute Btu/minute Btu/minute Btu/minute Btu/minute Btu/hour Btu/ft. /minute
2

Into feet of water (at 4C) inch of mercury (at 0C) pounds/square inch foot-pounds horsepower-hours kilowatt-hours foot-pounds/second horsepower-hours watts foot-pounds/second horsepower kilowatts watts tons of refrigeration tons of refrigeration Watts/square inch Kilojoules/kilogram Laberts Candle meters cubic inches cubic yards gallons (U.S. liquid) pints (U.S. liquid) quarts (U.S. liquid) gallons/second pounds of water/minute liters per second millions gallons/day gallons/minute cubic feet cubic yards gallons cubic feet cubic inches gallons (U.S. liquid) pints (U.S. liquid) quarts (U.S. liquid) cubic feet/second gallons/second seconds revolutions/minute

Multiply By 33.90 29.92 14.70 778.3 3.931 x 10-4 2.928 x 10-4 0.2162 3.929 x 10-4 0.2929 12.96 0.02356 0.01757 17.57 1/200 1/12,000 0.1221 2.33 0.4870 0.0929 1,728.0 0.03704 7.48052 59.84 29.92 0.1247 62.43 0.4719 0.646317 448.831 5.787 x 10
-4

To Convert From feet of water feet of water feet of water feet of water feet/min. feet/min. feet/sec. feet/sec. Foot-candle foot-pounds foot-pounds foot-pounds foot-pounds/min. foot-pounds/min. foot-pounds/min. foot-pounds/min. foot-pounds/sec. foot-pounds/sec. foot-pounds/sec. foot-pounds/sec. gallons gallons gallons gallons gallons (liq. Br. Imp.) gallons (U.S.) gallons of water gallons/min. gallons/min. US gallons/min. US gallons/min. gallons/hour horsepower horsepower horsepower horsepower horsepower horsepower (boiler) horsepower (boiler) horsepower-hours horsepower-hours horsepower-hours

Into atmospheres inch of mercury pounds/square foot pounds/square inch feet/second miles/hour miles/hour miles/min. Lumen/square meter Btu horsepower-hour kilowatt-hour Btu/min. foot-pounds/second horsepower kilowatts Btu/hour Btu/min. horsepower kilowatts cubic feet cubic inches cubic yards liters gallons (U.S. liquid) gallons pounds of water cubic feet/sec. cubic feet/hour liters per second liters per second cubic meters/hour Btu/minute foot-pounds/min. foot-pounds/sec. kilowatts Watts Btu/hour kilowatts Btu foot-pounds kilowatt-hours

Multiply By 0.02950 0.8826 62.43 0.4335 0.01667 0.01136 0.6818 0.01136 10.764 1.286 x 10-3 5.050 x 10-7 3.766 x 10-7 1.286 x 10-3 0.01667 3.030 x 10-5 2.260 x 10-5 4.6263 0.07717 1.818 x 10-3 1.356 x 10-3 0.1337 231.0 4.951 x 10 3.785 1.20095 0.83267 8.3453 2.228 x 10-3 8.0208 0.06309 3.7854 1.434 x 10-3 42.44 33,000.0 550.0 0.7457 745.7 33.479 9.803 2,547.0 1.98 x 106 0.7457

I-23

Engineering

Btu/pound air Candle/in. cubic feet cubic feet cubic feet cubic feet cubic feet cubic feet/min. cubic feet/min. cubic feet/min. cubic feet/sec. cubic feet/sec. cubic inches cubic inches cubic inches cubic yards cubic yards cubic yards cubic yards cubic yards cubic yards/min. cubic yards/min. degrees (angle) degrees/second
2

Candle/ft.2

2.143 x 10-5 4.329 x 10-3 27.0 46,656.0 202.0 1,615.9 807.9 0.45 3.367 3,600.0 0.1667

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Conversion Factors

To Convert inch inches inches of mercury inches of mercury inches of mercury inches of mercury inches of water inches of water in. of water (at 4C) inches of water inches of water kilometers kilometers kilowatts kilowatts kilowatts kilowatts kilowatts Pa yards

Into

Multiply By 248.84 2.778 x 10-2 0.03342 1.133 70.73 0.4912 2.458 x 10-3 0.07355 0.5781 5.204 0.03613 0.6214 1,094.0 56.92 4.426 x 104 737.6 1.341 1,000.0 3,413.0 2.655 x 10 1.341 3.53
6

To Convert OHM (international) ounces pounds pounds of water pounds of water pounds of water pounds/cubic feet pounds/square feet pounds/square feet pounds/square feet pounds/square feet pounds/square inch pounds/square inch pounds/square inch pounds/square inch revolutions square feet Watts Watts Watts Watts Watts Watts Watt-hours Watt-hours Watt-hours Watt-hours

Into OHM (absolute) pounds ounces cubic feet/second cubic inches gallons pounds/cubic inches atmospheres feet of water inches of mercury pounds/square inches atmospheres feet of water inches of mercury pounds/square feet degrees square inches Btu/hour Btu/minute foot-pounds/minute foot-pounds/second horsepower kilowatts Btu foot-pounds horsepower-hour kilowatt-hour

Multiply By 1.0005 0.0625 16.0 0.01602 27.68 0.1198 2.670 x 10-4 5.787 x 10-4 1,728.0 4.725 x 10-4 0.01602 0.01414 6.944 x 10-3 0.06804 2.307 2.036 144.0 360.0 144.0 3.4129 0.05688 44.27 0.7378 1.341 x 10-3 0.001 3,413.0 2,656.0 1.341 x 10-3 0.001

atmospheres feet of water pounds/square feet pounds/square feet atmospheres inches of mercury ounces/square inches pounds/square feet pounds/square inches miles yards Btu/minutes foot-pounds/minutes foot-pounds/second horsepower Watt Btu foot-pounds horsepower-hour pounds of water evaporated from and at 212F US gal/min. foot-candles Spherical candle power Watt Lumen/square meters foot-candles btu/hr. inches feet yards feet/minute feet/second miles/minute feet/second miles/hour

pounds of water/min. cubic feet/second pounds/cubic inches pounds/cubic feet

I-24

Engineering

kilowatts kilowatts-hour kilowatts-hour kilowatts-hour

liters per sec. lumens/square feet Lumen Lumen Lumen/square feet lux lux meter meters meters miles/hour miles/hour miles/hour miles/minute miles/minute

15.85 1.0 0.07958 0.001496 10.76 0.0929 1000 39.372 3.281 1.094 88.0 1.467 0.1667 88.0 60.0

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English to Metric Conversion Guide

Conversion Factors
Into Square Centimeters (cm )
2

Quantity Area Enthalpy/Heat Flow


1

To Convert From Square Inches (in. )


2

Multiply By 6.4516 9.2903 x 10-2 4.1840 0.2731 471.9474


3
3

Square Feet (ft.2) BTU Per Pound-MassF (BTU/lb. x F) Cubic Inches Per Minute (in. /min.)
3

Square Meters (m2) Kilojoule Per KilogramKelvin (kJ/kg.K) Cubic Centimeters Per Second (cm /s) Cubic Centimeters Per Second (cm3/s) Cubic Decimeters Per Second (dm /s)=ls)
3

Cubic Feet Per Minute (ft.3/min.) Cubic Feet Per Minute (ft. /min.)
3

0.4719 0.4719 x 10-3 1.6990 1.695 1.607 1.695 0.0631 4.4482 25.4000 2.5400 30.4800 0.3048 0.4536 0.2929 746.0000 6.8947 98.0665 248.84 3376.85 tC =(tF-32) 1.8 tK=(tF+459.67) 1.8 0.1129 1.3558 0.3048 5.0800 x 10-3 0.4470 16.3871 2,8317 x 10-2 3.7854 x 10-3 2.9573 x 10-5 1.0551 1.3558 3.6000

Cubic Feet Per Minute (ft.3/min.) Cubic Feet Per Minute (ft. /min.)
3

Cubic Meters Per Second (m3/s) Cubic Meters Per Hour (m /h)
3

Standard Cubic Feet Per Minute SCFM 60F, 14.7 psia Standard Cubic Feet Per Minute SCFM 60F, 14.7 psia Gallons Per Minute (U.S. liquid) (GPM) Force Length Pound (Force) (lb.) Inches (in.) Inches (in.) Feet (ft.) Feet (ft.) Mass (Weight)2 Power Pressure (Stress) Pound (lb.) BTU Per Hour (BTU/hr.) Horsepower (hp) Pounds Per Square Inch (psi) Kilograms Per Square Centimeters (Kg/cm2) Inches of Water ( W.G.) @ 60F Inches of Mercury ( H.G.) @ 60F Toruqe (Bending) Degrees Fahrenheit (F) Degrees Fahrenheit (F) Torque Velocity Pound Force-Inch (lb.-in.) Pound Force-Foot (lb.-ft.) Feet Per Second (ft./sec.) Feet Per Minute (ft./min.) Miles Per Hour (MPH) Volume Cubic Inches (in.3) Cubic Feet (ft.3) Gallons U.S. (gal.) Ounce (oz.) Work (Energy) BTU (BTU) Foot Pound (ft.-lb.) Watthour (W-hr.)

Cubic Meters Per Hour (m3/h 0C, 1.01325 bar) Cubic Meters Per Hour (m3/h 15C, 1.01325 bar) Cubic Decimeters Per Seconds (dm3/s)=l/s) Newtons (N) Millimeters (mm) Centimeters (cm) Centimeters (cm) Meters (m) Kilogram (kg) Watts (W) Watts (W) Kilopascals (kPa) Kilopascals (kPa) Pascals (Pa) Pascals (Pa) Degrees Celcius (tC) Kelvin (tK) Newton-Meter (Nm) Newton-Meter (Nm) Meters Per Second (m/s) Meters Per Second (m/s) Meters Per Seond (m/s) Cubic Centimeters (cm3) Cubic Meters (m3) = Stere Cubic Meters (m3) = Stere Cubic Meters (m ) = Stere
3

I-25

Engineering

Kilojoule (kJ) Joule (J) Kilojoule (kJ)

Chart Notes 1. Since standard and normal cubic meters (STD m3 and Nm3) do not have a universally accepted definition, their reference pressure and temperature should always be spelled out. 2. In commercial and everyday use, the term weight almost always means mass. 3. Air consumption for pneumatic control devices should be expressed in milliliters per second (ml/s). Allowable leakage rates for pneumatic control devices should be expressed in milliliter per second (ml/s) or microliters per second (ul/s).

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Pressure Conversion Table


Instructions
The index numbers in bold face refer to the pressure either in psi or kilopascals (kPa) which it is desired to convert into the other scale. If converting from psi to kPa the equivalent pressure will be found in the left column, while if converting from kPa to psi, the equivalent pressure will be found in the column on the right. Example: Index 15 15 psi = 103.421 kPa. 15 kPa = 2.176 psi By manipulation of the decimal point, this table may be extended to values below or above 100.

kPa 0.000 6.895 16.789 20.684 27.579 34.474 41.368 48.263 55.158 62.053 68.948

Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

psi 0.000 0.145 0.290 0.435 0.580 0.725 0.870 1.015 1.160 1.305 1.450 1.595 1.740 1.885 2.030 2.176 2.321 2.466 2.611 2.756 2.901 3.046 3.191 3.336 3.481 3.626

kPa

Index

psi

kPa

Index

psi

*kPa kPa

Index

*PSI psi

179.264 186.058 193.053 199.948 206.843 213.737 220.632 227.527 234.422 241.316 248.211 255.106 262.001 268.895 275.790 282.685 289.580 296.475 303.369 310.264 317.459 324.054 330.948 337.843 344.729

26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

3.771 3.916 4.061 4.206 4.351 4.496 4.641 4.786 4.931 5.076 5.221 5.366 5.511 5.656 5.801 5.946 6.092 6.237 6.382 6.527 6.672 5.617 6.962 7.107 7.252

531.633 358.527 365.422 372.317 379.212 386.106 393.001 399.896 406.791 413.685 420.580 427.475 434.370 441.264 448.159 455.054 431.949 468.843 475.738 482.633 489.528 496.422 503.317 510.212 517.107

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 42 73 74 75

7.397 7.542 7.687 7.832 7.977 8.122 8.267 8.412 8.557 8.702 8.847 8.992 9.137 9.282 9.427 9.572 9.717 9.862 10.008 10.153 10.298 10.443 10.588 10.733 10.878

524.001 530.896 537.791 544.686 551.581 558.475 565.370 572.265 579.160 586.054 592.949 599.844 606.739 613.633 621.528 627.423 634.318 641.212 648.107 655.002 661.897 668.791 675.686 682.581 689.476

76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

11.023 11.168 11.313 11.458 11.603 11.748 11.893 12.038 12.183 12.328 12.473 12.618 12.763 12.908 13.053 13.198 13.343 13.488 13.633 13.778 13.924 14.069 14.214 14.359 14.504

I-26

Engineering

75.842 82.737 89.632 96.527 103.421 110.316 177.211 124.106 131.000 137.895 144.790 151.685 158.579 165.474 172.369

All values rounded to 0.001.

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Temperature Conversion Table


Instructions

Conversion Factors

The numbers in bold face refer to the temperature either in degrees Celsius (C) or Fahrenheit (F) to convert into the other scale. If converting from F to C, the equivalent temperature will be found in the left column. If converting from degrees C to degrees F, the answer will be found in the column to the right.
C -45.6 -40.0 -34.4 -28.9 -23.3 -17.8 -17.2 -16.7 -16.1 -15.6 -15.0 -14.4 -13.9 -13.3 -12.8 -12.2 -11.7 -11.1 -10.6 -10.0 -9.44 -8.89 -8.33 -7.78 -7.22 -6.67 -6.11 -5.56 -5.00 -4.44 -3.89 -3.33 -2.78 -1.67 -1.67 -1.11 -0.56 0 0.56 1.11 1.67 2.22 2.78 3.33 3.89 4.44 5.00 5.56 6.11 6.67 7.22 -50 to 45 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 F -58 -40 -22 -4 14 32 33.8 35.6 37.4 39.2 41.0 42.8 44.6 46.4 48.2 50.0 51.8 53.6 55.4 57.2 59.0 60.8 62.6 64.4 66.2 68.0 69.8 71.6 73.4 75.2 77.0 78.8 80.6 82.4 84.2 86.0 87.8 89.6 91.4 93.2 95.0 96.8 98.6 100.4 102.2 104.0 105.8 107.6 109.4 111.2 113.0 C 7.78 8.33 8.89 9.44 10.0 10.6 11.1 11.7 12.2 12.8 13.3 13.9 14.4 15.0 15.6 16.1 16.7 17.2 17.8 18.3 18.9 19.4 20.0 20.6 21.1 21.7 22.2 23.8 23.3 23.9 21.1 25.0 25.6 26.1 26.7 27.2 27.8 28.3 28.9 29.4 30.0 30.6 31.1 31.7 32.2 32.8 33.3 33.9 34.4 35.0 35.6 46 to 96 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 F 114.8 116.6 118.4 120.2 122.0 123.8 125.6 127.4 129.2 131.0 132.8 134.6 136.4 138.2 140.0 141.8 143.6 145.4 147.2 149.0 150.8 152.6 154.4 156.2 158.0 159.8 161.6 163.4 165.2 167.0 168.8 170.6 172.4 174.2 176.0 177.8 179.6 181.4 183.2 185.0 186.8 188.6 190.4 192.2 194.0 195.8 197.6 199.4 201.2 203.0 204.8 C 36.1 36.7 37.2 37.8 43 49 54 60 66 71 77 82 88 93 99 100 104 110 116 121 127 132 138 143 149 154 160 166 171 177 182 188 193 199 204 210 216 221 227 232 238 243 249 254 260 316 371 427 482 538 97 to 1000 97 98 99 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 212 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 500 600 700 800 900 1000 F 206.6 208.4 210.2 212.0 230 248 266 284 302 320 338 356 374 392 410 413 426 443 464 482 500 518 536 554 572 590 608 626 644 662 680 698 716 734 752 770 788 806 824 842 860 878 896 914 932 1112 1292 1472 1652 1832

I-27

Engineering

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Psychrometric Chart

I-28

Engineering
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Notes

I-29

Engineering
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Notes

I-30

Engineering
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Notes

I-31

Engineering
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Notes

I-32

Engineering

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