During the late 19th and early 20th Century a new form of illustration began to surface and establish

itself as an art form. Through the medium of newspaper and magazine publication comic strips began to capture the imagination and humour of people around the world, appearing weekly in Sunday prints. The comic strip is defined as being “a sequence of drawings, either in colour or black and white, relating a comic incident, an adventure or mystery story, etc., often serialized, typically having dialogue printed in balloons, and usually printed as a horizontal strip in daily newspapers and in an uninterrupted block or longer sequence of such strips in Sunday newspapers and in comic books.” (Random House Dictionary (2011). www.dictionary.com) It can be said that early artistic works such as stained glass windows, the Bayeaux Tapestry, illuminated manuscripts, Egyptian hieroglyphics and primordial cave paintings for example were the predecessors of comics. In a primal nature, these diverse cultural expressions suggest humanity's urge to depict the reality in which we surround ourselves as a means of understanding ourselves better, finding delight and meaning in observing and viewing sequential images and narratives. The inception of the original comic strip however would have been practically impossible if it were not for the invention of the printing press and the technological advances of the Industrial revolution from the 15th to 18th Century. Most of the initial material that was printed early on focused on religious subjects but toward the end of the 17th century and into the 18th century printers began to tackle aspects of social and political life in their themes. In England around 1682 Francis Barlow invented a way of illustrating speech through the use of scrolls or banners in his propaganda sheets, 'The Horrid Hellish Popish Plot'. This new characteristic would give way to speech bubbles as they are known today. Then in 1732 the social vices of the time were satirizedd in William Hogart's 'A Harlot'sProgresss'. Harlot produced oil paintings however his works were too expensive to sell and distribute to the masses, so he converted them to line engraved prints and added text beneath. The English population now had a growing appetite for satirical narratives. Following on from this Magazines and newspapers were established and these publications utilized illustrations as a way of commenting on the social and political topics of the time, such illustrations became known

Britain and Japan. 'Le Docteur Festus' (1840). new comic artists. Ally Sloper's Half Holiday was published. It can be said that the concept of modern comics emerged and evolved through the mind and pen of a Swiss parttime artist and writer Rodolphe Topffer (1799-1846). picture stories and illustrations which are considered the first in the comic genre. Ally Sloper . Vieuxbois' (1839). 'Les Amours de M. Max and Moritz. 'Histoire de M. 'Monsieur Crepin' (1837). Satire and caricature started to become highly popular at this time too. 'Monsieur Pencil' (1840). one such character being conceived in 1867. an artist with a bold animated style who used visual metaphors for movement. It was toward the start of the 19th Century that the comic form began to establish itself. which in turn created a market on both continents for similar work. The character became so popular that in 1884. This comic strip magazine is often regarded as featuring the first ever reoccurring character. Busch was influential on the invention of many comic characters of the time. One such artist was the German Wilhelm Busch. This illustration was translated and reprinted without Topffer's permission in the United States as a newspaper supplement to the humour magazine Brother Jonathan as 'The Adventures of Obadiah Old-buck' (1842). is said to be the most notable of these works as it bridged the gap of interest into this new form between Europe and America. they were up to 8 tabloid pages . At the same time in Europe many new humorous magazines began to emerge. he redefined the conventions of sequential art and his work became a model for quite a few different imitations throughout America. His illustration in particular. 'Les Amours de M. a characteristic that is almost always an element within today's comic media. Busch's most famous creations were the duo of mischievous boys. He created six titles. and with them.as cartoons in the 1840s. From here the British illustrated comic papers began to take form. 'Histoire d'Albert' (1845) and 'Histoire de Cryptogame' (1845). Busch's style was imitated quite profusely. At the start of the 19th Century Rodolphe Topffer was seen as one of the key figures in comic art. The lack of copyright laws at the time allowed artist's work to be pirated and spread across the globe. Topfeer earned his most fame through his “Histoires en Images” series. Vieuxbois' (1839). Jabot' (1833). created in 1865.

Judge and Puck. the comic market in Britain had turned toward more humorous and entertaining themes targeted at children. In June of this year the first issue of a comic book based series . On the opposite side of the Atlantic. Newspapers were now enlisting top cartoonists to illustrate colour cartoon Sunday supplements for them. Two more British comics debuted to the public around this time. P. establishing the form and conventions of the comic strip as we know it today even though they were hardly noticing it. Cartoonists of the time were now actually competing. Notable comic brands such as The Beano and The Dandy emerged in the 1920's and 1930's.in length. (Of Comics and Men:A Cultural History of American Comic Books. The Yellow Kid quickly emerged as the lead character. were facing strong competition from the metropolitan newspapers. were printed in black and white and were sometimes printed on tinted paper. Another famous comic that still thrives today. Outcault's cartoons were not comic strips but through the medium of a colour cartoon they instantly caught the reader's attention. establishing the tradition of the British Comic. It featured The Yellow Kid. Richard Felton Outcault was one such artist who began to combine speech bubbles and images in Hogan's Alley. This cartoon quickly became one of the first Sunday supplements in American newspapers. Publishers now began to exploit this new comic book market and in 1938 the newly evolved comic book format began to take shape. Tin Tin came about around this time too. The market for solely based comic 'books' was now becoming ever more present and publishers began to look beyond original subject manner. comics began to take shape in many different countries and languages. The cartoonist Herge created the Tin Tin strips for a comic supplement originally but it was soon bound in an album and took on the form of a book. Comic strips adopted themes beyond humour with action. Alfred Harmsworth's Comic Cuts and Illustrated Chips.9) The arrival of the 20th century saw booms within the comic industry. a bald headed flap-eared boy who wore a yellow night-shirt and hung around in a ghetto alley. such as Life. mystery and adventure becoming more present. a strip portraying tenement life. weekly cartoon and humour publications in America. addressing the audience in Irish slang written on his shirt. 2010.

Captain America. The 1960's saw a regeneration of super powered hero comics and Marvel Comic's writer Stan Lee and artists Jack Kirby and Steve Ditko gave birth to a whole new array of likely heroes. westerns. The Flash. once the war was over and tensions had settled the use of the super hero began to decrease. were now at the forefront of the comic book scene.was born. Method. . romance. councillors and teachers. New themes focused on true stories and crime. Crime and juvenile delinquency were the main concerns and in 1954 in America this led to a Senate inquiry. Captain Marvel. (Comic Books 101: The History. most notably that of Superman.150) Such was the rise in comic book popularity saw the widespread growing concern among psychologists. This left the publishing of quality comics for the comic book market in the hands of the most successful comic book publishers. horror and everything in between. parents. establishing them as the main blueprint for years to come. In 1943 in America it was estimated that over 25million comic books were being read per month and by 1950 that figure had doubled to 50 million. a Jerry Siegel/Joe Schuster creation. Superman appeared as a cover feature and his popularity quickly ensured his place as the most defining genre of American comic books. Tragic heroes like Spider Man and The Fantastic Four. Wonder Woman and the Human Torch. mainly at the time being Marvel Comics. Media parodies such as Mad also became quite popular. a Bob Kane and Bill Finger creation and following on from this a heady crowd of super powered heroes emerged. condensed adaptations of films and novels. whose powers only brought them problems. Action Comics #1 was published. Other genres took hold and the subject matter of the comic book went through quite an evolution. It featured the initial appearance of many comic book action heroes. A year later The Batman and his boy sidekick Robin came to light. Madness(2009) P. animated cartoon based comics. War time America saw a propaganda feulled release of super hero characters such as Submariner. However. the first of an eleven issue anthology. In opposition to this the publishers formed their own self-regulatory Comic Book Code Authority which imposed strict restrictions on the content and nature of newly published comics which in turn forced many publishers out of business.

The work was for an adult audience but at the same time was highly comedic. Through psychedelic and unique idiosyncratic styles the Comix form exploded exploring themes of sexuality and homosexuality.At the same time in the 1960's the rising counter-culture in America gave way to a whole new wave of Comic books and related material. A true evolution can be seen in the many different forms it takes on today. Forefront Comix artists such as Robert Crumb and Art Spiegelmann illustrated highly personal and humorous works. Underground cartoonists used the word Comix to distinguish their form from that of the children's cartoons and mainstream newspapers publications. . close to that of autobiographies. Home-grown cartoonists began to try their pen at publishing their own comic books and so an underground movement was sparked. politics and contemporary society and highly personal topics also. Following on from the Comix era and the 1970's many new formats and mediums for the comic began to take hold. liberating the comic book from all its constraints during the 60's and 70's. A newly found Anti-establishment culture emerged. Manga comics and Graphic Novels are lose adaptations on the comics original form. so the 'comic' label was still appropriate.

Robert Crumb and Art Spiegelman. In this essay I will speak about the comic book and its history starting with its initial inception. Firstly I will start by introducing the comic book and speaking about the forms it initially took on. I will then speak about the influences and past forms in history which held the same values. The Beano and Tin Tin and the comic industry and its use of comic strips within newspaper and magazine publications. I will speak about the key figures in the inception of comic art. I will then go on to speak about the evolution from comic strip form into book form and the first published comic book series. . .“Discuss the inception of the comic book/comic book medium”.Introduction The essay question that I would like to discuss is essay Question 1. finishing up I will then speak a little about Comix. After this I will discuss early comic strip forms such as The Dandy. its evolution and the many factors and elements which shaped it and how we know it today. such as the comic strip. I utilized the college library. American Comics and comic books within an American context. Finally I will speak about the Comic Book Code Authority and how the 1960's and 1970's shaped comics and their content. such as Rodolphe Topffer and Wilhelm Busch and then go on to discuss the comic in it's British and American contexts. In researching this essay question I used various different sources. a local public library in sourcing a specific book and I also did some research with the internet.

In recent decades the comic also took to a new audience. As an art form. the artists of it's inception utilized everything they could in progressing in their field. adult only Comix caught the attention of many readers and comics as they were once known were never the same since. From the broad cultural interests came diversity in styles and in turn from these diverse styles came a need for a new medium. although one such title was not present in the college library and I had to source it from my local library. From the early forms of human depictions of reality to the invention of the printing press to early works of satire of the 15th and 16th century. I found a lot of titles in the college library. I found that this essay question was quite easy to understand and was also not too difficult to research. a common reoccurring theme was that of the super hero which gave way to niche markets and large fan bases. the inception of the comic seemed almost natural. technological and mass media advances led to a global interest in the comic. It was pretty simple to use the internet also in sourcing more precise and accurate views. With this came a whole new array of comics and themes. The comic book was now established as the best form for publishing these comics. Many different factors have shaped the comic book as a form and the comic as an art form itself. comics have come a long way since their initial inception. .Conclusion In conclusion.

Matthew J.dictionary.com Word Count 2382 . Form and Culture' – Randy Duncan. Madness' – Chris Ryall. Madness' – Chris Ryall.Bibliography • 'The Art of the Comic Book: An Aesthetic History' – Robert C. Scott Tipton References • 'Comic Books 101: The History. Method. Scott Tipton www. Method. Harvey (1996) •'The Power of Comics: History. Smith (2009) • 'Comic Books 101: The History.

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