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What Is Computer

A computer is a device that accepts information (in the form of digitalized data) and manipulates it for some result based on a program or sequence of instructions on how the data is to be processed. Complex computers also include the means for storing data (including the program, which is also a form of data) for some necessary duration. A program may be invariable and built into the computer (and called logic circuitry as it is on microprocessors) or different programs may be provided to the computer (loaded into its storage and then started by an administrator or user). Today's computers have both kinds of programming. Most histories of the modern computer begin with the Analytical Engine envisioned by Charles Babbage following the mathematical ideas of George Boole, the mathematician who first stated the principles of logic inherent in today's digital computer. Babbage's assistant and collaborator, Ada Lovelace, is said to have introduced the ideas of program loops and subroutines and is sometimes considered the first programmer. Apart from mechanical calculators, the first really useable computers began with the vacuum tube, accelerated with the invention of the transistor, which then became embedded in large numbers in integrated circuits, ultimately making possible the relatively low-cost personal computer. Modern computers inherently follow the ideas of the stored program laid out by John von Neumann in 1945. Essentially, the program is read by the computer one instruction at a time, an operation is performed, and the computer then reads in the next instruction, and so on. Recently, computers and programs have been devised that allow multiple programs (and computers) to work on the same problem at the same time in parallel. With the advent of the Internet and higher bandwidth data transmission, programs and data that are part of the same overall project can be distributed over a network and embody the Sun Microsystems slogan: "The network is the computer."

Peripheral Devices

In computer hardware, a peripheral device is any device attached to a computer in order to expand its functionality. Some of the more common peripheral devices are printers, scanners, disk drives, tape drives, microphones, speakers, and cameras. ... n computing, any item connected to a computer's central processing unit (CPU). Typical peripherals include keyboard, mouse, monitor, and printer. Users who enjoy playing games might add a joystick or a trackball; others might connect a modem, scanner, or integrated services digital network (ISDN) terminal to their machines.

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Input devices
An input device is any peripheral (piece of computer hardware equipment) used to provide data and control signals to an information processing system (such as a computer). Input and output devices make up the hardware interface between a computer as a scanner or 6DOF controller.

Classification
Many input devices can be classified according to:
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The modality of input (e.g. mechanical motion, audio, visual, etc.) Whether the input is discrete (e.g. keypresses) or continuous (e.g. a mouse's position, though digitized into a discrete quantity, is fast enough to be considered continuous)

The number of degrees of freedom involved (e.g. two-dimensional traditional mice, or threedimensional navigators designed for CAD applications) Pointing devices, which are input devices used to specify a position in space, can further be classified according to:

Whether the input is direct or indirect. With direct input, the input space coincides with the display space, i.e. pointing is done in the space where visual feedback or the cursor appears. Touchscreens and light pens involve direct input. Examples involving indirect input include the mouse and trackball.

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Early devices
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Unit record equipment Punched card

Keyboard
A keyboard is a human interface device which is represented as a layout of buttons. Each button, or key, can be used to either input a linguistic character to a computer, or to call upon a particular function of the computer. Traditional keyboards use spring-based buttons, though newer variations employ virtual keys, or even projected keyboards. Examples of types of keyboards include:
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Computer keyboard Keyer Chorded keyboard LPFK

A computer mouse

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can be combined on a single physical device that could be thought of as a composite device. in order to capture produced sound. Movements of the pointing device are echoed on the screen by movements of the cursor. as they both track movement and provide buttons for clicking. intuitive way to navigate a computer's GUI. joysticks. such as 3D mice. function by reporting their angle of deflection. but composite devices are generally considered to have more than two different forms of input.Pointing device is any human interface device that allows a user to input spatial data to a computer. Composite devices Wii Remote with attached strap Input devices. this is usually achieved by detecting movement across A a physical surface. audio devices are used to either capture or create sound. Imaging and Video input devices Video input devices are used to digitize images or video from the outside world into the computer. In the case of mice and touch screens. or pointing sticks. Technically mice are composite devices. Analog devices. The information can be stored in a multitude of formats depending on the user's requirement. Many gaming devices have controllers like this. an audio output device can be used as an input device. In some cases. • • • • • • Webcam Image scanner Fingerprint scanner Barcode reader 3D scanner Laser rangefinder Audio Input Devices In the fashion of video devices. creating a simple. • • Microphone MIDI keyboard or other digital musical instrument - -4- . such as buttons and joysticks.

Ink Jet Printers Characters are formed as a result of electrically charged or heated ink being sprayed in fine jets onto the paper. Individual nozzles in the printing head produce high resolution (up to 400 dots per inch or 400 dpi) dot matrix characters. A cathode ray monitor A plasma monitor Visual Display Units display images and text which are made up of small blocks of coloured light called pixels.Output Devices An output device is any piece of computer hardware equipment used to communicate the results of data processing carried out by an information processing system (such as a computer) to the outside world. The resolution of the screen improves as the number of pixels is increased. Most monitors have a 4:3 width to height ratio. VDUs Visual Display Units (VDU) or monitors are used to visually interface with the computer and are similar in appearance to a television. Colour cartridge showing inkjet nozzles An inkjet printer - -5- .

The size of the plot is limited only by the size of the plotter's bed. such as assembling cars. cheap colour printing. A black cartridge is also used for crisp monochrome output. Top view of a flat bed plotter - -6- . Flatbed Plotter This is a plotter where the paper is fixed on a flat surface and pens are moved to draw the image. This method of printing can generate up to 200 cps and allows for good quality. This plotter can use several different colour pens to draw with. They are seldom manufactured to resemble the human form. Robots Robots are able to perform a variety of tasks as a result of executing instructions contained within a program.Inkjet printers use colour cartridges which combine magenta. yellow and cyan inks to create colour tones. A robot arm Robots in a business sense mean automated machines designed to perform mundane operations which require accuracy. We are still a long way from the science fiction robots and androids portrayed by the film industry.

magnetic. and printers. {printer}. and peripheral devices such as the keyboard. hard disks. For example. One can define computer hardware as the electronic. electromechanical. and Photoshop are the software parts of the computer. and speakers can also be included in the list of hardware parts. Like software. and other devices. which is -7- . or carries. The software application provides a command to the processor. however. RAM. and storage. There is another way to define computer hardware. material parts of a computer or other system.What Is Hardware The physical. change the modular configurations that most computers come with by adding new adapters or cards that extend the computer's capabilities. The term arose as a way to distinguish the "box" and the electronic circuitry and components of a computer from the program you put in it to make it do things. {tape drives}. Hardware implies permanence and invariability. hardware is a collective term. Hardware is the physical components of the computer like microprocessor. stores. keyboard. power supply units. let us see what happens when you click the print button of the web browsing software. {disk drives}. A good example for an easy understanding of hardwaresoftware definition is music CDs. touchable. Hardware includes not only the computer proper but also the cables. The term is used to distinguish these fixed parts of a system from the more changeable {software} or {data} components which it executes. You can. Hardware is sometimes used as a term collectively describing the physical aspects of telephony and telecommunications network infrastructure. Software or programming can easily be varied. while the songs and music in the CD are the software parts. The program came to be known as the software. The peripheral devices such as monitor. You can put an entirely new program in the hardware and make it create an entirely new experience for the user. output. mouse. telecommunications. The actual compact disk is the hardware. printer. and electric devices that carry out the computing functions. hydraulic. mouse. C++. audio speakers. {display}) with some electromechanical parts (keyboard. The programs that run on the computers like Windows. biological) computers have also been conceived of and built. {memory}. Hardware devices are the executors of the commands provided by software applications. It is quite well known that the working of the computer is pulled by hardware and software. though completely non-electronic (mechanical. loudspeakers) for input. Hardware is the physical aspect of computers. Computer hardware typically consists chiefly of electronic devices ({CPU}. and motherboard. connectors.

When you buy a computer. when you buy a computer it will probably have an operating system (like Windows XP) already installed on it. For example. America Online. just to name a few. Arcsoft PhotoStudio. when you go to the video store and rent or buy a tape or DVD. Corel Draw. there are thousands of programs that you can buy to run on your computer. PrintShop Photo. In that sense. - -8- . For example. and a few others. in the form of a movie. ULead PhotoImpact. If the printer is ready. including Adobe Photoshop. the software will get a positive response from the processor. what you're really getting is the software that's stored on that tape or disk. You usually get some programs. For example. Then the software application provides instruction to the printer via the processor to print the web page. popular brands include Microsoft Internet Explorer. Your VCR or DVD player are hardware devices that are capable of reading the software from a tape or disk and projecting it onto your TV screen. What is Software? Software is the general term for information that's recorded onto some kind of medium. Your computer is a hardware device that reads software too. Adobe Illustrator. you don't automatically get every program produced by every software company in the world. hardware parts are the foot soldiers and software applications are the commanders in the digital operation that takes place within a computer. Most of the software on your computer comes in the form of programs. how to behave. all graphics programs are designed to help you work with pictures. But there are many brands of graphics programs out there. Netscape Navigator. and Macromedia Freehand. Processor in turn checks for an attached printer. Jasc Paint Shop Pro. As to Web browsers. and thousands of movies you can buy to play on your VCR or DVD player. Just as there are thousands of albums you can buy on CD for your stereo.the central part of all computer hardware. A program consists of "instructions" that tell the computer what to do. MSN Explorer.

they tell you what programs you're getting with it. The All Programs option on the Start menu provides access to all your installed programs. So if you were to go back to the original ad from which you bought your computer. If your computer is brand new. When you first click on (or just point to) the All -9- . because every program that's currently installed on your computer is listed in your All Programs menu (assuming you're using Windows XP). you'd probably find the names of programs you already have listed there. Figure 1 When you first open the Start menu. then the programs listed there will just be some examples. That little list of program icons and names on the left side of the menu doesn't represent all the programs that are currently installed on your computer. Though there's no need to do that. Usually when you buy a computer. Not by a long shot. the left column lists programs you've used the most recently (Figure 1).What Programs Do I Have? Perhaps you're wondering what programs are installed on your computer.

- . For example.Programs option. and perhaps some more program groups. Figure 2 It's easy to tell the difference between a program and a program group. The submenu that opens contains more program groups. or point to. Figure 3 shows the result of clicking on the Accessories program group in the All Programs menu.10 - . and specific programs you can run. the All Programs menu that appears (Figure 2) will show icons and name of program groups. When you click on. The program groups all have the same icon. as well as some programs. and all have a right-pointing triangle () at their right side. a program group. The submenu will contain programs within that group. icons and names of programs within that group appear on a submenu.

11 - . in Figure 4 the photograph in the background is the Windows desktop.Running Programs When on the icon program. each in its own separate program window. Each program will appear in its own program window on the Windows desktop. Which program you click for a program means the appears on the screen. the opens. For example. Floating about on top of that desktop are four different program. Figure 4 - . so you can use it.

unprotected. Windows 95/98: multi-tasking. multi-user. disk drive or network connection) and application programs (such as a word processor. with built-in support for networking and graphics.x: single-tasking. Windows NT: multi-tasking. protected.Operating System An Operating System is a software program or set of programs that mediate access between physical devices (such as a keyboard. with built-in support for networking but not graphics. monitor. multi-processing. Some characteristics of an Operating System are: • • • • • • Whether multiple programs can run on it simultaneously: multi-tasking Whether it can take advantage of multiple processors: multi-processing Whether multiple users can run programs on it simultaneously: multi-user Whether it can reliably prevent application programs from directly accessing hardware devices: protected Whether it has built-in support for graphics. protected. single-user. World-Wide Web browser or electronic mail client). multi-processing. single-processing. with built-in support for networking and graphics. Some popular Operating System's are: • • • • Unix: multi-tasking. single-user. mouse. . single-user.12 - . with built-in support for graphics but not networking. unprotected. Windows 3. Whether it has built-in support for networks. multi-processing.

with built-in support for networking but not graphics. For PCs. Every general-purpose computer must have an operating system to run other programs. called application programs. - . For large systems. single-user.13 - . the DOS operating system contains commands such as COPY and RENAME for copying files and changing the names of files. unprotected with no built-in support for graphics or networking.• • DOS: single-tasking. For example. multi-processing. The operating system is also responsible for security. but others are available. As a user. Graphical user interfaces allow you to enter commands by pointing and clicking at objects that appear on the screen. OS/2. keeping track of files and directories on the disk. such as DOS and UNIX. It is like a traffic cop -it makes sure that different programs and users running at the same time do not interfere with each other. unprotected. therefore. can run.  real time: Responds to input instantly. Some operating systems permit hundreds or even thousands of concurrent users. Operating systems perform basic tasks. Operating systems provide a software platform on top of which other programs. single-user. determines to a great extent the applications you can run. the operating system has even greater responsibilities and powers. respectively. single-processing. sending output to the display screen. are not real-time. ensuring that unauthorized users do not access the system. Your choice of operating system. such as Linux. The commands are accepted and executed by a part of the operating system called the command processor or command line interpreter.  multitasking : Allows more than one program to run concurrently. and controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers. and Windows.  multithreading : Allows different parts of a single program to run concurrently. General-purpose operating systems. the most popular operating systems are DOS. such as recognizing input from the keyboard. Operating systems can be classified as follows:  multi-user : Allows two or more users to run programs at the same time. The most important program that runs on a computer. NetWare: multi-tasking. The application programs must be written to run on top of a particular operating system. you normally interact with the operating system through a set of commands.  multiprocessing : Supports running a program on more than one CPU.

K .000) bytes Mb.a unit of information equal to 1024 tebibytes or 2^50 bytes .000.a unit of information equal to 1024 bytes kilobyte.a unit of information equal to 1000 bytes kb. G .a group of sectors on a magnetic disk that can be reserved for the use of a particular file partition .000) bytes Gbit.the minimum track length that can be assigned to store information.a word is a string of bits stored in computer memory. MB.000) bits tebibit.(computer science) the part of a hard disk that is dedicated to a particular operating system or application and accessed as a single unit word . PiB.000.a unit of information equal to 1000 kilobits or 10^6 (1.(computer science) a sector or group of sectors that function as the smallest data unit permitted. megabit .a unit of information equal to 1000 bits kibibit.824) bits tebibyte.000. kilobyte.000. gigabyte. "since blocks are often defined as a single sector. Gb . kB. Mbit.511. gibibyte.a unit of information equal to 1024 gibibytes or 2^40 (1.741. terabit.099.000.741. kilobit . unless otherwise specified a sector of data consists of 512 bytes block .a unit of information equal to 1024 mebibytes or 2^30 (1.000.a unit of information equal to 1024 bits mebibyte.a unit of information equal to 1024 kibibits or 2^20 (1.14 - .a unit of information equal to 1000 gigabytes or 10^12 (1. M . Tb .a small byte byte . Mibit .000. GB.a unit of information equal to 1024 mebibits or 2^30 (1. unit of measurement .a unit of information equal to 1000 gigabits or 10^12 (1. the terms `block' and `sector' are sometimes used interchangeably" allocation unit . kbit.627.a unit of information equal to 1000 kilobytes or 10^6 (1. K . Gibit . gigabit. G . "change per unit volume" nibble.576) bytes megabyte. Tibit .a unit of information equal to 1000 megabits or 10^9 (1.any division of quantity accepted as a standard of measurement or exchange. MB. GB.576) bits GiB. PB .000. TiB.000. kibibyte.a unit of information equal to 1024 gibibits or 2^40 (1.627.000.000. kibit .000) bits mebibit. terabyte.048.073.a sequence of 8 bits (enough to represent one character of alphanumeric data) processed as a single unit of information sector . kB.073.a unit of information equal to 1024 kibibytes or 2^20 (1.824) bytes gigabyte.Memory Units Computer memory unit .511. TB .099.776) bytes terabyte. TB .048.a unit for measuring computer memory unit. megabyte.776) bits pebibyte. "large computers use words up to 64 bits long" KiB.000. nybble .000) bits gibibit. MiB. "the dollar is the United States unit of currency".a unit of information equal to 1000 megabytes or 10^9 (1.000) bytes Tbit. "a unit of wheat is a bushel". M . petabyte.

ROM contents don't get erased when the computer is turned off. If there is a diskette in drive A but it's not a system disk. the basic input-output system (BIOS) on your system's readonly memory (ROM) chip is "woken up" and takes charge. As soon as the computer is turned on.15 - . When you turn on your computer. but boot is just short for bootstrap. To boot (as a verb. it starts executing an application in its ROM.a unit of information equal to 1000 terabytes or 10^15 bytes Pbit. When a computer is powered on. petabit. If there is no diskette in drive A (which is the most common case). also "to boot up") a computer is to load an operating system into the computer's main memory or random access memory (RAM). How Booting Works Note: This procedure may differ slightly for Mac. and Delete keys at the same time). Nowadays the whole process from power on until being ready to use is called the Boot Process. Sometimes you'll see an instruction to "reboot" the operating system. BIOS will send you a message that drive A doesn't contain a system disk. OS/2. Then the BIOS's boot program looks for the special boot programs that will actually load the operating system onto the hard disk. chances are that the operating system has been set up to boot (load into RAM) automatically in this sequence: Steps Involved In Booting Process 1. Pb . BIOS looks for the system files at a specific place on your hard drive. it looks on drive A (unless you've set it up some other way or there is no diskette drive) at a specific place where operating system boot files are located. - . you see the initial Windows or Mac desktop screen). unlike random access memory (RAM). First. Once the operating system is loaded (and. BIOS first does a power-on self test (POST) to make sure all the computer's components are operational. PB . Alt.a unit of information equal to 1000 terabits or 10^15 bits Booting Process Booting a computer (out of the window) is something we're all tempted to do from time to time. 3. for example. on a PC.petabyte. This is called a Boot Program and usually you'll see lots of system messages before the Operating System starts loading. BIOS is already loaded because it's built-in to the ROM chip and. 2. it's ready for users to run applications. UNIX. This simply means to reload the operating system (the most familiar way to do this on PCs is pressing the Ctrl. or other operating systems.

the boot record is no longer needed and can be overlaid by other data.SYS) that knows how to work with the BIOS. It then loads the boot record into a specific place (hexadecimal address 7C00) in RAM. it's called WIN. IO. One of the first operating system files that is loaded is a system configuration file (for DOS. In DOS. The initial file (for example.SYS). 7. SYSINIT) loads a system file (for example. The boot record contains a program that BIOS now branches to. BIOS next looks at the first sector (a 512-byte area) and copies information from it into specific locations in RAM.INI.SYS. Another special file that is loaded is one that tells which specific applications or commands the user wants to have included or performed as part of the boot process. specific device driver. The initial file (for example. MSDOS. 12. for DOS systems. After all operating system files have been loaded.SYS) into RAM from the diskette or hard disk.) 9. The boot record loads the initial system file (for example. the operating system is given control of the computer and performs requested initial commands and then waits for the first interactive user input. (At this point. IO. it's called CONFIG. In Windows. Information in the configuration file tells the loading program which specific operating system files need to be loaded (for example.4.16 - . 8. 10. 6.BAT. - . This information is known as the boot record or Master Boot Record. this file is named AUTOEXEC. 5. giving the boot record control of the computer. Having identified the drive where boot files are located. 11. which includes a program called SYSINIT) then loads the rest of the operating system into RAM.

It is far easier to administer than Unix. - .COM. but less powerful. Both command types are executed from the MS-DOS prompt. in a general sense. The external commands are files that do reside on disk and have an extension of . or .EXE. It has a command-line interface and analogs to many common Unix commands.17 - . singleuser operating system that does not support multi-tasking. Screen of MS.COM. The internal commands reside in COMMAND. it describes the operating system Microsoft developed in 1981 for IBM's line of personal computers.DOS Window The following is a list of MS-DOS version 5. it's also not particularly userfriendly. . However. these commands do not reside on disk.0 internal and external commands. Compared to graphical interfaces such as Windows and Mac OS X. DOS shares similarities with a Unix shell. DOS is a 16-bit. DOS refers to just about any operating system. Though syntactically distinct.DOS (Disk Operating System) An acronym for Disk Operating System. which loads into memory when the computer system is started. More commonly.BAT.

18 - . We have already used the internal command DIR and the external command FORMAT.internal and external. They are loaded into memory whenever you switch on your computer. Because these commands are files. Internal commands Internal commands are built into the operating system as part of a file called COMMAND. The synonyms of some command names which you can use in place of their official names are shown in brackets. There are two types of MSDOS commands . MS-DOS performs it immediately. When you type an internal command. they are not built into the operating system ( these are the commands that alter between versions of MS-DOS) .MS-DOS Commands A command is the name of a special program that makes your computer carry out a task. Many of the MS-DOS internal commands are listed below.COM (or. The MS-DOS external commands may contain SOME or all of the following: APPEND ASSIGN ATTRIB BACKUP CHKDSK COMMAND EDLIN EXE2BIN FASTOPEN FC FDISK FIND KEYB KEYBXX LABEL MODE MORE NLSFUNC RESTORE SETVER SHARE SORT SUBST SYS - . BREAK CALL CHCP CHDIR (CD) CLS COPY CTTY DATE DEL (ERASE) DIR ECHO EXIT FOR GOTO IF MKDIR(MD) PATH PAUSE PROMPT REM REN(RENAME) RMDIR (RD) SHIFT TIME TYPE VER VERIFY VOL SET External Commands Files with extension COM or EXE are external commands.EXE) . we will dig a bit deeper into several other commands. on a 2000 or XP machine CMD. For this section.

system..] APPEND [/X:on|off][/path:on|off] [/E] Displays or sets the search path for data files.] /sta Redirects disk drive requests to a different drive. APPEND [d:]path[. ATTRIB (External) ATTRIB [d:][path]filename [/S] ATTRIB [+R|-R] [+A|-A] [+S|-S] [+H|-H] [d:][path]filename [/S] Sets or displays the read-only. DOS will search the specified path(s) if the file is not found in the current path.COMP DELTREE DISKCOMP FORMAT GRAFTABL JOIN PRINT RECOVER REPLACE TREE XCOPY DISKCOPY Everyday MS-DOS Activities This section provides a brief introduction to the MS-DOS activities that you are likely to perform most often. ASSIGN (External) ASSIGN x=y [.. and hidden attributes of a file or .19 - . Activity Formatting a diskette Copying a diskette Copying a file Deleting a file Listing the files in a directory Making a new directory Changing from one directory to another Setting a command search path Command needed FORMAT DISKCOPY COPY DEL (ERASE) DIR MD CD PATH Examples of DOS Commands APPEND (External) APPEND ... archive.][d:]path[.

.SYS file to set (or display) whether or not DOS should check for a Ctrl + Break key combination. CLS (Clear Screen) (Internal) CLS Clears (erases) the screen.directory.20 - .] Displays working (current) directory and/or changes to a different directory.][d:][path][filename] .. COPY (Internal) COPY [/Y|-Y] [/A][/B] [d:][path]filename [/A][/B] [d:][path][filename] [/V] or COPY [/Y|-Y][/A][/B] [d:][path]filename+[d:][path]filename[.. CHKDSK (External) CHKDSK [d:][path][filename] [/F][/V] Checks a disk and provides a file and memory status report. CHDIR (Internal) CHDIR (CD) [d:]path CHDIR (CD)[. BREAK (Internal) BREAK =on|off Used from the DOS prompt or in a batch file or in the CONFIG.

[/V] Copies and appends files.] Deletes (erases) a directory including all files and subdirectories that are in it. DIR (Internal) DIR [d:][path][filename] [/A:(attributes)] [/O:(order)] [/B][/C][/CH][/L][/S][/P][/W] Displays directory of files and directories stored on disk. DELTREE (External) DELTREE [/Y] [d:]path [d:]path[. DEL (ERASE) (Internal) DEL (ERASE) [d:][path]filename [/P] Deletes (erases) files from disk. DISKCOPY (External) DISKCOPY [d:] [d:][/1][/V][/M] Makes an exact copy of a diskette. DATE (Internal) DATE mm-dd-yy Displays and/or sets the system date.21 - .. ..

EXIT (Internal) EXIT Exits a secondary command processor... FIND (External) FIND [/V][/C][/I][/N] �string� [d:][path]filename[. EDIT (External) EDIT [d:][path]filename [/B][/G][/H][/NOHI] Starts the MS-DOS editor.22 - . FDISK (External) FDISK [/status] Prepares a fixed disk to accept DOS files for storage. a text editor used to create and edit ASCII text files.] Finds and reports the location of a specific string of text characters in one or more files.DOSKEY (External) DOSKEY [reinstall] [/bufsize=size][/macros][/history][/insert|/overstrike] [macroname=[text]] Loads the Doskey program into memory which can be used to recall DOS commands so that you can edit them. .

23 - .] . MKDIR (MD) (Internal) MKDIR (MD) [d:]path Creates a new subdirectory.][d:]path[.. PATH [d:]path[. Can also be used to rename directories.]] destination Moves one or more files to the location you specify..[d:][path]filename[. MOVE (Internal) MOVE [/Y|/-Y] [d:][path]filename[.FORMAT (External) FORMAT d:[/1][/4][/8][/F:(size)] [/N:(sectors)] [/T:(tracks)][/B|/S][/C][/V:(label)] [/Q][/U][/V] Formats a disk to accept DOS files. PATH (Internal) PATH.. HELP (External) HELP [command] [/B][/G][/H][/NOHI] Displays information about a DOS command..

Sets or displays directories that will be searched for programs not in the current directory.SYS file to insert remarks (that will not be acted on). SCANDISK (External) SCANDISK [d: [d: . . RENAME (REN) (Internal) RENAME (REN) [d:][path]filename [d:][path]filename Changes the filename under which a file is stored.] Queues and prints data files. . REM (Internal) REM [comment] Used in batch files and in the CONFIG. PRINT (External) PRINT [/B:(buffersize)] [/D:(device)] [/M:(maxtick)] [/Q:(value] [/S:(timeslice)][/U: (busytick)] [/C][/P][/T] [d:][path][filename] [.]|/all][/checkonly|/autofix[/nosave]|/custom][/surface][/mono] [/nosummay] SCANDISK volume-name[/checkonly|/autofix[/nosave]|/custom][/mono] [/nosummary] SCANDISK /fragment [d:][path]filename SCANDISK /undo [undo-d:][/mono] Starts the Microsoft ScanDisk program which is a disk analysis and repair tool used to check a drive for errors and correct any problems that it finds.. .24 - ..

- .cc][A|P] Displays current time setting of system clock and provides a way for you to reset the time.25 - . TREE (External) TREE [d:][path] [/A][/F] Displays directory paths and (optionally) files in each subdirectory. VER (Internal) VER Displays the DOS version number.SORT (External) SORT [/R][/+n] < (filename) SORT [/R][/+n] > (filename2) Sorts input and sends it to the screen or to a file. VOL (Internal) VOL [d:] Displays a disk's volume label. TIME (Internal) TIME hh:mm[:ss][.

They have not traditionally been a major part of the Mac user interface. often beginning with the escape character (ASCII 27). however. or they may have the more common "Fnumber" designations. Function key schemes on various computer keyboards • Apple Macintosh: Early Mac OS supported system extensions known generally as FKEYS which could be installed in the System file and could be accessed with a Command-Shift-(number) keystroke combination (Command-Shift-3 was the screen capture function included with the system. early Macintosh keyboards did not support numbered function keys in the normal sense. however. Current Mac keyboards include specialized . and was installed as an FKEY). the function keys may generate a fixed.Function key A function key is a key on a computer or terminal keyboard which can be programmed so as to cause an operating system command interpreter or application program to perform certain actions. which is translated into some other configurable sequence by the keyboard device driver or interpreted directly by the application program. outside the normal ASCII range. Function keys may have (abbreviations of) default actions printed on/besides them. or the characters they generate may be configured by sending special character sequences to the terminal. single byte code.26 - . accessible on power-on. On a standard computer keyboard. keyboards with function keys have been available. Since the introduction of the Apple Extended Keyboard with the Macintosh II. On some keyboards/computers. function keys may have default actions. and are generally only used on cross-platform programs. Function keys on a terminal may either generate short fixed sequences of characters. however. though they did not become standard until the mid-1990s.

• MCK-142 Pro: two sets of F1–F12 function keys. .. • HP 2640 series terminals: first known instance—late 1970s—of screen labeled function keys (where keys are placed in proximity or mapped to labels on CRT or LCD screen). F1|F2. and Exposé. IBM 3270: early models had 12 function keys in a 3×4 matrix at the right of the keyboard. The most recent Mac keyboards include 19 function keys. IBM 5250: early models frequently had a "cmd" modifier key. Many modern PC keyboards also include specialized keys for multimedia and operating system functions. these would be the top row of buttons under the screen). particularly those from Texas Instruments. generate "AID codes. • Apple Macintosh notebooks: Function keys were not standard on Apple notebook hardware until the introduction of the PowerBook 5300 and the PowerBook 190. but on high-end calculators the functions change with the mode. but keys F1-F4 and F7-F12 by default control features such as volume. Also on HP 2640 terminals. 24 additional user programmable PF keys located above QWERTY keys. The break. F9|F10. and copy keys could function as F10-F15. • BBC Micro: red/orange keys F0 to F9 in a horizontal row above the number keys on top of the computer/keyboard.27 - . ascending downwards). usually include a row of function keys with various preassigned functions (on a standard hand-held calculator. arrow. later 24 in two rows on top of the keyboard. with pre-defined actions for some." informing the host computer that user-entered data is ready to be read. function keys are 1½ times the width of ordinary keys. These keys. along with "Enter. Mac laptops have keys F1 through F12. Like the Commodore 128." and several others. in two adjacent vertical rows on the left hand side. On low-end models such as the TI-83-series. F3|F4. Coleco Adam: six dark brown keys in a horizontal row above the number keys. HP 9830: f1–f8 on two rows of four in upper left with paper template label. these function mainly as an extension of the main keyboard. 1 above QWERTY and one to the left. • • • Graphing calculators. For the most part.. including controlling sound volume and screen brightness. sometimes acting as menu navigation keys as well. later models have either 12 function keys in groups of 4 (with shifted keys acting as F13-F24). • • • • IBM PC AT and PS/2 keyboard: F1 to F12 usually in three 4-key groups across the top of the keyboard (the original IBM PC and PC XT keyboards had function keys F1 through F10. - . media control. by which the numeric row keys emulate function keys. Hewlett-Packard and Casio. Also." "Help. labeled with Roman numerals I-VI. An early use of function keys (1972).. Commodore Amiga: ten keys arranged in a row of two 5-key groups across the top of the keyboard (flush with the ordinary keyboard top row). this also had a Help key.function keys for controlling sound volume. or 24 in two rows.

AltBackspace Menu Application specific Window Edit Edit Edit or Selected (to Trash) Edit Application specific File or Selected Help File or Selected Edit File Selected Edit Edit File Edit Application specific Edit On Item [Help] ShiftHelp. ShiftF1 Table B-2 “Navigation and Activation Key Bindings” shows navigation and activation key bindings and their function. CtrlInsert Cut. ShiftInsert CtrlP CtrlI ShiftUndo. CtrlX. Adjusts a selection to the beginning of the . CtrlC.28 - . CtrlSpace CtrlShiftHome Function Activates an action or dialog choice. Ctrl/ CtrlU Undo. Delete Ctrl\ CtrlI CtrlN CtrlO CtrlV.Shortcut Keys Shortcut Keys for Menu Choices Menu Choice Key Bindings Bold Close Copy Cut Delete Deselect All Italics New Open Paste Print Properties Redo Repeat Save Select All Underline Undo CtrlB AltF4 Copy. CtrlY. ShiftDelete Backspace (in text). CtrlY. AltShiftBackspace ShiftUndo. AltShiftBackspace CtrlS CtrlA. Table B-2 Navigation and Activation Key Bindings Operation Activate Choice Adjust Begin Data Key Bindings Select. CtrlZ.

Navigates to the beginning of a line. Adjusts a selection a page to the right. Deletes the previous character. CtrlShiftSpace Shift↑ CtrlShift← CtrlHome Home Cancel. Adjusts a selection a page to the left. . Navigates to the end of the data.Operation Adjust Begin Line Adjust Down Adjust End Data Adjust End Line Adjust Left Adjust Page Down Adjust Page Left Adjust Page Right Adjust Page Up Adjust Paragraph Down Adjust Paragraph Up Adjust Right Adjust Selection Adjust Up Adjust Word Left Begin Data Begin Line Cancel Default Activate Delete End Line Delete Next Character Delete Previous Character Drop Down End Data End Line Help Navigate Down Navigate Left Key Bindings ShiftHome Shift↓ CtrlShiftEnd ShiftEnd Shift← ShiftPageDown ShiftPageLeft. F10 . Navigates to the beginning of the data. Navigates to the menu bar. Adjusts a selection up a line. Navigates to the end of a line. ShiftSpace (not in text). Adjusts a selection to the beginning of a line. CtrlShiftPageUp ShiftPageRight. activates a menu control. Deletes the next character. Adjusts a selection by a word to the left. Adjusts a selection to the cursor position. Adjusts a selection to the end of the data. Ctrl← Function data.29 - Adjust Word Right CtrlShift→ Navigate Menu Bar ShiftMenu. Adjusts a selection by a word to the right. Adjusts a selection down a line. Adjusts a selection down a page. Performs a default action. Enter (not in text). CtrlEnter CtrlDelete Delete Backspace Alt↓ CtrlEnd End Help. Adjusts a selection to the right. CtrlShiftPageDown ShiftPageUp CtrlShift↓ CtrlShift↑ Shift→ ShiftSelect. Adjusts a selection up a page. F1 ↓. Navigates down between elements. Adjusts a selection down a paragraph. Escape KeypadEnter. Obtains help on the cursored item. Adjusts a selection to the left. Adjusts a selection up a paragraph. Deletes to the end of the line (optional). Adjusts a selection to the end of a line. Drops down a drop-down list or combination box. Navigates left between elements. Removes a menu or dialog or cancels a direct manipulation operation. Ctrl↓ ←.

AltCtrlC. Navigates up a paragraph. Navigates to the next tab group. AltEscape Enter PageDown PageLeft.Operation Navigate Right Navigate Up Next Family Window Next Tab Group Next Window New Line Page Down Page Left Page Right Page Up Paragraph Down Paragraph Up Pop-Up Menu Key Bindings →. Ctrl→ ↑. CtrlPageUp PageRight. Navigates to the previous window in a window family. Inserts a space in text. In editing controls. AltF10 Menu Previous Family Window Previous Tab Group Previous Window Primary Move Primary Copy Select Show Tasks Space Stop Tab Toggle Choice Toggle Add Mode AltShiftF6 ShiftTab (where possible). depending on mode). Ctrl↑ AltF6 Tab (where possible). Navigates down a paragraph. CtrlShiftTab AltShiftTab. Navigates up by a page. . Navigates to the next window family or root icon. Space. Navigates to the previous tab group. AltCtrlInsert Select. Escape Tab Select. Makes a selection (selects or toggles. Space (not in text). Navigates downwards by a page. AltSpace. CtrlSpace CtrlEsc Space. CtrlPageDown PageUp Ctrl↓ Ctrl↑ Menu. Raises and normalizes the icon window. switches between normal mode and add mode. Ends a task and removes an in-progress message window. Inserts a tab or navigates to the next tab stop. CtrlSpace ShiftF8 Toggle Insert Mode Insert Window Menu AltSelect. Invokes a pop-up menu for the workspace. Toggles a value choice. AltCtrlX. Copies a primary selection to the cursor position. Navigates to the next window in the window family. AltShiftDelete AltCopy. Pulls down the window menu. ShiftEscape - .30 - Pop-Up Workspace AltMenu. Navigates a page to the right. toggles between replace mode and insert mode (optional). ShiftSpace Cancel. Moves a primary selection to the cursor position. In text. Navigates to the previous window family or root icon. CtrlTab AltTab. Invokes a pop-up menu. AltShiftEscape AltCut. ShiftF10 Function Navigates right between elements. Navigates a page to the left. Navigates up between elements. Inserts a new line in text.

let go of the mouse button • To copy and paste using the drag-and-drop method: • • • • Highlight the piece of text you wish to copy Hold down the [CTRL] key on your keyboard. The process is the same for copying and pasting the text with one crucial addition: the use of the [CTRL] key. To cut and paste using the drag-and-drop method: • • • Highlight the piece of text you wish to move Place your pointer directly on the selected piece of text Begin clicking-and-dragging your mouse.Operation Word Left Word Right Key Bindings Ctrl← Ctrl→ Function Navigates a word to the left. Place your pointer directly on the selected piece of text Begin clicking-and-dragging your mouse.31 - . let go of the mouse button ONLY AFTER you see the copied text in its new location. The insertion point will move as you drag the mouse. Watch for an insertion point. When the INSERTION POINT (not the mouse arrow) is in the spot where you want the text to be located. IT MUST STAY DOWN during the entire process. Watch for an insertion point. This means a user points to a selected piece of text and drags it to the location where they want it to go. The insertion point will move as you drag the mouse When the INSERTION POINT (not the mouse arrow) is in the spot where you want the text to be located. Drag-and-Drop Method A faster way to cut and paste is to use the drag-and-drop method. Navigates a word to the right. let go of the [CTRL] key • • WARNING: if you let go of the [CTRL] key before letting go of the mouse. it will turn the drag-and-drop into a move instead of a copy - .

Create A Folder And Rename It Steps: Open Explorer-> Right Click-> Select New Option ->Select Folder Figure –1 shows all steps A new Folder will be created then select rename option by the right click and then type a meaning full name to that folder and then hit enter key. Figure-2 shows all steps.32 - . Figure-1 - .

33 - . This is the screen where we kept those application software that we used too much. - . Here we kept the shortcuts of application software. Figure –1 shows the desktop screen.Figure-2 Desktop Desktop is the first screen after loading the operating system into the main memory.

Mail. and presentation tools. 2008. the first version of Office contained Microsoft Word.0.0. containing Word 6. and Access. Microsoft also positions Office as a development platform for line-of-business software under the Office Business Applications (OBA) brand. launched on January 30. but for the Apple Macintosh. Microsoft Office 4. PowerPoint 4. Additionally. collectively referred to as an office suite. and save documents created under the new Office 2007 formats. not for Windows. a "Pro" version of Office included Microsoft Access and Schedule Plus. Office 2007/Office 2008 features a new user interface and a new OOXMLbased primary file format (docx. OLE data integration and Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications scripting language. pptx). Office was introduced by Microsoft in 1989 on Mac OS.0 at this point despite the fact the previous version number was 2.[1] with a version for Windows in 1990.34 - . History The very first version of Microsoft Office was released in 1989. for the Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X operating systems. Microsoft Excel. servers and services. xlsx.0 was released in 1994. released January 15. Microsoft has made available a free add-on known as the "Microsoft Office Compatibility Pack" that lets Office 2000-2003 editions open. Word was called Word 6.0 was the first version of Office to be released for the Microsoft Windows operating system family. Over the years.0. History of Microsoft Office for Microsoft Windows • Microsoft Office 3. 2007. Microsoft Office is one of the most widely-used and commercially successful software applications of all time. spreadsheet.[2] Initially a marketing term for a bundled set of applications. and Microsoft PowerPoint. Microsoft Office has long been the dominant player when it comes to software that offers wordprocessing.Figure -1 Microsoft Office Microsoft Office is a set of interrelated desktop applications.[3] and Office 2008 for Mac OS X. • - . edit. The current versions are Office 2007 for Windows. Office applications have grown substantially closer with shared features such as a common spell checker. The purpose was to use common version numbering with the Mac OS version. Excel 5.0.

The key benefit of Outlook 2003 is the improved junk mail filter. Safe Mode enables Office to detect and either repair or bypass the source of the problem. replacing the menus and toolbars that have been the cornerstone of Office 1 since or its inception higher. It also introduced a new security feature. Office 2007 contains a number of new features. Office XP introduced the Safe Mode feature. including Kerberos authentication. 2000 is also the last Office release devoid of Microsoft Product Activation. • Microsoft Office 2007 was released in 2007. and are not programmable. a paradigm in which menus and toolbars were made more similar in capability and visual design.35 - . a major milestone release which included hundreds of new features and improvements. released in conjunction with Windows XP. with a or tabbed toolbar. such as helping with typing errors. . Windows known as the Ribbon. The EU announced it is going to investigate Microsoft Office OpenDocument Format support. it also includes Bookshelf. though. introduced "Command Bars". the most notable of which is the entirely new graphical user interface called the Fluent User Interface (initially referred to as the Ribbon UI). where little-used options were hidden from the user. • Microsoft Office 97. Smart tag is a technology delivered with Office XP. 2003 is the last Office version to support Windows 2000. Office 2000 is the last version to support Windows 95. Office 2000 automatically trusts macros (written in VBA6) that were digitally signed from authors who have been previously designated as trusted. Two new applications made their debut in Office 2003: Microsoft InfoPath and OneNote. Office 97 also featured natural language systems and sophisticated grammar checking. and Schedule+. and Cached Exchange Mode. The standard version consists of Word. Outlook 2003 provides improved functionality in many areas. PowerPoint. It is the first version to use Windows XP style icons. Excel.• Microsoft Office 95 was done as a fully 32-bit version to match Windows 95. These smart tags are supplied with the products. If the professional version is purchased in CD-ROM form. • Microsoft Office 2003 was released in 2003. Office 2007 requires Windows XP with Service Pack 2 or 3. The professional edition contains all of the items in the standard version plus Access. 2008 Microsoft announced that Office 2007 Service Pack 2 will add native support for the OpenDocument Format. built around digital signatures. Office 95 Standard and Office 95 Professional. such as a corrupted registry or a misbehaving add-in. Some smart tags operate based on user activity. RPC over HTTP. For developers. On May 21. is a major upgrade with numerous enhancements and changes. Office 95 was available in two versions. there is the ability to create custom smart tags Office). It allows applications such as Outlook to boot when it might otherwise fail. • Microsoft Office 2000 introduced adaptive menus. • Microsoft Office XP. to diminish the threat of macro viruses. Windows Server 2003 with Service Pack Vista.

Beginning with the 2003 version. the Apple Macintosh (1984). Microsoft began calling it Microsoft Office Word instead of merely Microsoft Word. OS/2 and Microsoft Windows(1989). however. it is also sold as a standalone product and included in Microsoft Works Suite. SCO UNIX. The latest releases are Word 2007 for Windows and Word 2008 for Mac OS X.Microsoft Word Microsoft Word is Microsoft's flagship word processing software. History Word 1981 to 1989 - .[1][2][3] Versions were later written for several other platforms including IBM PCs running DOS (1983). It is a component of the Microsoft Office system. It was first released in 1983 under the name Multi-Tool Word for Xenix systems.36 - . the branding was revised to emphasize Word's identity as a component within the Office suite.

[7] Word 1990 to 1995 The first version of Word for Windows was released in 1989 at a price of 500 US dollars[citation needed].37 - . however. Simonyi hired Richard Brodie. With the release of Windows 3. making it the first program to be distributed on-disk with a magazine. although this was not a true WYSIWYG system because available displays did not have the resolution to show actual typefaces. or WYSIWYG.[6][1] However. 1983.0 the following year. Microsoft released the program October 25. it was not well received. such as WordStar and WordPerfect. away from PARC that summer. used simple text only display with markup codes on the screen or sometimes. at the most. and its performance was poorer with the versions of Windows available when it was first released). sales began to pick up (Word for Windows 1. Free demonstration copies of the application were bundled with the November 1983 issue of PC World. who had worked with him on Bravo. It was version 2. and was the first application with such features as the ability to display bold and italics text on an IBM PC. Other DOS word processors. Although MS-DOS was a character-based system. and sales lagged behind those of rival products such as WordPerfect.Concepts and ideas of Word were brought from Bravo.[citation needed] Word featured a concept of "What You See Is What You Get".[1] Word made full use of the mouse. The failure of WordPerfect to produce a Windows version proved a fatal mistake.0. Microsoft Word was the first word processor for the IBM PC that showed actual line breaks and typeface markups such as bold and italics directly on the screen while editing. for the IBM PC. Bravo's creator Charles Simonyi left PARC to work for Microsoft in 1981. alternative colors. Having renamed it Microsoft Word.0 of Word. 1983. [4][5] On February 1.0 was designed for use with Windows 3. development on what was originally named Multi-Tool Word began. that firmly established Microsoft Word as the market leader. the original GUI word processor developed at Xerox PARC. . which was so unusual at the time that Microsoft offered a bundled Word-with-Mouse package.

it released the entire version of DOS port of Microsoft Word 5. Document compatibility reached parity with Office 97 and Word on the Mac became a viable business alternative to its Windows counterpart. Word X. released in 2001. Unfortunately. Released in October 2000.5 instead of getting people to pay for the update. was a very popular word processor due to its elegance.Word 5. and feature set. Word 2002/XP .1 for dissatisfied Word 6. version 6. It was the first version of Word based on a common codebase between the Windows and Mac versions. The Macintosh version. released in 1992. However. Word on the Mac in this and later releases also became vulnerable to future Macro viruses that could compromise Word (and Excel) documents. leading to the only situation where viruses could be cross-platform. whose frequent unsolicited appearance in Word 97 had annoyed many users. was changed to be less intrusive. This was the first copy of Word featuring the Office Assistant. relative ease of use. Word 2001 was also sold individually apart from the Office suite. if not all.[8] Word 97 Word 95 & 97 icon Word 97 had the same general operating performance as later versions such as Word 2000. was widely derided. it is still available for download from Microsoft's web site. Microsoft offered a free "downgrade" to Word 5.1 for the Macintosh.0 purchasers. Another noticeable change was that the Office Assistant. was the first version to run natively on (and require) Mac OS X. released in 1994. When Microsoft became aware of the Year 2000 problem. many accused it of being slow. clumsy and memory intensive. Word 2000 For most users. In response to user requests." which was an animated helper used in all Office programs. A Windows version of this was only bundled with the Korean/Japanese Microsoft Office 97 Powered By Word 98 and could not be purchased separately. and was bundled with the Macintosh Office 98 package. unlike the Windows version.38 - . "Clippy. one of the most obvious changes introduced with Word 2000 (and the rest of the Office 2000 suite) was a clipboard that could hold multiple objects at once. of the feature set of Word 2000. As of October 2008. Word 2001/Word X Word 2001 was bundled with the Macintosh Office for that platform. Word 98 Word 98 for the Macintosh gained many features of Word 97. acquiring most.0 for the Macintosh. This was a take over from the earlier launched concept in Microsoft Bob.

Word 2002 was bundled with Office XP and was released in 2001. It had many of the same features as Word 2000 but had a major new feature called the 'Task Panes', which gave quicker information and control to a lot of features that were only available in modal dialog boxes before. One of the key advertising strategies for the software was the removal of the Office Assistant in favor of a new help system, although it was simply disabled by default.

Word 2003

Office Word 2003 For the 2003 version, the Office programs, including Word, were rebranded to emphasize the unity of the Office suite, so that Microsoft Word officially became Microsoft Office Word.

Word 2004
A new Macintosh version of Office was released in May 2004. Substantial cleanup of the various applications (Word, Excel, PowerPoint) and feature parity with Office 2003 (for Microsoft Windows) created a very usable release. Microsoft released patches through the years to eliminate most known Macro vulnerabilities from this version. While Apple released Pages and the open source community created NeoOffice, Word remains the most widely used word processor on the Macintosh.

Word 2007
The release includes numerous changes, including a new XML-based file format, a redesigned interface, an integrated equation editor and bibliographic management. Additionally, an XML data bag was introduced, accessible via the object model and file format, called Custom XML - this can be used in conjunction with a new feature called Content Controls implement structured documents. It also has contextual tabs, which are functionality specific only to the object with focus, and many other features like Live Preview (which enables you to view the document without making any permanent changes), Mini Toolbar, Super-tooltips, Quick Access toolbar, SmartArt, etc. - 39 -

Word 2007 uses a new file format called docx. Word 2000-2003 users on Windows systems can install a free add-on called the "Microsoft Office Compatibility Pack" to be able to open, edit, and save the new Word 2007 files.[10] Alternatively, Word 2007 can save to the old doc format of Word 97-2003.

Word 2008
Word 2008 is the most recent version of Microsoft Word for the Mac, released on January 15, 2008. It includes some new features from Word 2007, such as a ribbon-like feature that can be used to select page layouts and insert custom diagrams and images. Word 2008 also features native support for the new Office Open XML format, although the old .doc format can be set as a default.

File formats
File extension
Microsoft Word's native file formats are denoted either by a .doc or .docx file extension. Although the ".doc" extension has been used in many different versions of Word, it actually encompasses four distinct file formats: 1. 2. 3. 4. Word for DOS Word for Windows 1 and 2; Word 4 and 5 for Mac Word 6 and Word 95; Word 6 for Mac Word 97, 2000, 2002, 2003 and 2007; Word 98, 2001, X, and 2004 for Mac

The newer ".docx" extension signifies Office Open XML and is used by Word 2007 for Windows and Word 2008 for the Macintosh. Microsoft does not guarantee the correct display of the document on different workstations, even if the two workstations use the same version of Microsoft Word.[14] This means it is possible the document the recipient sees might not be exactly the same as the document the sender sees.

Features and flaws
Word has a built-in spell checker, thesaurus, dictionary and Office Assistant.

Normal.dot
Normal.dot is the master template from which all Word documents are created. It is one of the most important files in Microsoft Word. It determines the margin defaults as well as the layout of the text and font defaults. Although normal.dot is already set with certain defaults, the user can change normal.dot to new defaults. This will change other documents that were created using the template and saved with the option to automatically update the formatting styles.

Macros
Like other Microsoft Office documents, Word files can include advanced macros and even embedded programs. The language was originally WordBasic, but changed to Visual Basic for Applications as of Word 97. This extensive functionality can also be used to run and propagate viruses in documents. The tendency for people to exchange Word documents via email, USB key, and floppy makes this an especially attractive - 40 -

vector. A prominent example is the Melissa worm, but countless others have existed in the wild. Some antivirus software can detect and clean common macro viruses, and firewalls may prevent worms from transmitting themselves to other systems. These Macro viruses are the only known cross-platform threats between Windows and Macintosh computers and they were the only infection vectors to affect any Mac OS X system up until the advent of video codec trojans in 2007. Microsoft's released patches for Word X and Word 2004 effectively eliminated the Macro problem on the Mac by 2006. Word's macro security setting, which regulates when macros may execute, can be adjusted by the user, but in the most recent versions of Word, is set to HIGH by default, generally reducing the risk from macro-based viruses, which have become uncommon.

Layout issues
As of Word 2007 for Windows (and Word 2004 for Macintosh), the program has been unable to handle ligatures defined in TrueType fonts: those ligature glyphs with Unicode codepoints may be inserted manually, but are not recognized by Word for what they are, breaking spellchecking, while custom ligatures present in the font are not accessible at all. Other layout deficiencies of Word include the inability to set crop marks or thin spaces. Various third-party workaround utilities have been developed.[18] Similarly, combining diacritics are handled poorly: Word 2003 has "improved support", but many diacritics are still misplaced, even if a precomposed glyph is present in the font. Additionally, as of Word 2002, Word does automatic font substitution when it finds a character in a document that does not exist in the font specified. It is impossible to deactivate this, making it very difficult to spot when a glyph used is missing from the font in use. In Word 2004 for Macintosh, complex scripts support was inferior even to Word 97, and Word does not support Apple Advanced Typography features like ligatures or glyph variants. [19]

Bullets and numbering
Users report that Word's bulleting and numbering system is highly problematic. Particularly troublesome is Word's system for restarting numbering.[20] However, the Bullets and Numbering system has been significantly overhauled for Office 2007, which is intended to reduce the severity of these problems. For example, Office 2007 cannot align tabs for multi-leveled numbered lists, although this is a basic functionality in OpenOffice.org. Often, items in a list will be inexplicably separated from their list number by one to three tabs, rendering outlines unreadable. These problems cannot be resolved even by expert users. Even basic dragging and dropping words is usually impossible. Bullet and numbering problems in Word include: bullet characters are often changed and altered, indentation is changed within the same list, and bullet point or number sequence can belong to an entirely different nests within the same sequence.

Creating tables
Users can also create tables in MS Word. Depending on the version, Word can perform simple calculations. Formulae are supported as well.

AutoSummarize
AutoSummarize highlights passages or phrases that it considers valuable. The amount of text to be retained can be specified by the user as a percentage of the current amount of text. According to Ron Fein of the Word 97 team, Auto Summarize cuts wordy copy to the bone by counting words and ranking sentences. First, AutoSummarize identifies the most common words in the document (barring "a" and "the" and the like) and assigns a "score" to each word--the more frequently a word is used, - 41 -

It can only be done using equation editor. "It's like the ratio of wheat to chaff." explains Fein. Versions Microsoft Word 5. AutoCorrect items added by the user cease working when text from sources outside the document is pasted in.5 for DOS - . Then. the higher the rank of the sentence. Sub and superscript issues In any of the Microsoft word package.the higher the score.42 - . it is impossible to display superscript exactly lying above subscript. [21] AutoCorrect In Microsoft Office 2003. it "averages" each sentence by adding the scores of its words and dividing the sum by the number of words in the sentence--the higher the average.

solidified Microsoft as a valid competitor and showed its future of developing GUI software. The current version for the Mac OS X platform is Microsoft Excel 2008. which became very popular on CP/M systems. This accomplishment. and is bundled as part of Microsoft Office. Microsoft pushed its advantage with regular new releases. . graphing tools. It is overwhelmingly the dominant spreadsheet application available for these platforms and has been so since version 5 in 1993 [citation needed]. except for Excel 2008 for Mac OS X. pivot tables and. The current version for the Windows platform is Excel 12. History Microsoft originally marketed a spreadsheet program called Multiplan in 1982. but on MS-DOS systems it lost popularity to Lotus 1-2-3. every two years or so.05 to line up with the Mac and bundled with a run-time Windows environment) in November 1987. Lotus was slow to bring 1-2-3 to Windows and by 1988 Excel had started to outsell 1-2-3 and helped Microsoft achieve the position of leading PC software developer.43 - . dethroning the king of the software world.Microsoft Excel In computing. Microsoft Excel (full name Microsoft Office Excel) consists of a proprietary spreadsheet-application written and distributed by Microsoft for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X. Redmond released the first version of Excel for the Mac in 1985. a macro programming language called VBA (Visual Basic for Applications). and the first Windows version (numbered 2. also called Microsoft Office Excel 2007. It features calculation.

[citation needed] Microsoft also encouraged the use of the letters XL as shorthand for the program. VisiCalc: the program displays cells are organized in rows and columns. in later versions. It also introduced intelligent cell recomputation. When Microsoft first bundled Microsoft Word and Microsoft PowerPoint into Microsoft Office in 1993.[citation needed] the killer app on the PC at the time. over time this practice has been ignored. where only cells dependent on the cell being modified are updated (previous spreadsheet programs recomputed everything all the time or waited for a specific user command). Excel has extensive graphing capabilities. However. Since 1993. The language supports use (but not creation) of ActiveX (COM) DLL's. Microsoft belatedly took steps to prevent the misuse by adding the ability to disable macros completely. Excel offers many user interface tweaks over the earliest electronic spreadsheets. however. Excel was the first spreadsheet that allowed the user to define the appearance of spreadsheets (fonts. while this is no longer common. . character attributes and cell appearance). VBA is a powerful addition to the application which. This was a serious problem in the corporate world until antivirus products began to detect these viruses. to enable macros when opening a workbook or to trust all macros signed using a trusted certificate. Excel became the target of a trademark lawsuit by another company already selling a software package named "Excel" in the finance industry. and enables users to perform mail merge. the program's icon on Windows still consists of a stylized combination of the two letters. includes a fully featured integrated development environment (IDE). Excel has included Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). and the file extension of the default Excel format is .xls. The automation functionality provided by VBA has caused Excel to become a target for macro viruses. a programming language based on Visual Basic which adds the ability to automate tasks in Excel and to provide user defined functions (UDF) for use in worksheets. and Microsoft cleared up the issue permanently when they purchased the trademark of the other program.Early in 1993.44 - . later versions add support for class modules allowing the use of basic object-oriented programming techniques. VBA allows the creation of forms and in-worksheet controls to communicate with the user. with relative or absolute references to other cells. Macro recording can produce VBA code replicating user actions. and each cell contains data or a formula. the essence remains the same as in the original spreadsheet. thus allowing simple automation of regular tasks. As the result of the dispute Microsoft was required to refer to the program as "Microsoft Excel" in all of its formal press releases and legal documents. those applications had their GUIs redesigned for consistency with Excel.

an XML-based format that followed after a previous XML-based format called "XML Spreadsheet" ("XMLSS").0 of Excel contain various Easter eggs. although since version 10 Microsoft has taken measures to eliminate such undocumented features from their products.[5] The latter format is not able to encode VBA macros.[1] Versions 'Excel 97' (8.0 to 9.45 - . Standard file-extensions .0) being run on Windows XP Office Excel 2003 Excel 2003 icon File formats Excel Spreadsheet Filename extension Internet media type .xls application/vnd.[4] Excel 2007 uses Office Open XML as its primary file format.excel.microsoft. first introduced in Excel 2002.Versions 5.xls[3] Developed by Type of format Microsoft Spreadsheet Microsoft Excel up until 2007 version used a proprietary binary file format called Binary Interchange File Format (BIFF) as its primary format.ms-excel Uniform Type Identifier com.

xlk dynamic link library: . Microsoft PowerPoint - .xlv workbook: .[7] With this code any function or subroutine that can be set up in a Basic.xll macro: .46 - .or Fortran-like language can be run using input taken from the spreadsheet proper. Relative/absolute in this context means the relative to the start cell location or an absolute cell reference for example cell A1 (column A. There is a relative/absolute toggle button that allows the user to switch between the two whilst recording a macro. and the results of the code are instantaneously written to the spreadsheet or displayed on charts (graphs). enabling easy interaction with the code and what it calculates.xlw Export and migration of spreadsheets Programmers have produced APIs to open Excel spreadsheets in a variety of applications and environments other than Microsoft Excel.xlm template: . .xls add-in macro sheet: . Programming Excel offers users the useful ability to write code using the programming language Visual Basic for Applications (VBA).xld archive: . These include opening excel documents on the web using either ActiveX controls. or plugins like the Adobe Flash Player.xlc dialog: .xlb chart: . The Apache POI opensource project provides Java libraries for reading and writing excel spreadsheet files.xla toolbar: .xlt module. Programmers write this code using an editor viewed separately from the spreadsheet. Manipulation of the spreadsheet entries is controlled using objects. row 1). The spreadsheet becomes an interface or window to the code. The most common and easiest way to generate VBA code is by use of the macro recorder function that writes the code for the actions that the user carries out with mouse/keyboard.• • • • • • • • • • • spreadsheet: . Attempts have also been made to be able to copy excel spreadsheets to web applications using comma-separated values.

The "slide" analogy is a reference to the slide projector. The current versions are Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2007 for Windows and 2008 for Mac. and trainers and is among the most prevalent forms of persuasive technology. however. and runs on Microsoft Windows and the Mac OS computer operating systems. Microsoft revised the branding to emphasize PowerPoint's place within the office suite. and other objects. Operation PowerPoint presentations consist of a number of individual pages or "slides".47 - . graphics. It is part of the Microsoft Office system. calling it Microsoft Office PowerPoint instead of just Microsoft PowerPoint. Beginning with Microsoft Office 2003. under the Wine compatibility layer. PowerPoint is widely used by business people. Slides may contain text. movies. facilitates the use of a consistent style in a presentation using a template or "Slide Master". educators. a device that has become obsolete due to the use of PowerPoint and other presentation software. students. The Windows version can run in Linux operating system.Microsoft PowerPoint is a presentation program developed by Microsoft. PowerPoint. . which may be arranged freely on the slide.

ppsm.pptm. and the overall structure. The overall design of a presentation can be controlled with a master slide.The presentation can be printed or displayed live on a computer and navigated through at the command of the presenter. These can be animated in a variety of ways 3. In PowerPoint 2007 and Mac OS X 2008 versions. As PowerPoint's style. on the other hand are movements between slides. . the difference in needs and desires of presenters and audiences has become more noticeable. animation. For larger audiences the computer display is often projected using a video projector. or overhead projections. extending to the text on each slide.pps (PowerPoint Show) or .pptx.ppt (presentation).potm. . can be edited using a primitive outliner. speech bubbles with edited text can be sent on and off to create speech. blackboards or whiteboards. exit or move With callouts. Transitions.ppsx and . PowerPoint provides three types of movements: 1. Presentations can be saved and run in any of the file formats: the default . and exit of elements on a slide itself are controlled by what PowerPoint calls Custom Animations 2. along with the macro-enabled file formats . the XML-based file formats . and as the application has generally made it easier to produce presentations (even to the point of having an "AutoContent Wizard" suggesting a structure for a presentation). Ease of use also encourages those who otherwise would not have used visual aids. to make presentations. emphasis.48 - . Cultural effects Supporters and critics generally agree that the ease of use of presentation software can save a lot of time for people who otherwise would have used other types of visual aid—hand-drawn or mechanically typeset slides. . Versions . or would not have given a presentation at all. .potx have been introduced. Entrance. Slides can also form the basis of webcasts.pot (template). Custom animation can be used to create small story boards by animating pictures to enter. and multimedia abilities have become more sophisticated.

X (10.0 for Mac OS classic 1994 PowerPoint 4. There was no version 7. All of the Office 95 products have OLE 2 capacity .0 because the Windows 95 version was launched with Word 7. There is no version 5.0 for Windows 3.0 1992 PowerPoint 3.0 made for Mac to coincide with either version 7. X) 2004 PowerPoint 2004 (11. 6.0 for Mac OS classic 1988 PowerPoint 2.0 for Windows 3.0 for Mac OS classic 1992 PowerPoint 3.0 (Office 4.0 or 7.0) — (Office 95) 1997 PowerPoint 97 — (Office 97) 1999 PowerPoint 2000 (version 9.0) for Mac OS classic (Office 1998 for Mac) 2000 PowerPoint 2001 (9.Versions for the Mac OS include: • • • • • • • • • 1987 PowerPoint 1.moving data automatically from various programs . Versions for Microsoft Windows include: • • • • • • • • • 1990 PowerPoint 2.0 for Mac OS classic 1998 PowerPoint 98 (8.0 for Windows or PowerPoint 97.1 1993 PowerPoint 4.x) 1995 PowerPoint for Windows 95 (version 7.0) for Mac OS X (Office 2001 for Mac) 2002 PowerPoint v.49 - .0) for Mac OS X Office:Mac 2004 2008 PowerPoint 2008 (12.and PowerPoint 7 shows that it was contemporary with Word 7.0 for Mac.0) — (Office 2000) 2001 PowerPoint 2002 (version 10) — (Office XP) 2003 PowerPoint 2003 (version 11) — (Office 2003) 2007 PowerPoint 2007 (version 12) — (Office 2007) - .0) for Mac OS X Microsoft Office 2008 for Mac Note: There is no PowerPoint 5.0 or 6.0) for Mac OS X (Office:Mac v.0.

[7] In Microsoft Office 2007 the binary file formats were replaced as the default format by the new XML based Office Open XML formats.50 - . which are published as an open standard. but since February 2008 the .mspowerpoint com. Gallery Office PowerPoint 2003 Microsoft PowerPoint 2000 running under Windows 2000 The about box for PowerPoint 1.ppt format specification can be freely downloaded and implemented under the Microsoft Open Specification Promise patent licensing.0. with an empty document in the background Microsoft Access .powerpoint.ppt[6] Microsoft Presentation The binary format specification has been available from Microsoft on request.ppt Internet media type Uniform Type Identifier Developed by Type of format application/vnd.microsoft.File formats PowerPoint Presentation Filename extension .

Years later Microsoft reused the name for its database software. The product was shipped on seven 1. Microsoft SQL Server.51 - . Access was also the name of a communications program from Microsoft.0 as Microsoft Windows v3. meant to compete with ProComm and other programs. It is a member of the 2007 Microsoft Office system. This proved a failure and was dropped.1 release to improve compatibility with other Microsoft products.44 MB diskettes. Access can use data stored in Access/Jet. followed in May of 1993 by an Access 1. previously known as Microsoft Access. or any ODBC-compliant data container (including MySQL and PostgreSQL).0 was released in November 1992. is a relational database management system from Microsoft that combines the relational Microsoft Jet Database Engine with a graphical user interface and software development tools.0 with 4 MB of RAM.Microsoft Office Access. - . Microsoft specified the minimum operating system for Version 2.1 manual cover Access version 1. It supports some object-oriented techniques but falls short of being a fully object-oriented development tool. Software developers and data architects can use it to develop application software and non-programmer "power users" can use it to build simple applications. Oracle. [edit] History Access 1. 6 MB RAM was recommended along with a minimum of 8 MB of available hard disk space (14 MB hard disk space recommended). The manual shows a 1993 copyright date.

Some professional application developers use Access for rapid application development.[2] Development . but these procedures are still limited to one statement per procedure. in a way that looks like creating stored procedures.52 - . the forms engine was called Ruby. and SQL statements can be used directly in Macros and VBA Modules to manipulate Access tables. has been a free download for a decade and may be used with Access as an alternative to the Jet Database Engine. there is a new syntax for creating queries with parameters. Features One of the benefits of Access from a programmer's perspective is its relative compatibility with SQL (structured query language) — queries can be viewed graphically or edited as SQL statements. Moving to an Application Server also has the benefit of allowing database use over a Wide Area Network. MSDE (Microsoft SQL Server Desktop Engine) 2000.0). especially for the creation of prototypes and standalone applications that serve as tools for on-the-road salespeople. a scaled down version of Microsoft SQL Server 2000. a project called Thunder. however. The two projects were developed separately as the underlying forms engines were incompatible with each other. Microsoft Access does not implement database triggers or stored procedures. Users can mix and use both VBA and "Macros" for programming forms and logic and offers object-oriented possibilities.Access's initial codename was Cirrus. these were merged together again after VBA.Bill Gates saw the prototypes and decided that the BASIC language component should be co-developed as a separate expandable application. This was before Visual Basic . Access applications do not scale well if data access is via a network. Uses Microsoft has strongly recommended for the past decade that Jet databases are inappropriate for basic web based applications hosted on Microsoft's Internet Information Services and utilizing Microsoft Active Server Pages ASP. Unlike other RDBMS. however by moving an Access application to an Application Server such as Microsoft Terminal Services the number of users that can be supported is substantially increased. Starting in Access 2000 (Jet 4.

Microsoft Access can be applied to small projects (the Access 97 speed characterization was done for 32 users) but scales poorly to larger projects with more than several 10MB of data or many users because of the way indexing and locking are handled. Access allows users to view and manipulate the SQL code if desired. Access utilizes the Query Design Grid. forms. Two database access libraries of COM components are provided: the obsolete Data Access Objects (DAO). File extensions . Windows or MDAC for most of the past decade. as in other products of the Microsoft Office suite. Microsoft Access 2007. although certain elements including original VBA comments and formatting are normally irretrievable. Access databases can be locked/protected (and the source code compiled) by converting the database to an . Access Data Projects work great over VPN and WAN. Joins can be created by clicking and dragging fields in tables to fields in other tables. For query development. All changes to the VBA project (forms or reports) need to be made to the original MDB and then reconverted to MDE. As a Microsoft Access database can be cached locally when used on network.All database tables.MDE file. a graphical user interface that allows users to create queries without knowledge of the SQL programming language. processing speed may be substantially better when there is only a single user. Because of the effect of packet latency on the record locking system. Protection If the database design needs to be secured to prevent changes. If an Access Database needs to be accessed over a WAN then Microsoft Terminal Services is an effective solution. and reports are stored in the database. Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications. Some tools are available for unlocking and 'decompiling'. which has not been included in Office. Access databases are effectively too slow to be used on a Virtual Private Network (VPN) or a Wide Area Network (WAN). however (DAO) has been reintroduced as an option in the latest version. ADO has been much more widespread. users can "show" the source tables of the query and select the fields they want returned by clicking and dragging them into the grid. Access includes an Upsizing Wizard that allows users to upsize their database to Microsoft SQL Server if they want to move to an ODBC client-server database. queries. The programming language available in Access is.53 - . In the Query Design Grid. and this is why it is recommended to upgrade all DAO to ADO (but still accessible) by ActiveX Data Objects (ADO).

. XP Windows XP SP2.accdb Access Database Runtime (2007) . and government networks of local to global scope that are linked by copper wires.mdw Access (SQL Server) detached database (2000) .maq Windows Shortcut: Access Report .0 Access for Windows 1995 95 1997 Access 97 1999 Access 2000 2001 Access 2002 2003 Access 2003 2007 Microsoft Office Access 2007 Version Supported OS number 1 Windows 3. Vista Office suite version Office 4. fiber-optic cables.Microsoft Access saves information under the following file formats: Extension Access Project .3 Pro Office 95 Professional Office 97 Professional and Developer Office 2000 Professional. It is a "network of networks" that consists of millions of private and public. Professional Plus.adn Access Database (2007) .95. NT 3.adp Access Blank Project Template .mam Windows Shortcut: Access Query .0 8.mde Protected Access Database.accdr Access Database Template (2007) .97).1x 7.0. with compiled VBA (2003 and earlier) .mat Windows Shortcut: Access Form .maf File format Versions Date Version 1992 Access 1.0 9.mda Access Workgroup. with compiled VBA (2007) .54 - .1 1993 Access 2.mdb Access Database. 2000 Windows 98. .0 10 11 12 Windows 95 Windows 9x. database for user-level security. academic. Ultimate and Enterprise Internet The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that interchange data by packet switching using the standardized Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP). . Premium and Developer Office XP Professional and Developer Office 2003 Professional and Professional Enterprise Office 2007 Professional. NT 4. XP Windows 2000.5/4. business. Me. previously used for workgroups (2).accdt Access Database (2003 and earlier) . wireless connections. and other technologies. 2000.accde Windows Shortcut: Access Macro .mar Windows Shortcut: Access Table .mdf Protected Access Database. used for addins (2.1x 2.0 Windows 3.0 Windows 9x.

such as electronic mail. and the inter-linked hypertext documents and other resources of the World Wide Web (WWW). It is a collection of interconnected documents and other resources. file transfer and file sharing. History Creation - .The Internet carries various information resources and services. online chat. Terminology The terms Internet and World Wide Web are often used in every-day speech without much distinction. the Internet and the World Wide Web are not one and the same. linked by hyperlinks and URLs. the Web is one of the services communicated via the Internet. It is a hardware and software infrastructure that provides connectivity between computers. Visualization of the various routes through a portion of the Internet. The Internet is a global data communications system.55 - . However. online gaming. In contrast.

Telemail and Compuserve. which had networked country-wide radar systems together for the first time. C. However. the Internet include Usenet and BITNET. by Murray Leinster laid out the Internet and many of its strengths and weaknesses. in February 1958 to regain a technological lead. Telenet (later called Sprintnet) was a large privately funded national computer network with free dial-up access in cities throughout the U.S. Licklider was selected to head the IPTO. At MIT. This network was eventually interconnected with the others in the 1980s as the TCP/IP protocol became increasingly popular. The opening of the network to commercial interests began in 1988. A Logic Named Joe.[2][3] ARPA created the Information Processing Technology Office (IPTO) to further the research of the Semi Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) program. Compuserve and JANET were interconnected with the growing Internet. three commercial Internet service providers (ISP) were created: UUNET. that had been in operation since the 1970s. Proteon and Juniper. after becoming interested in information technology. The ability of TCP/IP to work over virtually any pre-existing communication networks allowed for a great ease of growth. Various other commercial and educational networks. he served on a committee that established Lincoln Laboratory and worked on the SAGE project. separate networks that offered gateways into. PSINET and CERFNET.A 1946 comic science-fiction story. 1991. CERN. although the rapid growth of the Internet was due primarily to the availability of commercial routers from companies such as Cisco Systems. In that same year. the network did not gain a public face until the 1990s. Licklider moved from the Psycho-Acoustic Laboratory at Harvard University to MIT in 1950. R. Growth Although the basic applications and guidelines that make the Internet possible had existed for almost a decade. J. Other commercial electronic e-mail services were soon connected.56 - . Tymnet. where he bought the first production PDP-1 computer and conducted the first public demonstration of time-sharing. the availability of commercial Ethernet equipment for local-area networking and the widespread implementation of TCP/IP on the UNIX operating system. then later merged with. it took more than a decade before reality began to catch up with this vision. On August 6. which straddles the . In 1957 he became a Vice President at BBN. The US Federal Networking Council approved the interconnection of the NSFNET to the commercial MCI Mail system in that year and the link was made in the summer of 1989. known as ARPA. and saw universal networking as a potential unifying human revolution. such as Telenet. Important. The USSR's launch of Sputnik spurred the United States to create the Advanced Research Projects Agency. including OnTyme.

slave MySQL database servers. over the course of the decade. and by late 1994 there was growing public interest in the previously academic. such as FidoNet. so had its use as a synecdoche in reference to the World Wide Web. By 1996 usage of the word Internet had become commonplace. file servers. as well as the non-proprietary open nature of the Internet protocols. peering agreements). and two IBM blade centers containing multi-purpose machines (Apache front ends. Meanwhile. technical Internet.0 of Mosaic. the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois released version 1. the Internet successfully accommodated the majority of previously existing public computer networks (although some networks.myopera. "bigma" (the master MySQL database server). Aside from the complex physical connections that make up its infrastructure. publicized the new World Wide Web project. which allows organic growth of the network. The Web was invented by English scientist Tim Berners-Lee in 1989. user file storage (content of files. and consequently. In 1993.border between France and Switzerland. An early popular web browser was ViolaWWW. Today's Internet The My Opera Community server rack.[4] This growth is often attributed to the lack of central administration.57 - . with a brief period of explosive growth in 1996 and 1997. Apache back ends. it was estimated that the Internet grew by 100% per year. patterned after HyperCard and built using the X Window System. the Internet is facilitated by bior multi-lateral commercial contracts (e. which encourages vendor interoperability and prevents any one company from exerting too much control over the network. cache servers and sync masters). have remained separate). and by technical specifications or protocols . load balancers. During the 1990s.. It was eventually replaced in popularity by the Mosaic web browser.com). From the top.g.

and occasionally accessing. where the information never leaves the corporate or organization's network.that describe how to exchange data over the network. demonstrating hyperlinks Many people use the terms Internet and World Wide Web (or just the Web) interchangeably. as discussed above. but. Even today it can be important to distinguish between Internet and internal e-mail systems. the Internet is defined by its interconnections and routing policies. are much more secure. images and other resources. The World Wide Web Graphic representation of a minute fraction of the WWW. The World Wide Web is a huge set of interlinked documents. Purely internal or intranet mail systems. Internet e-mail may travel and be stored unencrypted on many other networks and machines out of both the sender's and the recipient's control. Indeed. Common uses E-mail The concept of sending electronic text messages between parties in a way analogous to mailing letters or memos predates the creation of the Internet. the e-mail of other employees not addressed to them. if anyone considers it important enough. These hyperlinks and URLs allow the web servers and other machines that store - . the two terms are not synonymous.58 - . linked by hyperlinks and URLs. although in any organization there will be IT and other personnel whose job may involve monitoring. During this time it is quite possible for the content to be read and even tampered with by third parties.

Messages can be sent and viewed even more quickly and conveniently than via e-mail. Collaboration The low cost and nearly instantaneous sharing of ideas. access web pages and allow users to navigate from one to another via hyperlinks. Internet "chat". Through keyword-driven Internet research using search engines like Yahoo! and Google. Web documents may contain almost any combination of computer data including graphics.59 - . sounds. the World Wide Web has enabled a sudden and extreme decentralization of information and data. and skills has made collaborative work dramatically easier. millions of people worldwide have easy. It can be put into a "shared location" or . text. Software products that can access the resources of the Web are correctly termed user agents. Compared to encyclopedias and traditional libraries. Not only can a group cheaply communicate and test. File sharing A computer file can be e-mailed to customers. such as Internet Explorer. colleagues and friends as an attachment. Firefox and Apple Safari. but the wide reach of the Internet allows such groups to easily form in the first place. instant access to a vast and diverse amount of online information. which produced GNU and Linux from scratch and has taken over development of Mozilla and OpenOffice. web browsers. whether in the form of IRC "chat rooms" or channels. "whiteboard" drawings to be shared as well as voice and video contact between team members. Extension to these systems may allow files to be exchanged. allow colleagues to stay in touch in a very convenient way when working at their computers during the day. An example of this is the free software movement in software development. knowledge. Web services also use HTTP to allow software systems to communicate in order to share and exchange business logic and data. of these resources to deliver them as required using HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol). video. even among niche interests. and cached copies. In normal use.originals.org (formerly known as Netscape Communicator and StarOffice). It can be uploaded to a website or FTP server for easy download by others. office applications and scientific demonstrations. HTTP is only one of the communication protocols used on the Internet. or via instant messaging systems. multimedia and interactive content including games.

and money may change hands before or after access to the file is given. it is a proper noun. The price can be paid by the remote charging of funds from. photography. In its generic sense. a synonym for internetwork. a shorthand for internetworking. a credit card whose details are also passed—hopefully fully encrypted—across the Internet. Internet collaboration technology enables business and project teams to share documents. and is mostly used in this way in RFCs. and is not to be capitalized. for example. political activism and creative writing. These simple features of the Internet. A sentence that uses both meanings: . the transit of the file over the Internet may be obscured by encryption. Such collaboration occurs in a wide variety of areas including scientific research.onto a file server for instant use by colleagues. over a worldwide basis. without a plural form. using the IP standards. conference planning. software development. software products. it has a plural form (first appearing in RFC 870 and RFC 872). and that grew into the connectivity service we know today). and therefore. it became more common to regard the results of internetworking as entities of their own. This in turn has caused seismic shifts in each of the existing industries that previously controlled the production and distribution of these products. The term originated as a determiner. and internet became a noun. the documentation for the evolving Internet Protocol (IP) standards for internetworking between ARPANET and other computer networks in the 1970s. therefore. internet is a common noun. and is used both with and without article. In its specific sense. and with capitalization. news. music. This can be explained from the various ways in which the term has come to be used over time. video. graphics and the other arts. calendars and other information. As the impetus behind IP grew. sale. In any of these cases. with article. The load of bulk downloads to many users can be eased by the use of "mirror" servers or peer-to-peer networks. This includes all manner of print publications.60 - . The origin and authenticity of the file received may be checked by digital signatures or by MD5 or other message digests. access to the file may be controlled by user authentication. The terms “internet” and “Internet” The term internet is written both with capital and without capital. used both in a generic sense (any collection of computer networks connected through internetworking) and in a specific sense (the collection of computer networks that internetworked with ARPANET. and distribution of anything that can be reduced to a computer file for transmission. are changing the basis for the production. film. and later NSFNET.

the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).61 - . the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). "I have Internet at home" and "I saw it on (the) Internet"). Time. Many newspapers. The Times of India. radio. it became known as a service. the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). - . and Wired News. similar to TV. and the word came to be used in this way (e. which will then carry a capital (e. including The Economist. For this type of use. The New York Times. periodicals. English spelling and grammar do not prescribe whether the article or capitalization are to be used. and several other Internet-related organizations use this convention in their publications.g. Examples include The Dhaka Daily Star. this appears to be more popular outside North America. The Times. and Communications of the ACM. The Internet Society. the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.g. "Internet mail")." The proper noun can again be used as a determiner. Other publications do not capitalize the term. The Guardian. and technical journals capitalize the term (Internet). the Financial Times. including the RFCs. newswires. the Associated Press. The Sydney Morning Herald. Hindustan Times. As Internet connectivity grew more popular."The Internet is an internet based on the Internet Protocol suite. and telephone. which explains the inconsistency that exists in practice.