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Above ground and below ground horizontal drainage pipes should be laid to an adequate gradient.

Gradients from 1 in 40 to 1 in 110 will normally give adequate flow velocities. A gradient of 1 in 80 is suitable for commencing calculations for pipe schemes.

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If a gradient is too steep i.e. steeper than 1 in 40, the liquid may run faster than the solids in the sloping foul water pipe thus leaving the solids stranded, which could then block the pipe. If the gradient is not steep enough, i.e. less than 1 in 110, then the pipe could still block if the solids slow down and become stranded. The fall in a pipe may be defined as the vertical amount by which the pipe drops over a distance. The distance can be between sections of pipe or between manholes. The diagram below show pipe fall and distance. Distance



Flow direction

A gradient may be defined as fall divided by distance. GRADIENT = FALL / DISTANCE For example is a 24 metre section of drainage pipe has a fall of 0.30 metres, calculate the gradient. Gradient = 0.30 / 24 Gradient = 0.0125 This can be converted into a gradient written as a ratio or 1: some number. Gradient = 1 / 0.0125 = 80 Gradient = 1 in 80 The above formula may be rearranged for Fall if the gradient is known: === FALL = GRADIENT X DISTANCE === For example, calculate the fall in a 50 metre section of foul water pipework if the gradient is to be 1 in 80. A gradient of 1 in 80 is converted to a number instead of a ratio. 1 / 80 = 0.0125 Fall = Gradient x Distance

0.0125 x 50 = Fall = 0.625 metres or 625mm. The previous diagram may be completed by adding a pipe gradient. Distance



24 inches at a certain point and the pipe used has a 1 inch pipe thickness. For example. INVERT LEVEL OF PIPE Section through pipe Water level Invert level Crown of pipe The level at the crown of the pipe is the Invert level plus the internal diameter of the pipe plus the pipe wall thickness.Flow direction Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software http://www. This level allows of the slope of the pipe to be set at various points so that the fluid will flow by gravity. .foxitsoftware. Ditch levels must then be adjusted for the pipe thickness. The pipe invert level is the level of the INSIDE bottom of the pipe. rodding or inspection. Cover and frame Brick wall Concrete base Sloping concrete/mortar bed or haunching Pipe channel for access to system What is definition of pipe invert level? In plumbing system what is the pipe invert For evaluation only. then the ditch should be dug to -25 inches. A typical manhole is shown below. It may be necessary to use this in calculations when level measurements are taken from the crown of a pipe. This sets the inside bottom level at the correct level. if the pipe invert level is . Not sure if the other two answers made it really clear. Manholes A manhole or access chamber is required to gain access to a drainage system for un-blocking. cleaning. FALL & GRADIENT IN DRAINAGE PIPE Gradient 1 in 80 Invert Levels The Invert Level of a pipe is the level taken from the bottom of the inside of the pipe as shown below. Using the inside bottom instead of the outside bottom level avoids problems if different pipe thicknesses are used.

but think about it. a common size of plastic access chamber is 450mm diameter. fibreglass or galvanised steel lids may be used but cast iron lids are required where traffic crosses. For the domestic market plastic. why else would someone need to know the level of the INSIDE bottom of the pipe? Not to set the ditch level. Good Luck Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software http://www. It's to make sure that your fluids get carried away by gravity. No. Manholes and access chambers are also manufactured in PVC. To overcome this problem the back drop manhole was developed. A back drop manhole is used in areas where the surface level slopes as shown below. Source(s): Certified in Plumbing Design. the invert is not DIRECTLY related to any gradient or sloping.foxitsoftware. .com For evaluation only.I hope that this helps a little.0 metre in depth require step irons to assist access for a workman. Sometimes several precast concrete rings are used to form a manhole which speeds up the on-site construction process. An access chamber is not usually large enough to admit a person but is suitable for access by cleaning rods or hose and they are used for domestic applications. they need to flow downhill. as shown below. gravity flow pipes (like sewage and storm drainage). And those type ALWAYS need a slope. ASPE Manholes may be manufactured from masonry or precast concrete. What about gravity feed pipes that are always full (like swimming pool plumbing)? No. If the undergroung sewer pipe is to stay below ground it must follow the average gradient of the slope. resulting in the solids being left stranded in the pipe therefore causing a blockage. I mean. Sloping surface Underground sewer Normal pipe gradient USE OF BACK DROP MANHOLES Sloping surface Underground sewer Excessive gradient SEWER ON A SLOPING SITE Back Drop manhole Vertical section of pipe Access cap Back Drop manhole Access cap An easier way to construct a back drop manhole is to use an internal vertical section of pipe as shown below. Do you need to set the level of a PRESSURE pipe? Of course not. Inverts are only needed when you have partially full. This invariably means that the pipe gradient becomes too steep. Normally deep manholes below 1. no invert needed.

In previously skeptical financial For evaluation only. BACK DROP MANHOLE WITH INTERNAL OUTLET PIPE Outlet section of pipe Access cap Back Drop manhole Cast Iron screw down lid Step Irons Sloping surfaces Underground Foul Water pipe Drop distance Note: There are comments associated with this question. woodchips. See the discussion page to add to the conversation. pulp. ordinary people have come to understand how they . Forests can be viewed the same way. This ‘fun fact’ raises a smile. For many years. Read more: http://wiki.foxitsoftware. So what changes have affected our value system? Over the last 50 years. Recently. potassium and iron).answers.50. is worth about $4. Türker[1].com/Q/How_is_invert_level_of_drain_pipe_calculated_in_plumbing_services#ixzz1QjUQBB5F First of all site progress : contractor almost stop the site works after our Valuing forests Pop science tells us that the human body.Sloping surface Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software http://www. like timber. Added to this is a burgeoning understanding that a forest has a spiritual value above and beyond its dollar price. hydrogen.can help prevent environmental catastrophe. thanks to documentaries like Al Gore’s ‘An Inconvenient Truth’. Total Economic Value of Forest Resources in Turkey Mustafa F. the value of a forest has been calculated based on its component resources.personally . ‘Tangible assets’ are being reconsidered as ‘metaphysical assets’. and simply the land it occupies. and the fact that trees take away much of the pollution that human civilization creates. Most people now have a basic understanding of the biosphere. broken down into its component elements (like oxygen. organic products. Atakan Öztürk and Mehmet Pak . because of course we all know that in reality a human being is priceless. the value of forests is being reconsidered: they may be worth more as an intact holistic entity than broken down for their ‘parts’. the reality of human-induced climate change (‘global warming’) has been demonstrated both theoretically and practically. as awareness of climate change grows. Sir Nicholas Stern’s review on the economics of climate change has galvanized a new enthusiasm for the mitigation of global warming. However.

and existence values of the natural resources is defined as the Total Economic Value (TEV) concept. the TEV concept will be reviewed for Turkish forestry. which is among the main production sectors in the national economy is only 0. They supply various products and services. such valuation continues to modify over time. the increased demand for non-market resources. the contribution of direct and indirect use values. Abstract Forests. indirect. The topic as a research area is getting importance rapidly in Turkey as well as in other countries. many different approaches have been discussed about this concept. the concept was evaluated from the goods and services provided by forest resources. There are no definite and rigid rules about the components of TEV and therefore. The most important share of Turkish forestry TEV is represented by the direct use values including wood and non-wood forest products. such as hunting. its components including sub-items was briefly reviewed theoretically. and lastly. A total of the values including direct. such as lumber and pulp and paper. or bird watching. fishing. option. which contribute directly to the well being of people and are vital to the economy and the environmental conditions of the country. due to changing needs and expectations of society (Doðru 2001). this topic is gaining importance rapidly in Turkey as well as in other countries. their benefits and functions are differently valued amongst people and society segments. existence values and negative externalities to the TEV are accounted for as far as possible. As a result of this study. the items forming the TEV value are classified into main and sub-components.5%. The option and existence values remain somewhat vague and difficult to calculate. Later. In this study. many benefits that are derived from forests do not pass through markets. In this paper. and then the TEV components of forest resources will be presented and discussed as far as possible. On the other hand. the coverage of the TEV concept. or the value of the role that forests play in regulating weather patterns. option values. it is becoming increasingly important to identify and evaluate these non-market benefits due to the increased pressures on the natural resources. perform a set of functions to meet the needs of people. like other natural resources. Introduction Forests are renewable and complex ecosystems capable of providing a wide range of environmental. A total of the values including direct. However. It is usually impossible to state the monetary value of all the goods and services provided by forest resources. There are no definite and rigid rules about the components of TEV and therefore. the TEV of Turkish forests was discussed from the forest management point of view. indirect. social and cultural benefits. The share of the forestry sector. and society’s strong desire to preserve the natural heritage for future generations (Condon 1997). many different approaches have been discussed about this concept. In another word. economic. As a research area. pass directly through markets. partly from non-wood forest products and very little from hunting and recreation. Therefore. some serious attempts to put value on the non-market goods and services of environmental resources such as forests have been recognized in the developed and developing countries in the world. The values associated with conventional forest products. It is usually impossible to state the monetary value of all goods and services provided by forest resources. option and existence values of the natural resources is defined as the TEV concept. 1.Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software http://www. this rate arises mainly from wood forest For evaluation only. Moreover.foxitsoftware. While essential roles of forests are increasingly recognized by the Turkish society as a whole. .

. resin. In another word. Some economists accept the option value as third main component in addition to former two main components (Merlo and Briales 2000). the benefits obtained from productive activities such as agriculture. indirect and option values. For evaluation only. the use values are also divided into three sub-components as direct. 1995). Use Values: The benefit obtained by individual by directly using the natural resource is defined as use value. which are given as example (Adamowicz 1995). mushrooms. including consumptive uses such as hunting and fishing. In this case. Adamowicz 1995).2. The benefits that individuals obtain in satisfying altruistic desires that arise from their own moral beliefs also have economic value. In this sense. Total Economic Value Approach 2. anything from which an individual gains satisfaction is deemed to be of value. decorative plants and medicine plants and other services such as hunting. This concept was popularized by David Pearce (Perman et al.foxitsoftware. The Components of Total Economic Value The components forming the TEV can be variously divided into main and sub-groups. the classification done as use and non-use values was taken into consideration. biodiversity and economic security (Perman et al. In this paper. nonconsumptive uses such as hiking. 2. there are some components of the sum.2. which a natural resource will be able to have. The Definition of Total Economic Value Concept Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software http://www. In addition. values can be associated equally with the consumption of goods and services purchased in markets and with the services from environmental amenities for which no payments are made. The economic concept of value has been broadly defined as any net change in the welfare of society. grazing recreation (Merlo and Briales 2000). For example. camping. From an economic perspective. 1996). 1996a). the economic value of wood based forest products such as timber and fuelwood. the benefits received from environmental resources (such as enjoyment of national parks and clean air) add to an individual’s well-being. non-wood forest products such as cork.. so long as the individual is willing to give up scarce resources for it (Anonymous 1996). it is seen that the use values from the main components of TEV are arisen from the physically use of environmental resources such as visiting a national park and recreational fishing. Figure 1: The Components of Total Economic value Use benefits also comprise benefits unaccompanied by market exchanges or explicit activities. In this case. For example. forestry and fishing are also considered as use values. it is understood that the TEV concept is sum of the values.1. boating and nature photography (Fausold et al. These values result from current use of the resource. This concept does not restrict environmental values to benefits from the direct use of a resource. as do the benefits obtained from the consumption of goods (such as steel and sawn timber). After definition mentioned above. From the forestry perspective. people may derive use benefit simply from experiencing a place without directly participating in any explicit activities (Anonymous. 1995) are accepted under the direct use values. the TEV can be divided into two main components as use and non-use values (Perman et al. As the TEV concept is a sum of values. the use values are values related to the forms of activity and (time and money) expenses. The values associated to the outdoors recreation are use values. Direct Use Values: The most important component of use values is direct use values. One of them and widely accepted is the classification shown in Figure 1. According to this classification.

it would not be too difficult to make reasonably accurate guesses about the preferences of distant generations on the basic issues such as clean air. Soil conservation. conservation of the local ecosystem functions of forest resources are considered under this category (Merlo and Briales 2000). 14.Use Values: Non-use values are emphasized as the values estimated for the natural resources although they are not used in fact. These are indirect use values for the people. Non . soil fertility. (Kula 1994). the contributions of direct and indirect use values. related to carbon storage. balancing microclimate. the non-use values are divided into two categories as existence and bequest values. If these individuals are immediate descendants then the respondents would be fairly confident at guessing the nature of the beneficiaries’ preferences. 1996). related to carbon storage. potential source of energy and raw materials. landscape quality. the biggest share in the positive TEV components of Turkish forest resources is direct use values including WFPs. respect for the right or welfare of non-human beings including the forest ecosystem (Merlo and Briales 2000) are considered under this category. and with the limitations. Türker et al. option values. is defined as the willingness to pay to preserve some resource for future generation (Klemperer 1996).5 %.g. NWFPs. landscape (Merlo and Briales 2000. existence value is arisen from the willingness to pay for the assurance of getting benefit from the satisfaction because of consumption or being existing of the natural resource. and these values can be summarized according to the components of TEV in Table 1 According to Table 2. Klemperer 1996). flood prevention. biodiversity. affecting other species. it is important for them to know that the amenity will continue to exist (Condon and Adamowicz 1998. resources.. Option Values: There are a number of different interpretations of this concept. 10. affecting future generations may be considered (Merlo and Briales 2000). but the direct use values for the producers. clean water.1% respectively. Perman et al. The functions of forest resources such as biodiversity. 3. maintenance of natural wonders. The option value is estimated for a resource that will be possibly spoiled at any time in the future. recreation. The concept produces a willingness to pay at present point in time in order to ensure that certain values are maintained and made available to future individuals. However. biodiversity. potential unknown source of biodiversity.6 % of TEV. indirectly obtained by Creator © Foxit Software the environmental http://www. hunting and recreation and the second one is indirect use values (carbon storage). avalanche prevention. environmental conditions e. water quality and purification. which was founded by Weisbroad in 1964 and this concept relates to the preservation of unique natural assets. The option and existence values constitute only 10. In this case. grazing.g. For example. Bequest Values: Bequest value.6 %. energy and raw material availability. The value of benefit obtained by individuals from that resource is option value of natural resource in question (Kula 1994). Towards the Total Economic Value of Turkish Forests The value of annual outputs obtained from Turkish forests were estimated by using some different methods (Bann and Clemens 2001. landscape. existence values to the positive TEV components of Turkish forests are 74. In this scope. which is one another component of non-use values. As seen. indirect uses of environmental resources such as reading books related to the natural resource or watching television programmes about wildlife (Fausold et al. and 0. potential use of unused landscape resources of forest resources are considered under this category (Merlo and Briales 2000). .foxitsoftware. Existence Values: Existence value is that placed on a natural resource amenity. The values of being personal future recreation and environmental interests. In the bequest value context of forest resource. environmental conditions e. medicine and plants etc.8 %. 1995). etc.Indirect Use Values: Indirect use values are the benefits Generated by Foxit PDF usingFor evaluation only. This is due to the fact that not all components of these values have been properly calculated. 2002)[2]. even though individuals may never use or visit it.

000 9.087.482.1 % from the positive TEV components.5 1.2%).5%.000 495 56.0 NWFPs Resin Mushrooms Medicinal and aromatic plants Truffles Styrax (Liquidambar oil) Sticks and twigs Bay leaves Carob (fruit) Chestnuts Pine kernels Snow drop.foxitsoftware.380. the positive Foxit PDF Creator from which most http://www. traditional NWFPs (8.948.927.030.000.0 14.6% of Generated byTEV components.000 1.500 2.0%).com For distinguished components are WFPs (42.253.Foxit Software Table 1 shows that direct use values represent 74. as an important indirect use value.000 42.000.000 14.2 Grazing Hunting Grazing Hunting Recreation Recreation Indirect Use Values Option Value Non Use Values Carbon storage Pharmaceuticals Existence value (to conserve biodiversity) 158.000 3. is about 14. hunting (3.000 21.000 6.0 35.000 8. while existence values constitute only 0.000 1.000 11.237.000 22.000 32.4 0.4%) and recreation (0.785.©evaluation only.8 112.400.0%).1 .000 8. grazing (21.172. Table 1: Forest Values by TEV Categories TEV Components Category Type of Outputs Value (US $) per year % Direct Use Values WFPs Timber Firewood 435. Cyclamen and other bulbous plants Thymus -Oreganium Other NWFPs 13. Carbon storage.642.0%).898.000 10.000 7.000 225.8% of the positive TEV. The share of option value in the positive TEV components (pharmaceuticals) is 10.000 262.500.000 0.

On the other hand. partly from NWFPs and very little from hunting and recreation. In addition. which have a 58% impact on the positive TEV components. other public goods and services supplied by forests such as watershed management.607.5%).071. the following issues can be stated regarding this issue that is aiming to determine the externalities and its TEV in forestry.480.087. are 72.4% of the TEV are not reflected into the national balance sheets and are represented by: grazing (21. more monetary support needed for investments regarding the improvement of forest resource will be allocated to forestry sector. which are totally reflected into national balance sheets.071.0 .8%).607. landscape and therapy were calculated at only local level and not included. the values of positive externalities provided by the forest resources such as grazing. hunting with 3. a good strategy and policy regarding the effectiveness of forest resources will be determined from the sustainable development point of view. it turns out that the positive TEV component of Turkish forests is around US$ 1.40. Türker 1999) this rate arises mainly from WFPs. these items (WFPs with 42.0 %. The share of forestry sector. in the national economy. .607.458 Source: Türker et al. which are the negative externalities of Turkish forest resources. NWFPs with 8.0%. .480. This figure should be considered as a minimum estimate due to the fact that the values of many externalities assumed lower bounds being based on conservative assumptions (Bann and Clemens 2001).Lastly. 100.2%).537 5. and pharmaceuticals (10. 4. In Turkish forestry. carbon storage (14. .995 (Table 1). the estimated value of the negative externalities is about US$ 173.4% and recreation with 0.0%). forest fires and illicit fuelwood consumption[3] in the negative TEV components. 5.Secondly. It results that the share of WFPs in the positive TEV components of Turkish forest resources reach 42.8. the biggest share in the negative TEV components of Turkish forest resources is erosion and the second one is illicit fuelwood consumption. and 23.000.2%.foxitsoftware. .0%.Positive TEV Components Negative Externalities Erosion Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Software 1.537 100.537 and this figure reduces the TEV from US$ 1.0%.000 23.0 -125. The reducing impact proportion of the negative externalities calculated at the minimum level on the TEV is about 16. In this case.995 http://www. For evaluation only.Firstly. water quality and purification.5% (Çakýr 1984. This confirms the fact that the share of forestry sector in the national economy is lower than its real proportion. carbon storage and pharmaceuticals.0 -173.000 72. make up for 53.0% respectively. which is among the main production sectors in the national economy and accounts for only 0.0 897. it will be exposed the real share of forests as an important natural resource. 2002 On the other hand. soil conservation.071. and this reinforce the previous idea of the wood based forest management approach. Results and Discussion From the calculations undertaken for each TEV component. In other words.087.0%.458. avalanche prevention.6% of total TEV of forestry sector. have not adequately been known by the forest managers. On the other hand. the shares of erosion. policy makers and strategists as well as rural people benefiting of most WFPs and partly NWFPs from forests.995 to US$ 897.000.087.0 Risk of damage by forest fires Illicit fuelwood Negative TEV Components NET TOTAL ECONOMIC VALUE OF TURKISH FORESTS . In conclusion.