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# Above ground and below ground horizontal drainage pipes should be laid to an adequate gradient.

Gradients from 1 in 40 to 1 in 110 will normally give adequate flow velocities. A gradient of 1 in 80 is suitable for commencing calculations for pipe schemes.

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If a gradient is too steep i.e. steeper than 1 in 40, the liquid may run faster than the solids in the sloping foul water pipe thus leaving the solids stranded, which could then block the pipe. If the gradient is not steep enough, i.e. less than 1 in 110, then the pipe could still block if the solids slow down and become stranded. The fall in a pipe may be defined as the vertical amount by which the pipe drops over a distance. The distance can be between sections of pipe or between manholes. The diagram below show pipe fall and distance. Distance

Fall

Pipe

Flow direction

FALL IN DRAINAGE PIPE

Fall
0.0125 x 50 = Fall = 0.625 metres or 625mm. The previous diagram may be completed by adding a pipe gradient. Distance

Fall

Pipe