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# Unit1 Introduction

Structure: 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Objectives 1.3 Classification of Fluids 1.4 Units of Measurements 1.5 Liquids and their properties 1.6 Compressibility of water 1.7 Surface tension of water 1.8 Capillarity of water 1.9 Viscosity of water 1.10 Summary 1.11 Keywords 1.12 Exercise

1.1 Introduction Matter exists in two states either solid or liquid state. Sometimes same matter may exists in any one of 3 states example water can exists solid state as ice, ordinarily liquid state and gaseous state as vapour. Hydraulics in a branch which deals with water and its systematic study and behaviour. Fluid mechanics: fluid mechanics is that branch of science with deals with the behavior of the fluids at rest as we as in motion. 1.2 Objectives After studying this unit we are able to understand  Classification of Fluids

) Real fluids.3 Classification of Fluids Fluid may be defined as a substance which is capable of flowing.Real fluids are also called practical fluids are those fluids which are actually available in nature. area. Fluid can be classified as (i) Ideal fluids (ii) Real fluids. Units of Measurements  Liquids and their properties  Compressibility of water 1. (ii. acceleration etc are measured. (i.4 Units of Measurements Units may be defined as those standards in terms of which the various physical quantities like length. volume. but it conforms to the shape of the containing vessel. Quantity SI Units Unit Area Volume Velocity Angular velocity Acceleration Frequency Square meter Cubic meter Meter per second (meter per second) Radian per second Meter per second square Hertz Symbol M2 M3 m/s rad/s m/s2 Hz . These fluids posers the properties such as viscosity surface tension and compressibility. 1. mass. time force.ideal fluids are those fluids which have no viscosity and surface tension and they are incompressible. velocity. For these fluids no resistance is encountered as the fluid motion.) Ideal fluids. In nature the ideal fluids do not exists and therefore these are imaginary fluids. it has no definite shape of its own.

5 Liquids and their properties  Density of water ± density of water is defined as mass per unit volume.Discharge Mass density Force Pressure. m/s 1.kg/m3 The mass density of water is taken as 1000 kg/m3  Specific weight ± specific weight of water is defined as weight of water per unit volume..S/m3 (=Pa. S) M2/s Weight density (specific weight) Dynamic viscosity Newton per cubic meter.. W.. It is denoted by a symbol (Greek letter Rho) Mathematically   = = . Kg. stress. J Nm.. . Normally it in denoted by w.. Kinematic viscourity Square meter per second Work. Cubic meter per second Kilogram per cubic meter Newton Newton per square meter M3/s Kg/m3 N N/m2 N/m3 N.. N/m. energy Torque Power Surface tension Momentum Joule Newton meter Watt Newton per meter Kilogram meter per second. Newton second per square meter.

Mathematically Specific Granity }G=          G= Note: 1) Specific Gravity has no unit 2) Specific Gravity of water is 1. Thus fluid also possesses classic characteristics like classic solids..Mathematically Specific weight.N/m3 = Specific Gravity: specific gravity is the ratio of specific weight (or mass density) of a fluid to the specific weight (mass density) of a standard fluid.6 Compressibility of water All fluids may be compressed by the application of external force. .. Compressibility of fluids is quantitatively expressed as inverse of the bulk modulus of clasticity K of the fluid. W=   W= Note: w= g ..6 1. 3) Specific Gravity Mercury 13.. and when the external force in removed the compressed volume of fluids expand to their original volumes..

7 Surface tension of water The property of the liquid surface to exert a tension is called the surface tension. relatively. 1. or in other words the liquid has greater adhesion than it will wet a solid surface with which it is in contact and will tend to rise at the point of contact. It is denoted by ( .8 Capillarity of water If molecules of certain liquid possess. its magnitude for all liquids decreases as the temperature rises. In SI units surface tension is expressed (N/M). Note: as surface tension is directly dependent upon inter molecular cohesive forces. with the result that the liquid surface is concave upward and the angle of contact 0 is less than 900 as shown in fig. above the normal water surface with the angle of contact 0 being zero. the water will wet the surface of the tube and it will rise in the tube to some weight. For example. greater affinity for solid molecules. The wetting of solid boundary by liquid results in creating .Mathematically K=  =-  =      1. if a glass tube of small diameter is partially immersed in water. Greek word Sigma) . And it is the force required to maintain unit length of the film in equilibrium.

Contact angle s-Specific gravity w.e.Specific weight of water r. mercury (Hg)] as shown below. On the other hand. So that the pressure within the column.surface tension .Radius of glass tube . if for any liquid there is less attraction for solid molecule or in other cohesion predominates then the liquid will not wet the solid surface and the liquid surface will be depressed at the point of contact. [i. Capillary Rise (water H2O) Capillarity in circular glass tube H= 2 cos Swr Capillary Depression (Mercury) Hg Where h-Capillary rise .decrease of pressure within the liquid and hence the rise in the liquid surface takes place.

What are liquids? Explain their properties. The dynamic viscosity u. may be defined as the shear stress required to produce unit rate of angular deformation. 1.9 Viscosity of water Viscosity is that property of a fluid by virtue of which it offers resistance to the movement of one layer of fluid over an adjacent layer. and as flow occurs.11 Keywords Compressibility of water Surface tension of water Capillarity of water Viscosity of water 1. Classify the fluids.10 Summary In this we have studied  Classification of Fluids  Units of Measurements  Liquids and their properties  Compressibility of water  Surface tension of water 1. Explain the compressibility of water 4.efficient of viscosity or the dynamic viscosity or simply viscosity of the fluid. these effects appear as shearing stresses between the moving layers of fluid. It is primarily due to cohesion and molecular momentum exchange between fluid layers. Which is called the co. 2.1. Explain the Capillarity of water 5.12 Exercise 1. What is viscosity of water? . 3.