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Structure: 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. 2.5. 2.6. 2.7. 2.8. 2.9. Introduction Objectives Total pressure Total pressure on an vertically immersed surface Total pressure on inclined surface Centre of pressure Centre of pressure of a vertically immersed surface Position of the center of pressure Summary

2.1. Introduction When a statics mass of fluid comes in contact with a surface, either plan or curved, a force is exerted by the fluid on the surface. This force is known as total pressure. Since for a fluid at rest no tangential force exists the total pressure acts in the direction normal to the surface. The point of application of total pressure on the surface is known as centre of pressure.

2.2. Objectives After this unit we are able to understand Total pressure Total pressure on an immersed surface Total pressure on a horizontally Immersed surface

Total pressure on a vertically immersed surface 2.3. Total Pressure on a Plane Surface (a) Total pressure on a Horizontal plane surface.

Fig.1: Total pressure on a horizontal plane surface Consider a plan surface immersed in a static mass of specific weight w, such that it is held in a horizontal position at a depth h below the free surface of the liquid, as shown in fig. Since every point on the surface is at the same depth below the free surface of the liquid. The pressure intensity is constant over the entire plan surface, being equal to p= wh. Thus if A is the total area of the surface then the total pressure on the horizontal surface is P=pA P=wh A The direction of this force is normal to the surface, as such it is acting towards the surface in the vertical downward direction at the centroid of the surface. Problems (1): A rectangular tank 4 m long 2 meters wide contains water up to a depth of 2.5 meters. Calculated pressure on the base of the tank Given: length, l= 4m. Width, b= 2m. =2.5 m. Assume specific wt, c=9.81 KN/m3 | . P= wh

W.K.T P= WA P= 9.81 x 8 x 2.5 P= 196.2 KN P= 196.2 KN (2) A tank 3m x 4m contains 1.3 m deep oil specific gravity 0.8 find (i) intensity of pressure at the base of the tank, and (ii) total pressure on the base of the tank. Given: Site of tank= 3m x 4m i.e. A = 12 m2 A= l x b = 4x 2 = 8m2

depth of oil, = 1.3 m specific Gravity =0.8(which is lighter than water). Specific weight oil= G oil X =0.8X 9810

oil =7848 H2O

H2O =9.810

N/m3

N/m3

Step (i) intensity of pressure at the base of the tank. P=wh = 7848X1.3 = 10202.4 N/m2 = = 10.202 KN/m2 one pascal =1N/m2

P= 10.202 KPa

Fig.2 Vertically immersed surface Consider a plane vertically surface immersed in a liquid as shown in fig.2 let divide the whole area a number of small parallel strips as shown in fig.2. w-specific weight of liquid A-total area of the immersed surface, and depth of centre of gravity of the immersed surface from the liquid surface. Let us consider a strip of thickness dx, width b and at a depth x from the free surface of the liquid as show in fig. Intensity of pressure on the strip and area of the strip. Intensity of pressure = wx Area of strip = b.dx pressure on the strip P= intensity of pressure X area = wx.bdx Total pressure on the strip

P= P=

x, bdx= moment of the surface area about the liquid level / surface =A P= W A Problems (1) A circular door of 1m diameter closes on opening in the vertical side of a bulkhead, which retains sea water. If the centre of the opening is at a depth of 2m from the water level, determine the total pressure on the door. Take specific grarity of sea water as 1.03. Solution Given: Door dia=1.0m. =2m. Specific gravity of sea water, G seawater =1.03 Specific wt of seawater

seawater

W.K.T Area of circular door A= = = 0.7854m2 Total pressure on the door; P= WA = 10104.3 x 0.7854 x 2

= 15871.83 N/m2 = 15871. = 15.87 KN/m2 P = 15.87 KPa 2.5. Total pressure an on inclined immersed surface Consider a plane include surface, immersed in a liquid as shown in fig.

Fig.3: Inclined immersed surface Let us divide the whole area into a number of small || le strips as shown in fig3. w-specific weight of the liquid A- Area of the surface. - Depth of centre of gravity of the immersed surface from the liquid surface. - Angle at which the immersed surface is inclined with the liquid surface. Let us consider a strip of thickness, dx, width b and its, distance l from o (A point on the liquid surface where the immersed surface will meet, if produced).

Pressure on the strip, P = intensity of pressure X Area = W l sin . Bdx Now total pressure on the surface P= w l sin .bdx l.bdx

= w sin

P = w sin P = WA

Problems (1) A rectangular plate 2m X 3m is immersed in water in such a way that its greatest and least depth are 6m and 4m respectively from the water surface. Solution Given: Site of the plate = 2m X 5m and greatest and least depth of the plate= 6m and 4m. W.K.T A = 2X3 = 6m2

Fig.4 = =5m Total pressure on the plate, P= WA = 9810 X 6X 5 = 294300 N/m2 = 294.3 KN/m2 (2) A horizontal passage 140 mm X 1400mm has its out let covered by a plane flap inclined at 600 with the horizontal and is hinged along the upper horizontal edge of the passage. If the depth of the flowing water in 500mm in the passage, determine the thrust on the gate. Solution Given: width of passage Depth of passage Depth of water =1400mm= 1.4 m =1400mm=1.4m.inclination of flap=600 = 500mm = 0.5m

W.K.T area of flap A= 1.4 X 0.5 coses 600 A= 0.808 m2 Depth of the centre of the wetted flap. = = 0.25m.

Thrust on the gate P = WA = 9810X0.808X0.25 = 1981.62 N/m2 = 1.98 KN/m2 2.6. Centre of pressure The intensity of pressure on an immersed surface is not uniform, but increase with depth. As the pressure is greater over the lower portion of the figures, therefore the resultant pressure, on an immersed surface, will act at some point below the centre of gravity of the immersed surface and towards the lower edge of the figure. The point, through which this resultant pressure. Acts, is known as centre of pressure and is always expressed interns depth from the liquid surface. 2.7. Centre of pressure of a vertically immersed surface: Considered a plane surface immersed vertically in a liquid as shown in fig.5. Let us divide the whole area into a number of small 11th strips as shown in fig.5.

Fig.5: Vertically immersed surface w- Specific weight of the liquid. A- Area of the immersed surface x- Depth of centre of gravity of the immersed surface from the liquid surface. Let us consider a strip of thickness dx, width b and at a depth of x from the free surface of the liquid as shown. W.K.T Intensity of pressure on strip = wx Area of the strip = bdx presure on the strip, p= intensity of pressure X area = wx.bdx Moment of this pressure about the liquid surface = (wx.bdx)x = wx2.bdx Now some of moments of all such pressures about the liquid surface. M= wx2 .bdx

M= wx2 .bdx

wx2. b d x=Io Where Io- moment of inertia of the surface about the liquid level or second moment of area).

M= WIo------ (1) W.K.T Sum of the moments of the pressures =p Where P- Total pressure on the surface and - Depth of centre of pressure from the liquid surface Now equating (1) & (2) W. Io= p W. Io= W A WA = = W. Io. | P= WA ----- (2)

according to || le axis theorem Io=IG +Ah2 IG moment of inertia of the figure, about horizontal axis through its center of gravity and h- distance between the liquid surface and the center of gravity of the figure ( in this case). Now recurring the equation (iii)

= =

Note: the centre of pressure is always below the center of gravity of the area by a distance equal to . Problems (1) A circular gate of 2 m diameter is immersed vertically in an oil of specific gravity 0.84 as shown in fig.

Find the oil pressure on the gate and position of the centre of pressure on the gate. Solution Given Diameter, d=2 m Specific gravity of 0,7 ,G oil =0.84 Specific weight of oil, oil =0.84 X 9.81 = 8.24 KN\m3 =3.0m

= 3.142 m2 p=WA = 8.24 X3.142 X3 = 77.67 KN 2.8. Position of the center of pressure Moment of inertia for circular plate is IG = = IG =0.7854m4 And depth of centre of pressure from the surface = +

= 3.08 m (2) an isosceles le plate of base 3 meters and attitude 3 meters is immersed vertically in

Given data Base width; b= 3m Attitude h=3m Total pressure on the plate W.K.T Surface area of the A= =

lar

plate.

=4.5m2

Depth of C.G. of the plate from the water surface. =3/3=1m. Total pressure on the plate P= WA = 9.81 x 4.5 x 1 = 44.1 KN Centre of pressure I G= = = 2.25 m4 and depth of centre of pressure from the water surface = +

= =

+1

(3) An isosceles

le

with its axis of symmetry horizontal as shown in fig. if head of water on its axis is 9 meters. Calculate the total pressure on the plate. Also locate the centre of pressure both vertically 4 laterally.

le

=1.5m.

P= 794.6 KN W.K.T moment of inertia of triangle ABD about AD = = = 1.6875 m4 Similarly, moment of inertia of triangle ADC about AD. = 1.6875 m4 Moment of inertia of the triangle ABC about AD. IG = 1.6875+1.6875 = 3.375m4 Depth of centre of pressure of the plate from the water level = + = +9

= 9.04m. 2.9. Summary In this we have studied Centre of pressure Centre of pressure of a vertically immersed surface Position of the center of pressure Centre of pressure 2.10. Keywords Total pressure Centre of pressure Vertically immersed surface

2.11. Exercise 1. What do you mean by Total pressure? 2. Explain total pressure on an immersed surface. 3. Explain pressure on a curved surface.

References

1. J. T. Bottomley, Hydrostatics (London: William Collins, 1882). 2. S. L. Loney, Elements of Hydrostatics (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1956) 2nd ed. (1904).

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