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Unit -2 Hydrostatics

Structure: 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. 2.5. 2.6. 2.7. 2.8. 2.9. Introduction Objectives Total pressure Total pressure on an vertically immersed surface Total pressure on inclined surface Centre of pressure Centre of pressure of a vertically immersed surface Position of the center of pressure Summary

2.10. Keywords 2.11. Exercise

2.1. Introduction When a statics mass of fluid comes in contact with a surface, either plan or curved, a force is exerted by the fluid on the surface. This force is known as total pressure. Since for a fluid at rest no tangential force exists the total pressure acts in the direction normal to the surface. The point of application of total pressure on the surface is known as centre of pressure.

2.2. Objectives After this unit we are able to understand  Total pressure  Total pressure on an immersed surface  Total pressure on a horizontally  Immersed surface

81 KN/m3 | µ. Problems (1): A rectangular tank 4 m long 2 meters wide contains water up to a depth of 2. c=9. Total pressure on a vertically immersed surface 2. Assume specific wt.3. Thus if A is the total area of the surface then the total pressure on the horizontal surface is P=pA P=wh A The direction of this force is normal to the surface. as shown in fig. such that it is held in a horizontal position at a depth h below the free surface of the liquid. Total Pressure on a Plane Surface (a) Total pressure on a Horizontal plane surface.5 m. =2. Width. being equal to p= wh.¶ P= wh . as such it is acting towards the surface in the vertical downward direction at the centroid of the surface. Since every point on the surface is at the same depth below the free surface of the liquid. The pressure intensity is constant over the entire plan surface.5 meters. Fig. b= 2m. l= 4m. Calculated pressure on the base of the tank Given: length.1: Total pressure on a horizontal plane surface Consider a plan surface immersed in a static mass of specific weight w.

81 x 8 x 2. = 1.T P= WA P= 9. Specific weight oil= G oil X  =0.5 P= 196.8(which is lighter than water). and (ii) total pressure on the base of the tank.8 find (i) intensity of pressure at the base of the tank.3 m deep oil specific gravity 0.810 N/m3 N/m3 Step (i) intensity of pressure at the base of the tank.2 KN (2) A tank 3m x 4m contains 1.8X 9810 oil =7848 H2O | H2O =9.202 KN/m2 one pascal =1N/m2 .2 KN P= 196.4 N/m2 = = 10. Given: Site of tank= 3m x 4m i. P=wh = 7848X1.e.3 = 10202.3 m specific Gravity =0. A = 12 m2 A= l x b = 4x 2 = 8m2 depth of oil.K.W.

2.2 let divide the whole area a number of small parallel strips as shown in fig. Intensity of pressure on the strip and area of the strip.dx pressure on the strip P= intensity of pressure X area = wx.bdx Total pressure on the strip .2 Vertically immersed surface Consider a plane vertically surface immersed in a liquid as shown in fig. width b and at a depth x from the free surface of the liquid as show in fig.e.4. w-specific weight of liquid A-total area of the immersed surface. Pa=1 N/m2 2. Total pressure on a vertically immersed surface Fig. and ± depth of centre of gravity of the immersed surface from the liquid surface. Intensity of pressure = wx Area of strip = b. Let us consider a strip of thickness dx.202 KPa i.P= 10.

Specific gravity of sea water. Solution Given: Door dia=1.3 N/m3 W.K.0m. P= WA = 10104.T Area of circular door A= = = 0.03. bdx= moment of the surface area about the liquid level / surface =A P= W A Problems (1) A circular door of 1m diameter closes on opening in the vertical side of a bulkhead. determine the total pressure on the door.3 x 0.7854 x 2 . bdx x. Take specific grarity of sea water as 1. bdx wx.P= P= wx.03 = 10104. If the centre of the opening is at a depth of 2m from the water level. =2m.03 Specific wt of seawater seawater =9810 x 1. G seawater =1.7854m2 Total pressure on the door. which retains sea water.

83 N/m2 = 15871. . . distance l from o (A point on the liquid surface where the immersed surface will meet.87 KPa 2. = 15.87 KN/m2 P = 15.3: Inclined immersed surface Let us divide the whole area into a number of small || le strips as shown in fig3. Let us consider a strip of thickness.Depth of centre of gravity of the immersed surface from the liquid surface. if produced).5.Angle at which the immersed surface is inclined with the liquid surface. width b and its.= 15871. Fig.Area of the surface. immersed in a liquid as shown in fig. dx. Total pressure an on inclined immersed surface Consider a plane include surface. . w-specific weight of the liquid A.

K.bdx = w sin l . Bdx Now total pressure on the surface P= w l sin . W. P = intensity of pressure X Area = W l sin .bdx l. =  P = w sin P = WA x Problems (1) A rectangular plate 2m X 3m is immersed in water in such a way that its greatest and least depth are 6m and 4m respectively from the water surface. Solution Given: Site of the plate = 2m X 5m and greatest and least depth of the plate= 6m and 4m.T A = 2X3 = 6m2 .K.T Intensity of pressure on the strip = wt sin Area of strip = b.dx Pressure on the strip.bdx = moment of the surface area about O.W.

Solution Given: width of passage Depth of passage Depth of water =1400mm= 1.inclination of flap=600 = 500mm = 0.3 KN/m2 (2) A horizontal passage 140 mm X 1400mm has its out let covered by a plane flap inclined at 600 with the horizontal and is hinged along the upper horizontal edge of the passage. determine the thrust on the gate.4m.4 = =5m Total pressure on the plate.4 m =1400mm=1.5m .Depth of centre of grarity Fig. If the depth of the flowing water in 500mm in the passage. P= WA = 9810 X 6X 5 = 294300 N/m2 = 294.

= = 0.6.7.5.808X0. on an immersed surface. Acts.K.808 m2 Depth of the centre of the wetted flap.W.98 KN/m2 2. Centre of pressure The intensity of pressure on an immersed surface is not uniform. As the pressure is greater over the lower portion of the figures.5.62 N/m2 = 1.25 = 1981.5 coses 600 A= 0. Centre of pressure of a vertically immersed surface: Considered a plane surface immersed vertically in a liquid as shown in fig. but increase with depth.T area of flap A= 1. through which this resultant pressure. is known as centre of pressure and is always expressed interns depth from the liquid surface. Let us divide the whole area into a number of small 11th strips as shown in fig. Thrust on the gate P = WA = 9810X0. The point.4 X 0. . therefore the resultant pressure. 2. will act at some point below the centre of gravity of the immersed surface and towards the lower edge of the figure.25m.

Let us consider a strip of thickness dx.bdx . W.Fig.T Intensity of pressure on strip = wx Area of the strip = bdx presure on the strip. M= wx2 . width b and at a depth of x from the free surface of the liquid as shown. p= intensity of pressure X area = wx.K.bdx)x = wx2.bdx Now some of moments of all such pressures about the liquid surface.Specific weight of the liquid.5: Vertically immersed surface w.Depth of centre of gravity of the immersed surface from the liquid surface.Area of the immersed surface x. A.bdx Moment of this pressure about the liquid surface = (wx.

about horizontal axis through its center of gravity and h.T Sum of the moments of the pressures =p Where P. Io= p W.bdx wx2.M= wx2 .distance between the liquid surface and the center of gravity of the figure ( in this case).K. b d x=Io Where Io. Io. M= WIo-----.Total pressure on the surface and .moment of inertia of the surface about the liquid level or second moment of area).Depth of centre of pressure from the liquid surface Now equating (1) & (2) W. | P= WA ----.(2)  according to || le axis theorem Io=IG +Ah2 IG ± moment of inertia of the figure.(1) W. Io= W A WA = = W. Now recurring the equation (iii) .

oil =0.0m .24 KN\m3 =3.7 .84 Specific weight of oil.84 as shown in fig. Find the oil pressure on the gate and position of the centre of pressure on the gate. Problems (1) A circular gate of 2 m diameter is immersed vertically in an oil of specific gravity 0.= =     + Note: the centre of pressure is always below the center of gravity of the area by a distance equal to  . d=2 m Specific gravity of 0.81 = 8. Solution Given Diameter.84 X 9.G oil =0.

142 m2 p=WA = 8. Position of the center of pressure Moment of inertia for circular plate is IG = = IG =0.08 m (2) an isosceles le plate of base 3 meters and attitude 3 meters is immersed vertically in water as shown in the pressure of the plate.67 KN 2.24 X3. A =  =     = 3.8.142 X3 = 77. .7854m4 And depth of centre of pressure from the surface = + = + = 3. on the gate.

K.T Surface area of the A= =  lar plate. b= 3m Attitude h=3m Total pressure on the plate W.5m2 Depth of C. Total pressure on the plate P= WA = 9. of the plate from the water surface. =3/3=1m.1 KN Centre of pressure I G= = = 2.81 x 4.Given data Base width. =4.25 m4 and depth of centre of pressure from the water surface = + .G.5 x 1 = 44.

Calculate the total pressure on the plate. if head of water on its axis is 9 meters.= =  +1 (3) An isosceles le of base 3 minutes. Total pressure on the plate. A= b. with its axis of symmetry horizontal as shown in fig. Base width of right angled Altitude of the plate=6m And. le =1.0 m2 P= WA = 9. h = X X6=9.0m.81X 9X9 . and attitude 6 meters is immersed vertically in water.5m. Also locate the centre of pressure both vertically 4 laterally. = 9. Given data Split the triangle into 2 right angled triangles.

P= 794.9.6875+1.6875 m4 Moment of inertia of the triangle ABC about AD.04m. moment of inertia of triangle ADC about AD. = 1.6875 m4 Similarly. Keywords Total pressure Centre of pressure Vertically immersed surface . 2.T moment of inertia of triangle ABD about AD = = = 1.K.10.375m4 Depth of centre of pressure of the plate from the water level = + = +9 = 9. IG = 1.6 KN W.6875 = 3. Summary In this we have studied  Centre of pressure  Centre of pressure of a vertically immersed surface  Position of the center of pressure  Centre of pressure 2.

1956) 2nd ed. . Elements of Hydrostatics (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. (1904). 1882). Bottomley. Loney. 3. J. References 1. Exercise 1. Explain total pressure on an immersed surface.2. S.11. Hydrostatics (London: William Collins. Explain pressure on a curved surface. What do you mean by Total pressure? 2. T. 2. L.