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8-92 M,Y and O Water at 50o F is pumped from a lake as shown.

What is the maximum flow possible without incurring cavatation?

Solution Discussion and solution Cavatation will occur if the absolute pressure in the line reaches the vapor pressure of water, or any other pumped liquid. If this occurs it will occur prior to the pump, since the pump adds energy to the flow. Write Bernoulli's equation between the water surface, point 1 and the pump entrance, point 2, solve for Q. The datum is the water surface.

8-92 pump discharge problem.mcd last save 10/26/99 / 4:17 PM

D:\Mathcad 2000\Mathcad application areas\Fluid Mechanics-hydraulics and open channel flow\M-Y-OKII\8-92 pump discharge problem.mcd

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5 ⋅ f ⋅ L D ⋅ Q 2 ( A2 ⋅ g) − .5 + .256 ⋅ lb in 2 inlet and outlet pipe diameter D := 3 ⋅ in π ⋅D 2 liquid velocity at point 1 v1 := 0 ⋅ suction line area A := 4 A = 0.7 ⋅ elevation of point 1 z 1 := 0 ⋅ ft elevation of point 2 z 2 := 10 ⋅ ft ft sec vapor pressure of water pv := .mcd 2 of 5 .Known values: lb in 2 pressure at water surface p1 := 14.mcd last save 10/26/99 / 4:17 PM D:\Mathcad 2000\Mathcad application areas\Fluid Mechanics-hydraulics and open channel flow\M-Y-OKII\8-92 pump discharge problem.0000121 ⋅ sec f := 0.5 ⋅ v1 g 2 − .4 ⋅ lb ft 3 K L := 1.5 minor loss coefficients including 90o bend and suction line entrance (no rounding) friction loss in suction line hL = f ⋅ 2 L v2 ⋅ 2 D 2⋅ g minor losses hm = K L ⋅ v2 2⋅ g p1 γ + z1 + v1 2 2⋅ g − hL − hm = pv γ + z2 + v2 2 2⋅ g p1 γ + z 1 + .049 ft 2 liquid velocity at point 2 v2 = Q A (unknown) length of suction line L := 50 ⋅ ft ft 2 g = 32.02 γ := 62.5 ⋅ Q 2 ( A2 ⋅ g) 8-92 pump discharge problem.174 ft sec -2 ν := .5 ⋅ K L ⋅ Q 2 ( A2 ⋅ g) = pv γ + z 2 + .

6 ft sec -1 N R := D ⋅ Vinlet ν N R = 3. ⋅ pv ⋅ g + 2 2. examine the sensitivity of the solution to the temperature (vapor pressure) of the water: lb in 2 pv := . ⋅ p1⋅ g + 2. ⋅ p1 ⋅ g + 2.mcd last save 10/26/99 / 4:17 PM D:\Mathcad 2000\Mathcad application areas\Fluid Mechanics-hydraulics and open channel flow\M-Y-OKII\8-92 pump discharge problem. ⋅ pv ⋅ g + 2 2.13 ⋅ lb in 2 .04 8-92 pump discharge problem.026 × 10 5 Now.664 Q A gal min Vinlet := Vinlet = 14. ⋅ z 1 ⋅ γ ⋅ g + v1 ⋅ γ − 2.Q := D⋅ A f⋅ L + KL⋅ D + D ⋅ −2. f) := D⋅ A f⋅ L + KL ⋅ D + D ⋅ −2. ⋅ z 2 ⋅ γ ⋅ g γ 340 330 Maximum flow rate (gpm) 320 310 300 290 280 270 260 250 240 10 19 28 Maximum Flow Calculations 37 46 55 64 vapor pressure 73 82 91 100 f = .69 ⋅ lb in 2 (40o F to 90o F) Q (pv .mcd 3 of 5 . ⋅ z 1 ⋅ γ ⋅ g + v1 ⋅ γ − 2. . ⋅ z 2 ⋅ γ ⋅ g γ maximum flow for specified conditions Q = 322.12 ⋅ ..02 f = . .

5 ⋅ Q 2 (A2 ⋅ g) Maximum pump elevation above datum(ft) 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 10 19 28 37 Maximum pump height 46 55 64 Vapor pressure 73 82 91 100 250 gpm 350 gpm 8-92 pump discharge problem.K.mcd last save 10/26/99 / 4:17 PM D:\Mathcad 2000\Mathcad application areas\Fluid Mechanics-hydraulics and open channel flow\M-Y-OKII\8-92 pump discharge problem.5 ⋅ Q 2 ( A2 ⋅ g) f := ..5 ⋅ v1 g − .Once we have the basic equation we can ask other questions.such as how high above the water surface can we place the pump (for a specified flowrate and friction factor) and still avoid cavatation? p1 γ + z 1 + .mcd 4 of 5 . .5 ⋅ f ⋅ L D ⋅ Q 2 ( A2 ⋅ g) − .02 2 z 2 ( pv .5 ⋅ v1 g 2 − . ⋅ pv γ − ..5 ⋅ K L ⋅ Q 2 ( A2 ⋅ g) = pv γ + z 2 + . Q) := p1 γ + z 1 + .O.5 ⋅ K L ⋅ Q 2 ( A2 ⋅ g) − 1.5 ⋅ f ⋅ L D ⋅ Q 2 ( A2 ⋅ g) − .

5 ⋅ K L ⋅ − 1.5 106 104. ft.5 103 101.mcd 5 of 5 .5 ⋅ f ⋅ L D ⋅ Q 2 ( A2 ⋅ g) − .For a given flowrate.5 ⋅ − .mcd last save 10/26/99 / 4:17 PM D:\Mathcad 2000\Mathcad application areas\Fluid Mechanics-hydraulics and open channel flow\M-Y-OKII\8-92 pump discharge problem.5 109 107.5 ⋅ v1 g 2 − .5 ⋅  γ 2 ) 2 ) γ g (A ⋅ g (A ⋅ g  D 2  ⋅ ⋅A ⋅g L ( pv) := 2.5 100 10 19 28 Maximum suction line length 37 46 55 64 vapor pressure (lb/sq.5 ⋅ Q 2 ( A2 ⋅ g) Q := 250 ⋅ gal min z 2 := 10 ⋅ ft 2 2 2   p1 v1 pv Q Q   + z 1 + .5 112 110.) 73 82 91 100 8-92 pump discharge problem. ⋅ − 1. friction factor and minor losses what is the maximum length of the suction line? p1 γ + z 1 + . ⋅ 2 f Q Maximum length of suction line (ft) 115 113.5 ⋅ K L ⋅ Q 2 ( A2 ⋅ g) = pv γ + z 2 + . ⋅ z 2 − . pump elevation.