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 Introduction to Embedded Systems  Components & Characteristics  Architecture of Embedded System  Embedded system design standards  Embedded Hardware & Software design  Introduction to Microcontrollers and Microprocessors  Microprocessors and history  Microcontrollers  Types of Processor architectures  Types of Processors
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 A computer system with higher quality and reliability requirements than other types of computer systems. Embedded system is:  A system which is designed to perform a dedicated task with less or no human interaction.What is Embedded System? It is difficult to provide an exact definition for embedded system as it is a wide and varied. in a large system.  A microprocessor based system that is embedded as a subsystem. © Copyright 2010 Rickey’s World Creative Commons BY-SA 3.0 License .

Components of ES  Hardware  Microprocessor or Microcontroller  Analog and Digital sensors  General Purpose inputs/outputs  Memory  Display  Software  Single or Multitasking Application  Communication Protocols  User Interface © Copyright 2010 Rickey’s World Creative Commons BY-SA 3.0 License .

Cost and reliability are important  Is able to talk to real world  Provides a user interface for interaction © Copyright 2010 Rickey’s World Creative Commons BY-SA 3.Characteristics of ES  Performs a defined task  High performance & Real Time  Power.0 License .

0 License .Embedded System Constraints  Real Time Response  Memory Availability  Processor Speed  Power consumption © Copyright 2010 Rickey’s World Creative Commons BY-SA 3.

Embedded System Architecture  The Architecture of an embedded system is an abstraction of embedded device.0 License .  Hardware and software components are represented as system elements. © Copyright 2010 Rickey’s World Creative Commons BY-SA 3.

0 License .Why Architecture design is important in Embedded System?  Understand an embedded system design  Determining system integrity  Working under system constraints  Deterministic requirements  Cost Estimation © Copyright 2010 Rickey’s World Creative Commons BY-SA 3.

Ethernet. USB)  IO.Embedded Hardware  Processing Unit  Major component (heart) of embedded system  Can be a microprocessor or a microcontroller  Memory  System RAM and ROM  External Memeory (Data Storage)  Peripherals  Communication Ports (RS232. RS485.0 License . DAC. Switches. Display © Copyright 2010 Rickey’s World Creative Commons BY-SA 3. ADC.

0 License .Embedded Software  Low level design  Written in Assembly  Used for smaller systems or time critical systems  High level Design  Written in C/C++  Best for large or complex system  Code is more portable  Mix design Approach  High level and low level combined  Flexible and responsive system © Copyright 2010 Rickey’s World Creative Commons BY-SA 3.

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© Copyright 2010 Rickey’s World Creative Commons BY-SA 3. 8086 etc.  Basic components includes ALU.  External Memory (RAM & ROM) is required  Some commonly known microprocessors are: 8085.0 License . Interrupt circuit and Memory interface. Register File.Microprocessor  A single chip semiconductor device which incorporates almost all functions of a CPU. Clock Circuitry.

followed     by famous Intel 8080 in 1974. © Copyright 2010 Rickey’s World Creative Commons BY-SA 3.Microprocessor History  The First 4-bit µP introduced in 1970 by Intel (4004)  First 8-bit µP introduced in 1972. Intel 8008. Today’s modern PC runs on the same x86 family. First 16-bit µP was introduced in 1976 by National semiconductor (IMP-16).0 License . Intel derived its 16-bit processor out of Intel’s 8080 architecture which became the first member of x86 family. The Commonly known 8085 is a derivative of Intel 8080.

 Common uC Architectures: MCS-51 (8051). AVR. MIPS.Microcontrollers  Small single chip computer. ARM.  Designed for embedded applications  History:  Evolved from Microprocessors  Intel 8048. PowerPC etc.0 License . programmable I/O peripherals. PIC. Memory (RAM and ROM). Includes CPU. first µC introduced in 1975 by Intel  Many uC architectures are available today © Copyright 2010 Rickey’s World Creative Commons BY-SA 3.

64. interrupt controllers etc. 32). built in I/O peripherals. Limited memory addressing space. perform complex operations and process large data Wide bus width is wide (32. 16. since I/O speed being controlled is slow © Copyright 2010 Rickey’s World Needs external hardware circuitry for Peripherals like (8255. Creative Commons BY-SA 3. Best suited for IO control or devices where required component count is less Instruction Set is more feature specific. 128). large memory addressing space Clock speed is very fast. Clock speed is slow.0 License .Microcontroller vs Microprocessor Hardware support is high. extremely compact Narrow data bus width (8. 8259 etc) Best suited for information processing in a computer system Instruction set is processing intensive.

Types of Processors  Digital Signal Processor  Signal processing is done in hardware (like FFT etc)  Vast area of application like Image & video processing (camera).0 License . game consoles etc. audio processing (telecom)  System On Chip  Integrates multiple components & CPU in a single IC  Reduces hardware cost  Vector Processor  Capable of processing multiple data in single instruction  Used in Graphic accelerators. © Copyright 2010 Rickey’s World Creative Commons BY-SA 3.

Types of CPU Architecture  Von Neumann Architecture  Harvard Architecture  Reduced Instruction Set Computing (RISC)  Complex Instruction Set Computing (CISC) © Copyright 2010 Rickey’s World Creative Commons BY-SA 3.0 License .

0 License . x86 etc.Von Neumann Architecture  All memory space on same bus  Instructions and data treated same     way Simplifies processor design More reliable RAM can be used as both Data and program memory Common examples are ARM. © Copyright 2010 Rickey’s World Creative Commons BY-SA 3.

Harvard Architecture  Code and data space on separate     bus Same address is possible for both program and data memory Potentially more efficient Instructions execute faster Common examples are: 8051. PIC © Copyright 2010 Rickey’s World Creative Commons BY-SA 3.0 License .

0 License © Copyright 2010 Rickey’s World .Reduced Instruction Set Computing  Less Number of instructions  Highly optimized instruction set  Single word instructions. AVR etc Creative Commons BY-SA 3. with fixed     op-code size needs less time to decode and execute Most of instructions are single clock cycle Simple addressing modes Memory load and store operations are done in steps Common examples: ARM.

need more clock cycles per instruction Common example: 8051 Creative Commons BY-SA 3.Complex Instruction Set Computing  Many instructions in instruction set  Designed to carry out complex     operations Large number of addressing modes available Instruction size vary Takes time to decode.0 License © Copyright 2010 Rickey’s World .

Summary  Embedded Systems  Embedded Hardware  Embedded Software  Embedded Architecture  Microprocessors and microcontrollers  Difference between uP and uC  Types of processors  Type of processor architectures.0 License . © Copyright 2010 Rickey’s World Creative Commons BY-SA 3.

Question & Answer session next! Link: http://www.8051projects.net/embedded-system/basics/qna.0 License .php © Copyright 2010 Rickey’s World Creative Commons BY-SA 3.