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Chemical Safety Data Sheet SD-37

PROPERTIES AND ESSENTIAL INFORMATION
FOR
SAFE HANDLING AND USE
OF
STYRENE MONOMER
Chemicals in any farm can be safely stared, handled or used if
the physical, chemical and hazardous properties are fully under-
stood and the necessary precautions, including the use of proper
safeguards and personal protective equipment, are observed.
REVISED 1971
REFERENCE
00 NOT LOAN
MANUFACTURING CHEMISTS ASSOCIATION
1825 CONNECTICUT AVENUE, N. W. WASHINGTON, D. C. 20009
Published as an activity of the Association's Safety and Fire Protection Committee.
Other MCA committees which have cooperated in its preparation include:
Air Quality Committee
Chemical Packaging Committee
Labels and Precautionary Information Committee
Occupational Health Committee
Transportation and Distribution Committee
Water Resources Committee
Address correspondence to staff editor-F. G. Stephenson, Manufacturing Chemists
Association, 1825 Connecticut Avenue, Washington, D. C. 20009.
© 1971 by Manufacturing Chemists' Association, Inc.
The information and recommendations contained in this Chemical Safety Data Sheet have been compiled from
sources believed to be reliable and to represent the best opinion on the subject as of 1971. However, no
guarantee, or representation is made by the Manufacturing Chemists Association as to the correctness or ollftic.iency
of any information or recommendation herein, and the Association assumes no responsibility in connection
nor can it be assumed that all necessary warnings and precautionary measures are contained in this Chemical
Dala Sheet, or that other or additional informaf.ion or measures may not be required or desirable because
particular or exceptional conditions or circumstances, or because of applicable federal, state, or local law.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Preface -- ---- ----- ------ ---- ---- ---- -__ _ __ ___ _ __ _ ___ _ _ ____ ___ _ _ ___ __ _ __ _ ____ ____ _ _ __ _ _ __ ______ _ _ ___ _ __ ___ _____ _ 4
1. NAMES ------------------- ______________________ .______________________________________________________________ 5
2. PROPERTIES --------------:---- __ :__________________________________________________________________________ 5
2.1 Grade and Strength -----_____________________________________________________________________ 5
2.2 Properties and Characteristics _________________________________________________________ 5
3. HAZARDS ------------------------____________________________________________________________________________ 6
3.1 Health Hazards -----------_______________________________________________________________________ 6
3.2 Fire and Explosion Hazards ______________________________________________________________ 6
4. ENGINEERING CONTROL OF HAZARDS ____________________________________________________ 6
4.1 Equipment Design ----_________________________________________________________________________ 6
4.2 Ventilation ------------____________________________________________________________________________ 7
5. EMPLOYEE SAfETY -------_______________________________________________________________________________ 7
5.1 Employee Education and Training _____________________________ ______________________ 7
5.2 Personal Projective Equipment ______________________________ _______________ 7
6. FIRE FIGHTING -________________________________________________________________ __________________________ 9
7_ SHIPPING, LABELING, HANDLING AND STORAGE ________________________________ 9
7.1 Shipping Containers -_________________________________________ _______________________________ 9
7.1.1 Type and Size --- ______________________________________ ,____________________________________ 9
7.1.2 Labeling and Identification __ ________________ _________ ______________________ 9
7.2 Handling -----------________________________ _ _______ ____________________________________ 10
7.2.1 Drums ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 10
7.2.2 Tank Trucks --- ____________________________________________________________________________ 10
7.2.3 Tank Cars -------- ___________________________________________________________________________ 10
7.3 Disposal and Return Precautions _____________________________________________________ 10
7.4 Storage ------------___________________________________________________________________________________ 10
7.5 Spills and Leaks ---- ___________________________________________________________________________ 10
8. TANK AND EQUIPMENT CLEANING AND REPAIRS ____________________________________ 11
9. WASTE DISPOSAL ________________________________________________________________________________________ 12
10_ MEDICAL MANAGEMENT ____________________________________________________________________________ 12
10.1 Hazards ------------- _______________________________________________________________________________ 12
10.2 Preventive Health Measures ____________________________________________________________ 13
I -1- FIRST AID -------------------_________________________________________________________________________________ 13
3
Chemical Safety Data S h ~ t
STYRENE MONOMER
PREFACE
Styrene monomer is a colorless liquid. Both the liquid and concentrated
vapors are irritating to the eyes and respiratory tract and high con-
centrations of the vapor have an anesthetic action.
Styrene monomer is flammable and can form explosive mixiures
with air at ambient temperatures; therefore, open flames, static elec-
tricity and other sources of ignition should be avoided when working
with the material.
Styrene monomer polymerizes readily at elevated temperatures
and slowly at room temperatures. Heat is evolved and the process is
autocatalytic, the temperature rise accelerating the rate of polymeri-
zation and thus increasing the rate of heat evolution with possibly
serious consequences. An inhibitor is added to the monomer to prevent
polymerization during shipment and subsequent storage.
The full text of this chemical safety data sheet should be con-
sulted for details of the hazards of styrene monomer and suggestions
for their control.
FIRST AID-SEE PAGE 13
4
Chemical Safety Data Sheet
STYRENE MONOMER
1. NAMES
Chemical Names: Styrene, Vinylbenzene, Phenylethylene
Common Name: Styrene Monomer
Formula: C
6
H
5
CHCH
2
2. PROPERTIES
2.1 GRADE AND STRENGTH
Grade _________________________________________________ --.Commercial
Strength_________________________________________ _____ 99.5 % (minimum)
2.2 PROPERTIES AND CHARACTERISTICS
Autoignition Temperature __________________ A90 °c. (914 of.)
Boiling PoinL ___________________ ---------__________ 145.2 DC. (293.4 of.) at 760 mm.
Color -------------_______________________________________ . Colorless
Manual
Sheet
SD-37
Corrosivity __________________________________________ Noncorrosive to most metals except copper and copper-containil
alloys.
Critical Pressure __________________________________ 3 7.8 atmospheres
Critical Temperature ____________________________ 362.10 dc. (683 ° F.)
Flammable Limits ________________________________ l.1 to 6.1 volume percent in air at room temperature.
Flash Poin L-----------_____________________________ Tag. Closed Cup: 31 ° C. (88 of. )
Tag. Open Cup: 37°C. (98°F.)
Freezing PoinL ____________________________________ - 30.63 ° C. ( - 23.1 ° F.)
Molecular Weigh t ________________________________ l 04.14
OdoL ___________________________________________________ Sweet, pleasant odor in very low concentrations; increasingly dis-
agreeable at higher concentrations.
- Aldehydes or peroxides may form on exposure to air. These tene
to increase the sharp and penetrating odor of the monomer.
Physical State--c-__________________ , __________________ Liquid at room temperature.
Reactivity _________________________ : ___________________ Very reactive; rate of polymerization violently increased with man-
of the common reagents and/or elevated temperatures. This hazar
is reduced if the material is properly inhibited.
Specific Gravity ______________________________ ~ _____ 0.90 177 at 25/25 DC.
Vapor Density ----___________________________________ 3.6
Vapor Pressure ____________________________________ A.3mm Hg. at 15°C.
5
Manual
Sheet
50-37
Manufacturing Chemists Association
Styrene Monomer
3. HAZARDS
3.1 HEALTH HAZARDS
3.1.1 Styrene is a colorless liquid with a disagree-
able odor but with good warning Both
the liquid and its vapor when in sufficient concentra-
tion, are irritants to the eyes and respiratory tract.
High concentrations have an anesthetic action. Pro-
longed exposure is capable of causing respiratory
irritation, but other systemic iniuiY is unlikely. The
Threshold Limit Value published by the ACGIH is
100 ppm (1969). The Z-37 Committee of ANSI
recommends a ceiling value of 200 ppm if the time-
weighted average exposure does not exceed 100 ppm
(SeeANSIZ-137.S (1968)).
3.1.2 Liquid styrene monomer and concentrated
vapors are extremely irritating to the eyes but per-
manent injury has not been reported.
3.1.3 Prolonged contact with the skin may cause
some moderate irritation.
3.2 FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARDS
, .
3.2.1 Styrene monomer is flammable and can
form explosive mixtures with air at ambient tempera-
tures. Open flames, local hot spots, frir-lion, static
electricity, and all other sources of ignition are to be
avoided when working with the material.
3.2.2 Styrene monomer polymerizes rcCldily at
elevated temperatures and slowly atrooP1 tempera-
tUJ·es. Considerable heat is evolved during poly-
merization, and serious consequences may result.
The process is autocatalytic, and temperature rise
accelerates the rate of polymerization, which in turn
increases the rate of heat evolution. Eventually, the
reaction may become violent in nature.
The literature value for the heat of polymeriza-
tion is 288 BTU per pound. This is enough he«t to
promote a self-sustaining (runaway) reaction pro-
vided the temperature is first raised to a level high
enough to initiate the reaction. (Usually a tempera-
ture above lS0°F. is required to initiate a rapid poly-
merization reaction.) After the reaction is well un-
derway the temperature usually rises to the boiling
point of styrene (294°F.) and as the reaction pro-
ceeds and more polymer i<; formed, the temperature
of the liquid mass may rise considerably higher. The
ultimate temperature depends somewhat on the size
of the vessel or storage tank. Obviously a larger tank
has less radiating surface per volume of styrene so
that the temperature in the larger storage tank will
rise higher during the polymerization reaction. In
certain instances a temperature as high as 5S0°F.
has been observed but this would be a very rare
occurrence. An outside source of' ignition is neces-
sary to set styrene vapor on fire.
Generally the principal hazard attending the
polymerization reaction is the development. of an
excessively high vapor pressure due to heahng the
styrene above its boiling point (294°F.). Thus in a
closed tank enough pressure can be developed during
the polymerization reaction to cause the tank to
rupture unless the tank is equipped with a large
enough vent to permit escape of the styrene vapor.
Another hazard attending the polymerization occurs
when the reaction has proceeded to a considerable
extent. At this point the liquid becomes viscous and
vapor bubbles are trapped within the liquid mass
which can cause appreciable expansion. This expan-
sion could hydrostatically lift the roof or rupture the
tank if there was insufficient vapor space above the
liquid.
3.2.3 An inhibitor is added to the monomer for
protection during shipment and subsequent storage.
If the' storage temperature is 70°F. or less, the
monomer must be checked at least weekly to deter-
mine inhibitor and polymer content. If stora&e
temperatures exceed 70°F., check daily or as expen-
ence indicates. The shipper should be consulted for
the methods of making these determinations and
their significance.
4. ENGINEERING CONTROL OF HAZARDS
4. I EQUIPMENT DESIGN
4. I. I Processes should be located at least SO feet
away from open flames and all high temperature
operations likely to cause ignition of the styrene
monomer vapor.
4.1.2 Processes should be designed so the
operator is not exposed to direct contact with styrene
monomer or the vapor. The technical problems of
designing equipment, providing adequate ventilation
6
and operating procedures which promise maximum
security' and economy, can best be handled by com-
petent engineers. Due to the tendency of
monomer to form polymers which may plug eqUIp-
ment, all piping, valves, gauges, vents, tank opelllngs ..
pressure relief devices, and engineering controls
should be so designed and located that they may be
readily and periodically inspected and cleaned.
4. 1.3 Tanks used to store or process styrene
monomer should be closed vessels vented to a safe
Styrene Monomer Manufacturing Chemists Association
Manual
Sheet
SD-37
point of discharge in the outside atmosphere away
from operating stations, roadways, and at least 50
feet from possible sources of ignition. As the mono-
mer vapors are uninhibited and may form polymers
in vents and flame arrestors, these should be in-
spected and cleaned periodically to prevent plugging.
Sparks, flames, heated surfaces, or other sources
of ignition should be kept away from all vents. If
the material is heated above its flash point do not
provide suction on· the vessel when inspections or
observation openings are made.
4.2 VENTILATION
4.2.1 In venting styrene monomer vapors, con-
siderations should be given to possible halogenation
of the vapors by low concentrations of free chlorine
and bromine with the resultant formation of lacrima-
tors.
4.2.2 Under abnormal conditions such as leaks
or spills, all available ventilation should be used.
4.2.3 Good natural ventilation should normally
be sufficient. If other than natural ventilation is re-
quired, the ventilating equipment should be designed
to handle the styrene monomer vapor. Since styrene
monomer vapor is heavier than air, exhausts should
be provided at the ground level. The most important
consideration in ventilation should be to ensure a
substantial air flow away from the work area. All
venti lating systems require periodic inspection.
5. EMPLOYEE SAFETY
5.1 EMPLOYEE EDUCATION AND
TRAINING
5.1.1 There has been good industrial experience
in the handling of styrene monomer despite the toxic
and flammable properties of the material. This shows
that styrene monomer can be used with safety if all
necessary precautions are taken.
5.1.2 Employee education, training, and proper
supervision are recognized as fundamental precau-
tionary measures. Una:uthorized and untrained em-
ployees should not be permitted in areas where
styrene monomer is being handled.
5.1.3 Employee education and training should
emphasize the need to handle styrene monomer ac-
cording to approved safety methods, in order to
avoid spilling or splashing, leaks, inhalation of the
vapor, or ingestion.
5.1.4 Before being placed on the job, new em-
ployees should be instructed thoroughly in the
proper handling of styrene monomer. Older em-
ployees should be reinstructed periodically. Frequent
questioning of employees will enable management
to insure their thorough understanding of essential
facts.
5.1.5 Each employee should know the location,
purpose and maintenance of personal protective
equipment and be thoroughly trained in its use.
5.1.6 Only reliable, dependable and properly
trained employees should be given the responsibility
of operating valves which control the movement of
styrene monomer to and from storage tanks, tank
cars and containers.
5.1.7 Employees should be trained to report to
the proper authority all suspected leaks or equipment
failures and any signs of iIlness or skin irritations.
7
5.2 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
5.2.1 Exposure to styrene monomer liquid or
vapods likely to occur during the transfer and han-
dling of the material. Thorough operational analysis
and the provision of proper protective equipment will
prevent most exposures of a serious consequence..
5.2.2 Availahility and Use
Personal protective equipment is not an ade-
quate substitute for good safe working conditions,
adequate ventilation and intelligent conduct on the
part of the employees working with styrene monomer.
Such equipment may protect the individual wearing
it, while others in the area may be exposed to danger.
The correct usage of personal protective equipment
requires the education of the worker in the proper
employment of the equipment available to him. Un-
der conditions which are sufficiently hazardous to re-
quire protective equipment, the use of such equipment
should be carefully supervised. In all cases, the type
of protective equipment selected should depend upon
the degree of hazard existing.
5.2.3 'Eye Protection
5.2.3.1 Chemical Safety Goggles: In most
operations offering a possibility of eye injury, protec-
tion will be afforded by chemical safety goggles.
Cup-type c. rubber-framed goggles equipped with
approved impact resistant glass or plastic lenses
should be worn whenever there is danger of styrene
monomer coming in contact with the eyes. Goggles
should be carefully fitted to insure maximum protec-
tion and comfort.
5.2.3.2 Face Shields: Plastic shields (full
length, 8-inch minimum) with forehead protection
may be worn in addition to chemical safety goggles
when complete face protection is desirable.
Manual
Sheet
50-37
Manufacturing Chemists Association Styrene Monomer
5.2.3.3 Each employee should know the loca-
tion of eye baths for flushing the eyes.
5.2.4 Respiratory Protection
5.2.4.1 For concentrations not exceeding 2
percent by volume and for relatively brief exposure
periods, an industrial canister-type gas mask with full
face piece and canister, approved for this purpose
by the United States Bureau of Mines, may be used.
The oxygen content of the air must not be less than
] 6 percent by volume. Canister-type masks are
suitable for use under emergency conditions since it
is usually impossible to determine if the concentra-
tion of contaminant present is within the filtering
capacity of the mask or if sufficient oxygen is present.
5.2.4.2' Air or oxygen-supplied masks
equipped with full face pieces must be worn for pro-
tection when the following conditions may be en-
countered:
(a) In emergencies, when the vapor concen-
tration is not definitely known.
(b) Wheri the vapor concentration is over
2 percent by volume.
(c) When the oxygen content of the air may
be less than 16 percent by volume.
(d) When the exposure period may exceed
thirty minutes.
(e) In tank and process equipmcnt cleaning
and repair work when any of the conditions men-
tioned in a, b, c, or d are present.
5.2.4.3 Air or oxygen-supplied masks should
be approved by the United States Bureau of Mines
and the manufacturer's instructions should be care-
fully followed. Types available include:
(a) Air-line masks supplied by plant com-
pressed air or compressed-air cylinders. These are
suitable for use only where conditions will permit
safe escape in case of failure of the compressed air
supply. Such masks should be used only in conjunc-
tion with a suitable reducing or demand-type valve
and filter and an appropriate pressure relief valve.
The compressed air should be checked frequently to
make certain that harmful gases from the decomposi-
tion of the lubricating oil used in the compressor, or
from impure air supply, are not present. The safer
method is to use a separate compressor of the type
not requiring internal lubrication. Pressure-reducing
and relief valves must be installed at all mask stations.
An alternative arrangement frequently used is high
pressure breathing air from standard (200 cu. ft.)
cylinders with a demand-type valve and face piece.
This arrangement may also be used with 50 to 100
psi clean piped plant air. As an additional precau-
tion with the demand mask, a small cylinder of com-
pressed air may be worn for use as an emergency air
supply for escape from the area.
8
(b) Positive-pressure hose masks supplied
h y externally luhricated blowers. These are usually
preferred to the air-line type. Since these masks also
depend en a remote air supply, they should be used
,.only where conditions will permit safe escape in the
event of an air supply failure. Care must be taken
to locate the blower air source in an area which is
free from styrene monomer or other air contaminants.
(c) Self-contained breathing apparatus
which permits the wearer to carry a supply of oxygen
or air compressed in a cylinder, or the self-generating
type which produces oxygen chemically. These allow
for greater mobility. The length of time a self-con-
tained breathing apparatus provides protection varies
according to the amount of air or oxygen supply
carried. In tank work, where small manholes are
encountered, a self-contained breathing apparatus is
usually unsuitable because of its bulk.
5.2.4.4 Respiratory protective equipment must
be carefully maintained, inspected, cleaned and steri-
lized at regular intervals and always before use by
another person. Personnel wearing such equipment
must be carefully instructed in its operation and
limitations.
5.2.5 Head Protection
5.2.5.1 Safety or "hard" hats will provide pro-
tection against falling tools or other objects.
5.2.5.2 Soft brimmed hats may be substituted
for safety hats where the danger of falling objects is
remote.
5.2.6 Foot Protection
5.2.6.1 Chemical resistant synthetic rubber
shoes or boots should be worn when there is risk of
foot exposure to styrene monomer. Frequent ex-
amination of this equipment should be made to insure
against possible holes and leaks. Leather shoes will
not afford adequate protection against contact as
styrene monomer readily penetrates the leather
if undetected, may result in blistering of the SkIll.
Leather shoes wet with styrene monomer should be
removed promptly, dried thoroughly and aired free of
styrene before they are reworn.
5.2.7 Body, Skin and Hand Protection
5.2.7.1 Gloves and aprons of suitable rubber
or of nonsoluble plastic materials should be worn
where splashes or contact with styrene monomer
likely to occur. Frequent examinations of this eqUIP-
ment should be made.
5.2.7.2 All contaminated clothing,
gloves, shoes, coveralls, etc. should be removed Im-
mediately to avoid prolonged contact with styrene
monomer. Contaminated skin should be washed
clothing should not be Worn again until all evi'deJ1Ce
of styrene has been removed.
Styrene Monomer Manufacturing Chemists Association
6. FIRE FIGHTING
Manual
Sheet
50-37
6.1 The following extinguishing agents may be used
on styrene monomer fires: dry chemical, water fog,
foam and carbon dioxide. If electrical equipment is
involved, the used of foam should be avoided.
6.2 Equipment handling styrene monomer should
be cooled by water stream if exposed to fire.
7. SHIPPING, LABELING, HANDLING AND STORAGE
7.1 Shipping Containers
The shipment of inhibited styrene monomer is
not regulated by the Department of Transportation
Hazardous Materials Regulations. The Manufactur-
ing Chemists Association recommends the following
containers be used:
7.1.1 Type and Size
7.1.1.1 Glass Bottles: Pint and quart capacity
in suitable containers.
7.1.1.2 Metal Cans: One and five gallon ca-
pacity, in suitable outside containers.
7.1.1.3 Metal Drum (Single Trip): Not over
55 gallon capacity, such as DOT Spec. 17E, Uniform
Freight Classification Rule 40, Section 5C or Na-
tional Motor Freight Classification Rule 260.
7.1.1.4 Tank Trucks
7.1.1.5 Tank Cars: 4,000 to 12,500 gallon
capacity. DOT Spec. 103, 103W, 104 and 104W.
7.1.2 Labeling and Identification
7.1.2.1 The Manufacturing Chemists Associa-
tion recommends that all containers of styrene mono-
mer should bear a label as shown. The text is de-
STYRENE MONOMER
WARNING! CAUSES EYE IRRITATION
VAPOR IRRITATING
COMBUSTIBLE
Avoid contact with eyes.
Avoid breathing vapor.
Avoid prolonged or repeated contact with skin.
Keep away from heat and open flame.
Use with adequate ventilation.
Keep container closed.
Wash thoroughly after handling.
FIRST AID: In case of contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water
for at least 15 minutes. Call a physician.
In case of:
Fire-Use foam, dry chemical, or C O ~ .
Spill or Leak-Flush area with water spray.
MCA Chemical Safety Data Sheet SD-37 available.
9
Manual
Sheet
50-37
Manufacturing Chemists Association Styrene Monomer
signed for the product as shipped for industrial use.
It should be used in addition to or in combination
with any specific wording required by law. Since
individual statutes, regulations, or ordinances may
require that particular information be included in a
label, that certain information be displayed in a par-
ticular manner, or that a specific label be affixed to a
container, the use of this label text will not neces-
sarily insure compliance with such laws. Such laws
include the Federal Hazardous Substances Labeling
Act; Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide
Act; and similar state and municipal legislation.
7.2 HANDLING
7.2.1 Drums
7.2.1.1 Drums should be unloaded
to prevent damage. Do not drop or bump them.
7.2.1.2 Each shipment should be examined
carefully for leaking drums. If any are found, they
should be handled with particular care by turning
the leaking part up and should be removed to a
safe place where the leakage can be stopped or the
contents transferred to a sound container.
7.2.1.3 Before emptying, substantially support
the drums and block them to prevent movement.
When filling open containers from a drum, electrical
bonding should be provided to prevent static sparks.
(See National Fire Protection Association Standard
No. 77-Static Electricity.)
7.2.1.4 To remove the body plug, the bung
should be placed up and a bung or plug wrench used.
'Ehe operator should stand to one side during the
operation. After the plug starts, give it not more
one full turn. If internal pressure exists, allow
It to vent to atmospheric pressure; then only should
the plug be loosened further or removed. Suitable
protective equipment should be worn.
7.2.1.5 For removing the styrene monomer
by gravity, a faucet should be inserted in the end
bung of the drum and the drum then placed on a
rack and securely blocked against movement before
withdrawing the contents. Faucets should have short
threaded with Briggs standard straight iron
pipe threads. The bung opening and the faucet
should have the same type and number of threads
per inch. A resilient gasket of suitable material (such
as a metal clad gasket) which is not soluble in the
monomer should be used. Another method of remov-
ing styrene monomer from drums is by means of a
rotary pump with a flexible metal hose. Protect the
workmen from vapor and liquid.
7.2.1.6 Containers which have held styrene
monomer must be thoroughly cleaned by steaming,
drained and dried before reuse. Small amounts of the
monomer, on standing in a container, may polymerize
and may be oxidized to aldehydes and peroxides.
10
7.2.1.7 Avoid striking fittings with tools or
other hard objects.
7.2.2 Tank Trucks
7.2.2.1 Before unloading the truck, the motor
should be stopped and not started again during the
entire unloading operation.
7.2.2.2 Truck brakes should be set, and the
wheels should be blocked.
7.2.2.3 If tank trucks are unloaded through an
open dome, the unloading equipment must be elec-
trically bonded before unloading operations are
started.
7.2.2.4 All regulations of the DOT whenever
applicable to the handling and unloading of this
material as set forth in Motor Carrier Tariff 7, and
all amendments thereto, must be followed.
7.2.2.5 The shipper should be consulted for
details on proper unloading procedure.
7.2.2.6 The use of rubber-type flexible hose
in unloading styrene is not recommended. However,
fluorelastomer hoses (e.g. "Fluorel" and "Viton")
have proved· satistory.
7.2.3 Tank Cars
7.2.3.1 Shipper'S instruction for unloading
should always be followed, and all caution markings
on both sides of tank and dome should be read and
observed.
7.2.3.2 Inspection is particularly important in
the case of tank cars after they have been moved,
since leaks may develop in transit.
7.2.3.3 In the event of a tank car or fitting
failure or leak that cannot be stopped by following
previous instructions from shipper, immediately
telephone or wire him for further instructions.
7.2.3.4 See that the train or engine crew ac-
curately spots the car at the unloading line. The
unloading track should be level. The brakes should
be set, wheels blocked by standard rail clamps, blue
warning signs placed, and other safe practices fol-
lowed, as outlined in DOT Regulations Section 561.
Railroad track, tank car, unloading rack, accessory
structure, etc. must be electrically bonded and
grounded.
7.2.3.5 It is considered good practice that de-
rails be placed at one end or both ends of the un-
loading track approximately one car-length from the
car being unloaded, unless the car is protected by a
closed and locked switch or gate.
7.2.3.6 The use of tank cars with permanent
dome connections for discharge by pumping is pre-
ferred. If the car does not have an eduction pipe,
one can be inserted through the dome.
7.2.3.7 Unloading tank cars through the bot-
tom connection is not recommended. If it is neces-
Styrene Monomer Manufacturing Chemists Association Manual
Sheet
50-37
sary to use this method, however, follow the proce-
dure set forth in MCA Manual Sheet TC-4. First
open the dome cover, observing usual precautions
to make sure there is no pressure inside the car.
Then remove the cap or plug from the bottom of the
outlet chamber leg under the car, being careful to
loosen it slowly and to permit all liquid to drain be-
fore all threads are disengaged. The operator should
wear goggles and oil-resistant synthetic rubber gloves,
and avoid inhalation of vapor during this operation.
Catch all leakage in a bucket. In case the bottom out-
let valve leaks too badly to permit the safe removal
of the cap, try to tighten it by turning the valve rod
handle in both directions. If the valve still cannot be
made tight, unload the contents through the dome of
the car, and report the condition of the valve to the
shipper. Do not completely remove the cap at the
bottom of the outlet leg until the control of leakage
is assured. After the cap is removed, connect the un-
loading line. Return to the dome, and open the
bottom outlet valve by turning the valve rod handle.
7.2.3.8 The use of rubber-type flexible hose in
unloading styrene monomer is not recommended.
However, fluorelastomer hoses (e.g. "FIuorel" and
"Viton") have proved satisfactory.
7.2.3.9 Caution: Pumping against closed valve
quickly generates heat and may lead to runaway
polymerization.
7.3 DISPOSAL AND RETURN
PRECAUTIONS
7 .3.1 Before returning shipping containers to
suppliers, take precautions regarding complete drain-
age of contents and proper closure of all openings.
7.3.2 Containers which have held styrene mono-
mer must be thoroughly cleaned by steaming, drained
and dried before reuse. Small amounts of the mono-
mer, on standing in a container, may polymerize and
may be oxidized to aldehydes and peroxides.
7.3.3 As soon as a tank car or tank truck is com-
pletely unloaded, all valves must be made tight, the
unloading connection must be removed and all other
closures made tight, except that heater coil inlet and
outlet pipes (if any) must be left open for drainage.
Under no conditions should heater coils be used when
in styrene service.
7.4 STORAGE
7.4.1 Under normal conditions, styrene monomer
may be stored in black iron, galvanized iron, or steel
containers. However, copper or copper-containing
alloys are attacked either by styrene monomer or by
crganic aldehydes and peroxides which may be
present in the monomer.
7.4.2 Conditions of Storage
7.4.2.1 Storage should be located away from
any area subject to fire hazards. Storage tanks lo-
cated in the open or underground minimize the
danger of fire, vapor and health problems.
7.4.2.2 Vents and flame arrestors can become
plugged with formation of polymers. These must be
periodically inspected and freed of the polymer.
7.4.2.3 All openings in the system should
terminate outdoors away from air intakes and be
protected by flash arrestors or pressure vacuum vents
(See NFPA #30).
7.4.2.4 Electrical installations should conform
to the National Electrical Code. Article 500 of this
Cede applies to areas which are hazardous from a
fire and explosion standpoint.
7.4.2.5 "torage tanks should be electrically
banded and grounded to prevent dangerous accumu-
lations of static electricity (See NFPA pamphlet No.
77 "Static Electricity.")
- 7.4.2.6 Natural ventilation is all that is needed
for outdoor storage installations.
7.5 SPILLS AND LEAKS
All spills and leaks should be immediately flushed
away with large quantities of water. If water is not
available, styrene monomer may be absorbed by dry
earth, or its equivalent, and then taken off in a
container to a disposal area. Only properly pro-
tected personnel should remain ~ i n the area.
8. TANK AND EQUIPMENT CLEANING AND REPAIRS
8.1 PHEPARATION OF TANKS AND
EQUIPMENT
8.1.1 The hazardous nature of tank inspection,
cleaning, and repairs requires that the foreman and
crew be sclected, trained, and drilled carefully. They
should b\: fully familiar with thc hazards and the
safeguards necessary for the safe performance .of the
work. Written approval should be secured from
plant managemcnt before the work is started.
11
8.1.2 Wherever possible, vessels should be
cleaned from the outside, using clean-out doors.
8.1.3 Pipelines into or out of the tank or other
apparatus should be disconnected, preferably by
removing a complete section and providing a blank
flange on the open end to protect against human error
and unsuspected leaks. Valves, cocks, and blank
flanges in the pipeline should not be relied upon
Manual
Sheet
50-37
Manufacturing Chemists Association Styrene Monomer
solely to prevent leakage into the container being
cleaned.
8.1.4 . Danger signs should be placed suitably to
indicate when workmen are in the tank or other
apparatus.
8.1.5 Be sure the tank can be left by the orig-
inal entrance.
8.1.6 Electrical switches should be locked in the
"off" position and tagged with a warning that they
are not to be opened. Where possible, the fuses
should be pulled. Drive belts should be removed and
all other precautions taken to insure against the
accidental starting of agitating equipment or other
moving parts inside the tank or adjacent to the
entrance.
8.2 ENTERING THE TANK
8.2.1 Before entering a tank, it should be emp-
tied, and gas-freed by steaming and cooling or by
other means.
8.2.2 Before entering a tank and during the
course of the work, tests should be made by a quali-
fied person to determine that no further washing is
necessary, that no oxygen deficiency exists, and that
no harmful gas or vapor is present.
8.2.3 Special ventilation and a continuous fresh
air supply are recommended during the entire time
men are cleaning, inspecting or repairing the tank.
8.2.4 Proper personal protective equipment such
as safety belts, rescue harness, lifeline, protective
clothing and mask as required should be worn by
anyone entering a tank for inspection, cleaning, or
repairs.
8.2.5 A man should be stationed outside the
tank in such a position as to keep workmen within
the tank under constant observation. He should serve
as the lifeline tender and be ready at all times to
summon the rescue squad or other required aid. He
should never abandon the lifeline while operators are
in the tank. There should also be a man within call
who can assist the lifeline tender in an emergency.
8.2.6 A self-contained breathing apparatus or an
air supplied respirator should be located outside the
tank entrance for the use of the rescue squad. Extra
rescue harness and lifeline should also be available.
8.2.7 During the entire period of preparation and
cleaning or repair, consideration should be given to
the possibility of toxic amounts of styrene monomer
vapors being released in the work area.
8.2.8 Portable electric lights and power tools
should conform with the National Electrical Code,
Article 500.
9. WASTE DISPOSAL
9.1 It should be ascertained that all Federal, State
and local regulations regarding health and pollution
are observed. The supplier should be contacted for
advice.
9.2 All quantities of styrene monomer, or waste
material contaminated with styrene monomer, should
be disposed of by removal to a disposal area and
safely burned.
9.3 Water contaminated by styrene monomer may
be made safe for disposal by removal to ~ safe loca-
tion where the mixture may be blown with air. The
outlet air stream should be burned in cases of gross
contamination.
9.4 When a waste disposal problem arises as the
result of a major spill or equipment rupture, only
properly protected personnel should remain in the
area.
10. MEDICAL MANAGEMENT
10.1 HAZARDS
10.1.1 Hazardous Properties
The toxicity of styrene monomer, when consid-
ered as an industrial chemical, is low. It is a moder-
ate irritant to the eyes and respiratory tract in con-
centrations above 2 mg/1. (400 ppm). Vapor con-
centrations three times as great are extremely irritat-
ing to the eyes and nose. Concentrations of 46 mg/I.
(10,000 ppm) are acutely dangerous, causing lung
irritation and central nervous system depression.
12
Some of the inhibitors used to retard polymeriza-
tion of the stored or transported styrene monomer
are toxic and irritating to the skin, but precautions
given below for controlling health hazards of styrene
monomer, are, in general, applicable to any hazards
incidental to the inhibitors.
The disagreeable odor of styrene monomer at
relatively low vapor concentrations, and the eye a?d
nose irritation at higher concentrations, make the Iil-
halation of seriously toxic quantities unlikely unless
Styrene Monomer Manufacfurin 9 Chemists Association
Manual
Sheet
SO-37
the victim is trapped in such a location that escape
from the vapor is impossible.
Styrene monomer, although derived from ben-
zol, does not exhibit any of the hematological effects
of benzol (see Safety Data Sheet SD-2) and has not
been reported as causing anemia in man or labora-
tory animals. The measurement of ethereal sulfates
in the urine, which is useful in benzol exposure, is
of no value in detecting styrene monomer absorption.
Expired air samples are also of little value in diagnos-
ing exposure to styrene.
10.1. 2 Acu te Toxic Effects
10.1.2.1 After inhalation: The generally ac-
cepted maximum allowable concentration for an
eight-hour working day is 100 ppm by volume in air
(see 3.1). In concentrations above 400 ppm styrene
monomer is irritating to all parts of the respiratory
tract. A concentration of 10,000 ppm or more may
be fatal in thirty to sixty minutes.
10.1.2.2 Systemic Effects: No fatalities have
been reported in man. In laboratory animals exposed
to high concentrations of styrene monomer vapor,
death has resulted from lung irritation or central
nervous system depression.
10.1.2.3 Eyes: Both liquid styrene monomer
and concentrated vapors are extremely irritating to
the eyes. Permanent damage to the eyes has not
been reported.
10.1.2.4 Skin: Styrene monomer may cause
some moderate irritation after contact with the skin,
similar to that noticed with other aromatic hydro-
carbons. Short exposures of skin to styrene should
be avoided, particularly when covered by clothing.
Long exposures result in irritation and blisters.
10.1.2.5 After Oral Intake: When taken by
mouth, styrene monomer causes a pronounced irri-
tation of the mouth, esophagus, and stomach.
10.1.3 Chronic Toxic Effects of Liquid or
Vapor
10.1.3.1 Systemic Effects: No systemic ef-
fects have been noted in workers repeatedly exposed
to low concentrations of styrene monomer.
10.1.3.2 Local Effects: Repeated skin contact
with styrene monomer may produce dermatitis simi-
lar to that encountered with organic solvents.
10.2 PREVENTIVE HEALTH MEASURES
Styrene monomer is not a serious industrial haz-
ard. Workers should, however, be effectively in-
structed and adequately supervised in the proper
handling of this chemical.
10.2.1 Employee Education
Employees should be instructed in (1) the haz-
ardous properties of styrene monomer, (2) the neces-
sity of care in the avoidance of leaks, and (3) the
necessity for using proper personal protective equip-
ment.
10.2.2 Ventilation
Ventilation must be adequate to keep the at-
mospheric concentration of styrene monomer below
100 p.p.m.
10.2.3 Preplacement Physical Examination
Asthmatic individuals and those suffering from
chronic pulmonary infections should not be employed
in operations where they might come in repeated
contact with styrene monomer.
10.2.4 Periodic Physical Examinations
Workers exposed to styrene monomer need no
special type of periodic examination. ,The usual ex-
amination given to workers with industrial chemicals
is sufficient.
10.2.5 Personal Protective Equipment-
See Section 5
10.2.6 Skin Protection
In order to prevent dermatitis or other effects
of direct contact of liquid styrene monomers with
the skin, employees exposed to such contact should
be provided with gloves and aprons made of suitable
rubber or nonsoluble plastic material.
11. FIRST AID
11.1 GENERAL PRINCIPLES
11.1.1 First aid comprises simple measures to
make the patient comfortable and to preserve his
life. These measures may be taken by nonmedical
personnel, including the patient's co-workers. In all
cases of exposure, the patient should be moved to
fresh air or a well-ventilated room free of the vapor
and wade comfortably warm, not hot. If the ex-
13
posure has not been severe, usually nothing more
need to be done.' However, when severe or prolonged
exposure is involved, the following steps should be
taken.
11.1.2 If The Patient Is Conscious:
11.1.2.1
(a) Immediately move the patient to fresh
air or a well-ventilated room.
Manual
Sheet
SD-37
Manufacturing Chemists Association
Styrene Monomer
(b) Call a physician immediately, informing
him of the exact nature of the case and where the
patient may be found when he arrives.
(c) To prevent collapse, the patient should
lie down without a pillow and be kept comfortably
warm, not hot.
(d) Oxygen usually furnishes relief from
coughing from severe exposure. If one trained in
administering it is present, its administration should
be kept up at least fifteen to thirty minutes.
11.1.2.2 In cases of skin contact, the affected
parts should be washed thoroughly with soap and
water for about 30 minutes, or until the irritation
subsides.
11.1.2.3 In cases of contact with the eyes, the
eyes should be irrigated with large quantities of run-
ning water for a period of fifteen minutes. The eye-
lids should be held apart during the irrigation to in-
sure contact of water with all the surfaces of the eyes
and lids.
11.1.2.4 If the monomer has been swallowed,
the patient should be'made to vomit by inducing him
to stick his finger down his throat. If that fails, he
should be given several cupfuls of lukewarm salt or
soapy water. This should be repeated at least three
times and followed with milk and raw eggs.
11.1.3 If The Patient Is Unconscious:
11.1.3.1 Call a physician immediately, inform-
ing him of the exact nature of the case and where the
patient may be found on arrival. Until he arrives,
do the following:
(a) Lay the patient down, preferably on the
left side, with the head low. Remove any false teeth,
14
chewing gum, tobacco, or other foreign objects which
may be in the mouth.
(b) If the patient is not breathing, remove
him to fresh air and start artificial respiration at once,
preferably by mouth-to-mouth resuscitation method.
( c) In cases of unconsciousness, shallow
breathing or cyanosis (blueness of skin, lips, ears,
fingernail beds), the administration of oxygen alone
or of oxygen with carbon dioxide should be started.
Only trained attendants should be permitted to ad-
minister oxygen. Attempts to give oxygen by one
not familiar with the apparatus may cause loss of
valuable time or actually harm the patient.
In order to prevent the development of severe
lung congestion (pulmonary edema), 100 percent
oxygen should be administered as soon as possible af-
ter severe exposure. Oxygen administration is most
effective if expiration is made against a positive pres-
sure of 6 cm. (about 2% inches) of water. This may
be accomplished by fitting a rubber tube to the outlet
valve of the face mask and inserting it in a container
of water. The depth of the end of the tube may be
varied to a maximum of 6 cm., depending upon the
patient's tolerance. Oxygen inhalation must be con-
tinued as long as is necessary to maintain the normal
color of the skin and mucous membranes, but the
positive exhalation pressure should be used only for
half-hour periods out of every hour.
Stimulants will rarely be necessary where ade-
quate oxygenation is maintained. Any such treatment
should be given only by the attending physician.
(d) If the styrene monomer has been swal-
J 'wed, when the patient regains consciousness, in-
duce vomiting as indicated in 11.1.2.4.
11.1.3.2 Never give an unconscious person
anything by mouth or attempt to induce vomiting.

or local law. or because of applicable federal. Stephenson. 20009. However. © 1971 by Manufacturing Chemists' Association. or representation is made by the Manufacturing Chemists Association as to the correctness or ollftic.ion or measures may not be required or desirable because particular or exceptional conditions or circumstances. no guarantee. or that other or additional informaf.iency of any information or recommendation herein. 1825 Connecticut Avenue. Manufacturing Chemists Association. and the Association assumes no responsibility in connection nor can it be assumed that all necessary warnings and precautionary measures are contained in this Chemical Dala Sheet. Other MCA committees which have cooperated in its preparation include: Air Quality Committee Chemical Packaging Committee Labels and Precautionary Information Committee Occupational Health Committee Transportation and Distribution Committee Water Resources Committee Address correspondence to staff editor-F. G. state.Published as an activity of the Association's Safety and Fire Protection Committee. C. D. Inc. . Washington. The information and recommendations contained in this Chemical Safety Data Sheet have been compiled from sources believed to be reliable and to represent the best opinion on the subject as of 1971.

HAZARDS ------------------------____________________________________________________________________________ 3.1 Type and Size --.3 Tank Cars -------.2 Ventilation ------------____________________________________________________________________________ 5.__ :__________________________________________________________________________ 2.______________________________________ .----.1 Health Hazards -----------_______________________________________________________________________ 3. ENGINEERING CONTROL OF HAZARDS ____________________________________________________ 4. PROPERTIES --------------:---.2.1 Shipping Containers -_________________________________________ _______________________________ 7.1 Grade and Strength -----_____________________________________________________________________ 2. EMPLOYEE SAfETY -------_______________________________________________________________________________ 5.2 Tank Trucks --.2 Personal Projective Equipment ______________________________ _______________ 6. WASTE DISPOSAL ________________________________________________________________________________________ 12 10_ MEDICAL MANAGEMENT ____________________________________________________________________________ 12 10. LABELING.1 Drums ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 7.---.TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Preface -. TANK AND EQUIPMENT CLEANING AND REPAIRS ____________________________________ 11 9. NAMES ------------------.1 Hazards ------------.2.2. FIRE FIGHTING -________________________________________________________________ __________________________ 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 9 7_ SHIPPING.2 Properties and Characteristics _________________________________________________________ 5 5 5 5 3.____________________________________ 7.2 Fire and Explosion Hazards ______________________________________________________________ 4.---.____________________________________________________________________________ 7.1 Employee Education and Training _____________________________ ______________________ 5.4 Storage ------------___________________________________________________________________________________ 7.______________________________________________________________ 2.___________________________________________________________________________ 7.2 Preventive Health Measures ____________________________________________________________ 13 I -1FIRST AID -------------------_________________________________________________________________________________ 13 3 . HANDLING AND STORAGE ________________________________ 7.______________________ .2 Labeling and Identification __ ________________ _________ ______________________ 7.5 Spills and Leaks ----___________________________________________________________________________ 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 8.1 Equipment Design ----_________________________________________________________________________ 4.3 Disposal and Return Precautions _____________________________________________________ 7.1._______________________________________________________________________________ 12 10.-__ _ ___ _ _ _ ____ ___ _ ___ __ _ _ ____ _ __ _ __ ______ _ ___ _ ___ _____ _ 4 __ __ ___ _ _ __ ____ _ _ _ __ 1.---.2 Handling -----------________________________ _ _______ ____________________________________ 7.-----.---.1.

FIRST AID-SEE PAGE 13 4 . static electricity and other sources of ignition should be avoided when working with the material. therefore. The full text of this chemical safety data sheet should be consulted for details of the hazards of styrene monomer and suggestions for their control. Styrene monomer polymerizes readily at elevated temperatures and slowly at room temperatures. Styrene monomer is flammable and can form explosive mixiures with air at ambient temperatures. open flames. An inhibitor is added to the monomer to prevent polymerization during shipment and subsequent storage. the temperature rise accelerating the rate of polymerization and thus increasing the rate of heat evolution with possibly serious consequences. Heat is evolved and the process is autocatalytic. Both the liquid and concentrated vapors are irritating to the eyes and respiratory tract and high concentrations of the vapor have an anesthetic action.Chemical Safety Data Sh~t STYRENE MONOMER PREFACE Styrene monomer is a colorless liquid.

(683 °F. Color-------------_______________________________________ . (914 of. These tene to increase the sharp and penetrating odor of the monomer. (98°F. This hazar is reduced if the material is properly inhibited. 2. rate of polymerization violently increased with manof the common reagents and/or elevated temperatures. increasingly disagreeable at higher concentrations.1 to 6. Physical State--c-__________________.Aldehydes or peroxides may form on exposure to air. Vapor Density----___________________________________ 3. 5 . Open Cup: 37°C.4 of. Phenylethylene Styrene Monomer C 6H 5CHCH 2 2.90 177 at 25/25 DC.30.) Freezing PoinL ____________________________________ . Closed Cup: 31 °C. Specific Gravity______________________________ ~ _____ 0.3mm Hg.6 Vapor Pressure ____________________________________ A.1 ° F.2 PROPERTIES AND CHARACTERISTICS Autoignition Temperature __________________ A90 °c. ( .Commercial Strength_________________________________________ _____ 99. (88 of. Reactivity_________________________:___________________ Very reactive.10 dc.14 OdoL ___________________________________________________ Sweet.8 atmospheres Critical Temperature ____________________________ 362.) Flammable Limits ________________________________ l. Vinylbenzene. ) Tag. Chemical Names: Common Name: Formula: NAMES Styrene.5 % (minimum) 2.63 °C.__________________ Liquid at room temperature.) Boiling PoinL ___________________ ---------__________ 145.23. Flash Poin L-----------_____________________________ Tag.1 volume percent in air at room temperature. .2 DC. pleasant odor in very low concentrations.Colorless Corrosivity__________________________________________ Noncorrosive to most metals except copper and copper-containil alloys.) at 760 mm. (293. at 15°C.Chemical Safety Data Sheet Manual Sheet SD-37 STYRENE MONOMER 1.1 PROPERTIES GRADE AND STRENGTH Grade _________________________________________________ --. Critical Pressure __________________________________ 3 7.) Molecular Weigh t ________________________________ l 04.

Obviously a larger tank has less radiating surface per volume of styrene so that the temperature in the larger storage tank will rise higher during the polymerization reaction. The process is autocatalytic. frir-lion.2 Styrene monomer polymerizes rcCldily at elevated temperatures and slowly atrooP1 temperatUJ·es.3 An inhibitor is added to the monomer for protection during shipment and subsequent storage.) After the reaction is well underway the temperature usually rises to the boiling point of styrene (294°F.1.1. formed. 4. Thus in a closed tank enough pressure can be developed during the polymerization reaction to cause the tank to rupture unless the tank is equipped with a large enough vent to permit escape of the styrene vapor.) and as the reaction proceeds and more polymer i<.2. is required to initiate a rapid polymerization reaction. (Usually a tempera- 4. 1. This is enough he«t to promote a self-sustaining (runaway) reaction provided the temperature is first raised to a level high enough to initiate the reaction. and all other sources of ignition are to be avoided when working with the material. which in turn increases the rate of heat evolution. has been observed but this would be a very rare occurrence. of an excessively high vapor pressure due to heahng the styrene above its boiling point (294°F. and serious consequences may result. 3. The shipper should be consulted for the methods of making these determinations and their significance. 3.2.. Eventually.EXPLOSION HAZARDS 3. If stora&e temperatures exceed 70°F. Open flames. check daily or as expenence indicates. The technical problems of designing equipment. At this point the liquid becomes viscous and vapor bubbles are trapped within the liquid mass which can cause appreciable expansion. An outside source of' ignition is necessary to set styrene vapor on fire. static electricity.. In certain instances a temperature as high as 5S0°F.1 HEALTH HAZARDS HAZARDS ture above lS0°F. I ENGINEERING CONTROL OF HAZARDS EQUIPMENT DESIGN 4.Manual Sheet 50-37 Manufacturing Chemists Association Styrene Monomer 3. providing adequate ventilation 6 and operating procedures which promise maximum security' and economy. tank opelllngs. If the' storage temperature is 70°F.1 Styrene is a colorless liquid with a disagreeable odor but with good warning pr"~erties. valves. and temperature rise accelerates the rate of polymerization.).2 Liquid styrene monomer and concentrated vapors are extremely irritating to the eyes but permanent injury has not been reported. the temperature of the liquid mass may rise considerably higher. gauges.3 Prolonged contact with the skin may cause some moderate irritation.1. Generally the principal hazard attending the polymerization reaction is the development. and engineering controls should be so designed and located that they may be readily and periodically inspected and cleaned. local hot spots. The ultimate temperature depends somewhat on the size of the vessel or storage tank. the reaction may become violent in nature. High concentrations have an anesthetic action. vents.1 Styrene monomer is flammable and can form explosive mixtures with air at ambient temperatures. I Processes should be located at least SO feet away from open flames and all high temperature operations likely to cause ignition of the styrene monomer vapor. can best be handled by competent engineers. The Threshold Limit Value published by the ACGIH is 100 ppm (1969). . Both the liquid and its vapor when in sufficient concentration. the monomer must be checked at least weekly to determine inhibitor and polymer content.2.S (1968)). Due to the tendency of styr~ne monomer to form polymers which may plug eqUIpment. 3. but other systemic iniuiY is unlikely.2 Processes should be designed so ~hat the operator is not exposed to direct contact with styrene monomer or the vapor. Prolonged exposure is capable of causing respiratory irritation. all piping. 4. pressure relief devices. 3. The Z-37 Committee of ANSI recommends a ceiling value of 200 ppm if the timeweighted average exposure does not exceed 100 ppm (SeeANSIZ-137. The literature value for the heat of polymerization is 288 BTU per pound. 3. 4. are irritants to the eyes and respiratory tract. I. This expansion could hydrostatically lift the roof or rupture the tank if there was insufficient vapor space above the liquid. FIRE AND.1. 3. Another hazard attending the polymerization occurs when the reaction has proceeded to a considerable extent. or less. Considerable heat is evolved during polymerization.2 3.3 Tanks used to store or process styrene monomer should be closed vessels vented to a safe .

Thorough operational analysis and the provision of proper protective equipment will prevent most exposures of a serious consequence.1 Chemical Safety Goggles: In most operations offering a possibility of eye injury. Cup-type c.2 Under abnormal conditions such as leaks or spills. 5. rubber-framed goggles equipped with approved impact resistant glass or plastic lenses should be worn whenever there is danger of styrene monomer coming in contact with the eyes. 5. Older employees should be reinstructed periodically.1. while others in the area may be exposed to danger. the ventilating equipment should be designed to handle the styrene monomer vapor. considerations should be given to possible halogenation of the vapors by low concentrations of free chlorine and bromine with the resultant formation of lacrimators.2 SAFETY PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT EMPLOYEE EDUCATION AND TRAINING 5.3 Employee education and training should emphasize the need to handle styrene monomer according to approved safety methods. or other sources of ignition should be kept away from all vents. roadways.3. adequate ventilation and intelligent conduct on the part of the employees working with styrene monomer. 5.3.6 Only reliable. tank cars and containers. 5.7 Employees should be trained to report to the proper authority all suspected leaks or equipment failures and any signs of iIlness or skin irritations. flames. 5. Since styrene monomer vapor is heavier than air. protection will be afforded by chemical safety goggles. or ingestion.2. 5.3 Good natural ventilation should normally be sufficient.2 Availahility and Use Personal protective equipment is not an adequate substitute for good safe working conditions. Una:uthorized and untrained employees should not be permitted in areas where styrene monomer is being handled.5 Each employee should know the location.2. the use of such equipment should be carefully supervised. and proper supervision are recognized as fundamental precautionary measures.2 Employee education. Goggles should be carefully fitted to insure maximum protection and comfort.1. in order to avoid spilling or splashing. Under conditions which are sufficiently hazardous to require protective equipment. exhausts should be provided at the ground level. inhalation of the vapor. 5. and at least 50 feet from possible sources of ignition. the type of protective equipment selected should depend upon the degree of hazard existing. 8-inch minimum) with forehead protection may be worn in addition to chemical safety goggles when complete face protection is desirable. 4. As the monomer vapors are uninhibited and may form polymers in vents and flame arrestors.1 EMPLOYEE 5. 4. these should be inspected and cleaned periodically to prevent plugging.Styrene Monomer Manufacturing Chemists Association Manual Sheet SD-37 point of discharge in the outside atmosphere away from operating stations. If other than natural ventilation is required.1.2 Face Shields: Plastic shields (full length.2.2. This shows that styrene monomer can be used with safety if all necessary precautions are taken.2. The most important consideration in ventilation should be to ensure a substantial air flow away from the work area.2. All venti lating systems require periodic inspection. Frequent questioning of employees will enable management to insure their thorough understanding of essential facts.2. leaks. In all cases. 5.1.4 Before being placed on the job. all available ventilation should be used.1. 5.2 VENTILATION 4. 5.1.1 In venting styrene monomer vapors. 5. 5. purpose and maintenance of personal protective equipment and be thoroughly trained in its use.1 Exposure to styrene monomer liquid or vapods likely to occur during the transfer and handling of the material.. 7 . The correct usage of personal protective equipment requires the education of the worker in the proper employment of the equipment available to him. If the material is heated above its flash point do not provide suction on· the vessel when inspections or observation openings are made. Sparks.1. dependable and properly trained employees should be given the responsibility of operating valves which control the movement of styrene monomer to and from storage tanks. 4. Such equipment may protect the individual wearing it. training.1 There has been good industrial experience in the handling of styrene monomer despite the toxic and flammable properties of the material. new employees should be instructed thoroughly in the proper handling of styrene monomer.3 'Eye Protection 5. heated surfaces.2.

2 All contaminated clothing.5.2.2. 5. may result in blistering of the SkIll. (b) Positive-pressure hose masks supplied h y externally luhricated blowers.2.2. 5.2. 5.4 Respiratory protective equipment must be carefully maintained.6. Care must be taken to locate the blower air source in an area which is free from styrene monomer or other air contaminants. These allow for greater mobility.2. (d) When the exposure period may exceed thirty minutes. Since these masks also depend en a remote air supply. Pressure-reducing and relief valves must be installed at all mask stations. These are usually preferred to the air-line type.5 Head Protection 5.7.~! suitable for use under emergency conditions since it is usually impossible to determine if the concentration of contaminant present is within the filtering capacity of the mask or if sufficient oxygen is present. Frequent examination of this equipment should be made to insure against possible holes and leaks. 5. 8 .2' Air or oxygen-supplied masks equipped with full face pieces must be worn for protection when the following conditions may be encountered: (a) In emergencies. Leather shoes will not afford adequate protection against contact as styrene monomer readily penetrates the leather a~d. when the vapor concentration is not definitely known. should be removed Immediately to avoid prolonged contact with styrene monomer. 5. are not present. (c) When the oxygen content of the air may be less than 16 percent by volume. if undetected. cleaned and sterilized at regular intervals and always before use by another person. may be used.7 Body. (c) Self-contained breathing apparatus which permits the wearer to carry a supply of oxygen or air compressed in a cylinder. This arrangement may also be used with 50 to 100 psi clean piped plant air. 5. The oxygen content of the air must not be less than ] 6 percent by volume. etc.1 Safety or "hard" hats will provide protection against falling tools or other objects.6 Foot Protection 5. As an additional precaution with the demand mask. they should be used .3.5.4.7. The compressed air should be checked frequently to make certain that harmful gases from the decomposition of the lubricating oil used in the compressor.4.1 Chemical resistant synthetic rubber shoes or boots should be worn when there is risk of foot exposure to styrene monomer. Contaminated skin should be washed clothing should not be Worn again until all evi'deJ1Ce of styrene has been removed. an industrial canister-type gas mask with full face piece and canister.1 For concentrations not exceeding 2 percent by volume and for relatively brief exposure periods.. (b) Wheri the vapor concentration is over 2 percent by volume. or from impure air supply.2 Soft brimmed hats may be substituted for safety hats where the danger of falling objects is remote. b. a self-contained breathing apparatus is usually unsuitable because of its bulk. a small cylinder of compressed air may be worn for use as an emergency air supply for escape from the area.only where conditions will permit safe escape in the event of an air supply failure. or d are present. The safer method is to use a separate compressor of the type not requiring internal lubrication.2.2.2.2. An alternative arrangement frequently used is high pressure breathing air from standard (200 cu.3 Air or oxygen-supplied masks should be approved by the United States Bureau of Mines and the manufacturer's instructions should be carefully followed. or the self-generating type which produces oxygen chemically. Skin and Hand Protection 5. The length of time a self-contained breathing apparatus provides protection varies according to the amount of air or oxygen supply carried. inclu~ing gloves.Manual Sheet 50-37 Manufacturing Chemists Association Styrene Monomer 5. shoes. ft.2. (e) In tank and process equipmcnt cleaning and repair work when any of the conditions mentioned in a. These are suitable for use only where conditions will permit safe escape in case of failure of the compressed air supply. Frequent examinations of this eqUIPment should be made. where small manholes are encountered.) cylinders with a demand-type valve and face piece. inspected. In tank work. Types available include: (a) Air-line masks supplied by plant compressed air or compressed-air cylinders. Personnel wearing such equipment must be carefully instructed in its operation and limitations. approved for this purpose by the United States Bureau of Mines.2. Leather shoes wet with styrene monomer should be removed promptly. 5.2.4 Respiratory Protection 5. c.4. Canister-type masks are r. coveralls. Such masks should be used only in conjunction with a suitable reducing or demand-type valve and filter and an appropriate pressure relief valve.2.4. 5.1 Gloves and aprons of suitable rubber or of nonsoluble plastic materials should be worn where splashes or contact with styrene monomer ~re likely to occur.3 Each employee should know the location of eye baths for flushing the eyes. 5. dried thoroughly and aired free of styrene before they are reworn.

1.1 SHIPPING. FIRST AID: In case of contact.1.500 gallon capacity.1. foam and carbon dioxide. in suitable outside containers. 17E. Call a physician.2. water fog. 103. dry chemical.5 Tank Cars: 4. LABELING. FIRE FIGHTING 6.1. Keep away from heat and open flame.1. 103W. HANDLING AND STORAGE Shipping Containers The shipment of inhibited styrene monomer is not regulated by the Department of Transportation Hazardous Materials Regulations. 7. Avoid breathing vapor. 9 . 7.3 Metal Drum (Single Trip): Not over 55 gallon capacity.1. Keep container closed. The text is de- STYRENE MONOMER WARNING! CAUSES EYE IRRITATION VAPOR IRRITATING COMBUSTIBLE Avoid contact with eyes.1. 7. immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes.1 Type and Size 7. Wash thoroughly after handling.1. Use with adequate ventilation.4 Tank Trucks 7.1.1.000 to 12. 104 and 104W.1. Spill or Leak-Flush area with water spray. the used of foam should be avoided.1 The following extinguishing agents may be used on styrene monomer fires: dry chemical. 7. Section 5C or National Motor Freight Classification Rule 260.1. 6. Uniform Freight Classification Rule 40.1 The Manufacturing Chemists Association recommends that all containers of styrene monomer should bear a label as shown.1 Glass Bottles: Pint and quart capacity in suitable containers.Styrene Monomer Manufacturing Chemists Association Manual Sheet 50-37 6. or CO~. The Manufacturing Chemists Association recommends the following containers be used: 7.2 Metal Cans: One and five gallon capacity.2 Labeling and Identification 7. 7. DOT Spec. If electrical equipment is involved.1.2 Equipment handling styrene monomer should be cooled by water stream if exposed to fire. 7. Avoid prolonged or repeated contact with skin. MCA Chemical Safety Data Sheet SD-37 available. In case of: Fire-Use foam. such as DOT Spec.

7.2 Inspection is particularly important in the case of tank cars after they have been moved. that certain information be displayed in a particular manner.3. 7. and all caution markings on both sides of tank and dome should be read and observed.3 Before emptying. 7.2 HANDLING 7.2. The brakes should be set. 7. give it not more ~han one full turn. 7. as outlined in DOT Regulations Section 561.g.1 Before unloading the truck. may polymerize and may be oxidized to aldehydes and peroxides.3.2. Railroad track. must be followed. If internal pressure exists. When filling open containers from a drum. Small amounts of the monomer.4 To remove the body plug.2.3. 7. fluorelastomer hoses (e.1 Shipper'S instruction for unloading should always be followed. since leaks may develop in transit.2. drained and dried before reuse. The bung opening and the faucet should have the same type and number of threads per inch.1. or that a specific label be affixed to a container.3. 7. (See National Fire Protection Association Standard No.2. 7. and all amendments thereto.2. one can be inserted through the dome. Do not drop or bump them.2. 7.1. regulations.7 Avoid striking fittings with tools or other hard objects. Since individual statutes. or ordinances may require that particular information be included in a label.2.1 Drums should be unloaded ca~'. A resilient gasket of suitable material (such as a metal clad gasket) which is not soluble in the monomer should be used.6 Containers which have held styrene monomer must be thoroughly cleaned by steaming. 7.2.3 In the event of a tank car or fitting failure or leak that cannot be stopped by following previous instructions from shipper.3. immediately telephone or wire him for further instructions. Federal Insecticide.3.2.3.2.7 Unloading tank cars through the bottom connection is not recommended.fully to prevent damage. If it is neces10 7. tank car. must be electrically bonded and grounded.) 7. 7.1.2.2.2. Fungicide and Rodenticide Act.2 Tank Trucks 7.2.1. After the plug starts. Suitable protective equipment should be worn.4 See that the train or engine crew accurately spots the car at the unloading line. unless the car is protected by a closed and locked switch or gate. Another method of removing styrene monomer from drums is by means of a rotary pump with a flexible metal hose.2. on standing in a container. 7.2.2 Each shipment should be examined carefully for leaking drums. unloading rack. The unloading track should be level.2.2.2. blue warning signs placed. etc.2. If any are found. electrical bonding should be provided to prevent static sparks. allow It to vent to atmospheric pressure. 7. Such laws include the Federal Hazardous Substances Labeling Act.2. then only should the plug be loosened further or removed.1.2.5 The shipper should be consulted for details on proper unloading procedure.6 The use of tank cars with permanent dome connections for discharge by pumping is preferred.2 Truck brakes should be set. Faucets should have short s~anks threaded with Briggs standard straight iron pipe threads. It should be used in addition to or in combination with any specific wording required by law. the motor should be stopped and not started again during the entire unloading operation.2.5 For removing the styrene monomer by gravity. a faucet should be inserted in the end bung of the drum and the drum then placed on a rack and securely blocked against movement before withdrawing the contents. Protect the workmen from vapor and liquid.Manual Sheet 50-37 Manufacturing Chemists Association Styrene Monomer signed for the product as shipped for industrial use. wheels blocked by standard rail clamps. However. the use of this label text will not necessarily insure compliance with such laws. 7.3 Tank Cars 7. the unloading equipment must be electrically bonded before unloading operations are started. substantially support the drums and block them to prevent movement. If the car does not have an eduction pipe. accessory structure.4 All regulations of the DOT whenever applicable to the handling and unloading of this material as set forth in Motor Carrier Tariff 7. 77-Static Electricity.3 If tank trucks are unloaded through an open dome. and other safe practices followed. and the wheels should be blocked. 7.2. they should be handled with particular care by turning the leaking part up and should be removed to a safe place where the leakage can be stopped or the contents transferred to a sound container.1 Drums 7. and similar state and municipal legislation.1.2. 7. 'Ehe operator should stand to one side during the operation.2.2.6 The use of rubber-type flexible hose in unloading styrene is not recommended.2.5 It is considered good practice that derails be placed at one end or both ends of the unloading track approximately one car-length from the car being unloaded.1. the bung should be placed up and a bung or plug wrench used. . 7. "Fluorel" and "Viton") have proved· satistory. 7.

4. take precautions regarding complete drainage of contents and proper closure of all openings.2.4. 8.4 Electrical installations should conform to the National Electrical Code.2.") .8 The use of rubber-type flexible hose in unloading styrene monomer is not recommended. In case the bottom outlet valve leaks too badly to permit the safe removal of the cap.6 Natural ventilation is all that is needed for outdoor storage installations. however.1 TANK AND EQUIPMENT CLEANING AND REPAIRS PHEPARATION OF TANKS AND EQUIPMENT 8. the unloading connection must be removed and all other closures made tight. and avoid inhalation of vapor during this operation. 7. Written approval should be secured from plant managemcnt before the work is started. 7. These must be periodically inspected and freed of the polymer. DISPOSAL AND RETURN PRECAUTIONS 7 . all valves must be made tight. and blank flanges in the pipeline should not be relied upon . If water is not available. 8.3. 7.3. 7. 7. drained and dried before reuse.1 Storage should be located away from any area subject to fire hazards. Catch all leakage in a bucket.Styrene Monomer Manufacturing Chemists Association Manual Sheet 50-37 sary to use this method. First open the dome cover. or its equivalent. 7.1 Before returning shipping containers to suppliers. using clean-out doors.7.of the work. try to tighten it by turning the valve rod handle in both directions. However. being careful to loosen it slowly and to permit all liquid to drain before all threads are disengaged. styrene monomer may be stored in black iron. except that heater coil inlet and 8. "FIuorel" and "Viton") have proved satisfactory.2. and report the condition of the valve to the shipper.1. and repairs requires that the foreman and crew be sclected. or steel containers.3 As soon as a tank car or tank truck is completely unloaded. follow the procedure set forth in MCA Manual Sheet TC-4.2 Containers which have held styrene monomer must be thoroughly cleaned by steaming. connect the unloading line. trained.3. 7.3 All openings in the system should terminate outdoors away from air intakes and be protected by flash arrestors or pressure vacuum vents (See NFPA #30).3 outlet pipes (if any) must be left open for drainage. styrene monomer may be absorbed by dry earth.9 Caution: Pumping against closed valve quickly generates heat and may lead to runaway polymerization.5 "torage tanks should be electrically banded and grounded to prevent dangerous accumulations of static electricity (See NFPA pamphlet No. fluorelastomer hoses (e. copper or copper-containing alloys are attacked either by styrene monomer or by crganic aldehydes and peroxides which may be present in the monomer.1. 11 8. Small amounts of the monomer.2. preferably by removing a complete section and providing a blank flange on the open end to protect against human error and unsuspected leaks. If the valve still cannot be made tight.1 The hazardous nature of tank inspection. and drilled carefully. Do not completely remove the cap at the bottom of the outlet leg until the control of leakage is assured. on standing in a container.4.2.3. 7. The operator should wear goggles and oil-resistant synthetic rubber gloves. cocks.4. may polymerize and may be oxidized to aldehydes and peroxides. Storage tanks located in the open or underground minimize the danger of fire. galvanized iron.4. vessels should be cleaned from the outside.2 Wherever possible. 7. Only properly protected personnel should remain ~in the area. 7. cleaning. and then taken off in a container to a disposal area.4. and open the bottom outlet valve by turning the valve rod handle.3.2 Conditions of Storage 7.4 STORAGE 7.4. They should b\: fully familiar with thc hazards and the safeguards necessary for the safe performance . observing usual precautions to make sure there is no pressure inside the car. vapor and health problems.1 Under normal conditions. However.3 Pipelines into or out of the tank or other apparatus should be disconnected. Article 500 of this Cede applies to areas which are hazardous from a fire and explosion standpoint.5 SPILLS AND LEAKS All spills and leaks should be immediately flushed away with large quantities of water.2. Return to the dome.4. Valves. Then remove the cap or plug from the bottom of the outlet chamber leg under the car. 77 "Static Electricity. After the cap is removed. 7.2. 7. Under no conditions should heater coils be used when in styrene service.1.2 Vents and flame arrestors can become plugged with formation of polymers. unload the contents through the dome of the car.g.2.

make the Iilhalation of seriously toxic quantities unlikely unless 12 HAZARDS 10.2. 8.3 Water contaminated by styrene monomer may be made safe for disposal by removal to ~ safe location where the mixture may be blown with air. and the eye a?d nose irritation at higher concentrations. Concentrations of 46 mg/I. He should serve as the lifeline tender and be ready at all times to summon the rescue squad or other required aid. causing lung irritation and central nervous system depression. (10.2 Before entering a tank and during the course of the work. 9. lifeline.7 During the entire period of preparation and cleaning or repair. are. rescue harness. it should be emptied.4 Proper personal protective equipment such as safety belts. tests should be made by a qualified person to determine that no further washing is necessary. cleaning. should be disposed of by removal to a disposal area and safely burned. .2. The outlet air stream should be burned in cases of gross contamination. or waste material contaminated with styrene monomer. 8. or repairs. and gas-freed by steaming and cooling or by other means. Drive belts should be removed and all other precautions taken to insure against the accidental starting of agitating equipment or other moving parts inside the tank or adjacent to the entrance.1 MEDICAL MANAGEMENT Some of the inhibitors used to retard polymerization of the stored or transported styrene monomer are toxic and irritating to the skin. 8.1 Hazardous Properties The toxicity of styrene monomer. Article 500.6 A self-contained breathing apparatus or an air supplied respirator should be located outside the tank entrance for the use of the rescue squad. Extra rescue harness and lifeline should also be available.2.1.1 It should be ascertained that all Federal.1 Before entering a tank.2. but precautions given below for controlling health hazards of styrene monomer.6 Electrical switches should be locked in the "off" position and tagged with a warning that they are not to be opened.4 . (400 ppm). 8. that no oxygen deficiency exists.4 When a waste disposal problem arises as the result of a major spill or equipment rupture. Where possible. 10. Danger signs should be placed suitably to indicate when workmen are in the tank or other apparatus.1. WASTE DISPOSAL 9. 8.1. There should also be a man within call who can assist the lifeline tender in an emergency. 10. 8.5 Be sure the tank can be left by the original entrance. air supply are recommended during the entire time men are cleaning. only properly protected personnel should remain in the area. is low.1. the fuses should be pulled. 9. 8. Vapor concentrations three times as great are extremely irritating to the eyes and nose. inspecting or repairing the tank.000 ppm) are acutely dangerous.3 Special ventilation and a continuous fresh 9. protective clothing and mask as required should be worn by anyone entering a tank for inspection. State and local regulations regarding health and pollution are observed. The supplier should be contacted for advice. consideration should be given to the possibility of toxic amounts of styrene monomer vapors being released in the work area. 8.5 A man should be stationed outside the tank in such a position as to keep workmen within the tank under constant observation.2.8 Portable electric lights and power tools should conform with the National Electrical Code. 8. 9. applicable to any hazards incidental to the inhibitors. He should never abandon the lifeline while operators are in the tank.2. 8.2 ENTERING THE TANK 8. when considered as an industrial chemical.2.2. and that no harmful gas or vapor is present. It is a moderate irritant to the eyes and respiratory tract in concentrations above 2 mg/1.Manual Manufacturing Chemists Association Sheet 50-37 Styrene Monomer solely to prevent leakage into the container being cleaned. in general.2 All quantities of styrene monomer. 8. The disagreeable odor of styrene monomer at relatively low vapor concentrations.

These measures may be taken by nonmedical personnel. Workers should.1 After inhalation: The generally accepted maximum allowable concentration for an eight-hour working day is 100 ppm by volume in air (see 3.6 Skin Protection In order to prevent dermatitis or other effects of direct contact of liquid styrene monomers with the skin.2 Ventilation Ventilation must be adequate to keep the atmospheric concentration of styrene monomer below 100 p. In all cases of exposure. Short exposures of skin to styrene should be avoided. 11.1 Systemic Effects: No systemic ef- 11.2.1). 10.1. is of no value in detecting styrene monomer absorption. the patient should be moved to fresh air or a well-ventilated room free of the vapor and wade comfortably warm.000 ppm or more may be fatal in thirty to sixty minutes.Styrene Monomer Manufacfurin 9 Chemists Association Manual Sheet SO-37 the victim is trapped in such a location that escape from the vapor is impossible. does not exhibit any of the hematological effects of benzol (see Safety Data Sheet SD-2) and has not been reported as causing anemia in man or laboratory animals.1. not hot. In laboratory animals exposed to high concentrations of styrene monomer vapor. In concentrations above 400 ppm styrene monomer is irritating to all parts of the respiratory tract. 10. 10.2.3.2. 10. 10.1.2 If The Patient Is Conscious: 11.4 Periodic Physical Examinations Workers exposed to styrene monomer need no special type of periodic examination.1. be effectively instructed and adequately supervised in the proper handling of this chemical. esophagus.2.2. The measurement of ethereal sulfates in the urine. when severe or prolonged exposure is involved.2.2.' However. .1.2. styrene monomer causes a pronounced irritation of the mouth.1.5 Personal Protective Equipment- See Section 5 10. the following steps should be taken.2.m. 11. including the patient's co-workers. 10.2 Systemic Effects: No fatalities have been reported in man.4 Skin: Styrene monomer may cause some moderate irritation after contact with the skin.1 First aid comprises simple measures to make the patient comfortable and to preserve his life.1. which is useful in benzol exposure. 10.1 GENERAL PRINCIPLES FIRST AID 11.2.1.1 (a) Immediately move the patient to fresh air or a well-ventilated room. Styrene monomer.1. similar to that noticed with other aromatic hydrocarbons.1 Employee Education Employees should be instructed in (1) the hazardous properties of styrene monomer. 10.3 Chronic Toxic Effects of Liquid or Vapor fects have been noted in workers repeatedly exposed to low concentrations of styrene monomer. and stomach. Long exposures result in irritation and blisters.The usual examination given to workers with industrial chemicals is sufficient. If the ex13 posure has not been severe. although derived from benzol. usually nothing more need to be done. 10. 10. particularly when covered by clothing. Expired air samples are also of little value in diagnosing exposure to styrene.3 Eyes: Both liquid styrene monomer and concentrated vapors are extremely irritating to the eyes. 10.2 PREVENTIVE HEALTH MEASURES Styrene monomer is not a serious industrial hazard. 10.3. A concentration of 10. employees exposed to such contact should be provided with gloves and aprons made of suitable rubber or nonsoluble plastic material.2. however.2 Local Effects: Repeated skin contact with styrene monomer may produce dermatitis similar to that encountered with organic solvents.1.1. 10. Permanent damage to the eyes has not been reported.5 After Oral Intake: When taken by mouth.1. 2 Acu te Toxic Effects 10. (2) the necessity of care in the avoidance of leaks.p.2. . death has resulted from lung irritation or central nervous system depression. 10. and (3) the necessity for using proper personal protective equipment.3 Preplacement Physical Examination Asthmatic individuals and those suffering from chronic pulmonary infections should not be employed in operations where they might come in repeated contact with styrene monomer.

2 In cases of skin contact. do the following: (a) Lay the patient down. or other foreign objects which may be in the mouth. ( c) In cases of unconsciousness.2. (b) If the patient is not breathing.2. depending upon the patient's tolerance. ears.3 If The Patient Is Unconscious: 11. Remove any false teeth.1.1. 14 .3 In cases of contact with the eyes. This should be repeated at least three times and followed with milk and raw eggs. preferably by mouth-to-mouth resuscitation method.2 Never give an unconscious person anything by mouth or attempt to induce vomiting. Stimulants will rarely be necessary where adequate oxygenation is maintained. he should be given several cupfuls of lukewarm salt or soapy water. tobacco. Any such treatment should be given only by the attending physician. with the head low.Manual Sheet SD-37 Manufacturing Chemists Association Styrene Monomer (b) Call a physician immediately. informing him of the exact nature of the case and where the patient may be found on arrival. 100 percent oxygen should be administered as soon as possible after severe exposure. or until the irritation subsides. lips. Only trained attendants should be permitted to administer oxygen.3. 11. 11.1. fingernail beds).1. (d) If the styrene monomer has been swalJ 'wed. preferably on the left side. induce vomiting as indicated in 11.2.. This may be accomplished by fitting a rubber tube to the outlet valve of the face mask and inserting it in a container of water. Until he arrives. Attempts to give oxygen by one not familiar with the apparatus may cause loss of valuable time or actually harm the patient. the patient should lie down without a pillow and be kept comfortably warm.1. (about 2% inches) of water. shallow breathing or cyanosis (blueness of skin.1 Call a physician immediately. its administration should be kept up at least fifteen to thirty minutes. remove him to fresh air and start artificial respiration at once. but the positive exhalation pressure should be used only for half-hour periods out of every hour. (d) Oxygen usually furnishes relief from coughing from severe exposure. The depth of the end of the tube may be varied to a maximum of 6 cm. the patient should be'made to vomit by inducing him to stick his finger down his throat. informing him of the exact nature of the case and where the patient may be found when he arrives. In order to prevent the development of severe lung congestion (pulmonary edema). chewing gum.2. 11.4 If the monomer has been swallowed. If that fails. when the patient regains consciousness. (c) To prevent collapse. Oxygen administration is most effective if expiration is made against a positive pressure of 6 cm. If one trained in administering it is present. 11. Oxygen inhalation must be continued as long as is necessary to maintain the normal color of the skin and mucous membranes. The eyelids should be held apart during the irrigation to insure contact of water with all the surfaces of the eyes and lids. the administration of oxygen alone or of oxygen with carbon dioxide should be started. the affected parts should be washed thoroughly with soap and water for about 30 minutes.3. not hot.1. the eyes should be irrigated with large quantities of running water for a period of fifteen minutes. 11.4.1.