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Mar July 2011

The Bhanja Bihar Review

Berhampur University, Odisha
Womens Day Celebration - WikiLeak Power & Transparency - Unrest in Arab World - Godhra Massacre & Secularism - Anti-Inflation Strategy for Indian Economy - Indian Soap Opera - Creative Advertising Animation Ad World - Technology in Cricket



Ronalisha Parida Swapnarani Sahu

A Centenary Celebration
Ankita Roy

Ramkrushna Dakua Sriharsha Barada

Power shifts from Secrecy to Transparency

Ashok Kumar Nayak

Swapnarani Sahu Ronalisha Parida B. Tanuja

Common peoples fight for Human Rights

Hemanta Kumar Pradhan

Dhananjay Patra

A Question Mark on Secularism

Dhananjay Patra

RBIs New Anti-Inflationary Strategy

THE BHANJA BIHAR REVIEW is a compilation of features/articles presented by the student journalists in the departmental seminars. The news and views expressed in the laboratory journal are the authors own and do not necessarily reflect the views for Department or the University. The journal is meant for students practice and publication under the guidance of Prof. Sunil Kanta Behera, Dept. of Journalism and Mass Communication.
Ronalisa Parida

Indian Television Serial

Originality and Adaptation

Monoj Kumar Nayak

animation in advertising
Swapnarani Sahu

Dept. of Journalism & Mass Communication Berhampur University, Bhanja Bihar Berhampur -760007, Odisha India


Priya Priyadarshini

To read online Edition of The Bhanja Bihar Review, Visit

UDRS: A Decision or Confusion

Abhisekh Patnaik

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International Womens Day

A Centenary Celebration

Ankita Ray, 4th Sem

hile talking about Womens day first and foremost the eminent women comes into our mind. That is Indira Gandhi, Kalpana Chawla, Dr Kiran Bedi, Arundhati Roy and the first citizen of India Mrs. Prativa Devi Singh Patil and many more. Now, lets just scroll back and start thinking from the grass root levels. By grass root level, it means The Homemakers. The women who stay at home and perform their duty and manage the outside world. So the Womens day celebration is also a tribute to them. Because Homemakers are the one who adds cement between the bricks in building relationship.

Mahatma Gandhi had once declared: Woman is the companion of man, gifted with equal mental capacities. She has a right to participate in every minute detail of the activities of man and she has an equal right of freedom and liberty with him. She is entitled to a supreme place in her own sphere of activity as man is in his.

Morning sunrise till dawn people work in office for a stipulated period of time but a homemaker works 24/7 in her own premises. If someone falls ill in house or if some family function is organized, she is the one who remains awake and prepares whole night to give smile to others on the next day. Homemakers perform their work dutifully without any reward in return. Her main focus and aim is to see her family happy and healthy. At times she bears all anger and roughness yet she tries to prevail positivity in the unworthy atmosphere. She plans the work and executes it in an organized manner. She adds beauty, grace and charm to every aspect of life. In many countries, the works done by a home maker is not taken as a direct contribution to its GDP. But still our women do all their works sincerely. In the present scenario women are very much careful about the interests of their children. They are focusing more on their interests and ambitions rather pressurizing their children to do something. They are providing ample scope to .their children to build their horizon in different spheres of life. They have cut the weblogs through their understanding which were blocking their way. At some point of time every woman is troubled with the question of giving priority either to job first or family first. Its the toughest decision a woman has to go through. But here comes the main role performed by the Homemakers. They decide to manage home and work both simultaneously.

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Homemakers have also geared up in supporting their family in regard to financial aspect. They are making best use of their talents and skills which in return helps them to earn the maximum. Working from home is not a limiting factor for them. For example: Those having artistic attributes, interest in cookery or dance are making full use of their talent by taking classes at home. Those who qualified as C.A., are writing accounts for small clients. Those who are with good salesmanship skills, do direct marketing for products like Amway, Modicare, Tupperware, and Avon etc. Moreover, internet today opens a myriad opportunities right from online share trading to selling handmade items across the world through EBay. Taking up such a career provides a decent regular income. No matter how much money one makes, but saving, investing and making it grow is the most crucial part. Beginning from organizing finances, comparing assets with liabilities to making a list of the income received and expenses made each month are done by the women. No one has ever won the game of chess by taking only forward moves. Sometimes we have to move backward to get a better step forward. The caliber of a woman is not how she prepares for things to go right, but how she stands up and moves on when things go wrong. Its easy to do, to be the way others are doing. But Homemakers make their own way and leave the trace for others to follow.

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Power shifts from Secrecy to Transparency

The price of freedom is eternal vigilance. Thomas Jefferson
Transparency breeds trust. Whether for government or journalism or business, operating openly enables the opportunity to collaborate with constituents. We need secrets about security, crime, privacy, diplomacy. But if it goes against the society and the world, then naturally it promote unhealthy growth. At time it may be the need of one nation but it will backfire while promulgating truth and well-being of the World. That type of medium is WikiLeaks, which uncover the hidden secret which are unethical and unjust. This practice says that, truth is truth; it cant be hidden by any one.

Ashok Kumar Nayak, 4th Sem

Since formation in 2007, WikiLeaks has been victorious over every legal (and illegal) attack, including those from the Pentagon, the Chinese Public Security Bureau, the Former president of Kenya, the Premier of Bermuda, Scientology, the Catholic & Mormon Church, the largest Swiss private bank, and Russian companies. WikiLeaks has released more classified intelligence documents than the rest of the world press combined. Now, in Wikileaks, we see a new concern: that secrecy dies. But it is not the real thing; secrecy lives, But it is wounded and it should be. Let us use this episode to examine as citizens just how secret and how transparent our governments should be. For today, in the internet age, power shifts from those who hold secrets to those to create openness. That is the emerging reality today. In present era, the authoritarian governments are in power in much of the world. The authoritarian tendencies in democratic governments, and the amounts of power vested in unaccountable corporations are increasing. So the need for openness and transparency is greater than ever. WikiLeaks interest is the revelation of the truth. Unlike the covert activities of state intelligence agencies, as a media publisher WikiLeaks relies upon the power of overt fact to enable and empower citizens to bring feared and corrupt governments and corporations to justice. Page 4

With its anonymous drop box, WikiLeaks provides an avenue for every government official, bureaucrat, and corporate worker, who becomes privy to damning information that their institution wants to hide but the public needs to know. What conscience cannot contain, and institutional secrecy unjustly conceals, WikiLeaks can broadcast to the world. It is telling that a number of government agencies in different countries (and indeed some entire countries) have tried to ban access to WikiLeaks. This is of course a silly response, akin to the ostrich burying its head in the sand. A far better response would be to behave in more ethical ways. Authoritarian governments, oppressive institutions and corrupt corporations should be subject to the pressure, not merely of international diplomacy, freedom of information laws or even periodic elections, but of something far stronger - the consciences of the people within them. Wikileaks is most likely the beginning of new relations between information, transparency and secrets. An Access to the information and the possibilities to publish without limits, challenges, institutions and interests groups that claim the right to act and communicate secretly. They use their powers and try to control the movement of information on the internet when their policies and interests seem to be in danger. It is the revolution and democratization of information. We can see from these two instancesthat is information about black money deposited in Swiss Bank by tax evaders of different countries and the funding of Arab world to the terrorism organizations. These information no doubt violate the official secrets acts of an organization or a Nation but helps to bring transparency in other countries of the world. In a free society were supposed to know the truth. In a society where truth becomes treason, then were in big trouble. And now People who are revealing the truth are getting into trouble for it. Paul Publishing improves transparency, and this transparency creates a better society for all. Better scrutiny leads to reduce corruption and building stronger democracies in all societal institutions, including government, corporations and other organizations. A healthy, vibrant and inquisitive journalistic media plays a vital role in achieving these goals. We are part of that media. Scrutiny requires information. Historically, information has been costly in terms of Page 5

human life, human rights and economics. As a result of technical advances particularly the internet and cryptography - the risks of conveying important information can be lowered. In its landmark ruling on the Pentagon Papers, the US Supreme Court ruled that "only a free and unrestrained press can effectively expose deception in government." It believes that it is not only the people of one country that keep their own government honest, but also the people of other countries who are watching that government through the media. In the years leading up to the founding of WikiLeaks, we observed the worlds publishing media becoming less independent and far less willing to ask the hard questions of government, corporations and other institutions. WikiLeaks has provided a new model of journalism. It is not profit oriented, works cooperatively with other publishing and media organizations around the globe, instead of following the traditional model of competing with other media. Thus it is a new format of investigative Journalism which calls an outcry where each media organization, institution and the individual are responsible to maintain highest level of transparency, accountability and ethical standard of propriety and sobriety.

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Unrest in Arab World

Common peoples fight for Human Rights

On 10th December 1948, The General Assembly of the United Nations adopted and proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). Article 3 of UDHR says, "Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person" and Article 5 says,-"no one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Hemanta Kumar Pradhan, 4th Sem

These two articles clearly says about the right of a human being, which is consistently diminishing in West Asia and North Africa countries like Libya, Syria, Egypt, Yemen, Oman, Bahrain, Algeria and Tunisia. The violation of Human Rights in Arab World is a headache for the whole world. From one end of the Arab World to the other, most of the Arab countries are ruled by strongmen and despots. The Authoritarian rulers and the dictatorship of the government leave the common people in a danger zone of human rights violation. The Arab World was teeming with Mohamed Bouazizis. Little less than a month later, the order of the despot was twisting in the wind. Bouazizis, a young Tunisian vegetable seller in the hardscrabble provincial town of Sidi Bouzid, set himself on fire after his cart was confiscated and a headstrong Policewoman slapped him across the face in broad day light. This University Graduate could not bear it and self-ablazed his life. It was the beginning of revolution against the tyranny ruler Zine El Abidine Ben Ali and against unemployment, political pluralism censorship on media in the Arabian countries. Egypt was the second to adopt the Tunisian way of protesting, more than fifteen days of agitation against the Hosni Mubarak Govt., it moved away from the Portfolio no doubt, but still they are in searching for a appropriate Govt. At the time of agitation, the supporters of Mubarak had started hitting the people mercilessly; the common peoples were died like insects, mosquitoes. Human Rights violation increased day by day.

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Like that, Libyan President Muammar Quadhafi extremely violating the Human Rights. He and his sons were once declared against Libyans that," either I rule you or I kill you". In a twenty first century, civilized world, it is the worst word ever spoken by a president. The revolutionists are not thinking about their pain, they are marching towards Tripoli to capture the nation's capital and to dethrone the president. Libyan Ambassador to the UN Mohamed Shalgam broke down into tears and called for a "courageous resolution" from the Security Council to save Libya. Eight Arab states practiced torture and extrajudicial detention. And still,the silence held. Bouazizi and his deed of despair brought a people to a reckoning with its maladies. Similar situation also prevailed in Baharain, protesters started agitation at Pearl Square in the capital city Manama. The crown prince Salman bin Hamad al-Khalifa ordered to the Military force to tame the demonstrators in strong hand. The common peoples were beaten mercilessly. According to Article 20 of Universal Declaration of Human Rights, "Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and".But this laws are openly violated by the rulers of Arab World. The military persons are not giving chance for an association or any other assembly. Now Oman Yemen and Syria are in red corridor. These countries are raged against their Govt. The protesters are accepting few days pain of getting Lathi charge, bullet firing and death than 60 years of tyranny and inter-burning with the violation of Human rights in their own land. The world is looking towards Arab World. United Nations Council keenly observing the situation, if the tyrants continue this practice, the world will take the action against them. Because humanity is the best policy in the World. We human beings need peace, nor bloodshed.

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GodhraA Question Mark on Secularism Massacre

The recent Godhra verdict created a question mark in the minds of every Indian, that is secularism prevailing in our nation? If yes, then how people can be distinguished in the name of their religion. The main cause of Gujurat violence is nothing but an issue of communalism, and an altercation between Hindus and Muslims. The2002 Gujurat violence describes the Godhra train burning and resulting communal riots between Hindus and Muslims. On 27th February 2002 at Godhra City in the state of Gujarat, the Sabarmati Dhananjay Patra, 2nd Sem Express train was forcibly stopped and attacked by a large Muslim mob. As a result, 58 Hindu pilgrims -mostly women, children and senior citizens returning from the holy city of Ayodhya were burned alive. This resulted communal riots in Gujurat. The attack prompted retaliatory massacres against Muslims on a large scale, in which 790 Muslims and 254 Hindus were killed. 223 people were reported missing. 523 holy places were destroyed: 298 dargahs, 205 mosques, 17 temples, and 3 churches. Muslim-owned businesses suffered the bulk of the damage. 61,000 Muslims and 10,000 Hindus fled their homes. Preventive arrests of 17,947 Hindus and 3,616 Muslims were made. In total 27,901 Hindus and 7,651 Muslims were arrested. Nearly 10,000 rounds of bullets were fired by the police, killing 93 Muslims and 77 Hindus.

Attacks on Muslims
Attack by large Hindu mobs began in the districts of Ahmedabad, Vadodara, Saberkantha and for the first time in its history, Gandhinagar on 28 February. Violence spreaded to the largely rural districts of Panchmahals, Mehsana, Kheda, Junagadh, Banaskantha, Patan, Anand and Narmada the next day. Later Bharuch and Rajkot and then Surat were hit. The first incident of attacks on the Muslim community started at Ahmedabad, where Hindus began throwing stones and later burned a Muslim housing complex known as Gulburg Society, and then spread Page 9

elsewhere. The initial violence was believed to be instigated by unsubstantiated rumours, endorsed by a senior VHP leader of Muslims who has kidnapped three Hindu girls during the Godhra train attack. In Ahmedabad, the dargah of the Sufi saint-poet Wali Gujarati in Shahibaug and the 16th century Gumte Masjid in Isanpur were destroyed. The Muhafiz Khan Masjid at Gheekanta was ransacked. According to the police records list, 298 dargahs, 205 mosques, 17 temples and three churches were damaged in the months of March and April.

Attacks on Hindus
Attacks on Hindus by Muslim mobs were done at places like Danilimda, Modasa, Himmatnagar, Bharuch, Sindhi Market, Bhanderi Pole, and other localities in the city of Ahmedabad. This caused a significant loss of property . According to an official estimate, 1044 people were killed in the violence - 790 Muslims and 254 Hindus. Another 223 people were reported missing, 2,548 injured, 919 women widowed and 606 children orphaned. Unofficial estimates put the death toll closer to 2000, with Muslims forming a high proportion of those killed. When missing people were declared dead after 7 years, total deaths went up from 1044 to 1,267. Two different panels appointed to inquire into the 2002 case, had given different views on the Godhra train burning incident. The Nanavati Commission, appointed by the Gujarat government, concluded that the fire was not an accident, but it was caused by throwing petrol inside the train. Meanwhile, the one-man U. C. Banerjee Commission appointed by the Railway Ministry under Lalu Prasad Yadav said that the fire was accidental. Upon this incident the two investigation panels Nanavati Panel and The Banerjee Panel has made their points in regard to the incident.

Shah-Nanavati Commission
On 6th March, the Gujarat government set up a commission of enquiry headed by retired High Court judge K.G. Shah to enquire into the Godhra train burning and the subsequent violence and to submit a report in three months. Following the criticisms of victims, activists and political parties over Shah's alleged proximity to the BJP, on 22nd May, the government reconstituted the commission, appointing retired Supreme Court Justice G.T. Nanavati to lead the commission. In 2008 The Nanavati commission came out largely in favour of the Gujarat government. Nanavati's evidence hinged on the acquisition of 140 litres of petrol was stored at the alleged key conspirator's, Razzak Kurkur, guest house hours before the arrival of the train. This was further corroborated by forensic evidence showing fuel was poured on the train compartment before being burnt.

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The alleged mastermind was said to be the cleric Maulvi Husain Haji Ibrahim Umarji and a dismissed Central Reserve Police Force officer named Nanumiyan, from Assam, who had instigated the Muslim crowds.

Banerjee Committee
In September 2004, a panel appointed by the central government and headed by former Supreme Court judge UC Banerjee to probe the Godhra train fire concluded that the fire was accidental. Its findings were challenged by the BJP and the Gujarat inspector-general of police. In October 2006, the Gujarat High Court ruled that the panel was set up illegally violating the Commissions of Inquiry Act, 1952 which prohibits the setting up of separate commissions by state and central governments to probe a matter of public importance.

Concerned Citizens Tribunal

The citizen tribunal headed by retired Supreme Court justice Krishna Iyer collected evidence and testimony from more than 2000 riot victims, witnesses and others. In this report, the tribunal accused the state government and chief minister Modi of complicity in the violence. While Krishna Iyer was nominally part of this tribunal, he made it clear in the preface of the report that his involvement was very limited.

The trial began on June 2009 with the framing of charges against 94 persons accused in the attack. Among the 94, 80 are in jail and 14 are out on bail. As many as 253 witnesses were examined during the trial, and over 1,500 documentary evidences were presented before the court by the Gujarat police. A Final Verdict was announced on 1st March, 2011. Among the 31 convicts 11 of them were sentenced to death penalty and other 20 were punished with life sentences on 22nd Feb 2011. A Special Court convicted 31 people for perpetrating the burning. The verdict is finally out after 9 long years 11 persons have been found guilty for setting the Sabarmati Express train on fire at Godhra station. They have been sentenced to death. They have got a weeks time to file an appeal. Another 20 have been sentenced to life imprisonment. Special Court judge P R Patel has convicted 31 accused while acquitting 63 others, Public Prosecutor J M Panchal said after the verdict inside the Sabarmati jail. The judges have been convinced that the fire in the train was not an accident, as theorized by some, but an intentional well planned operation.

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As a squeal to these deaths, there erupted more communal violence in several towns of Gujarat and still more lives were lost. It has tarnished the image of Gujarat and put a blemish on the administration due to its partisan attitude.

We are really very fortunate being the citizen of India, because it is a secular country. But some incidents like Godhra train accident create a question mark in our mind regarding secularism. We all should believe in one religion and that is human religion or humanity. Then only we can avoid all the communal riots what cause havoc in the society. Lets be all unite together and solemn to eradicate all these communal feelings from our mind and live together.

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RESERVE BANK OF INDIA A New Anti-Inflationary Strategy

Recently the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has hiked the repo and reverse repo rate by 25 basis points (100 bps=1%). The new repo and reverse repo rate is 5% and 3.5%, respectively. The hike comes into effect immediately. Repo rate is the rate at which our banks borrow rupees from RBI. Whenever the banks have any shortage of funds they can borrow it from RBI. A reduction in the repo rate will help banks to get money at a cheaper rate. When the repo rate increases borrowing from RBI becomes more expensive. When RBI lends money to bankers against approved securities for meeting their day to day requirements or to fill short term gap, it takes approved securities as security and lends money. RBIs action in hiking the short-term policy rates the repo and the reverse repo rates was expected as the Central bank has to focus on inflation. The hike in rates will lead to a rise in cost of funds for the banks and eventually makes loans expensive, which will reduce consumption. A cut in the bank rate could set off a series of rate reduction on fixed-income Ronalisa Parida, 4th Sem instruments. Banks, for instance, will lower the interest rate on their fixeddeposits. There could also be a small reduction in the loan rates they offer companies. This would prompt companies to lower interest rates offered on fresh retail bond offers. And that is not all. The repo rate has a direct bearing on the overnight or the call money market; this is the market where banks and primary dealers borrow money for one day to, typically, 14 days. India's central bank has been the most aggressive in Asia this year at raising rates as surging growth in a domestically-driven economy has been accompanied by inflation well in excess of the RBI's perceived comfort zone of 5 percent. As current and expected macroeconomic conditions will be the more important considerations for going forward, the inflation remains the dominant concern in economic management and it is needed to be controlled. The RBI has also stated that inflation can no longer be attributed to the products related to food items as the prices of food articles barring those of milk, egg, meat and fish have declined since January 2011. But the inflation linked to non- food manufactured products rose from 4.8 % in January to 6.1% in February and the producers are able to pass on higher input prices to consumers. High petroleum prices and the increase in administrated coal prices have increased the risks further. Yet questions have been raised that whether it would be possible to compress public expenditure so aggressively. There are also concerns about the impact of the earthquake and subsequent nuclear crisis in Japan on the global economy, political uncertainties, and a hike in Page 13

repo and reverse repo rates fears of further monetary tightening moves as RBI had some heavy selling last week. According to the data released by the government, Indias annual inflation, as measured by the wholesale price index, rose marginally in February as against expectations of a fall below the 8% mark. Annual inflation for February 2011 increased to 8.31% from 8.23% in January as said by the Commerce & Industry Minister. But the other side of the coin is that the central bank is not the only policymaker doing something to tackle the menace of inflation while also aware of the effects on growth of monetary tightening. That is why the repo rate hikes are minimalist in nature; but the fact that this is the seventh time the central bank has raised its key short-term rates this fiscal, and given the strong hints that it will persist with similar moves, the bank sends out a contrarian message to various stakeholders battling food and commodity inflation. The RBI comforts them with the assurance that GDP is set to reach its above-8 per cent target; but the uncomfortable suspicion is that its serial rate hikes will work more to dampen growth sentiments rather than inflation. The services sector may be doing well but a strong growth trend depends on fresh rounds of investment in long-gestation projects. If interest rate costs pile up and the central bank hints at further hikes- investors will hold back core project funding or seek outlets in countries with more vibrant public policies for infrastructure. But the RBI expects that the hikes will impact on less demand for a product that virtually drove the economy upwards.

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Originality and Adaptation

In the late 1980s, the Indian public television network, Doordarshan, became a truely mass phenomenon in both urban and rural areas. When it launched two major serials inspired by the principal Hindu epics, The Ramayan and The Mahabharat, Doordarshan brought several hundred million spectators to the small screen and experienced a popular success unequalled in the history of audio visual media on the subcontinent. Monoj Kumar Nayak, 4th Sem It is easy to the multiple events of this long narrative also as a panoramic history of India. For Hindu television viewers, these programs were a genuine religious experience. The actors became cult figures, indistinguishable from the gods whose roles they are playing, since darshan, a concept fundamental to Hinduism, sees divinity as existing within the very image representing it. More broadly, however, these two huge TV successes, broadcast on Sunday morning, rapidly became an omissible rendezvous for the whole population, irrespective of language and religion. All activity in the country slowed during transmission, sales of TV set soared, and wedding dates were moved so as not to miss an episode. In short these serials went right to the heart of Indians daily life and collective imagination. Though these programs, the Indian authorities sought to bind the population into a homogenous whole, within which cultural and religious differences would be subordinated to the idea of the nation. The concept of serialization was reinterpreted in an original way and the programs were endowed with a purely Indian flavor, combining beauty, glamour, certain values (heroism, honor, duty) a particular, and polished, language (Hindi flavored with Sanskrit), strong relationship between the characters, a characteristic visual style and storylines to appeal the greatest number. In the early 1990s, Doordarshan lost its monopoly status and numerous private TV channels took up this successful formula, producing their own serials centered on the most popular gods in the Hindu pathzon. Since 2001, Zee, the

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Indian Television Serials

most successful private Indian network, has remade the two famous serials, offering viewers its own versions of the two epics, hoping to repeat the success of the public network, to reach viewers both in India and in the Diasporas. The formula has been adapted to the tastes of today audience and to the latest technologies. In 1991, India opened up to foreign channels transmitting by satellite programs whose form, content and language were new to the country. Its technological lead has given the United States a global audio visual monopoly, with other countries keen to fill their programming schedules quickly and effectively. These second hand audio-visual products are affordable for most channels and can then be dubbed. Hindi language versions of soap operas like Dynasty and the bold and the beautiful are now broadcast, in India, while more recent American series like Friends and sex and the city are transmitted in the English language original versions by the major international satellite networks, star world, aimed at a middle class urban audience. This Anglophone audience, although limited to the major Indian cities, constitutes an extremely promising emerging market for these programmers. For long the most popular channel most, Zee has now lost its top ranking as the channel most watched in urban circle in India to star TV. Soap operas are the Murdoch groups main weapon in asserting it domination of the Indian television landscape and establishing its presence in urban households, which are the main target for this type of program. Since 2001, the 10 most popular programs in urban areas have all been broadcast by channels belonging to the star group. The three serials with the highest viewing figures between 2001 and 2007, Kyunki saas bhi kabhi bahu thi, kahani ghar ghar ki, and Kasauti zindegi ki were all produced by the same Indian production company, Balaji Telefilms and reflect a standardized concept of the television serials.

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animation in advertising
A decade and a half ago advertisers had to contend with limited media options which included TV, radio, print and outdoor. But the present media options also include the cellphones; internet which provides multiple advertising opportunities. There have been a lot of technological advances made in the animation industry over the past few decades. Computers have made the process of creating animation much simpler these days. At first, the word animation reminds us the cartoon characters such as Micky Mouse and Tom and Jerry. Nevertheless, we are exposed to several commercials on TV dailies that use animation, but nobody identifies it. This is due to two reasons: overdose of commercials and extensive use of animation in advertising now-a-days. Exposure to hundreds of advertisements in a single day has led to clutter and Swapnarani Sahu, 4th Sem the corresponding fatigue among viewers. The novelty of use of animation in advertising has worn off and it is being used across several product categories. Such as automobiles, financial services, food products, infrastructure etc. Earlier, all animations were done completely by hand, by users one frame at a time. But now there is a huge amount of pre-production and post-production work involved with these types of projects. There are many miniature sets and scriptures that must be made and every frame of animation must be planned out thoroughly before it is shot. The effort creates the illusion that the sculptures are alive, and this is what gives it the unique attraction.

The initial days of animation involved extensive use of hand drawings by animators. As computer technologies evolved, specific software were developed for specific purposes. Some of the major software products especially useful for animation in advertising are Adobe flash predominately used in online advertising, Maya useful for embedding advertisements in gaming, from Adobe systems and auto desks.

Need of Entertainment
Another contributing factor has been the expectations of people to be entertained through advertisements. Unless an advertisement is entertaining and appeals to emotions, it is unlikely to be either noticed or recalled. One way of entertaining is through animated characters and situations in advertisements. Page 17

Brand Icons
Several brands have their own icons, the famous ones being Ronald McDonalds and Col Sander of KFC. These brands commercials invariably use the brand icons with animation also being incorporated in many of the advertisements. The brand icons movements are animated, for special effects so that the brand message gets communicated effectively and the brand icon gets imprinted in the minds of the viewers. Giving life to brand icons, so that the audience can relate to them, is another motive for the animations.

Animated Characters
Several brand advertisements features specially created characters. Though not brand icons/mascots, these characters are also integral to brand promotion. Their movements as well as their interactions with human characters in the commercials involve the use of animation. Some of the Indian companies to feature animated characters in their commercials in the recent past are Allianz Bajaj, Amaron, ICICI Prudential and Spice telecom.

Special Effects
Many big corporate as well as product/service brands tends to have heavy advertising budgets. This provides scope for special effects laden commercials. For example, Indias Aditiya Birla Group wanted to project its global scale of operations, for which its advertising used special effects very effectively. It depicted a man holding aloft the Aditya Birla Group flag hopping from one region to another.

Usually, it is assumed that animation is best suited for products aimed at children. Childrens attention is easily drawn to animation, and advertisers do take advantage of this, as reflected in extensive use of animation in products such as chocolates, health drinks, bubble gum, etc. However, use of animation is common even for advertisements in other product categories.

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The Unlimited Poster

Stuck with advertising clutters, hands get moved to the next channel or paper to browse on. What about an idea of giving pleasures to the rod and cone cells with the conventional pictures? A church with cracks and a statement inscribed on it God exists in everything! God is omnipresent! It being ineluctably a classic example of an effective yet simple advertising strategy called ambient advertising. That is how we draw the fine strokes of ambient advertising. In the year 1996, Concord Advertising based in US came as the pioneer in this regard. Unusual sections of the society like floors, fuel disposes at petrol pumps and many more were used in the respect. Later British media recognized this form of advertising as Ambient Advertising. Ambient advertising can be described as the form of advertising that is integrated into our surrounding to catch our attention when and where we Priya Priyadarshini, 4th Sem least expect it. Many a times things around us do have the potential to become the medium of advertising. Ambient Advertising encapsulates two key factors namely the usual location and the wow factor. It congregates the elements like novelty, creativity and relevance. But it cant be delivered properly if the best media format available thereby incorporating an effective message has not chosen. Adding more to it comes the economical and executive value which is easy to conduct. Further, it is almost like serenity where the brand is positioned in such a way that you are bound to feel that it is made for that particular. This form is not an expensive issue rather is very cost effective. Now the question, arises, is Ambient Advertising different from that of outdoor and out-of-home advertising and if yes, then in what manner? Well certainly it has its own sphere where it being the most engaging mode of marketing a brand, that lays high focus on surprising the consumer and not just Page 19

informing the contents. It gives a chance to the buyers to discover every possible areas regarding the product as messages are not in a completed series. Besides, it also gets wide coverage for its unusual accounts. One of the best aspects of ambient advertising is that it has a huge scope for creativity and innovation. In fact these parameters act as platform for ambient advertising to serve its basic purpose of arresting immediate attention of the viewer apart from generating visibility for the brand and pulling them to the point of purchase. The main aim of the advertiser or marketer to allow ambient advertising is basically to introduce the brand to the public at a moment when he or she is relaxed and least expecting an advertisement and not pre-alert to face advertisements like as in the case while watching television or reading a newspaper. But certainly each form of advertising does have their own demerits and so it is with ambient form as well. The format once copied and made common lacks the potential to surprise any more. Secondly, advertising clutter increases which leads to blockage of information. Coming to Indian terms, though ambient advertising has its say, yet its still in its early stage as we lack streets that are organized. Again outdoor advertising is improving as an emerging field giving a threat to the former one. But nevertheless, India still holds project like the HSBC (Hong Kong Shanghai Banking Corporation) India, which aims at presenting environmental issues through ambient advertising. Even some more are in the pipeline. However, it is very obvious that ambient advertising contains the seeds of its own destruction, because once the approach or the idea is copied, it becomes a common phenomenon; it ceases to surprise and no more remains effective. But the huge scope for more innovation keeps the spirit of the creative strategists high. In fact, the category has become so lucrative that specialist companies have emerged that focus predominantly on ambient campaigns. Moreover, some companies have investigated placing advertisements in space that will be visible from earth. Now the challenge of the future may be finding public and private spaces that are free of advertising.

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Umpire Decision Review System A Decision or Confusion

The Umpire Decision Review System (UDRS/ DRS) is a new technology based system currently being used on an experimental basis in the sport of cricket. This system is being used only in Test Cricket for the sole purpose of reviewing the controversial decisions made by the on field umpires in the case of a batsman being dismissed or not. It was officially launched by International Cricket Council on 24 November 2009, during the first test match between Pakistan and New Zealand at the University Oval in Dunedin. During a Test match, each team is given two challenges per innings. A fielding team may use the system to dispute a "not out" call and a batting team may do so to dispute an "out" call. The fielding team captain or the batsman being dismissed invokes the challenge by signaling a "T" with the arms. Once the Abhisekh Patnaik, 4th Sem challenge is invoked, acknowledged, and agreed, the Third Umpire reviews the game. Umpires may request the Third Umpire for certain close calls such as line calls (to determine run outs and stumping) and boundary calls, a challenge may be used in situations that may result in a dismissal. For example, to see if the ball made contact with bat or glove before being caught (making it a legal catch) or to determine if a delivery made or failed the criteria for a leg before wicket dismissal. The Third Umpire then reports to the on-field umpire whether his analysis supports the original call, contradicts the call, or is inconclusive. The onfield umpire then makes the final decision: either re-signaling a call or revoking a call that is being reversed and then making the corrected signal. If a team's challenge results in a reversed call, the team keep that challenge; they can continue to challenge throughout the innings until they make two failed challenges. The first referral of the World Cup came after the 4th ball of the 2nd innings was bowled. India's Shanthakumaran Sreesanth had bowled a yorker and the umpire declared it not out. Dhoni referred it to the TV umpire and a replay showed it might have missed the leg stump, so the original decision was upheld. The match marked the debut of the controversial umpire referral system in World Cup cricket. UDRS was used in a thrilling tie between India and England in Bangalore as MS Dhoni was annoyed by the system and said that it is an adulteration of Page 21

human decision and technology, to which the ICC replied that the players should know the technology before passing judgments on it. ICC has revised the guidelines of 2.5m rule as umpires must consider important points regarding it. The system has generally received positive response from players and coaches since its launching; however there has been some criticism as well. West Indies legend Joel Garner labeled the system a 'gimmick'. Another West Indian Ramnaresh Sarwan said that he was not a supporter of the experimental referral system. Former umpire Dickie Bird also criticized the system, saying it undermines the authority of on-field umpires. Due to the lack of technology, some cricket boards like BCCI (Board of Cricket Council for India) and ECB (England Cricket Board) are also not in favor of using the system.

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