Page 1 Much the very last step. The end is not far away.

What chance to take this opportunity to recall what has served as base my political engagement: years of resistance and the program developed there are sixty-six years by the National Council of Resistance! C ' Jean Moulin is that we, through this Council, the meeting of all components of occupied France, the movements, parties, trade unions, to proclaim their adherence to the Fighting France and only leader it is recognized: the General Gaulle. London where j ' had joined General de Gaulle in March 1941 I learned that this Council had developed a program, ' had adopted March 15, 1944, proposed for a set of liberated France principles and values underlying modern democracy our country 1 . These principles and values, we have TODAY ' Today more than ever need. It behooves us all together to ensure that our society is a society in which we are proud of: not of this company undocumented, expulsions, suspicions against immigrants, not this society where challenges pensions, acquired Security social, not this society where the media are in the hands of the wealthy, all things that we would have refused to endorse if we were the true heirs of the National Council of Resistance. From 1945, after a terrible tragedy, it is an ambitious resurrection which engage the forces present in the Council of Resistance. Remember, then what is created Social Security Resistance as he wished, as the program stated: " A comprehensive plan for Social Security, to ensure that all citizens Page 2 livelihoods, in all cases where they are incapable of the available through work "," a retreat to the old workers end their days with dignity. "The sources ' energy, electricity and gas, coal, the major banks were nationalized. C ' this is what program called again, "the return to the nation of the major means of monopolized production, produced by common sources of energy, wealth of the subsoil, insurance companies and large banks; " the establishment of genuine economic democracy and social involving the eviction of large feudal economic and financial the direction of the economy. " The public interest must prevail over the ' interest Specifically, the fair sharing of the wealth created by the world of work override the power of ' money. Resistance offers " rational organization of the economy to ensure the subordination special interests to the public interest and free from the dictatorship introduced to the professional image of fascist states, and Provisional Government of the Republic it is over. A real democracy needs a free press, and the Resistance knows required by defending "The press freedom, honor and independence with respect to the state, the power of money and foreign influences. That is what turns further orders on the press in 1944. Yet that is what is now in danger. Resistance in calling for "an effective opportunity for all children French to benefit from the instruction the most developed, "without discrimination, yet the reforms proposed in 2008 to go ' against this project. Young teachers, I support the ' action, were up ' to refuse to apply them and they saw their wages amputees as a punishment. They were outraged, have "disobeyed" found these reforms too far from the ideal of the republican school, too service company Page 3

because the power of ' money. n ' has never been greater. resist. If you meet someone ' No one who ' will not receive. we will leaven so that the dough rises. strong and committed. indignant you! The political. I tell myself that the wealthy. differs from the experience of young people today. no interest General. We dare say that ' State can no longer cover the costs of these civic action. so fought with the Resistance. The pattern of resistance is the outrage. economic. ' experience ' a very old like me. And this trend is towards more justice. we call the younger generations to live. born in 1917. and even whether to keep an ear open counterbalance to communism for American capitalism. When something as unworthy you j ' I was outraged by the Nazis. Admittedly. The responsibility for ' man can s ' in hand or power or a god. Banks are now privatized first show of their conscious dividends and high salaries of their leaders. with their selfishness. We veterans of resistance movements and fighting forces of Free France. have been terribly afraid of the Bolshevik revolution. We say take over. It was relatively simple. decolonization. help him to conquer them.viduals. "He was a libertarian message. we must Page 5 . But if TODAY ' Today as Then. it was obvious. C ' is the base of the social conquests of the Resistance is TODAY ' hui questioned 2 . Nausea. Then the war Algeria. c ' was not to accept l ' German occupation. and the race for money. The young that I Normale ' was there was very marked Sartre. It was that Algeria became independent. These rights. transmit. pity him. competition. I often asks college teachers the opportunity to intervene to their students. The basic pattern of resistance was indignation. this will suffice. a vocal minority stands.money and not enough developing the creative and critical thinking. the need to oppose this intolerable form of totalitarianism s ' was an obvious move. insolent. These reasons are born less than an emotion will d ' commitment. As for Stalin. The Wall. including the Universal Declaration drafted the program in 1948. Two visions of the ' History When I try to understand what caused fascism. more freedom but not this freedom of uncontrolled fox in the henhouse. Instead. I wish you all. For us. much encouraged. a senior classmate. the defeat. to each of you to have your design indignation. But even if we had knowledge of the great Stalinist trials of 1935. Simple as what followed. Sartre taught us to say: "You are responsible as Indira . Page 4 are universal. They have been guided by their fears. selfish. which caused we have been invaded by him and by Vichy. not L ' Being and None were very important in shaping my thinking. and I tell them: you don ' not have the same reas ons obvious committing. But how can he miss today's money to maintain and extend these achievements while production of wealth has increased considerably since the Liberation period l ' Europe was ruined? Otherwise. with his own servants into the highest echelons of the ' State. then one becomes an activist. inheritance Resistance and its ideals. L ' gap between the poorest and richest has never been important. We joined the stream of history and the mainstream of the ' history must be continue through each. intellectual and all Company shall not resign or be intimidated by the current international dictatorship of financial markets that threatens the peace and democracy. Is invaluable. we all applauded the victory of the Red Army against the Nazis in 1943. My long life has given me a succession reasons to be indignant.

I was rather to Hegel. This statement alone should generate commitment. I entered it as a fervent disciple of the philosopher Hegel. Who controls. René Cassin is that we have the term "rights . To see this. with ' others. I tell young people: Looking for a bit. Paris. and after. UN. His teaching explored concrete experience. that of the body and its relationship with the meaning. Some things unbearable. We live in an inter connectivity as yet none has ever existed. which was Nobel peace in 1968. I can not forget. which means that everything that is desirable or possible. the sense of history is the irresistible path of disaster in disaster. 10 December 1948 in Paris at the Palais de Chaillot. Human rights and the rule of the planet. the man who shared with him the task of translate into German In Search of Lost Time by Marcel Proust. who decides? It is not always easy to distinguish between all the currents that we govern. responsible for matters Social. search. When I went to the École normale rue d'Ulm. we must look. Humanitarian and Cultural Committee. We can already identify two major challenges: 1. Benjamin who committed suicide in September 1940 to escape Nazism. saying "I n ' There can not. 2. L ' huge gap between the very poor and very rich and which continues to grow. in its development. I'm doing. Government of Free France. Thus represents a friend of my father. competition. you lose one of the components which is essential in humans. This is an innovation of the twentieth century `and` XXI. It's under Chief firm Henri Laugier. One of the essential components: the Faculty of outrage and commitment that is the consequence. But my natural optimism. He pulled a message pessimistic ' an array of Swiss painter Paul Klee's Angelus Novus where the figure of ' angel opens his arms as if to contain and repel a storm that ' he identified with progress. L ' Hegelianism interprets the long history of humanity as having a meaning: c ' is freedom of ' man progressing step by step. curator National Justice and Education. Page 6 we feel that it is interdependent. The history of society progresses. Indifference: the worst attitude True. we have the democratic state its ideal form. in London in 1941. singular plural great deal of sense. the race "ever". and I assured the secretariat. History is made of successive shocks is taken into account of challenges. The very poor in the world today earn just two dollars per day. you'll find. and Secretary of the Commission on Human Rights ' man j ' ai. the reasons may seem to be indignant TODAY ' Today less net or the world too complex. Assistant Secretary General of the UN. been induced to participate in the drafting of this declaration. But in this world. " By having this. She had fifty -four Member States at the time. We no longer dealing with a small elite that we clearly understand the actions.engage on behalf of its responsibility as a human. There are of course another conception of ' history. The worst attitude is indifference. Progress made by freedom. nor that of Pierre Mendes France in the Economic and Social Council to whom the texts that we developed were subjected before being considered by the Third Committee of the ' General Assembly. in 1939. the man having reached its full freedom. this may be experienced as a destructive hurricane. C ' is the German philosopher Walter Benjamin. the role of René Cassin. We can not let that gap widen further. and I followed the Seminar Maurice Merleau-Ponty. I had the chance after Liberalisation of being involved in drafting the Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by the United Nations. C ' is a vast world.

it has nevertheless played a role powerful since 1948. This conflict is the source of indignation. Seek and ye shall find! My indignation about Palestine Today. Jewish. More than the physical destruction like the Red Crescent hospital in Cast Lead is the behavior of Gazans. And if this statement has a scope declarative. we saw colonized s ' in their grasp independence struggle. where j ' I was able to enter with my wife through our diplomatic passports in order to ' study firsthand what the report said. This was the If Hitler considered himself his own master and allowed to cause genocide. As for Gaza. A prison where they s ' organize to survive. UNRWA. their patriotism. crimes the cons ' humanity "during its operation" Cast Lead " which lasted three weeks. who are acting and performing. undocumented migrants. we must act in a network. Roma. We also visited the Palestinian refugee camps set up in 1948 by ' UN agency. He must read the report of September 2009 Richard Goldstone Gaza. their constant concern for the welfare of their children. . by our presence. the West Bank. For s ' by emancipate must ensure that the Member States United Nations undertakes to respect these universal rights. my biggest outrage for Palestine. Zionist who even said.Page 7 universal "and not" international "as suggested by our friends Anglo -Saxon. I note with pleasure that ' in recent decades have increased non-governmental organizations. For there is much at stake at the end of the War World: emancipate themselves from the threats posed to Totalitarianism humanity. ' Rights: "Everyone has the right to nationality "and Article 22:" Everyone. movements social as ATTAC (Association for the Taxation of Transactions Page 8 financial).. as a member of the society has the right to social security and is entitled to the satisfaction of economic. their love of the sea and beaches. take advantage of all means modern communication. not legal. It is obvious that to be effective TODAY ' Today. For young people. she has stocked in their minds for battle freedom. I myself returned to Gaza in 2009. FIDH (International Federation of Human Rights) Amnesty . accuses Israel of committing "acts amounting to war crimes and perhaps in some circumstances. thanks to the efforts National and international cooperation. The people who accompanied us n ' have not been allowed into the Gaza Strip. There and in the West Bank. c ' is a prison open for a million and half Palestinians. you will find themes that justify your outrage . You will find situations concrete that lead you to give play to strong citizen action.the treatment made to immigrants.. I say look around you. but we were trying t heir impose 3 . the band Gaza. It is a way defeat the argument of full sovereignty that a State may assert while engaging in crimes against humanity on its soil. and even. fascism. The Universal Declaration owes much to the revulsion Universal against Nazism. totalitarianism. I felt the need to quickly. do not be fooled by the hypocrisy there was in the ' Membership proclaimed by the victors in these values that not all had intended to promote fair. social and cultural rights indispensable for dignity and the free development of his personality. taking into account the ' organization and resources of each country. the spirit of the Resistance. I can not resist the urge to quote Article 15 of the Declaration Universal Human Rights. where more than three million Palestinians from their land by Israel are waiting for a Return increasingly problematic. in which the South African judge.

The exasperation is a denial of hope. In the concept efficiency. I agree with Sartre. "c ' is far more important than whether we should condemn or not those who s ' to deliver. And. So we can that terrorism is a form of ' exasperation. It does not help its cause. We were impressed by their clever way to deal with all shortages imposed on them.women. But it is an inevitable failure because we are in a world of violence. "What j ' would add that non violence is a safer way to stop it. they can understand. it is unbearable. And that frustration is a negative term. We confirmed that there had been four miles hundred dead .Page 9 countless. Alas. We saw them make the fault cement bricks to rebuild thousands of homes destroyed by tanks. we can not excuses for terrorists who throw bombs. Terrorism is not effective. the popular reaction can not be non-violent. I obviously think that terrorism is unacceptable. it be es-operate. And it is true that the use of violence is violence that is li kely to perpetuate it is true c ' is ' the only way to stop 4 . Page 10 Nonviolence. that ' Hope has always been a strength Dominant revolutions and insurgencies. said: "We must try ' explain why the world Now. that haunt our memory. l ' History gives little ' Examples of people who learn from their own history. C ' is the path we must learn to follow. I would almost say it is natural. Because that ' it does not provide the results that may eventually produce hope. in March 1980. I know that Hamas won the recent parliamentary elections n ' has unable to avoid being sent rockets on Israeli towns in response to the situation of isolation and blockade in which Gazans are. that is horrible. but we can explain this gesture by ' exasperation of Gaza ns. but we must recognize that when you are busy with military means infinitely superior to yours. From either side of Page 11 . This is not efficient and Sartre himself eventually wonder at the end of his life on the meaning of terrorism and to question its rationale. In the concept of exasperation. laughing. Is it used to Hamas ' send rockets on Sderot ? The answer is no. the ' expectancy of non-violence. I sharing the findings of South African judge.historical development. children and old included in the camp Palestinian . Sartre wrote in 1947: "I accept that violence in any form it manifests itself is a failure. but so far it did ' is not acceptable. That Jews could commit themselves to war crimes. This is the way that humanity must cross the next step. We can not support terrorists as Sartre ' made on behalf of this principle Algeria during the war or during the attack on the Munich games in 1972. he need to understand violence as a regrettable conclusion unacceptable situation for those affected. is a long time in the develop. and how I feel yet the ' hope like my conception of the future 5 We must understand that violence turns his back on hope. we must hope nonviolent. Sartr e. If there is a hope violent is in the poetry of Guillaume Apollinaire: "What hope is violent "no politics. committed against Israeli athletes. I am convinced that ' future belongs to non-violence.during this operation " Cast Lead "by Israeli army against only fifty wounded Israelis. the path we must learn to follow. Say "violence is not effective. It is understandable. reconciliation of different cultures. He must be prefer the ' expectancy. three weeks his death. It should not be asper former.

They can put an end to the human adventure on a planet that ' it can make it uninhabitable for ' man. what that ' in is the ' author. To so. the destruction of the Soviet empire. to the wall against which they protest. This fall. should provoke our indignation. c ' is that neither Obama nor l ' EU has so far been manifested with what should be their contribution to a constructive phase. the Copenhagen summit the cons No global warming ' no permit ' engage in genuine policy for protecting the planet. although that "Nazism was defeated. and disastrous consequences as ' have drawn the United States." Not bad . For the most serious risks we face. sustainable balance become prevalent. it must be based on rights. The message ' Mandela a. 2004. The Israeli authorities have called the march of "nonviolent terrorism.. driven by the West. c ' is thereby no longer have terrorist violence. Kofi Annan. Productivist thinking. Similarly. There is not compromise on these rights. d ' a Martin Luther King finds its relevance in a world which has exceeded the comparison of ideologies and totalitarianism conqueror. We are at a threshold between the horrors of the first decade and opportunities following decades. as this military intervention in Iraq. s ' pressing the values fundamental. thanks to the sacrifice of our brothers and sisters of the Resistance and the UN against barbarism Page 13 . How to conclude the call to s ' indignant? Recalling further that. understanding. led the world in a crisis that we must avoid a radical break with the headlong rush of "growing" in the financial field but also in science and technology. The UN has been able to convene conferences like those of Rio on Environment in 1992. justice.. The previous decade. But hopefully. support of all those who in the world are the enemies of oppression. without throwing stones without using force. but we did not further initiated a new policy development. we must come to a negotiation to remove the ' oppression. This is a message of hope in modern societies' capacity to overcome conflicts by mutual understanding and patience vigilant. It is high time for the sake of ethics. the 191 member countries adopted the statement on the "Eight Millennium Development" by which they undertake to halve poverty in the world ' 2015. violation of which. Therefore we must not let accumulate too much hate. we veterans Resistance movements and fighting forces of Free France (1940-1945). We had this economic crisis. I explained in part by the U.and I'm not the only . the end of apartheid. the first decade of XXI e century were a period of decline. that of Beijing on Women in 1995 and in September 2000.S. President George Bush. For cons. always hope. It is especially be embarrassed by the efficiency of non-violence that is committed to ensuring it raises the support.government response Israel faces the fact that every Friday citizens Bil'id will. For a peaceful uprising J ' have noted .oppressors of the oppressed. My great regret. we said March 8. had been of great progress. It should be Israel to a terrorist nonviolence. the 1990s. the fall of the Berlin Wall. Page 12 But it remains true that d ' Important progress has been made since 1948: decolonization. September 11. at the ' initiative of Secretary General United Nations. the occasion of the sixtieth anniversary of the National Programme Resistance.

CFTC (French Confederation of Workers Christians) and the six main political parties of the Third Re. and that the problem is to have salary is more support for social rights . 2 According to union estimates. De Gaulle instructed the board to develop a government program in anticipation of the release of France. both in London and Algiers before to be adopted March 15. " Page 14 NOTES Created a clandestine May 27. Note that the Ordinance press was promulgated on 26 August. but the county government. RESIST IS TO CREATE. 1943 in Paris by representatives of eight major resistance movements. ' generalized amnesia and excessive competition of all against all. then the law Douste Blazy (Doctor training). through the prefects. This program was the subject of several back and forth between the CNR and Government of Free France. in 2010. 1944. 3 The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted on 10 December 1948 in Paris by the UN General Assembly by 48 states out of 58 members. No. 2004. Since the reforms Juppe 1995 imposed by ordinance.Fascist. Workers' representatives take no more than a role advisor. It eg the Head of State appoints by order of the Chief the National Insurance Fund (NHIF). this threat has not disappeared completely. he was Secretary General of National Front for the independence of France. But this threat n ' has not totally disappeared and our anger the cons ' Injustice is still intact 6 . They enacted the Social security and its management placed under the dual authority representatives of workers and the state.the central point of orders of 4 and 15 October 1945. lecturer in Economics at the Uni. because of . Saudi Arabia. even. is the only state that handles Social Security. Jean -Paul Domin. 1944 at the Hotel de Ville in Paris. de Gaulle's delegate who wanted to establish this Council to make more effective the fight against the Nazis. And one of the main Editors of the program was Roger Ginsburg. in plenary session by the NRC. the contempt for the weakest and culture. So under the pseudonym Pierre Villon. strengthen its own legitimacy against allies. and represents what movement within the CNR and its permanent office. as most Page 15 brittle fault waive care insurance and complementary l ' importance of remaining unpaid. to because of apartheid that the statement of fact condemned. we went from 75 to 80% of income as the amount of pensions to about 50%. Also. They are no longer as the aftermath of the liberation of trade unionists who are head of primary funds. " He reveals how access to additional quality now a privilege due to the position in employment. the two major unions Pre-war: the CGT. call us always "a real insurrection against the peaceful means mass communication that do not offer a horizon for our Youth that mass consumption. Eight abstained: South Africa. we say with our affection : "CREATE is to resist. " To those who will make the twenty-first century.public including the PC and the SFIO (Socialist). resistance movement created by the French Communist Party in 1941. the son of a rabbi in Alsace .University of Reims Champagne-Ardennes. the National Council of Resistance (CNR) held its first meeting on 27 May under the chairmanship Jean Moulin. writes for the Institute European Waged a note on "complement ary health insurance shut up. this being an order of magnitude. This program is solemnly handed to General de Gaulle by the CNR August 25.

On the eve of being hanged.. Through the middle family. and Stephane. Georges Seguy. . but the War interrupted his studies. Assigned to the penal company. July 10 1944. 24 March 1980. "Now the hope . he was landed clandestinely in France under the codename "Greco" with mission to contact the various networks in Paris. he was arrested by the Gestapo in Paris on denunciation: "We do not pursue someone ' one who spoke under torture. He works in the Office of cons -espionage. but fortunately his eternal luck . 4 Sartre. so only a few days of the liberation of Paris. (III) "in Le Nouvel Observateur. Intelligence and Action (BCRA). 1948. J. Michel Boitel. 6 The signatories of the Appeal of March 8. the Junkers 52. Yugoslavia. "he wrote in a memoir. it is mobilized and knows the phoney war.the ' test including the bathtub.he was sent to Buchenwald. Poland. Czechoslovakia. must here noted that Article 8 of the Declaration introduced the principle of using individual against a state for violation of fundamental rights. a writer herself. Jean-Pierre Vernant.. Marshal Petain sees the sell off French sovereignty.gender equality. we Note however. He escaped. he escaped again and this time for good. Franz Hessel.it is paid the accounting department. he joined the Free France of General de Gaulle in London. and a painter mother. Philippe Dechartre Guingouin Georges. Dancing with the century in 1997. with their two children. the eldest. milling business. of find new places ' radio show to go to London information collected for the Allied landings. -P. Ulrich. Recaptured. August 8 1944. Germaine Tillion. Stéphane entered the ' ENS Rue d'Ulm in 1939. Helen Grund. In May 1941. it destabilizes her torturers in their speaking German. Henri Bartoli. saying in turn that Statement did not go far enough in taking into account the rights economic and social rights and the iss ue of minority rights. -P. 2004 are: Lucie Aubrac Raymond Aubrac. where are made the V-1 and V-2 rockets with which the Nazis are still hoping to win the war. J. French citizen since 1937.. in Situations II. Daniel Cordier. both attending the Parisian avant-garde. 5 Sartre. "State of the writer in 1947 o. Page 17 POSTSCRIPT Stéphane Hessel was born in Berlin in 1917 to ' a Jewish father writer translator. Maurice Kriegel-Valrimont. Germany. After interrogation under torture . Union Soviet Union (Russia. including Dada Marcel Duchamp and the American sculptor Alexander Calder. language native . Maurice Voutey. Ukraine. Paris Gallimard. Stéphane Hessel. he was transferred to Camp Rottleberode near the ' plant undercarriage of German bombers. that Russia in particular objected to the proposal Australia to create an International Court of Human Rights responsible for examining petitions addressed to the UN. Belarus). music lover. he succeeds in extremis to exchange his identity against that of a French died of typ hus in the camp. this principle would find its application in Europe in 1998. By night's end of March 1944. S parents ' set in Paris in 1924. Under its new name.. with Page 16 creation of a European Court of Human Rights permanent guarantees the right to appeal to more than 800 million Europeans. he was moved to Camp Page 18 Dora. Lise London.

Stéphane Hessel became a diplomat. that year. after passing the entrance examination to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.the mother of his three children. six have played a more vital role: Eleanor Roosevelt. the post of ambassador to the UN. He does not hide that. often described as the driving force. Chang (China Chiang Kaïchek and not Mao):Vice Chairman of the Committee. Dr. widow of President Roosevelt died in 1945. . jurist and diplomat. Claude Brossolette. we owe him the writing of several articles and have been able to cope with the fears of some states. In 1946. "isolating the marginal seeking ideal 'by own review of Hessel in his memoirs. It is considered that its twelve members. she chairs the Committee. as such. the opportunity to recover temporarily. it goes back to Paris. "It is well that one who speaks here in 93 years. New York and the United Nations. He will have his consecration as a diplomat "this change in the government of France. Assistant Secretary General of the UN and secretary of the Commission on Human Rights. known in London at the time of Free France and returned to the United Nations in 1946 in New York. with the complicity of the Secretary General of the Elysee. president of the Consultative Commission on Human Rights with the Quai d'Orsay. said he at the same time. a diplomat. It is assigned by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to represent France at international institutions. The Declaration was adopted December 10. a close associate of Laugier.His first job was at the UN where. he writes. reached two years of his retirement. "She was a diplomat rather narrowly specialized in multilateral cooperation. He joined the Socialist Party. two boys and a girl. he stated that the Declaration should not only be a reflection of Western ideas. "with Eleanor Roosevelt. "wrote the former of Free France. It is for this reason that Stéphane Hessel joined the commission to develop what will be the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. of all French statesmen. the youngest.Geneva. many of whom covet a job that pays well. he wrote the first draft of a document 400 pages. With the influx of new staff." in 1981. 1948 by the United Nations at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris. "I'm always on the side of the dissidents. committed feminist. son of Pierre. formerly head of the BCRA. During the war in Algeria. Rapporteur of the Commission. "With now a diplomatic passport. René Cassin (France). in his memoirs. "I wonder why? First response: the shock of the year 1995. lawyer and diplomat. John Peters Humphrey (Canada). finally Stéphane Hessel (France). Henri Laugier. This life returned. that he 's feeling is the closest Pierre Mendes France. he argues in favor of Algerian independence. where it represents France in the Economic and Social Council. he left the UN. I did not imagine the French rather imprudent to bring Jacques Chirac to the presidency. including France to see their colonial sovereignty threatened by this statement . Finally. is that the arrival of François Mitterrand at the Elysee. he was offered by President Valery Giscard d'Estaing. his wife Vitka . he went with his new wife in 2008 and 2009 in the Gaza Strip and returning shows on the painful lives of Gazans.it was a challenging and interventionist conception of Human Rights. Charles Habib Malik (Lebanon). it had to incur. We see how the spirit of FrancePage 1919 blew open on this committee. In 1977.Allied troops move closer to Dora. chief of staff of the Laugier. Ambassador of France. offered him to be his cabinet secretary.

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