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TABLE OF CONTENTS

SECTION 1: BASIC CONSTANTS, UNITS, AND CONVERSION FACTORS
Fundamental Physical Constants ........................................................................................................... 1-1
Standard Atomic Weights (1995) .......................................................................................................... 1-7
Atomic Masses and Abundances ......................................................................................................... 1-10
Electron Configuration of Neutral Atoms in the Ground State............................................................. 1-13
International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) .............................................................................. 1-15
Conversion of Temperatures from the 1948 and 1968 Scales to ITS-90............................................... 1-17
International System of Units (SI)....................................................................................................... 1-19
Conversion Factors ............................................................................................................................. 1-24
Conversion of Temperatures ............................................................................................................... 1-32
Conversion Factors for Energy Units................................................................................................... 1-33
Conversion Factors for Pressure Units................................................................................................. 1-34
Conversion Factors for Thermal Conductivity Units ........................................................................... 1-35
Conversion Factors for Electrical Resistivity Units ............................................................................. 1-36
Conversion Factors for Chemical Kinetics .......................................................................................... 1-37
Conversion Factors for Ionizing Radiation .......................................................................................... 1-38
Values of the Gas Constant in Different Unit Systems......................................................................... 1-40
SECTION 2: SYMBOLS, TERMINOLOGY, AND NOMENCLATURE
Symbols and Terminology for Physical and Chemical Quantities.......................................................... 2-1
Nomenclature of Chemical Compounds .............................................................................................. 2-22
Nomenclature for Inorganic Ions and Ligands..................................................................................... 2-23
Organic Substituent Groups and Ring Systems.................................................................................... 2-25
Scientific Abbreviations and Symbols................................................................................................. 2-29
Greek, Russian, and Hebrew Alphabets............................................................................................... 2-34
Definitions of Scientific Terms ........................................................................................................... 2-35
SECTION 3: PHYSICAL CONSTANTS OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Physical Constants of Organic Compounds ........................................................................................... 3-1
Structure Diagrams for Table of Physical Constants.......................................................................... 3-331
Synonym Index................................................................................................................................. 3-586
Molecular Formula Index.................................................................................................................. 3-631
CAS Registry Number Index............................................................................................................. 3-709
SECTION 4: PROPERTIES OF THE ELEMENTS AND INORGANIC COMPOUNDS
The Elements ........................................................................................................................................ 4-1
Physical Constants of Inorganic Compounds....................................................................................... 4-35
Synonym Index of Inorganic Compounds............................................................................................ 4-99
CAS Registry Number Index of Inorganic Compounds ..................................................................... 4-105
Physical Properties of the Rare Earth Metals..................................................................................... 4-112
Melting, Boiling, and Critical Temperatures of the Elements ............................................................ 4-122
Heat Capacity of the Elements at 25°C ............................................................................................. 4-123
Vapor Pressure of the Metallic Elements........................................................................................... 4-124
Density of Molten Elements and Representative Salts....................................................................... 4-126
Index of Refraction of Inorganic Liquids .......................................................................................... 4-130
Physical and Optical Properties of Minerals ...................................................................................... 4-132
Crystallographic Data on Minerals.................................................................................................... 4-139
SECTION 5: THERMOCHEMISTRY, ELECTROCHEMISTRY, AND KINETICS
CODATA Key Values for Thermodynamics ......................................................................................... 5-1
Standard Thermodynamic Properties of Chemical Substances............................................................... 5-4
Thermodynamic Properties as a Function of Temperature................................................................... 5-61

. and HI.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6-190 Viscosity of Gases..................................... 6-3 Enthalpy of Vaporization of Water ............................................................................................................................................................. 5-95 Mean Activity Coefficients of Electrolytes as a Function of Concentration ................ 5-93 Activity Coefficients of Acids.................................................................................................... HCl............................................... 6-4 Thermal Conductivity of Saturated H2O and D2O ............................................................................................ 6-103 Enthalpy of Fusion............ 6-135 Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of Liquids ........................... 6-13 Thermophysical Properties of Fluids .................................................................................................................................................................................. 6-62 Vapor Pressure....................... 6-139 Temperature Dependence of the Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of Liquids.......................................................... 6-7 Vapor Pressure of Water from 0 to 370°C ........................................................................ 5-104 Kinetic Data for Combustion Modelling ......................................................................... 6-6 Density of D2O....... 6-11 Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of Water at Various Frequencies ..................................................... 6-3 Fixed Point Properties of H2O and D2O ........................................... 6-48 Influence of Pressure on Freezing Points......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5-102 Enthalpy of Solution of Electrolytes.................... 6-23 Van der Waals Constants for Gases............................................................................................................................................................................................. 6-116 Pressure and Temperature Dependence of Liquid Density............................................ 6-14 Virial Coefficients of Selected Gases ............................................................................................... 5-103 Kinetic and Photochemical Data for Atmospheric Chemistry ............................................................................... 5-91 Equivalent Conductivity of Electrolytes in Aqueous Solution ..................................................................... 6-201 .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6-10 Melting Point of Ice as a Function of Pressure .... 6-49 Critical Constants..................................................................................................... 6-8 Boiling Point of Water at Various Pressures. 6-43 Mean Free Path and Related Properties of Gases................................................................ 6-194 Viscosity of Liquids. 5-85 Heat of Combustion ................................... 6-134 Surface Tension of Common Liquids ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5-89 Molar Conductivity of Aqueous HF........................................................................ 6-196 Viscosity of Aqueous Solutions............. 6-91 IUPAC Recommended Data for Vapor Pressure Calibration ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6-173 Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of Gases ............................... 6-129 Halocarbon Refrigerants ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6-5 Volumetric Properties of Aqueous Sodium Chloride Solutions. HBr. 6-63 Vapor Pressure of Fluids at Temperatures below 300 K ............................................ 6-1 Properties of Water in the Range 0-100°C........................................................................................................................................................................ 6-50 Sublimation Pressure of Solids........... 5-92 Ionic Conductivity and Diffusion at Infinite Dilution ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6-130 Density and Specific Volume of Mercury ....................................................... 6-4 Standard Density of Water ........... 5-113 SECTION 6: FLUID PROPERTIES Thermodynamic Properties of Air ................................ 5-90 Standard Solutions for Calibrating Conductivity Cells ................. 5-97 Enthalpy of Dilution of Acids ...................................................................................................................................................... 6-127 Properties of Cryogenic Fluids ................................................................................................................................................................... Bases................. and Salts............................................................................................. 6-7 Vapor Pressure of Ice................................................................................................. 6-10 Steam Tables .........Thermodynamic Properties of Aqueous Systems............. 6-133 Thermal Properties of Mercury ................................................................................ 6-102 Enthalpy of Vaporization ......................................................................................................................................................... 6-188 Azeotropic Data for Binary Mixtures ......................................................................................................................... 6-200 Thermal Conductivity of Gases......................

............ 8-85 Aqueous Solubility and Henry’s Law Constants of Organic Compounds... 7-3 The Genetic Code ............................................... 8-34 Practical pH Measurements on Natural Waters ........................ 9-76 Infrared Correlation Charts ................................................................................................................................ 8-80 Solubility of Selected Gases in Water ....................................................................................................... 8-40 Buffer Solutions Giving Round Values of pH at 25°C................................ 8-56 Ion Product of Water Substance ...................................... 8-112 Solvents for Liquid Chromatography ...................................... 7-4 Properties of Selected Fatty Acids....................................................................................................................................... 8-45 Density.............. 8-1 Standard Solutions of Acids....................................................................................................................................................... 9-74 Force Constants for Bond Stretching........................................ 6-207 SECTION 7: BIOCHEMISTRY Properties of Common Amino Acids........ and Salts .................................................................................................................................. 9-80 .............................................................................................................................. 8-113 Properties of Carrier Gases for Gas Chromatography ....... 8-8 Acid-Base Indicators.......................................................................................................................................... 9-51 Electronegativity........................................................................................................................Thermal Conductivity of Liquids ........................ 7-7 Chemical Composition of the Human Body ............................. Bases............................................................................................................................... 8-97 Solubility Product Constants ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8-18 Conversion Formulas for Concentration of Solutions ................................................................................................................................... 6-203 Diffusion in Gases........................... 8-19 Electrochemical Series..... Freezing Point Depression.................................................................................................. and Viscosity of Aqueous Solutions.................................................................. 6-205 Diffusion Coefficients in Liquids at Infinite Dilution ............................................................................................ 7-6 Typical pH Values of Biological Materials and Foods....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9-1 Bond Lengths and Angles in Gas-Phase Molecules .............................. 8-79 Ionization Constant of Normal and Heavy Water .......................................................................... 8-86 Aqueous Solubility of Inorganic Compounds at Various Temperatures ............. 8-114 Solvents for Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry ........................................... 8-20 Reduction and Oxidation Potentials for Certain Ion Radicals ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 9-75 Fundamental Vibrational Frequencies of Small Molecules ........ 8-117 SECTION 9: MOLECULAR STRUCTURE AND SPECTROSCOPY Bond Lengths in Crystalline Organic Compounds....................... 8-31 pH Scale for Aqueous Solutions......................................................... 7-1 Structures of Common Amino Acids. 7-2 Properties of Purine and Pyrimidine Bases ................................................................................................................................................................................... 8-106 Solubility Chart...................................................................... 8-81 Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Water at Various Temperatures and Pressures........................................................... Refractive Index......................................................................................................................................... 7-5 Biological Buffers......................................... 8-43 Dissociation Constants of Organic Acids and Bases ................................................................................ 8-42 Dissociation Constants of Inorganic Acids and Bases.............. 7-8 SECTION 8: ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY Preparation of Special Analytical Reagents................................ 8-16 Fluorescent Indicators ............................... 8-7 Organic Analytical Reagents for the Determination of Inorganic Substances ................................................................. 9-15 Dipole Moments of Molecules in the Gas Phase....................................................................................................................................... 9-42 Strengths of Chemical Bonds ....................................................................... 8-5 Standard Solutions of Oxidation and Reduction Reagents .................................... 8-116 Mass Spectral Peaks of Common Organic Solvents........... 8-115 C-13 Chemical Shifts of Useful NMR Solvents....................... 8-110 Reduction of Weighings in Air to Vacuo...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................... 10-260 Infrared Laser Frequencies......................... 9-89 SECTION 10: ATOMIC................................ 10-246 Classification of Electromagnetic Radiation.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. and Other Data Related to NMR Spectroscopy.................................................................................................................................. 10-255 Refractive Index and Transmittance of Representative Glasses ......................................... 11-41 Neutron Scattering and Absorption Properties.................................................. 12-43 Electrical Resistivity of Selected Alloys .............. AND OPTICAL PHYSICS Line Spectra of the Elements ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 12-46 Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of Inorganic Solids.............. 12-115 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 10-267 Infrared and Far-Infrared Absorption Frequency Standards ................................................................................ 10-258 Index of Refraction of Air............................ 10-259 Characteristics of Laser Sources.... 9-88 13C NMR Absorptions of Major Functional Groups .......................... 12-87 Organic Superconductors ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 10-253 Characteristics of Infrared Detectors ............................... 12-34 Elastic Constants of Single Crystals ...................... 12-104 Properties of Magnetic Materials ............................................ 11-147 Cosmic Radiation.................................................................................................................... 9-85 Proton NMR Chemical Shifts for Characteristic Organic Structures.......................................................... MOLECULAR....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 12-48 Curie Temperature of Selected Ferroelectric Crystals ......................................... 10-239 Natural Width of X-Ray Lines ................................................................................................................................... 12-7 Ionic Radii in Crystals ........................................................... 12-57 Properties of Antiferroelectric Crystals ... 10-245 Photon Attenuation Coefficients ............................................................................................................ 12-59 Properties of Superconductors................................... Moments....................................................... 11-164 SECTION 12: PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS Techniques for Materials Characterization ........................................................................................................................................................ 12-60 High Temperature Superconductors ........................ 10-217 X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels ............................................................................... 10-251 Black Body Radiation .............................................................................................................................Nuclear Spins................................................................................................ 12-93 Diffusion Data for Semiconductors .......................................... 12-17 Crystal Structures and Lattice Parameters of Allotropes of the Elements........................................................................................................................................................... 12-90 Properties of Semiconductors................................................................................... 10-199 Ionization Potentials of Atoms and Atomic Ions .............................................................................. 10-275 SECTION 11: NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS Summary Tables of Particle Properties........................................................................... 11-1 Table of the Isotopes........ 12-58 Dielectric Constants of Glasses .............................................................. 10-128 Electron Affinities ................................. 10-257 Index of Refraction of Liquids for Calibration Purposes.......................................................................... 12-1 Symmetry of Crystals.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 10-214 Ionization Energies of Gas-Phase Molecules...... 12-35 Electrical Resistivity of Pure Metals ..................................................... 12-22 The Madelung Constant and Crystal Lattice Energy........... 10-187 Atomic and Molecular Polarizabilities .......... 10-256 Index of Refraction of Water .............. 10-1 NIST Atomic Transition Probability Tables ...... 12-19 Lattice Energies .............................................................. 12-14 Polarizability of Atoms and Ions in Solids ............................................................................ 10-235 Electron Binding Energies of the Elements ........................................................................................

........................... 15-20 Cryogenic Constants for Calculation of Freezing Point Depression ............................................................................................................... 14-10 Ocean Pressure as a Function of Depth and Latitude .......................................... 14-36 Attenuation and Speed of Sound in Air as a Function of Humidity and Frequency ......... 1958-1990 ..................................................... 14-39 Musical Scales ........................................................ 13-3 Glass Transition Temperature for Selected Polymers ............................................................... 12-198 Thermal Conductivity of Glasses .................................................................................... Dimensions............................................................................................. 14-26 Atmospheric Electricity .................. 13-1 Solvents for Common Polymers.................... 12-168 Phase Diagrams ...................................... 12-204 Hardness of Minerals and Ceramics ............................................................................ 13-4 Dielectric Constant of Selected Polymers............ 14-23 Infrared Absorption by the Earth’s Atmosphere ..................................................................................................................................................... 1901-1987 ......................................... and Magneto-optic Constants ....................... 12-127 Elasto-optic...................................... 14-16 Geographical and Seasonal Variation in Solar Radiation.............................. Pressure.............................................................................................. and other Parameters of the Earth ................... 12-190 Thermal and Physical Properties of Pure Metals .... 12-125 Optical Properties of Metals and Semiconductors ...................................................................................................................... 14-14 Solar Spectral Irradiance.......... 12-200 Commercial Metals and Alloys ......................................................... Standard Atmosphere (1976)....................... 14-9 Density............................................... 15-23 Constant Humidity Solutions ...................................................................................................S.. 15-24 ....................... 14-1 Properties of the Solar System ......................... 14-8 Acceleration Due to Gravity .................Electron Work Functions of the Elements ......... and Gravity as a Function of Depth within the Earth ................................................................................................................ 12-205 SECTION 13: POLYMER PROPERTIES Naming Organic Polymers .................................. 14-6 Geological Time Scale................................... 14-12 Abundance of Elements in the Earth’s Crust and in the Sea ............................................................................................................................. 14-4 Mass...................... 15-14 Dependence of Boiling Point on Pressure................................................................. 14-25 Mean Temperatures in the United States...... 14-15 U............................................................... 12-172 Heat Capacity of Selected Solids ............................................................................................................................... 15-21 Determination of Relative Humidity from Dew Point ........................................................................................... 15-1 Properties of Common Laboratory Solvents ..................................................................................................................... 12-191 Thermal Conductivity of Metals and Semiconductors as a Function of Temperature.. 12-151 Nonlinear Optical Constants ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 14-28 Speed of Sound in Various Media ............................................................................................... 13-12 SECTION 14: GEOPHYSICS......................................................................... AND ACOUSTICS Astronomical Constants .......................................................................... 14-40 SECTION 15: PRACTICAL LABORATORY DATA Standard ITS-90 Thermocouple Tables ........................................ ASTRONOMY............................ 12-124 Secondary Electron Emission............................................................................................................................................................... 15-19 Ebullioscopic Constants for Calculation of Boiling Point Elevation ..................................................... 14-38 Speed of Sound in Dry Air ................................... 12-196 Thermal Conductivity of Ceramics and Other Insulating Materials ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 15-22 Determination of Relative Humidity from Wet and Dry Bulb Temperatures ................................................................ 12-195 Thermal Conductivity of Crystalline Dielectrics ................................... 12-193 Thermal Conductivity of Alloys as a Function of Temperature ................................ 14-11 Properties of Seawater ............................. 14-2 Satellites of the Planets .................................................................. Electro-optic................................................................. 14-24 Atmospheric Concentration of Carbon Dioxide......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

............................. A-99 The Beta Function...................................................................................................................................................................................... 15-28 Density of Various Solids...................................... A-84 Vector Analysis ............. 16-49 APPENDIX A: MATHEMATICAL TABLES Miscellaneous Mathematical Constants............................................... A-80 Series Expansion............. A-65 Fourier Series.... Chi-Square Distribution........ A-104 Percentage Points.................................. 16-39 Protection Against Ionizing Radiation.............................................................................. A-12 Integration ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ A-1 Exponential and Hyperbolic Functions and their Common Logarithms ........... 16-45 Chemical Carcinogens .. A-105 Percentage Points.................................................. 16-16 Threshold Limit Values for Airborne Contaminants....... F-Distribution............ A-101 Orthogonal Polynomials.............................................................................................................................................................................................................. A-96 The Gamma Function ............................... A-96 Bessel Functions ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 15-27 Characteristics of Particles and Particle Dispersoids............................................................ A-20 Differential Equations........................................... 16-44 Annual Limits on Intakes of Radionuclides....................................................................... A-7 Relation of Angular Functions in Terms of One Another .............................................. A-106 INDEX ............................................................................................................................................................... 16-32 Octanol-Water Partition Coefficients ............................. A-15 Integrals......................................................I-1 ........................................................................................ A-11 Derivatives................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 15-28 SECTION 16: HEALTH AND SAFETY INFORMATION Handling and Disposal of Chemicals in Laboratories ........................................................................................................ A-75 The Fourier Transforms ................................... Student’s t-Distribution ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 15-25 Wire Tables ......................................................................................................................................................................................... A-2 Natural Trigonomic Functions to Four Places ................................................ A-102 Normal Probability Function.................................................................................. A-87 Moment of Inertial for Various Bodies of Mass.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... A-105 Percentage Points........................................................................Standard Salt Solutions for Humidity Calibration.............. 16-1 Flammability of Chemical Substances ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 15-25 Low Temperature Baths for Maintaining Constant Temperature ............................... A-101 The Error Function..........................................................................