With your music sitting on the shelves on the online stores available for purchase 24/7, the trick is to be discovered. In the “old days,” music fans discovered music through commercial radio, print magazines and TV. Record labels pitched albums and bands in hopes of getting them featured. These days you no longer need the record label in order to be heard and seen where people go to discover music. Commercial radio is being replaced by web-based radio stations like LastFM, where anyone can have their songs available to hear based on friend and “if you like this you will like that” recommendations. Print magazines have been replaced by online music and MP3 blogs. Anyone can email the blog owner (the editor) with their music. MTV has been replaced by YouTube, and anyone can upload a video to YouTube. Online, when one person sees or hears your song, they have the ability to share it everywhere, instantly. New music discovery tools like search engines have also cropped up. Google scours the net, picking up everything from music files to blog reviews. Even digital stores like iTunes allow people to share music they like by playlists. Everyone has access to get their music distributed into the music stores as well as have it at the places music fans go to discover, share and buy music.


So how do you get discovered? Even under the “old” model, many artists who got played on the radio, MTV and were featured in Rolling Stone magazine never became popular. As a matter of fact, 98% of major record label releases failed. Why? Because people did not react to the music. Take Nirvana’s song “Smells Like Teen Spirit.” People reacted to the song and video. If people did not like it, or could have cared less about it, all the exposure in the world wouldn’t have helped, it would never have caught on: people had to react. This booklet will provide you with information on how to get discovered, but from there, your music has to cause a reaction in the music fan, and you, as a musician, have the unique and special talent of allowing this to happen. – Jeff Price

You’re an artist, composer, performer, you make music: you used TuneCore to distribute your music into iTunes and other stores. Here are some easy ways to get discovered and sell more music.

Cover Popular Songs
Cover versions of songs sell well. Known songs have a built-in audience already. People looking for “Let It Be” or “America the Beautiful” know what they want. If you “cover” (record your own original version) of these songs you create a way to get discovered and make money. And once someone buys a song of yours they are more inclined to listen to and buy other songs you have recorded.


” and so on. the theme song to the movie the The Exorcist) sells enormously around Halloween. perhaps neglected holidays throughout the calendar–there is no doubt the world needs a great Groundhog Day or Columbus Day anthem. artist/band and song titles that will help you show up when people search. iTunes and AmazonMP3 have millions upon millions of songs in their stores. Be sure to name your songs with easily searchable words. Is your album a collection of nature sounds? Consider words like “forest” and “natural. Christmas music sells really well around the Christmas season. but you could use words with association. “spooky” Halloween sound effects or “scary” themed music (i. what words can I use in my band name.Record Holiday Themed Music Music tied into or about a holiday sells well. so take advantage of it: put words in your album. album name and/or song name that will cause my music to appear when people search? 3 . Don’t forget other. Searchability Stores like eMusic. Are you a mariachi band? Put the word “mariachi” in your name. This is a gray area: if your music sounds like Bob Dylan.e.” It’s your music. For example. like “folk. but ask yourself. “Tubular Bells”. Most customers use the “search” function in the store to find music. This ties back to covers: a cover of “White Christmas” or “Jingle Bell Rock” can fund you through the rest of the year. don’t necessarily use his name.

” or “Songs that Morrisey Wishes He Could Write. These iMixes will surface at the other artist’s album iTunes pages as well your own. Rate Your iMix iTunes allows anyone to rate an iMix with between zero and five stars. Have as many people as you can rate your iMix with five stars. create an iMix (or many many iMixes) with a few of your own songs (say three or so) and other songs (we suggest 9 or so) by more popular artists in the same genre. Create an iMix An iMix is a playlist that you’ve chosen to publish and make available to others in the iTunes Music Store. To get your music to surface and be discovered more. allowing a fan of the other band to discover you. “Music to Break Up To. give your iMix an interesting name (as opposed to “Cool Songs I Like”). Here are some tips on how to getting discovered in iTunes. High-rated 4 . name it something like.” Clever titles catch peoples’ attention.iTunes iTunes is the largest seller of music in the world and sells more music then any other music store (physical or digital) in the world. The more iMixes you seed into iTunes. In addition. the higher the probability you will be discovered.

If you can’t 5 . whether you’re going to be selling online or in physical stores. fans and family indicate the review was useful. “Dude. Consider what would cause you to listen to a song. A great album cover can catch someone’s eye and get them to listen. Also note. think about what might make someone curious aboutyour music.” If you write an interesting review and then have your friends. ask your fans and friends to write reviews—the more reviews the better! Reviews add legitimacy and influence purchases. Be sure to rate your own album 5 stars. the review has a better chance of being the first one people see when they reach your page in iTunes. In your review. this rocks” will have little impact. In addition. For example. you can re-type them here. Take a few moments to write something and talk about your play list.iMixes get more attention and end up on album pages. Get creative and thoughtful with what you write. Check out the “iMix Notes” field. and when you review it: that’s a great place to describe the album and the sound.” will cause a lot more interest. iTunes lets its user decide if a review was “Useful. A great description combined with a high rating will increase the odds someone will discover and check our your play list. A review that says. Album Reviews & Ratings STATISTIC: Albums in iTunes with customer reviews sell 33% more than albums without them. If you happen to have reviews about your music (from blogs or magazines). “ This reminds me of The Beatles if they had Jimmy Page as their lead guitar and Chris Martin backing up John Lennon. An Eye Catching Art Design The finishing touch on your music is the visual design of its package. posting a review that says.

you can link and sell your own music (or anyone’s else in the iTunes store) via any Web page or email. This is a great way to communicate with fans that signed up for your email list that you have a new album or song out. This means that off of each qualifying sale. they’ll give you different options to choose from. iTunes Affiliate Program With the free iTunes Affiliate Program. you will get paid a percentage of the money paid to iTunes by an iTunes customer. Tell a Friend You can send album reviews or playlists or iMixes to anyone from within iTunes via the iTunes “Tell A Friend” option. the iTunes “buy” button next to your song on your own 6 . hire a designer to give your music more than just a pretty cover. With each sale from iTunes that originates from your affiliate link. and you can work with them to come up with final art that you’re happy with. they can give your music the visual image that completes your project and draws people in to listen. Just click on the “Tell A Friend” link in the iTunes store (located next to the album art). if that customer came from your affiliate link. Working with original artwork or photos you supply. so be sure to check them out).create your own design. It’s also a great way to get more people to rate your review and/or iMix and help these to surface more. Collaborating with a graphic designer is as easy as talking to them about what kind of image or feeling you want people to have when they listen to your music. you will earn a 5% commission on all qualifying revenue generated (IMPORTANT: terms apply. In addition. enter an email address and iTunes does the rest.

visit http://www. After Here are a couple examples: http://itunes. etc is recognizable and might add further legitimization to you as an important artist. For more information on how to become an iTunes affiliate for free and how to use the program. It’s a simple and very effective way to sell your music. 7 .apple. All you have to do is place them on any Web page or within an email(s).com/itunes/ visit this page: Place these links wherever your music sits You can link directly to any artist/band page using the convention: http://itunes. To get started. most people going to your home page or receiving your emails are already interested in your music and band. blog. Make Easy Weblinks to Your Music Tunes has recently added a feature that makes it easier for you to easily create web links directly to your content in the iTunes and you can also link directly to albums/singles using the convention: http://itunes. The affiliate program auto-generates links for you.

Post Your Video Put it on YouTube. but MAKE A VIDEO! This can be almost anything. Make sure you have a link to your music on iTunes on your YouTube page. You can even rent one for a few dollars a day in most areas. and the look and feel of it can be as professional or as amateur as you can afford or want. just do a quick Google search to see them). and spread the word. If the MP3 blog community embraces your band. Chocolate Rain. Boyce Avenue’s live acoustic performances of popular songs. Kelly’s “Shoes” video. Sick Puppies “Free Hugs” video. or Star Wars kid. tell your friends. at all stages. Make something that others want to see – think of videos like the Treadmill Dance by OK GO. What better way to get the word out than by a real grass roots campaign of music fans talking about you because 8 . use TuneCore to put it on iTunes. and more (don’t know these videos. put it on every free streaming video or torrent site that will take it. Heck use your cell phone. your friend or a relative have an old video camera. Turn off the video camera’s mike and let your music be the soundtrack. probably even a digital video camera. you could potentially have thousands of them talking about you and providing MP3s of your songs to hundreds of thousands of music fans. get CREATIVE. Most importantly.Video Make a Video You. put it on MySpace. Use what you have. Use free tools on your computer do the editing and synching. so people can buy the music after they watch the video! Blog MP3 blogs can cause significant music and gig ticket sales. Post the links on a blog. Use your imagination to find clever ways to let a minimum budget and tools work to your advantage. There are currently tens of thousands of MP3 blogs with more springing up each day. Mentos and Coke guys.

they love what you do? With the Internet.R. The best way to reach blogs is to go to their websites and follow their submission policies. Only you can determine which blogging communities speak best to your fan base.e. fans. enthusiasts and more. find the person to email and email them. Use Google to search for MP3 blogs around your music (i. supporters. all of whom by now have a Web presence no matter what corner of the world they hail from. There are literally tens of thousands of music blogs – here’s a short list of places it might be worth your time visiting and contacting (or just visit the blog Gorilla vs. Central Booking Halz Haz a Say Get Weird Turn Pro Sasha Frere-Jones Philip Sherburne Cannibal Cheerleader A Walking Disaster The Grizzly LifeT-Sides 9 . contacting a blog is as simple as sending an A Partial List of Music Blogs Gorilla vs. Bear and scroll down to the bottom to see the list with links: http://gorillavsbear. Bear My Old Kentucky Blog You Ain’t No Picasso An Aquarium Drunkard Nothing But Green Lights So Much Silence Transmission Hipster Runoff Pinglewood Motel de Moka Yeezy Skatterbrain Said the Gramophone 20 Jazz Funk Greats Marathon Packs Muzzle of Bees NEON GOLD Raven Sings the Blues Laundromatinee Mystics not Wastrels Abeano Cheap Fast Times Sex on Fire Underrated Undomondo Music For Robots Kitsune Noir Attorney Street Largehearted Boy Circa 45 SIRIUS Blog Radio Brooklyn Vegan Stereogum Chromewaves Big Stereo Arawa Bibabidi Cause=Time Sucka Pants Fluxblog The Rising Storm Awesome Tapes from Africa Discoteca Oceano Brazilian Nuggets Tunes Consumed We Shot J. performers. they have a vehicle to communicate with the world. but remember that no music exists in a vacuum: all music has a community of artists. historians. indie rock MP3 blog etc) then go to their webpage. composers. In many cases.

.continued Disco Dust IHEARTCOMIX La Maladie Tropicale Blogs are for Dogs Discobelle Analog Giant Good Weather For Airstrikes Funeral Pudding I Guess I’m Floating Music for Kids Who Can’t Read Good Ultra8201 Panda Toes Disco Delicious Indie Interviews The Passion of the Weiss Elitaste The Anchor Center The Sound of Marching Feet Pasta Primavera Lullabyes Idolator Rock Insider Sonic Itch Spinner Cultura Fina Big D little d Pampelmoose Missing Toof The Futurist Nerd Litter The Hood Internet The Pharmacy Rx Art Decade Deaf Indie Elephants 1.618 SixEyes Acid Girls Rock & Roll Daily The Rock Snob Dreams Of Horses Shake Your Fist Scissorkick Suspect Drawings Sonic Itch Bows + Arrows The Rawking Refuses to Stop Product Shop NYC Rockouts Done Waiting Filter Magazine Moistworks I am Fuel. You Are Friends Naturalismo Mars Needs Guitars The 3rd Base Line Scenestars Rachel and the CityTorr Cable and Tweed I Heart Music etheriousity Badical Beats Palms Out What Noisy Cats Are We Who Needs Radio? Spacelab Information Leafblower Brooklyn Ski Club Take Your Medicine Indoor Fireworks Audio Deficit Disorder Theme Park Experience The Rich Girls Are Weeping (Sm)all Ages Out the Other Music For Listeners The Test Pilot Womenfolk Earvolution Exitfare More Cowbell The Camera As Pen The Listen Yeti Don’t Dance songs:illinois Swedes Please All Things Go FoeWeel Where Is Helsinki? sixeyes Gulf Coast Bands Muzak for Cybernetics Veritas Lux Mea Can You See The Sunset. Some Velvet Blog Thoracic Fax Machine 15 Minutes To Live I Rock I Roll The Armchair Novelist The Torture Garden What We All Want Think Tank Banana Nutrament The Perm & The Skullet Between Thought and Expression Catchdubs Houston So Real Call Me MickeyTofu Hut Plague of Angels los amigos de durutti Berkeley Place Regnyouth Work For It Pimps of Gore Hey Mercedes Each Note Secure The Big Ticket Copy. Right? (cover songs) Beware Of The Blog Pitchfork Prefixmag Insound 10 ..A Partial List of Music Blogs .

You Can Do It
Getting discovered still takes work, but with the changes created by the internet, it has opened the doors to allow anyone who creates music to have access to distribution as well as the new TV/radio/magazine outlets. Yes, it still takes work, but there are literally thousands of examples of bands and artists succeeding under their terms, their way on their own.


(Singles, EPs, Demos, Album s)

Your Music Your Music


You can be on the


Top 25

Albums & Singles


Over 17 Million Dollars Earned Over 500,000 Songs Delivered

Over 200 Releases Distributed Daily



The third goal is to generate and fully test a master that can be used to replicate or duplicate CDs. I’ve heard words like “mystical” or “voodoo” used to describe the process of mastering and that it is shrouded in mystery and intrigue. To accomplish this. the reality behind the magic The goal in mastering is really three fold. mastering engineers are fairly normal people. The second goal is to make sure that the overall sound of the CD or song matches up well in terms of brightness. That must mean that mastering engineers are ninjas with great big ears that can hear your eyelashes flutter against your glasses when you blink. Some or all of that might be true but besides having great ears and a willingness to listen to all kinds of music day in and day out.THE BASICS OF MASTERING YOUR MUSIC BY DAVE LOCKE. mastering seems to puzzle people the most. and the sound is similar. peak 1 . the beginning and ends are cleaned up. the mastering engineer must have a set of speakers and a room that has a flat frequency response so that there is no mystery about the sound of the song(s) being mastered. JP MASTERS Of all the various stages of the recording process. Also. and loudness to other CDs or songs in the same genre. compressors. That would mean that the spacing is right. FOUNDER & ENGINEER. The first goal is to make sure that each track on a CD flows into the next with some continuity. These tools are basically. bass. the mastering engineer must have tools that are specifically designed to accomplish the goals stated above.

It would be next to impossible to simply write down how you could do it. If that is true. 2 . than I guarantee you that the music that is produced. why do you need an engineer? So. This is a skill that comes from years of mastering everyday. are not real mastering tools. it takes a lot of years of experience. They use hardware with knobs that they can turn with their fingers.limiters. The greatest recordings in the world need to be mastered in order to sound competitive out there. instinct and nuance to get it right. A mastering engineer may or may not have big ears but he or she must be very tuned in to listening for distortion. In fact. They also must have a good idea of how each genre of music should sound in order for it to stand up against other music in the same genre. you won’t find too many mastering engineers using plug-ins at all. and a digital audio workstation to edit and set up masters with. The best mastering gear out there today sits in racks and is extremely expensive. A good mastering stereo EQ will cost upwards of $4000 and often more than $10. tools mastering engineers use As far as how to use these mastering tools to get the job done. and mixed at home is going to need it even more. equalizers. and dynamics. the advice that I want to leave you with is that mastering should not be done in your bedroom studio.000. What I will tell you is that the plug-ins that you purchase for your home recording workstation that have the word mastering in the name. overall tonal balance. recorded.

there are a few things to concern yourself with prior to doing so: 1. this is fine. don’t send an MP3 or AAC. SDII. 2. go ahead and do it but also send a version without. If you like the compression that you are getting. but leave the overall compression and limiting off so there can be more options later in the mastering phase. then it is worth having professionally mastered. music mastering tips from the pros When you submit songs to a mastering facility. Also. On individual tracks. If your music is worth listening to. Sometimes certain issues like “the bass is too loud” or “the vocals are a touch too sibilant’ can be addressed. 3 . Be sure that you are happy with your mixes. 3. Be sure that the highest peaks on your master fader do not reach 0dB.Budget in this very important last step to make sure your music will shine and dazzle the listener. Good luck and may the mastering fairy dust fall upon your music. and AIFF. If you are mostly satisfied but have some minor issues. 4. make notes to send along to the mastering house. The best digital file formats are WAV. Be sure not to mix your songs with heavy limiting or compression on the stereo bus.

Dave founded JP Masters in 1999 and has become one of the most trusted mastering engineers in the business. testimonials “Dave Locke is about the only guy I trust mastering my client’s work. Producer. In all these years. He’s Fast. Musical and never a hint of EGO in the final product. RCA Records. Producer.jpmasters. The Outpost (The Ducky Boys. never a miss step. He is my first choice for clients to consider. from Punk to Rap and from Pop to Classical.about dave locke Dave Locke has been mastering CD releases for labels and independent art ists for over 14 years and has currently mastered more than 2000 projects.” – Gunther Schuller. he’s my Big Brother of Sonics who knows how to make our work impress the masses. I trust him as a professional and as a friend. Go to http://www. His ears and aesthetic touch can be heard on a wide variety of musical genres. Since The Flood.” – David for more information. Reasonable. Producer. Composer.” – Jim Seigel. Epitaph Records. Dropkick Murphys) “I have relied on Dave’s great ears for over a decade. Universal Records. Signature Sounds and thousands of artists. Gotham Records. GM Recordings (Pulitzer Prize Winner 1994) - 4 . including albums mastered for Warner Music Group. Metal Blade Records. Woolly Mammoth Sound (The Neighborhoods) “Dave Locke is by far the most trustworthy and talented mastering engineer in the business today.

Anyone who makes music can have a career without a record label.” -. Nine Inch Nails Unsigned artist Kelly sold over 400. Get 100% of the royalties. SOME ARTISTS WHO DID IT n i ne inc h nail s: ghosts i-i v delivered by tunecore to amazon mp3 “TuneCore made the process of putting our music out effortless and transparent. iTunes® Go to and more. Plus marketing & promotion to drive sales and awareness.000 songs on iTunes and has over 40 million views on YouTube.BE YOUR OWN RECORD LABEL BY TUNECORE Get worldwide distribution of your music into iTunes. they can just “sign” themselves through TuneCore. Over 400. Eric Hutchinson sold over 120. Truly one of the greatest services of the modern recording industry. 5 . Keep all your rights. Over $6 million dollars earned by TuneCore customers.000 songs delivered. Digital stores like iTunes allow all music to be in stock & have sold over 2 billion songs with more than 1/2 of the sales from non-major label artists.000 songs in three weeks on iTunes and went to #1 on the Billboard Heatseekers. manager.Jim Guerinot.

000 songs delivered. we won’t be able to imagine the world without it. the hardest part of the sell is that people think it’s too good to be true. Go to TuneCore. Then. It’s not only the best deal for digital music.” roger o’donnell of the cure “I’ve been promoting TuneCore to every musician and band I meet. TuneCore customers have the opportunity to have their albums featured in the Guitar Center catalogs reaching over 2M people a Over $6 million dollars earned by TuneCore customers. We were head over heels about TuneCore’s super low yearly rate. TuneCore customers have the opportunity to have their music played and tagged in over 215 Guitar Center stores nationally. it’s true and it’s good!” steve terebecki of white denim “We were pretty bummed about ripoff splits that most of the digital music companies offer. steve vai Over 400. “TuneCore is a forum that allows ANY artist to make their work available in all major online stores. but they’re a bunch of sweeties too!” 6 . and even have control over the marketing. well it’s not. a rep emailed us and asked us if we wanted to play a show for CMJ.GET MARKETED & PROMOTED BY TUNECORE TuneCore promotes to digital stores — over 200 customers have been featured in iTunes. Soon. The opportunity to be included in the TuneCore Music Staff Picks newsletter — with a direct link to buy the album — sent to over 4 million people each month. I haven’t been this excited since I discovered my whammy bar.



Plain and simple. Enjoy. UNITED RECORD PRESSING I’m sure you’ve read the Time Magazine article about the resurgence of vinyl or possibly perused the Billboard cover story on the marriage of vinyl and digital. vinyl is experiencing a real period of asked me to put together something about vinyl I decided I’d address a lot of the questions I get asked most frequently. Hopefully you will find this helpful as you’re putting together your first or next vinyl project. from vinyl’s big comeback to the time restrictions of a 45 RPM 7”. vinyl never went away.EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT VINYL BY JAY MILLAR. it’s the new vinyl! These days one of the most common questions I get is what is causing the big vinyl comeback? Oddly enough I don’t think it’s what happened to vinyl that’s causing the comeback. It’s true. First. vinyl. vinyl is back… not that it ever went anywhere. there’s no need for discs to be compact any longer so some 1 . it’s the emergence of the MP3 that brought vinyl back. for many audiophiles and DJs. but in a time when physical music sales are shrinking. SALES & MARKETING MANAGER. When Tunecore. it’s what happened to digital. such as myself. For others.

listening to a record is like going to a movie theater. most MP3 files are low bit rate and have a more dramatic difference in sound. These days digital music has made great strides and they can get those little dots so close together that most can’t hear a difference. CD has its advantages and if there was only one format. If you’ve got vinyl and an MP3 you’ve got everything you had with the CD but the artwork is larger and the sound is warmer and somehow more intimate. does vinyl really sound better? This is an extremely subjective question that’s really hard to quantify.folks are ditching their CDs in favor of the warmth of vinyl and the convenience of MP3. where digital music consists more of dots that are very close together forming something resembling a wave (but isn’t). Plus listening to a CD (or MP3 for that matter) is a common daily background activity but listening to vinyl is an event. Unfortunately. Simply put. artwork and a reasonable level of compactness. Higher bitrates files require more hard drive or iPod space than standard lower bit rate files so many steer clear of those. That said. but the experience is never quite the same as when you go 2 . The difference really lies in the experience. the gym etc. Blu-Ray or whatever. music in an analog form consists of one continuous flowing wave of data. The stances most folks take when they speak of vinyl’s superiority is that vinyl is an analog sound wave. DVD. but a CD is a digital sound wave. CD would probably make the most sense as you get a tangible item.) combined with vinyl for the peak experience at home. with the emergence of digital. you can watch TV. things have changed and the ideal situation now seems to be having your iPod or MP3 player for times that require portability (the car.

it was still unexplainably better. but what if i recorded my tracks with pro tools? Keeping what was mentioned above in mind (an analog wave versus digital) a lot of people like to question if vinyl can really sound better than the CD if they both came from a digital source like Pro Tools. In the case of Blair Witch you saw a picture that was converted from video (a poor analog source) to film. Most folks tend to pay more attention when listening to a turntable even if it’s for the simple fact that you’re waiting for the last cut of that side so you know when to flip the record. In the theater you’re probably not going to be flipping through your mail during the slow parts or answering your phone but you’re completely focused on the film. Again. compared to the 1/4”. You’re somewhat forced to focus on the film. the movie theater analogy works here. The film Star Wars: Attack 3 . Take a film like The Blair Witch Project (shot on video) or Star Wars: Attack of the Clones (shot digitally) – did you enjoy those more at home or at the theater? Most theaters these days are still using film projectors so the odds are very good that if you saw them on the big screen you saw them on film (an analog medium). You’re probably not going to play a record while you’re doing something labor intensive either but when you’re ready to sit and really listen you put on some vinyl. This is another spot where preference comes into play. These days CDs seem to be the most common source materials for lacquers. 1/2” tape or DAT tapes from years past. while bumping from a bad medium to a great one didn’t suddenly recreate the film in wondrous Technicolor the theater. Would the records sound better if all the recording and mixing sources were analog like in the past? Probably.

which was shot digitally then transferred to film (just like transferring CD to LP) gave the theatrical version more of a real or human feel. I like the occasional flaw that pops up on the screen at the movie theater just like I appreciate the occasional crackle of an LP. liners and better quality for home… then remember that all of that gets better with vinyl. It just somehow makes it more human. you can see how it works and just like seeing a band live it might do something unexpected. liner notes and such. the artwork. just a favorite for folks who appreciate great sound and packaging. But all genres seem to be picking up as more and more people do like I did… just realize one day that you’re only holding onto your CDs for the art. I know it’s not for everyone. I didn’t buy much vinyl in the 90s but now all current music I buy is on vinyl and I’m replacing all my 90s & early 2000s CDs with vinyl. These days. so are records going to replace CDs now? As much as I love vinyl. the liners and some unexplained magic when you put the needle down. who’s actually buying vinyl these days? From what I see and hear it’s really becoming a mishmash of folks. There’s just something warmer about vinyl: the sound. 4 . While vinyl sales are growing I don’t expect it to be the dominant format any time soon. that really was my thought process. For the last few years it seemed like it was just the diehard audiophiles and DJs. The segment that seems to really be booming right now is the rock market.of The Clones. Personally. People who buy box sets are not casual music listeners and they know the value of having great packaging. To me buying vinyl is like buying box sets. more and more people are rediscovering vinyl because they’re looking for something more tangible with better quality than the low bit rate MP3s. As silly as it sounds. more specifically metal and indie rock.

should be done prior to sending your DAT or CDR source to us to press your records. EQ-ing. mixing and output). just after winning the lottery) you’d record on reel-to-reel then have it mastered on analog equipment. The source you send to United should sound like you want the music to sound on vinyl. So in a perfect world it’s AAA (analog recording. I see a lot of CDs come in as sources for lacquers and those records still sound warmer and far superior to me compared to CDs. etc) and transferring it onto a lacquer. Mixing. I bet most of you (like me) couldn’t notice much of a difference. mastering The first step in the process is the mastering which is really the all encompassing word for mixing. There are things that experienced engineers do differently when mixing for vinyl..ok. i’m interested. EQ-ing and sequencing the record. The lacquer is sort of like a softer waxier version of the record that’s used to create the metal parts that eventually become the stampers that make your records. DAT. sequenced in order with the correct spacing between each song and a longer space between sides. etc.e. For those of you who remember when CDs first came around they all had codes on the package that said AAD (analog/ analog/digital) or ADD (analog/digital/digital). In ideal situations (i. CD. lacquer mastering This is the art of taking your source material (tape. The lacquers are coated with silver and electroplated to make hard nickel plates which 5 . These days a lot of the vinyl could come out with a DDA on it because lots of it is recorded and mixed digitally before being transferred to vinyl. now help me understand how i do this.

as a single LP at 33 1/3 RPM or a “Deluxe Edition” double LP cut at 45 RPM. like the masters these have ridges instead of groves and these ridges press the grooves into your record. A recent example is the new Metallica reissues which are available two ways. a 7” record can hold up to 4:30 per side.become the masters. instead of grooves they have ridges. More audiophile recordings are coming this way and are sacrificing a little convenience (by spreading the material over two LPs) in favor of sound 6 . and up to 12 minutes per side at 45 rpm. However. RPM is an acronym for Revolutions Per Minute. At 45 rpm. rpm Simply put. We generally say a 12” record can hold up to 18 minutes of music per side at 33 1/3 rpm. The reason for the different times is basically the trade off of space versus quality. Cutting your lacquers at 33 1/3 allows you to fit more music on your record but cutting it at 45RPM is believed to be a superior sound quality. The masters are used to create “mothers” which are metal versions of your record that can be used to create stampers. you may want to shoot for a maximum of 4:30 per side in order to insure optimal sound quality. The masters are like metal versions of the inverse of your record. so a 45 RPM record travels around 45 full rotations in a minute and a 33 1/3 record goes around 33 1/3 times. or 3:30 per side for recordings with heavy bass. A 7” record at 33 1/3 rpm can hold up to 6 minutes per side. These stampers are sort of the molds that create your records. Cramming too much music on a side can really lower the quality of your record and increase the possibility of damage or sound issues. time constraints At URP we strongly suggest limiting the amount of music you put on a record to help insure that you get a quality product. if your music is fairly bass-heavy.

For example. Rhino was smart with the way they did it. They often contain the song titles too. making both available since there are the two different schools of thought. A lot of the DJ 12” singles are done with generic black or white jackets with a hole in them that displays the la- 7 .quality. title and side (A or B) of the record you’re listening to. matrix numbers Matrix numbers are the series of letters & numbers etched into the “dead wax” between the label and the music.the single pocket and the two pocket gatefold. labels Ok. A little known fact about record labels is that they contain no adhesive. Some folks splurge on custom sleeves with art. lyrics or liner notes on them. sleeves are the paper covering over your record before you place it into its cardboard jacket. Labels are in the center of your record and are the paper circles that usually indicate the artist. this one’s a little obvious but it sets up a little known fact I like. jackets & sleeves Although some folks have trouble keeping the terms separated. there are basically two standards . both of which are made of cardboard. Most sleeves these days are plain white ones with a hole so you can see the label. These numbers will sometimes help trace back where a record was mastered or pressed. Although there are lots of options for jackets. but are pressed into a record while the vinyl is hot and the hot vinyl essentially melts into the pores of the paper keeping it in place. if you ever pick up a Beatles 45 that’s on Vee Jay Records and it has an “SO” in the matrix number it means it was pressed in the same building that URP still presses in now.

colors There are lots of cosmetic options for your records. free cd inside? …will it warp my records? When the first creative folks got the idea to include a free CD inside a vinyl record there was a bit of a scare that the presence of the CD warped the record. swirls. The other school of thought is folks putting an emphasis on the lead content present in most black vinyl.bel. key singles. Stickers are printed and applied to identify the record. lighter colors and clears especially… followed by an additional drop off when you go to picture disc. barcodes and such. I don’t have much background in terms of picture discs but from what I understand the production process is much different than regular vinyl records and that the compound used is closer to PVC plastic than it is to vinyl. Black vinyl does indeed contain a small amount of lead and it very well may play a part in the sound differences. Admittedly. Initially it was a valid concern as most records are still cooling a bit when placed into the record jacket and the presence of the CD against a warm record did cause warping but trial and error 8 . the marble look or picture discs. one is that it’s the purest and contains no color additives. Like most things with records it’s just a choice you have to make as to which is more important to you the best sound quality possible or a cooler presentation. Personally. transparent colors. It’s a commonly held belief that there’s a drop in sound quality when you stray away from black vinyl. Depending on where you’re getting your records pressed you can choose between various solid colors. when I’m in the record shop having to decide between the 180 gram version of Velvet Underground with Nico or the version on banana yellow vinyl I go with the colors but many chose otherwise. There are two schools of thought on why black vinyl sounds best.

Most 7”s are pressed to be between 30 or 40 Grams. oh my) First off. Could it be the change in vibration or something…? Maybe. Because there’s generally less music on a 12” single compared to a full length LP (long player) the grooves can be spaced out making them easier to maneuver for those who like to mix & scratch when DJing. Recently. hiphop and R&B singles tend to be on 12” vinyl due to the ability to space the grooves a little further apart (assuming they’re only putting a song or two on a side). On the other hand. the weight of the record is just that. 9 . 48 Gram 7”s have been offered too which I love because it feels like those old Fisher Price records I had when I was a most folks over that hump as just changing the process a bit and allowing the records to cool more all but eliminated the problem. Some manufacture records in various shapes too. weights (180 gram. Most standard 12” records are around 120 to 130 Grams in weight and they go up from there to 180 Gram or recently even 210 Grams. most dance. Some vinyl jacket vendors have jackets with pockets made specifically for CDs and a few of them are designed in ways that drastically reduce the chance of it warping. I wish I could tell you. sizes & shapes & grooves Your standard records are round with diameters of 7” 10” or 12”s. Most rock singles come out on 7”s usually at 45 RPMs for the superior sound quality of that speed. I don’t know too much about those. 210 gram. Many audiophiles speak of the superior sound of heavier weight records but like most sound comparisons again it’s hard to quantify and is thus debated. One thing that doesn’t seem to be debated is that the heavier weight records have more of a physical presence and feeling of quality and also are less likely to warp. Obviously going with MP3s eliminates this problem too but you can’t listen to that MP3 on your way home from your favorite record store.

Make sure you promote your features (color. Arcade Fire & Willie Nelson have been offering an etched vinyl side to their records. SonyBMG and Universal I moved to Nashville in 07 to become the Sales and Marketing Manager for United Record Pressing.etched vinyl: it looks amazing. In the case of Willie Nelson. Etched vinyl is an unplayable side of a record that contains no music but has an image pressed into it which has sort of a frosted appearance. Most of the choices unfortunately have you choosing between sound quality (black vinyl. There are no colors pressed into it. downloads). on your website. etchings. CD as a souce for lacquers. then be proud of it and promote it. he had too much music for a single LP but not quite enough for a double so he pressed three sides of music but used an etched image on the 4th side. just don’t play it. Would Cracker Jack bother to put a free toy inside without stating “free toy inside?” …you wouldn’t want someone choking on your download card would you? about me and urp After doing tours of duty at PolyGram. sales sheet or stickered on the jacket as it can really make a difference to consumers… I know it does to me. 33 1/3 RPMs). In the case of Portishead they used an etched vinyl image as the B side to one of their recent singles. Of Montreal. BMG. it’s a similar look to a frosted window. 45 RPM) or uniqueness/convenience (colored vinyl. analog sources. You’re never going to make everyone happy so go with what makes you happy. heavy weight vinyl. Lately we’re seeing a lot more etched vinyl in the market. in closing… There are lots of things to consider before pressing your records. Recent releases from the likes of Portishead. 10 .

Southern Plastics relocated to its current site. and 12” records • 130. In 1962. 140. 10”. who pressed some of the first Beatles 7”s in America. Tennessee in 1949. prior to Capitol signing them. when it was known by the name Southern Plastics.UNITED RECORD PRESSING. 180 & 210 gram 12”s • Standard & 48-gram heavy weight 7”s • Colored vinyl • Etched vinyl • Stickers to promote your features • Vinyl + Digital packages — hosting your MP3s and creating stickers and coupons with unique codes to offer free MP3s with your vinyl United Record Pressing (URP) began in Nashville. including the Nashville Gray Line Tour. The apartment was built out of necessity as there were few hotels who would offer their services to people of color in the 60s. The company would eventually change its name to United Record Pressing in 1971.urpressing. The company still operates out of that same plant and now gives tours to the public. Nashville. One of their top clients was Vee Jay Records out of Chicago. There’s a lot of history to URP and they’re still very relevant today as they remain the largest vinyl manufacturer in the country and an innovative leader offering such things as heavy weight 7”s and digital download packages to offer free MP3s with your vinyl records. LLC 453 Chestnut St. In addition to seeing how records are pressed visitors get a chance to see some southern history including an apartment built above the factory to accommodate the label execs of Vee Jay and Motown. TN 37203 615-259-9396 URP offers: • 7”. 11 . the same location that pressed those Beatles 7”s.

$1349 includes shipping (offer expires May 31st. your album cover and band featured The opportunity to have your albums featured in the Guitar Center catalogs reaching over 2 million people a month. 2008) 12 . Over 425. TuneCore promotes to digital stores. Keep all your rights. Over $7 million dollars earned by TuneCore customers. ® Go to TuneCore. Choose from 11 stores (and growing) for worldwide distribution of your music. radio play in over 220 guitar center stores The opportunity to have your music played and tagged on Guitar Center radio across the country.000 songs delivered.BE YOUR OWN RECORD LABEL TuneCore can get your music on iTunes® and help you market & promote yourself. 500 black or mixed color 7” vinyl singles with four color jackets Get vinyl pressed. Over 200 customers have been featured in iTunes. Get 100% of the royalties. your own music on the shelves of itunes get featured in itunes Plus AmazonMP3™ and more. staff picks to 4 million people A direct email out each month to 4 million people featuring TuneCore Staff Picks with a direct link to buy the



motion pictures and other audiovisual works (including accompanying sounds). web pages. It is only the songwriter’s original way of telling a story through his or her lyrics that is copyrightable. computer programs. different songwriters can write original lyrics about the same idea. pictorial. musical works. or concepts. However. The instrument represents the idea or theme. short phrases. themes. Copyright does not protect titles. P. such as a family. spoken. except sounds accompanying motion pictures or other audiovisual works). GOLDBERG of Kenney & Sams. or slogans. while the original combination of notes represents the copyrightable expression. For example. novels. authors. sound recordings (recordings of musical. dramatic works. historical or political event. For example. architectural works. choreographic works. 1 .). you cannot copyright the name of your band. etc. and others certain exclusive rights in their original creations. copyright does not protect ideas. graphic and sculptural works. The following types of works are copyrightable: literary works (all written works expressed in words or numbers. blogs. Copyright only protects original forms of written or recorded expression. such as articles.THE BASICS OF COPYRIGHT BY ERIC B. titles and names can be trademarked. names.C what is copyright? Copyright is a form of legal protection that grants to artists. poems. but musicians are always creating new and original ways of expressing those sounds in their music. or other sounds. No one can claim to own the copyright in the sound of a guitar or piano. or the names of your songs. The same is true with respect to music. musicians.

However.” The Rights Of Copyright Owners Copyright owners have the exclusive right to do and to authorize others to do any of the following with their work: • Make Copies. you may be able to protect the artwork or logo through both copyright and trademark. Graphic images are copyrightable as original works of art. the author is said to be the employer. Derivative works are works in which a preexisting copyrighted work is recast. Only the copyright owner can use the original to create derivative works. the author is the original creator. Only the copyright owner may lawfully copy or reproduce a copyrighted work. On the other hand. under copyright law. two or more songwriters or musicians who collaborate on a work will co-own the copyright in the work. The basics of trademark protection will be covered in a separate article. an extended dance remix of a radio single would be a derivative work because the remix would be a new arrangement of the original music. transformed or adapted. or two or more “joint authors” who share in the ownership of the copyright. The author for copyright purposes can be an individual. if you associate your band or music with an original logo or artwork. These types of works are called “works for hire. if a work is created in the course of one’s employment. ownership of copyright Copyright is said to belong to the “author” of the work. • Prepare Derivative Works. For example. Typically. Thus. and not the employee who actually created the work.which is a different form of legal protection. Any new and original material 2 .

it is not the CD itself. only you would be allowed to sell your CD at your concerts. governmental. perform the musical work by means of a digital audio transmission. However. pantomimes. • Display Work Publicly. • Perform Work Publicly. and audio visual works. but the protection would only extend to what was added. This right applies to literary. The sound recording is the collection of sounds. Sound recordings are defined as works that result from the fixation of sounds onto some form of recording medium. Term of Copyright 3 Over the years. In other words. Congress has extended the term of copyright through . choreographic works. motion pictures. A fan who purchased your CD would not be able to distribute copies to others. musical. such as a CD. The sound recording is the recorded music you hear when you play a song from a CD. lending. rental. choreographic works. or other recording formats. or sculptural works. • In the case of sound recordings. only the copyright owner can perform the work through digital streaming over the internet. and home performances. graphic. which is to be distinguished from the object on which the sounds are recorded. the rightful owner of a copyrighted work may display the single copy in a particular location to viewers present at the place of display. pantomimes. dramatic. and pictorial. or otherwise. cassette. educational. dramatic. musical. This right applies to literary. • Distribute Copies to the Public. whether by sale. There are exceptions for nonprofit.added to the underlying work would also be protected by its own copyright. If you recorded a CD. Only the copyright owner can distribute the copyrighted work.

Copyright Registration Although you do not need to do anything formal to claim copyright ownership in your work other than to establish that you created 4 . Anyone who receives your CD should know that you are claiming ownership of the copyright in your work through your copyright notice.” meaning. That is no longer the case. or other types of printed or graphic works. resides. DVDs. At one time. or record your music onto an old-fashioned cassette tape. There are certain limitations if the work is already published. and the author resides outside of the United States. The term of copyright protection currently lasts for the duration of your lifetime. You need not do anything more than write down your lyrics on a napkin. web pages. plus an additional seventy years after your death. The name refers to the copyright owner. Copyright protection is available in the United States for all unpublished works. together with a name and the year. Copyright Notice You may have noticed on CDs.a series of amendments. a copyright notice bearing the © symbol. a work had to be published (distributed to the public) with this form of notice before an author could claim copyright protection. The bundle of rights available under federal copyright law described above belong to the author or creator of the work as soon as the work is “fixed. If you recorded your music onto CD. and the year refers to the year the work was created. or creator of the work. magazines. as soon as it is written or recorded in some form. or anyone else who might listen. and you are distributing copies of the CD to your friends or family. regardless of where the author. you should place a copyright notice on every CD that you hand out.

as well as so-called “statutory damages. then you will no longer be eligible to recover attorneys’ fees. Formal registration of your copyright through the Copyright Office. and you will no longer be eligible to recover statutory damages. Statutory damages are specified under the copyright statute. depending upon the circumstances. the Copyright Office was created to administer the national copyright registration system. however. However. it sometimes becomes necessary to obtain a court order prohibiting the infringing activity if a written demand is not enough. you will have to prove that you actually lost money as a result of the infringement. Nonetheless. If. federal copyright law provides that no lawsuit can be filed against an infringer unless your work is first registered with the Copyright Office.the work.000 for each infringement. provides copyright owners with significant additional legal benefits that can be lost if the work is not registered. and can range between $750 and $30. you may recover the cost of hiring an attorney. the infringement occurs before you obtain federal copyright registration. Historically. though voluntary. it is still important to obtain federal registration of your copyright with the United States Copyright Office.” If you discover that someone has infringed your copyright. If someone else copies your CD and starts selling it. that is called “infringement. or samples your original music and incorporates it into their own without your permission. In addition. Instead. and 5 . if your work is registered prior to the infringement.” which a court can award without your having to prove any actual loss of money due to the infringement. you can demand that they stop. and you succeed in a lawsuit. The amount available can be higher if a court finds that the infringement was willful.

Certain uses of copyrighted material are considered “fair use. Such uses include: educational uses. such as when you purchase a CD in a music store. your ability to enforce your rights against infringers is strengthened if you register your copyright with the United States Copyright Office. has the right to sell or otherwise dispose of that particular copy without permission of the copyright owner. The right to record and perform cover songs is another exception. to offer a short introduction to some basic concepts. it is generally the venue that obtains the license and pays the licensing fees. Under copyright law. there is an exception to everything. Limitations on Copyright As the saying goes. these are called your “actual damages. The above discussion was not meant to cover the field. This is typically done through a licensing company. no one could have imagined that vinyl records would some day be replaced by MP3s and audio streaming over the internet.” and do not infringe any of the copyright owner’s exclusive rights.” As you can see.your recovery will be limited to the amount that you can prove. As for performing cover songs. it is necessary to obtain a license (permission) and pay a licensing fee to the copyright owner to record and distribute your cover. comment or criticism. and copyright is no different. While any published song can be covered by another artist. 6 . which oversees the collection and payment of fees to the copyright owners. The law of copyright is far more complex than presented in this article. and how to protect them as you share your work with your fans. Anyone who legally obtains a copy. and parody. and ever challenged by new developments. but rather. When the founding fathers drafted the original Copyright statute. and hopefully to give you an appreciation for your valuable rights. such as the Harry Fox Agency. news reporting.

prepare and submit your application. answer any questions. any other services you might require. get you back your trademark registration certificate. ebgoldberg@KandSlegal. Massachusetts. Esq. copyright and trademark litigation. and.C Boston .com Kenney & Sams. You may contact Eric directly to discuss his fees. land use and zoning disputes. Goldberg is an attorney with Kenney & Sams. if approved. The decision to retain counsel is personal. and the terms of his engagement. P. special offer for tunecore customers Eric and his firm will help you protect the valuable rights in your music at reduced rates.Eric B. if it is approved. P. including trademark and copyright registration and enforcement. For those of you interested in seeking the assistance of an attorney. as well as perform a limited trademark search. follow up.C. Goldberg. The firm represents individuals. if for some reason your trademark application is rejected. follow . Eric also advises clients on issues relating to protection of intellectual property. and it is entirely up to you. you can hire Eric for an additional fee to try to overturn the denial. Eric will charge not more than $150 for his time plus the Copyright filing fee of $35 to advise you.. This announcement is intended as an advertisement for legal services. and litigation involving real estate. get you back your copyright registration certificate. As with copyright. businesses. a dynamic litigation boutique law firm with offices located in Boston and Metrowest. trademarking services available as well Eric will charge $200 per hour plus the trademark filing fee of $325 to advise you.Metrowest main office contact: Tel: (508) 490-8500 Fax: (508) 490-8501 www. answer any questions. and. you can hire Eric for an additional fee to try to overturn the denial. submit your application. the scope of his services. as well as prepare.KandSlegal. contact eric at: Eric B. Eric focuses his practice in general civil litigation and has experience in business litigation. If for some reason your copyright application is rejected. and public authorities at trial and on appeal in a broad array of civil disputes throughout the New England region.

AmazonMP3 & more. Advertise Yourself Online Starting at only $599. Get Custom Posters Printed 100 CDs for $260. Professional Mastering As low as $45 a Distribution Marketing & Promotion Over 200 customers featured on iTunes. Get CDs in Jewel Boxes 100 CDs for $260. Get Custom Printed T-Shirts 100 shirts for $558.000 songs delivered. Keep all your rights. Professional Mixing As low as $75 a song. ® Go to TuneCore. Get 100% of the royalties.BE YOUR OWN RECORD LABEL TuneCore can get your music on iTunes® and help you market & promote yourself. Over 425. Over $7 million dollars earned by TuneCore customers. . Your music on iTunes.



“Yesterday” by The Beatles. In the following. Our aim here is to simplify the most basic concepts of music publishing as they relate to “covers. A cover can be a song that has been recorded by an unknown artist. This section is about music publishing. Music publishing is about the ownership of songs.” is it a ‘sound recording’ or a ‘composition’? The first thing we have to understand is that a song and a recording of a song are two different things.THE BASICS YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT MUSIC PUBLISHING AND COPYRIGHT: COVER SONGS BY KEN GOES. Music publishing is about the rights of songwriters and song owners. These two properties are called the “sound recording. for instance. Here we are mainly interested in the “composition. FORMER MANAGER & PUBLISHING ADMINISTRATOR for THE PIXIES IMPORTANT: The information in this section is not intended as legal advice. And perhaps most importantly. 1 .” (sometimes called the “work”).” Covers are normally songs written by established artists like.” (sometimes called the “master”) and the “composition.” The common everyday word we use for “composition“ is the word song. Music publishing can be complex and confusing. music publishing is about money. But covers don’t have to be popular songs. They are two distinct properties. The important thing to remember is that any song which you record that was written and previously recorded by someone else is a “cover. Music contracts of all types use these terms to designate one or the other.

paintings and so on. Let’s say you record the Beatles’ song “Yesterday.” come with rights. but more on that later). (or more likely a music publishing company. we have the “composition” and we have the “sound recording” of the “composition. You do not own the song. Just as you have a right to determine who uses your personal property. owners of the “sound recording” and owners of the “composition” (song) have the right to determine who uses their property.whenever you see the word song. intellectual property These kinds of property are called “intellectual property. you own the property called the “sound recording.” Other kinds of intellectual property are books. these two properties. The song is owned by the Beatles. These two words are synonymous and are used here interchangeably. You did not write the song.” We still have only two properties : three of one kind : the “sound recordings.” To sum up.” Two separate properties. these properties come with rights. And. The song or “composition” is also property. But the recording is a cover of a song. as mentioned earlier. This right is granted by the United States 2 . the “sound recording” and the “composition.” and one of the other kind : the “composition. your particular recording of the song. Who owns what? Let’s see by way of the following examples.” probably the most covered song in history.” that is. Like all property. you can think song. A copyright is the right to reproduce or make copies. movies. Another example : Let’s say three separate bands record the song “Yesterday. Since you have made the recording. you can think composition and whenever you see the word composition. The particular right you have to your “sound recording” and the particular right the Beatles have to the “composition” is called a COPYRIGHT.

the songwriter sells the song to the music publisher. you will then have permission to record. just like you get permission to drive by obtaining a driver’s license. a copy is made. But most songwriters do not look after the rights to their songs.copyright. The owner also has the right to grant permission to others to reproduce or make copies of his or her song. before you can record and make copies of someone else’s song. you need to get permission from the owner. is a lot of work. If you would like to learn more about the United States Copyright Law. but it’s the same principle : every time someone downloads the song. This kind of work is called administration. collecting the royalties. You get that permission by getting a license. songwriters have music publishing companies do this administration for them.Copyright Law and similar laws in other countries. But in many cases. Issuing licenses for the use of a song. This license is called a mechanical license. the song is being reproduced digitally. But whether the music publishing company owns the song or administers the rights to the song on behalf of the songwriter. In this case. To sum up : getting a mechanical license gives you permission to reproduce (copy) the In most cases. in using TuneCore. Of course.html#wci Only the owner of the song has the right to reproduce or make copies of his or her song. etc. accounting. the music publisher is the owner of the song and the rights that go with it. publishing companies A word about music publishing companies and the ownership of songs . So.The songwriter is the owner of the song. please go to: http://www. of course. By getting this mechanical license from the songwriter or from a music publishing company acting on behalf of the songwriter. reproduce or make copies of the song. 3 . the music publishing company will issue the mechanical license.

compulsory licenses A word about the “Compulsory License. And you will still pay the full statutory mechanical royalty rate.” You may have heard of something called a “compulsory license. Finally.” In some cases. Using this method entails specific requirements for notifying the song owner and stringent requirements for accounting. But this method is a lot more work. the rate set by the Copyright Royalty Board is the statutory mechanical royalty rate. When you record a cover song.1 cents. a government agency empowered by Congress to determine the royalty rate. The royalty rate is established by the Copyright Royalty Board of the Library Of Congress. you can negotiate with the songwriter or publisher for a lower rate. So. Copyright Law allows you to get a “compulsory license” in lieu of getting a mechanical license directly from the publisher or songwriter. the likelihood of getting a lower rate is slim. Sometimes the rate is specified in pennies. the rate does not remain static or permanent. The current statutory mechanical royalty rate that must be paid to the song owner or publisher is 9. The amount required to be paid for the sale of each copy of a “composition” is called the mechanical royalty. In fact. you owe the songwriter or publisher 9. every time that recording sells. the Copyright Royalty Board is considering a change in the statutory rate.who gets paid For every copy sold. S.” The U. as I write this in February 2008.” Statutory is a fancy legal word meaning required by law. 4 .1 cents ($. the songwriter or publisher must be paid.091) per copy. but unless you can demonstrate that you will have enormous sales. The best and easiest way to get a mechanical license is from the songwriter or the publisher directly. otherwise the license will specify the “statutory rate. All mechanical licenses will specify this rate. The royalty rate set by the Copyright Royalty Board is called the “statutory rate. It is not recommended that you try this method.

depending on how you want to use the video. For instance. You must contact the publisher or songwriter. The synch license also contains the same right as a mechanical license. these. cell phones. the synchronization right. let’s say you want to make a video of your recording of “Yesterday. The only reproductions or copies you can make with a synch license are copies of your video containing the “composition. You get a synch license the same way you get a mechanical license. There is no set royalty rate for a synch license. But the synch license is not a substitute for a mechanical license. But if you also want to sell your video over iTunes or anywhere else. Now. the internet.” This “synch license” gives you the right to synchronize the “composition” (song) with visual images. you may be restricted to making copies for just that purpose. you may have to pay both an up-front fee and a royalty. the right to make copies.” You’ll need another license. along with others. so when you get one. The royalty rate will be the amount agreed upon between you and the publisher for the sale of each copy.” And. or an advance against future royalties and subsequent royalties once the advance is paid off. In some cases. 5 . etc. This license is called a “synchronization license. It all depends on your negotiations with the publisher.. you must have that right specified in the license. you may be restricted as to how many copies you can make. A synchronization license is a lot more fluid and flexible than a mechanical license. if you want only to have your video broadcast on TV. but we’re not quite done. The mechanical right.synchronization licenses We hope that’s clear. You can negotiate to pay a one time up-front fee or pay a royalty. It is all negotiable between you and the songwriter or publisher. be sure you know what you want to do with the video and make sure you ask for those rights to be included in the license.

they will be the source you will go to for a mechanical license. This is music publishing. it will make your search a lot easier. so be sure you are identifying the right song. 6 . the amount to be paid. find out who you must contact in order to get a license. there are many songs with the same title. The Harry Fox Agency acts on behalf of songwriters and publishers too. your friend. If you know who wrote the song. in most every case. so who owns the songs? At this point you are probably asking yourself : How do I find the owner or publisher of a song? Just about every song in existence is registered with either ASCAP. Another good site that will help you track down the administrator of a song is the Harry Fox Agency web site called SongFile. The license will be very specific about who to pay. In many cases. BMI or SESAC. the information regarding the owner or publisher will be there alongside it. Good Luck. Remember. though they do not issue synch licenses nor do they grant permission to reprint lyrics. By visiting these web sites and doing a little detective work. The Harry Fox Agency is a giant agency that also administers music publishing rights. BMI and SESAC all have web sites that you can search to find the owner or publisher of a song. you will. the harry fox agency A word about The Harry Fox Agency. how often you must pay and. Once you have found the right song title and writer. ASCAP. Just like music publishers act on behalf of songwriters. of course. are called publishing the reprinting of lyrics.

Digital stores like iTunes allow all music to be in stock & have sold over 2 billion songs with more than 1/2 of the sales from non-major label artists. Keep all your rights.BE YOUR OWN RECORD LABEL BY TUNECORE Get worldwide distribution of your music into iTunes. Over $6 million dollars earned by TuneCore customers. Nine Inch Nails Unsigned artist Kelly sold over 400. Truly one of the greatest services of the modern recording industry. 7 .000 songs in three weeks on iTunes and went to #1 on the Billboard Heatseekers. SOME ARTISTS WHO DID IT n in e in c h n a il s: ghosts i-iv delivered by tunecore to amazon mp3 “TuneCore made the process of putting our music out effortless and transparent. Eric Hutchinson sold over 120.000 songs on iTunes and has over 40 million views on YouTube. iTunes® Go to songs delivered. Get 100% of the royalties.Jim Guerinot. Plus marketing & promotion to drive sales and awareness. Over 400. Anyone who makes music can have a career without a record label. and more. manager. they can just “sign” themselves through TuneCore.” -.

steve vai Over 400.” roger o’donnell of the cure “I’ve been promoting TuneCore to every musician and band I meet.000 songs delivered. Then. a rep emailed us and asked us if we wanted to play a show for CMJ. The opportunity to be included in the TuneCore Music Staff Picks newsletter — with a direct link to buy the album — sent to over 4 million people each month. and even have control over the marketing. we won’t be able to imagine the world without it. I haven’t been this excited since I discovered my whammy bar. It’s not only the best deal for digital music. TuneCore customers have the opportunity to have their albums featured in the Guitar Center catalogs reaching over 2M people a month. it’s true and it’s good!” steve terebecki of white denim “We were pretty bummed about ripoff splits that most of the digital music companies offer. We were head over heels about TuneCore’s super low yearly rate. “TuneCore is a forum that allows ANY artist to make their work available in all major online stores. but they’re a bunch of sweeties too!” 8 . well it’s not. TuneCore customers have the opportunity to have their music played and tagged in over 215 Guitar Center stores nationally.GET MARKETED & PROMOTED BY TUNECORE TuneCore promotes to digital stores — over 200 customers have been featured in iTunes. Go to TuneCore. Over $6 million dollars earned by TuneCore customers. the hardest part of the sell is that people think it’s too good to be true.



Many people turn to Individual and Family coverage because they have no employer sponsored options. others for their whole families. or their employer-sponsored options are getting too expensive. starting a business. In the following pages. Some buy coverage for themselves only. we’ll lead you through a fivestep process to help familiarize you with Individual and Family health insurance and help you make an informed purchasing decision. they are self-employed. early retirement. There are a number of major life events – unemployment. college graduation – that may require consumers to purchase health insurance on their own. How do you know what kind of Individual and Family plan is best for your needs? The purpose of this Health Insurance Survival Guide is to address this and other questions. STEP 1 Why You Need Health Insurance STEP 2 Get To Know the Lingo STEP 3 Assess Your Needs STEP 4 Compare Your Options STEP 5 Apply For Coverage 1 .INTRODUCTION When you purchase a health insurance policy on your own – for yourself or your family – you’re buying what’s known as Individual and Family health insurance.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS If I am on the road and need to go to a hospital am I covered at ANY hospital? How about doctors or clinics? How about internationally? This is going to depend on what kind of health insurance plan you have. you should check with your state’s Department of Insurance. or pay for a certain portion of your care until an annual deductible is met. PPO type plans are recommended because they offer out of network coverage in case of an unforeseen illness or injury.of-pocket. the prescribing physician will need 2 . and I go to a doctor. You may be required to make a copayment. To learn more about what is required for you to qualify as a business for health insurance purposes. which means that you will pay more out. If I lose my medication on the road. When choosing a health insurance plan. Most health insurance plans cover will life threatening emergencies while travelling but for those who travel a lot. for example. be sure you understand how regular medical visits are covered. how can I get new meds quickly? Can I get more than one month’s supply at a time? Each health insurance company will have its own policies and procedures when it comes to getting prescription drugs. Generally. Keep in mind that the insurance carrier may pay your medical claims could be at a lower level when services are rendered outside of your health insurance company’s network of providers. is it covered? Medical claims are handled differently by different health insurance plans. If my voice is hoarse and I can’t sing/ I hurt my hand on my guitar etc. Can we incorporate and make certain all of our band members have coverage? The only way to make certain everyone is accepted and has coverage is to register your band as a business entity and purchase and enroll in a small business group health insurance plan. in order to obtain a prescription outside of your home area.

However. Is substance abuse/addiction covered? It depends on your health insurance plan and state regulations. if you have different coverage needs than your spouse. you can apply for a family call a local pharmacy and order a new prescription. most plans cover emergency room visits after the plan deductible is met. each band member will need to shop and apply for their own health plans. If there is an accident that is not my fault that gets me hurt. both of you will be covered under the same policy. I have a pre-existing condition. However. With family health plans. If I am married to one of my band mates. you may each also apply for your own individual health insurance plan. you may be required to pay coinsurance on medical expenses after the deductible is met. will I need to pay anything? Health insurance plans usually cover accidental injuries but the coverage depends on the type of treatment needed. does that change how we should get health insurance? What if I have a child? Individual and Family health insurance is a type of health insurance coverage that is made available to individuals and families. How many people or other band members can be on my policy or do we all need separate plans? Unless your band includes your spouse or other legal dependents or is registered with the state as a business. If you are married to a band mate. can I still get it? In most states you can be declined for Individual and Family coverage due to 3 . rather than to businesses or organizations. Some maintenance medications can be prescribed through mail order for 3 months supply. For example. but have never had health insurance.

However. What if I have a same sex partner . If I am on the road. you can apply to a different health insurance company.a pre-existing medical condition. Health insurance companies are likely to discover any personal history of smoking through the process of underwriting. If your policy is cancelled. will health insurance help cover the costs to fly me home or bring my parents to me? Health insurance plans typically do not pay for transportation other than ambulance services for members only. you may still have options as some health insurance companies may accept pre-existing conditions that others will not. What if the band breaks up? Does this affect my coverage? Unless your band is registered as a business and you were all covered under a group health insurance plan. can I get one again? Most health insurance companies have a 2-4 weeks grace period before they will cancel a policy. As long as you don’t move to another state. but the band’s premiums may be expensive. and there is an emergency. your band breaking up would not affect your coverage.can they get coverage via me? It depends on the health insurance company in question and on state regulations. you can keep your Individual or Family 4 . What if I cannot make a payment one month but I am getting money in the near future. Keep in mind that if your band is incorporated as a small business. you cannot be denied for a pre-existing condition. If they can’t find an insurer likely to accept you. Talk to a licensed agent at eHealthInsurance for help. does the plan get cancelled? If it does. Is it cheaper to get health insurance if I do not smoke? How do they know if I do or don’t? Some insurance health insurance companies charge a higher rate for smokers. they can help direct you to government-sponsored solutions in your state. Your partner may apply on his/her own for an individual plan. Policies cancelled for nonpayment may or may not be reinstated. which would require you to apply for a new health plan.

Some labels may not offer health insurance benefits. What’s the minimum number of people that need to be in my band in order to allow the band to get a group policy? Usually 2-3 people can get a group plan as long as they meet the requirements of a small business or other group. families and small businesses. the leading online source of health insurance for individuals.ehealthinsurance. If you live in the United States. as an individual? The main advantage of applying for a group plan is that no one can be declined due to pre-existing conditions. eHealthInsurance is licensed in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. chances are they can help you find the right health insurance plan. Is TuneCore my label and can I get health insurance via them? Visit TuneCore’s eHealthInsurance site at: https://www. and we got a plan as a band? If your band is registered as a business and you have group coverage. How about if one of the band members quits. What are the advantages of getting a plan via a band insurance plan. anyone leaving the band will lose their coverage. Why should I pay for health insurance if I can’t afford it as an artist? Health insurance protects your finances and entitles you to discounted rates 5 .com/ehi/Alliance?allid=Tun29013 TuneCore is partnered with eHealthInsurance. Others persons covered under the plan will typically be able to keep their coverage. Check with a licensed agent or with your state Department of Insurance for rules and regulations. am I already eligible for health insurance benefits via the label? Ask the label’s benefits department or benefit coordinator for details. If I’m on a label.

What if I get an STD on the road? Am I covered? Does it stay confidential? Your coverage will depend on what type of plan you have. most injuries are covered at some level. Health insurance also protects your health since it improves your access to quality care. your level of coverage may vary and you may have to pay a copayment or deductible before your coverage kicks in. Without coverage. can be twice as high. the fee charged for a regular office visit. but this is usually determined after the fact and is negotiated between the automobile and health insurance companies. Am I covered at all for minor injuries? This is going to depend on your health insurance plan. check the details on what each plan covers.for medical services. since insurance companies negotiate rates with health care providers. As a member of a health insurance plan. 6 . In the case of a car accident. Most PPOs cover you out of network in case of illness or injury. it is possible that the automobile insurance company will end up paying some of the medical charges. The Federal HIPAA law protects the privacy of your medical information. Am I covered for any sort of joint problems or pain resulting from years of playing or performing? This is going to depend on your health insurance plan. depending on your copayment or deductible requirements. If I’m in a car accident while on tour or driving to a gig. When you are shopping for health insurance plans. how am I covered? All health insurance plans have some level of hospital service coverage. Depending on the stipulations of your health insurance plan. Another important point to consider is how high the plans deductible is because you will likely have to pay it before health insurance benefits begin. but other than self inflicted injuries. you have access to a broad network of health care providers. but most plans cover treatment of joint problems or pain unless it is specifically excluded. for example.

the fee charged for a regular office visit can be twice as high. Individual and Family health insurance can be surprisingly affordable. It may sound obvious. you have access to a broad network of health care providers.STEP 1 Why You Need Health Insurance Isn’t it too expensive to buy my own coverage? Not necessarily. In brief. The first step to making a smart health insurance decision is to understand the value of health insurance and why you need it. 7 . Health insurance protects your health It improves your access to quality care – As a member of a health insurance plan. Without coverage. In fact. Monthly premiums for individual coverage purchased through eHealthInsurance averaged $158 per month in 2007 – and in many states Individual coverage options are available for less than $50 per month. health insurance helps protect you in the following ways: Health insurance protects your finances It entitles you to discounted rates – Insurance companies negotiate rates with health care providers. It provides you critical care – While uninsured patients will often get emergency-room care and be billed afterwards. they may not get important treatment for a life-threatening chronic condition without an upfront payment. being covered can help save you from bankruptcy in case of injury or hospitalization. but many people don’t properly understand the basic purpose of health insurance or how it works. It shields you from unexpected medical costs – Even if your health plan requires you to pay certain costs out of pocket.

” HMO plans offer a wide range of health care services through a network of providers that contract exclusively with the HMO. you should understand the basic differences between the top four types of Individual and Family plans. HMO HMO means “Health Maintenance Organization. or who agree to provide services to members. Services rendered by out-of-network providers may not be covered or may be paid at a lower level.It encourages a healthier lifestyle – You may be more likely to take advantage of regular checkups and preventive care if you know it won’t cost you an arm and a leg. Like the name implies. Top four health plan types 1. A PPO plan may be right for you if: • Your favorite doctor already participates in the PPO: you can sort for plans accepted by your doctor after getting quotes at eHealthInsurance • You want some freedom to direct your own health care but don’t mind working within a list of preferred providers 2. and the basic definitions of five key terms. To shop smart. It’s up to you to make sure that the health care providers you visit participate in the PPO. with a PPO you’ll need to get your medical care from doctors or hospitals on the insurance company’s list of preferred providers if you want your claims paid at the highest level. STEP 2 Get To Know the Lingo When shopping for a new plan. PPO PPO or “Preferred Provider Organization” plans are the most popular in the Individual and Family market. 8 . one of the main challenges people face is understanding health insurance terminology.

immunizations and similar services are often emphasized by HMOs 3. You may be required to pay for some 9 . Health care services obtained outside of the HMO are typically not covered. Indemnity Indemnity plans allow you to direct your own health care and visit most any doctor or hospital you like.As a member of an HMO. By pairing a qualifying high-deductible health plan with an HSA. the money in your HSA rolls over every year and can also gain The insurance company then pays a set portion of your total charges. HSA-eligible Plans These are usually PPO plans with higher deductibles. You’ll find more information about HSAs online at: eHealthInsurance. you can save money on health care and reduce your tax liability. designed specially for use with Health Savings Accounts (“HSAs”). Similar to a 401(k). An HMO plan may be right for you if: • You’re willing to play by the rules and coordinate your care through a primary care physician • You value preventive care services: coverage for checkups. though there may be exceptions in case of an emergency. you will need to choose a primary care physician (“PCP”) who will provide most of your health care and refer you to HMO specialists as needed. Unlike a flexible spending account. an HSA is a special bank account that allows you to save money – pre-tax – to be used specifically for medical expenses in the future. An HSA-eligible plan may be right for you if: • You would like to pay for health care expenses with pre-tax dollars • You’re relatively young and healthy and don’t often visit the doctor • You prefer a cheaper monthly premium even if it means having a higher deductible in case of unexpected injury or illness 4.

Five Health Insurance Terms You Must Know 1. and a higher premium/lower deductible if you want to be more financially prepared for unexpected medical expenses up front and then apply to the insurance company for reimbursement. A good rule: choose a lower premium/higher deductible if you want to save money now. or “copay. An Indemnity plan may be right for you if: • You want the greatest level of freedom possible in choosing which doctors or hospitals to visit • You don’t mind coordinating the billing and reimbursement of your claims yourself I’ve heard about Health Savings Accounts.” is the specific dollar amount you may be required to pay up front for a specific type of service. 2. When trying to understand the cost of a health insurance plan. But make sure to balance it against other costs. Copayment: Your copayment. You’ll find more information about HSAs online at what are they for? Health Savings Accounts (HSAs) are special bank accounts designed for use with insurance plans with higher deductibles. Premium: Your premium is the amount you pay to the health insurance company each month to maintain your coverage. such as copayments. you can save money on health care and lower your income tax liability. Indemnity plans are sometimes more expensive than other types of plans. the premium is the first thing to consider. deductibles and coinsurance. By matching a high deductible health plan with an HSA. For exam- 10 . Because of the freedom they allow members.

Deductible: Your annual deductible is the amount you may be required to pay out-of-pocket before the insurance company will begin paying for your medical claims. That 20% is considered coinsurance. 4. 3. Your monthly premium will not count toward your maximum out-of-pocket costs. your health insurance plan may require a $15 co-payment for an office visit or brand-name prescription drug. for example. but choosing a plan with a higher deductible can keep your monthly premiums lower. So. A good rule: if you make frequent doctor’s office visits. Keep in mind. copayments or coinsurance) to the “maximum” amount. 80% of charges. say. if your insurance benefits cover 80% of x-ray charges. the insurance company pays the full charges for any additional covered medical services rendered that year. 5. Think about it this way: the insurance company may limit coverage for certain services to.ple. Maximum Out-of-pocket Costs: Pay attention to this amount when considering a new health plan. you will need to pay the remaining 20%. Not all plans require a deductible. 11 . even if your annual deductible is already met. Once you have paid out of pocket (typically through deductibles. after which the insurance company pays the remainder of the charges. your monthly premiums and copayments will often not count toward your deductible. Coinsurance: Coinsurance is the amount that you are obliged to pay for covered medical services after you’ve satisfied any co-payment or deductible required by your health insurance plan. Your maximum out-of-pocket cost sets a limit to your annual financial liability. make sure you choose an affordable and consistent copayment. A good rule: keep your deductible to no more than 5% of your gross annual income.

2. If you do keep a savings account and can afford a higher deductible if necessary. How much did you spend on health care last year? Why it matters: If you spend a lot on health care. or none at all.What does “Lifetime Maximum” mean? You might find this term in the fine print for a health insurance plan you’re considering. maybe you don’t need robust coverage for preventive care. you may be able to find a plan with lower monthly premiums. it’s important to know 12 . it may make sense to pay a higher monthly premium in order to keep your office-visit copayment and deductible low. Is budget most important? Which benefits do you really need? Consider the following questions. Do you maintain a savings or do you live paycheck to paycheck? Why it matters: If you don’t maintain a cushion of funds in the bank. Five key questions to help you assess your needs: 1. Make sure your plan has a lifetime maximum of at least 2 million dollars. If you rarely visit the doctor. The “Lifetime Maximum” is a cap on how much the insurance company will pay for your claims over the life of your policy. you’re going to want a health plan with a low deductible. 3. How often did you visit the doctor last year? Why it matters: If you visit the doctor regularly. STEP 3 Assess Your Needs Selecting the best health insurance plan for your needs means making an informed choice and knowing your personal priorities.

what you spend it on and if you expect to spend at the same pace. If these are recurring costs (for prescription drugs, for example), make sure that the plan you select covers these services. If you don’t spend much on health care, then you could save money with a plan that provides less generous coverage for office visits or prescription drugs.

4. Do you have any pre-existing medical conditions?
Why it matters: Some pre-existing medical conditions (like heart disease, cancer, or diabetes) can make it difficult to get approved for Individual and Family coverage. If you’re concerned, a licensed eHealthInsurance agent can help direct you to insurance companies more likely to approve your application. Call 1-800-977-8860 to talk to an agent.

5. Are any specific benefits necessary or irrelevant?
Why it matters: If you’re a regular user of prescription medication, make sure you find a plan that covers prescriptions at a copayment level you can afford. If it’s possible you or your spouse could become pregnant, pay close attention to maternity benefits too. If you don’t need prescription drugs or maternity benefits, you could save money.

What if I have a pre-existing medical condition?
In most states you can be declined for Individual and Family coverage due to a pre-existing medical condition. However, you may still have options. Talk to a licensed agent at eHealthInsurance for help. If we can’t find an insurer likely to accept you, we can help direct you to government-sponsored solutions in your state.


How Does Individual and Family Coverage Compare with Employer Sponsored Coverage?
It differs in several key ways: Pricing: Pricing is based on an individual or family’s specific needs and medical history and can vary from state to state. Choice: An employer may offer one or two options, but there may be dozens of Individual and Family choices with a range of rates and benefits to match your needs and budget. Portability: Individual and Family health insurance is not tied to your job, so it can stay with you as long as you like. However, if you move to another state, you will likely need to get a new plan. Eligibility: Be aware that in most states it is possible to be denied coverage for an Individual and Family plan based on your medical history.

Unemployed and Uninsured?
If you were recently laid off or voluntarily left an employer, you may have more than one choice when it comes to finding health insurance. By understanding your needs and situation you have a better chance of finding the coverage that works best. Here are a few options: • Your spouse’s plan – Learn how much, if any, your spouse’s share of the premium would increase if you join the plan. • COBRA coverage – COBRA allows you to temporarily extend coverage under your employer-sponsored health plan at your own cost. It’s a good choice if you have a pre-existing medical condition, since you can’t be declined based on your medical history. However, many people find COBRA prohibitively expensive. • Individual and Family plans - Before you decline COBRA, take a look at the Individual and Family options in your area. You could even apply for an Individual and Family plan and use COBRA as a back-up just in case.


• Public options – Every state offers public programs and plans for individuals or families struggling financially or unable to get approved for coverage elsewhere.
To find more information about COBRA and a calculator to help you understand the difference in cost between COBRA coverage and Individual and Family plans, visit our COBRA Learning Center online at


Compare Your Options
Get Quotes
Now you’re ready to review your personal health insurance quotes. If you want to save money and make the most of your health insurance dollars you’ll need the broadest possible view of all your Individual and Family health insurance options. By working with a licensed agent like eHealthInsurance you can save time and get a selection of quotes from top insurance companies in your area. eHealthInsurance makes it easy to find the right health insurance plan for your needs and budget. Unlike many other online services, eHealthInsurance won’t require you to provide any sensitive personal information before getting your quotes. Just go to, enter your ZIP code, gender and age and get: • Instant personalized quotes from a broad selection of top carriers • Side by side comparisons of plan rates and benefits


• Special online tools that generate personal recommendations based on your needs or identify plans accepted by your favorite doctor • Customer reviews and industry ratings to help guide your decision • Personal unbiased help from licensed agents by phone. Health benefits: Which plans provide the must have benefits you’ve identified? Buy only what is important to you to keep your costs low. Costs: Which plans fall within your budget when it comes to premium. know what you are buying. make sure you select a plan that provides it – not all Individual and Family plans do. deductible. Five key criteria to help guide your decision You may need some help narrowing down your choices. Consider the following five criteria to help you focus on the plans that best match your needs: 1. Also. email. Avoid expensive benefits (like maternity or prescription drugs) if you don’t need them. or online chat Are there any particular pitfalls to avoid? Yes. So called “limited benefit” plans don’t provide substantial protection. • If you think you may need maternity coverage or prescription drug benefits. • Be cautious if you have a pre-existing medical condition or were recently laid off – talk with an agent for personal advice. 2. copayments and coinsurance? Consider a high-deductible plan if your primary requirement is a low monthly premium. consider splitting up the family on different plans – it sometimes makes more sense. • And lastly. 16 .

Should I consider a Short-term plan? Possibly. If you are relatively healthy and know you will have employer-sponsored coverage again within six months. Can I save money if I buy direct from the insurance company? No. STEP 5 Apply for Coverage Once you’ve submitted your application it may take anywhere from a few days to a few weeks before the insurance company makes a decision. you can use our physician finder tool to find plans that are accepted by your doctor. a Short-term plan may work for you. These ratings reflect AM Best’s analysis of a company’s credit rating and ability to pay claims. Consumer and industry reviews: eHealthInsurance offers customer reviews for many of the plans we sell. unbiased help to find the right plan. If you 17 . shopping through a site like eHealthInsurance. Just keep in mind that it won’t cover existing medical conditions. and we present the AM Best ratings for carriers. Short-term health insurance provides emergency protection for a limited period of time. Due to government regulations. 4. Brand: Are there brand-name carriers that you prefer? Are there any you want to avoid? can give you a broader range of choices and more objective. So for no additional cost. you will pay the same monthly premium for the same plan whether you buy it from a licensed agent or direct from the insurer. or many office Physician network: Do you have a favorite doctor you want to keep? Which plans does he or she accept? On eHealthInsurance. prescription drugs.

you’ll not only get the benefit of our national scope and 18 . If not. Once approved. “More information is required. There may be reason to appeal the decision or try again with a different insurance company. If your application is denied.” The insurance company may offer you coverage but limit benefits for specific conditions based on your medical history. your health insurance coverage will begin on the “effective date” confirmed by the insurance company.” In some cases. with conditions. Why should I submit my application through eHealthInsurance? Good question. You may receive any one of the following responses: “You’re approved!” Most of the people who apply for Individual and Family health insurance through eHealthInsurance are approved. eHealthInsurance is the nation’s #1 online source for Individual and Family health insurance. and may request medical records from your doctor before coming to a final decision. “You’re approved. we will inform you of the insurance company’s decision as soon as possible.submit your application through eHealthInsurance. When you shop through eHealthInsurance. We represent over 180 brand-name health insurance companies across the country. please talk with one of our licensed agents by phone. the health insurance company will ask for more information regarding your application. and we’ve helped nearly two million Americans find the coverage they need. we can help put you in touch with government sponsored options available in your state.

local expertise. thanks to our industry-leading technology • An advocate with the insurance company to help you resolve billing or claim disputes in the future • All our services and assistance provided at NO EXTRA COST to you Should I submit more than one application at a time? Possibly – talk to a licensed eHealthInsurance agent for personal advice. 19 . you’ll also enjoy: • A broader view of your options – and knowing what’s really available can help you save money • A speedier submission and review process. Want to look for a policy? http://www.ehealthinsurance. there may be public programs • Or check your local state insurance commission’s website © eHealthInsurance.ehealthinsurance. there are helpful resources available through eHealthInsurance’s COBRA Learning Center at COBRALearning. confused or just need more information? Call the toll free eHealth/TuneCore number 24 hours a If you are unemployed and looking for health insurance they include: • eHealthInsurance’s simple list of 6 health insurance options for the uninsured • eHealthInsurance’s video series on 6 health insurance options for the uninsured • An updated list of Frequently Asked Questions about COBRA and the subsidy • COBRA Eligibility Guidelines • A COBRA Subsidy Calculator • New research on Unemployment and Health Insurance If you are unable to qualify for or afford individual health insurance. all rights reserved. concerns. 20 . For information about public programs please contact: • The Foundation for Health Coverage Education (FHCE) at 800-234-1317 • Or go to their web site is www. 7 days a week at: 866-731-0127 Or visit on-line at: https://www.




.....iTunes Promotion . he has 20 more people that pick.....Getting Found & Affiliate Programs ........Blog Promotion MERCHANDISING.......Indie and College Radio Promotion ..... however you have no idea how much the watch sold for.. You tell the owner $10 You return to the store a month later.......... The next day you get a call from Joe at Joe Smith Watch Distribution... insure them.. Maybe it was given away.23 1 ALL TEXT COPYRIGHT 2007 TUNECORE FREE FOR USE — SPREAD IT AROUND NOT FOR SALE — PLEASE TAG TUNECORE 2 .5 ....... the owner hands you $10. your watch is gone. pack and process the orders. Assume you live in New York and you make a watch you want to sell.. Each time a watch leaves his warehouse... it is sent back and Joe Smith fixes it. maybe it was sold for a million dollars........ he also tells you that he has a sales force of 40 people that walk all around the country to watch stores showing the new watches to the owners and he mails out a paper catalog each month to 4.... You take your watch to the nearest watch store and ask the owner if you can sell it in their shop.Street Marketing .TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY CHANGING THE MUSIC INDUSTRY BY JEFF PRICE. inventory them and more.. If you are interested..... TUNECORE MUSIC INDUSTRY SURVIVAL MANUAL INTRODUCTION.000 watch stores.... TUNECORE FOUNDER Technology can change things............ Back at his warehouse..... Joe tells you he is a watch distributor from Chicago who can help you sell more watches....2 MARKETING & PROMOTION.. you will get paid regardless of if Joe gets paid.. The two major shifts that have occurred are: Distribution of your music into stores where people can go to buy it How people discover music distribution of your music into stores where people can go to buy it A quick description of what the music industry has been for the past 100 years provides a background on how things are changing.19 RESOURCE GUIDE..Press & Media Promotion ... And in the case of the music industry.......... They agree and ask how much you want to get paid if it sells...... If a watch is damaged... you can send him all your watches and he will store them. In addition to warehousing...... it destroyed it..

First. This means everything can be in stock. help you make your art. unlimited virtual inventory and no returns..K. many. the four major distributors – have invested tens of millions of dollars into a soon to be obsolete infrastructure as now it’s just a matter of getting your music and art digitally delivered once to a store like iTunes. front the money and make stickers and buttons. provide you CDs to sell at your gigs and many. In return for all these services. eMusic.50 and you get the rest. Rhapsody. they demand exclusive control of your master recordings (digitally) – like a record label . Unlike a record label. make the big warehouses and sales staff obsolete. insure inventory. Instead. they have unlimited shelf space. it’s CDs.” These three changes: unlimited shelf space. have changed all this. advance you money 3 4 . Napster. hire independent radio promotion and mail out the CDs to radio. Joe will get paid $2. mail out posters to gigs. But. they do not: advance you money to record. many other label functions. and under what deal terms? keeping your rights and getting all the money from the sale of your music aggregators Companies called “aggregators” have sprung up offering artists and bands access to the digital stores.for a period of time (called a Term). A sale in the digital world cannot be returned. The record label then markets the “thing” to create demand. So who gets access to digital distribution. It can be found instantly whenever a customer searches for it. record. pack and ship orders. having a powerful distributor is important as it can force CDs onto the shelves (but the little guys get shoved to the side). You know exactly what you sold with no concern of dreaded “returns. If a watch sells for $10. it cannot sell. For example. Therefore. provide you tour support. it will be displayed up front when people walk in. it’s still there for the next customer to find and download. old school and exploitive. the music is delivered once to a server and then sits there until someone buys it. have a national sales staff. The distributor puts the “thing” in the store. hire a publicist and mail out the CDs to magazines. and record labels hire people to make their “watches”. have a warehouse staff. it’s about distribution and shelf space The music industry is about distribution. digital stores are never out of stock – they have virtual unlimited inventory that is replicated on demand. pay for band photos.Finally. In addition. In the old model. This means that the four major labels – A. run print or banner ads. usually three to five years. Joe will provide you opportunities to market your watch in the store. It’s a valuable service but the price they demand is out of date. To start. Digital stores like iTunes. Stores have a limited amount of shelf space and can only have a limited number of CDs in stock. unlike a physical distributor they do not: pick. every CD in a store can be returned at any time for a full refund.A. No more need to make CDs and ship them to a warehouse and then re-ship them to a store in hopes the store takes it out of a box and puts it on a shelf. just like a physical distributor. the buyer gets a perfect digital copy of the original—nothing comes off the shelf. Second. pay for the manufacturing of your CDs. This is the music industry – only instead of watches. Record labels make the “thing” to give to the distributor. Joe asks to be paid 25% of the money earned from each watch sale. mix and master an album. If a CD is not on a shelf. help you find a studio. When it is bought. they take a percentage of the money you earn from the sale of your music each time your music sells. etc.

it is time to change the business model as well. how people discover music Music is not food. In the new model. music was discovered from the top down when it was heard on commercial radio. fix broken CDs to be re-shipped out. and you’ll see the new model in action. Fans discover music and now have an outlet to share their ideas. bottom up. seen on TV and read about in magazines. unlike a floor wax or an SUV. and propelled the band into the Billboard Top 50. not exploiting them. If you were not on a label. VH1. Secondhand Serenade. you no longer need a label to reach the world. everyone has a voice that can be heard – via the net – around the world. Tapes ‘n Tapes. Welcome to the new world – we at TuneCore are thrilled to be part of it! 5 6 . Clap Your Hands Say Yeah. etc. and soon you have 10 blogs. The principles to marketing yourself are very basic: you make music. Look to bands like Arcade Fire. You cause the music to sell and they take money from these sales while controlling your rights. 1. Technology has changed the way the industry works. four guys danced on treadmills took the online video sites by storm. people like it when they are being asked to listen to music. it spreads. BET etc These three outlets would choose what songs they played. In effect. And you no longer need to give up your rights or the money generated by the sale of your music to get global distribution and marketing. Today you have the same distribution and broadcast power right from your computer. for the first time in the history of the music industry. Technology has changed the music industry. or clothing. OK GO. yet aggregator deal terms are still stuck in the old school model of exploiting the songs and artists. guarantee you will get paid even if the store does not pay them. most people primarily discovered music in one of three ways: Radio Print magazines like Rolling Stone Viacom owned properties like MTV. but everyone wants it and everyone needs it. you were not in the pool. Consider the now famous “Treadmill Dance” video by the band OK GO. One person from anywhere on the planet can talk about you on his or her blog and provide a link to download your song for free. you to the pay for advertising programs in stores. you work for them. what videos they showed or what bands they wrote about from a limited pool of artists pushed to them by the labels. If people like it. mail out a catalog. any artist or label can have their music available in the places music buyers go to buy and discover music without having to give up any rights or revenue from the sale of their music in a non exclusive arrangement that can be cancelled at any time. give it to others to listen to and hope they tell others about it. In other words. With the launch of TuneCore. passions and musical loves with the world—and the world is listening. In the old model. Kelly. mp3 blogs are extremely effective in getting your music out to the masses. In particular. 50 blogs. The new model is about serving the artist. and therefore you had virtually no opportunity to get exposure from any of these outlets. For the most part. Using only a store-bought camera on a tripod. Birdmonster and many more. In the old model. Free video distribution sites like YouTube are also changing the game.000 blogs all talking about you with links to your music. shelter.

com/WebObjects/MZSearch. It’s critical to get your existing and new fans streaming and downloading your albums.TuneCore. Integrating links to music and content from Rhapsody onto your site is free to both you and your fans. LINKMAKERS iTunes http://phobos. Here’s a link to the iTunes Affiliate Program: http://www. Rhapsody & Sony Connect • Sell your Music and Promote Yourself on iTunes • Street Marketing: Building Buzz for Less • Indie Radio Promotion • Making the Most of Music Blogs GET FOUND Each store has a “link maker” that can be found on the Marketing and Promotion section of TuneCore’s website: http://www. you will earn a 5% commission on all qualifying revenue generated. All you have to do is place them on any Web page or within an email.html Rhapsody http://webservices. Napster. The affiliate program auto-generates links for With each sale from iTunes that originates from your affiliate link. and you can make some extra money every time you introduce someone new to the Rhapsody service.TuneCore.MARKETING & PROMOTION BY TUNECORE AFFILIATE PROGRAMS Getting your music online is only half the Napster you can link and sell your own music via any Web page or email. It’s a simple and very effective way to sell your music.php Sony Connect http://linkgenerator. Here are some helpful tips for marketing your music: iTunes With the free iTunes Affiliate Program.html 7 8 . You can earn up to $15 for every user who starts a free Rhapsody trial through links on your More information is available here: http://www.woa/wa/itmsLinkMaker Rhapsody Make your band’s site work even harder for • Get found on Create direct links to your album and post them on your website or Myspace page.htm Want to find the websites mentioned in this article? Go to: http://www.

iTunes allows anyone to rate an iMix with between zero and five stars. High-rated iMixes get more attention and more responses then low rated iMixes. RATE THE iMIX After you make and populate the iTunes Music store with iMixes containing your songs and other songs by popular bands. there are some tricks you can do to allow people to discover your albums. CREATE AN iMIX ALBUM REVIEWS An iMix is a play list that you’ve chosen to publish and make available to others in the iTunes Music Store.” Heartfelt. Take a few moments to write something and talk about your play list. iMIX NOTES Check out the “iMix Notes” field. Once they hear your cover. Have as many people as you can rate your iMix with five stars. 9 10 . it will increase the possibility of someone discovering your band. COVERS ATTRACT ATTENTION People that shop within iTunes search for specific songs they know. well-written reviews drive sales. If you choose to do a cover of a song. These iMixes will surface at the other artist’s album iTunes pages as well your own.MARKETING & PROMOTION iTUNES PROMOTION Once your music is on iTunes. Have as many people as possible write positive reviews about your album. To get your music to surface and be discovered more. it’s crucial to rate them. A great description combined with a high rating increases the odds someone will discover and check our your play list. Encourage them to be specific and thoughtful: make sure they say more than “This album rocks. create an iMix with approximately three of your own songs and nine additional songs by other more well know artists (preferably in the same genre). they will probably be more inclined to learning more about you and listening to samples of your other music.

CDs or promotional items. Do I have to hire an independent company? Absolutely not. often. How does a street marketing company work? Street marketing companies offer a variety of services including handing out promotional items at gigs that have a similar audience to your band. Some record companies have their own in house street marketing department. but also propose new ideas for you to consider. Best of all. As retail promotion space becomes harder. particular genres of music. Stickers. with a minimum length of employment. In return for tickets. street signs. 11 Musician’s Friend is the world’s largest direct source for music gear with more than 40. reaching the consumer is often the most effective way to alert potential customers that an album has been released. record stores or other locations that fit your band’s demographic. snipe posters. putting up posters in stores that allow it etc. You should receive a weekly report on the activity in each market. CD samples and the like are integral parts of street marketing operations that focus on particular cities and. If the city/ town you “snipe” takes exception your posters you could get fined and some cities have been known to fine upwards of $75 for each poster they find and take down.000 products. often. labels are quickly coming to the realization that the best street marketing is done by the band and the band’s fans. or major media exposure is unlikely. placing fliers and other items at 12 . most fans will do it simply because they love the band and want the world to know how great they are. product reviews. The development of a national team of fans is a direct offshoot of an active fan club. They will also check that local stores are carrying your record. They range from large national companies with representatives in every city to small one person operations that focus on particular cities and. postcards. buildings.). Is it legal to put up posters around town? It is illegal to snipe any public property (telephone poles. many fans are very willing to help with street marketing in their local area. What are the advantages of street marketing? Street marketing is crucial where commercial radio play. and expert buying guides to be found on its website at musiciansfriend. particular genres of music. BY MUSICIAN’S FRIEND Are there companies to help with street marketing? There are many independent marketing companies that would be more than happy to help you market your band. Also. They usually charge by the week. A good street marketing company will do as you request.STREET MARKETING BUILDING BUZZ FOR LESS What is street marketing? Street marketing is identifying your targeted demographic and then going straight to them. or more expensive to get. light boxes. etc.

a free comprehensive online resource where all musicians can receive informational support. For example. which can really. print and online PR services. can still be accessed without being signed to a major (or any label). College Radio is one of the few low levels of entry that hasn’t been completely co-opted by the majors. While over the years industry types have argued over college radio being a good format or not I will always feel that even though your song may not be heard by millions you are still sending your record to hundreds of “tastemakers” across the country. They all keep databases full of contact 14 . hiring somebody to service your records to what they call the CMJ panel. guidance.INDIE & COLLEGE RADIO PROMOTION BY GEORGE HOWARD For an emerging band. as well as management services for selected clients. If they love your band chances are they will help you in their market whether it be on the air. now all of a sudden. or right on the release date. Anything earlier will result in early adds and anything later will mean they will get it too late to review it and add it on time. These promoters will help you pick the right add date. Your CD should be mailed 10-12 days before the add date. Pirate! Promotion and Management offers college. non-comm and commercial specialty services. the College Music Panel (500 or so stations around the country that are affiliated with colleges that play a similar type of music). and they know when and whom to contact at each station . Apr). A normal project can cost anywhere from $1000-$4000 depending on the amount of work. BY STEVE THEO If you hire an independent promoter to work your record they will do most of the targeting for you.artistshousemusic. You need to service the right stations at the right time. Sep. NY. and expert resources to help them navigate the challenges and maximize the opportunities available to them within the music industry. you are normally charged a weekly rate. with their peers. months after. Mar. etc The “add date” or start date at radio is the week that you pick to start your campaign. A full press kit is not needed for radio. really sell you records. the nonprofit stations. 13 This article appears courtesy of Artists House Music. say you start getting airplay in Nebraska at the college station. MA with an office in New York. can be the best money you have ever spent. This can be months before. The most important thing is to avoid the busiest weeks of the year when all the major labels have multiple adds (eg. There are many fine promoters who will work your record to these stations for a fee. Well. especially if you fall into the indie rock vein. Indie promoters have relationships with these CMJ stations. Oct. snail and email addresses. and they just start banging it for some reason. Learn more at: www. The package should contain the CD and one sheet of paper or sticker on the CD with info about you. times to call. Knowing how to get onto college radio is important. historical data on what they have played.The college stations. at a venue. and will make sure your music is paid attention to. And you need to know who to send to at each station and when to follow up with them. you’ve got another stop on your tour market where you can go play and do a live show on the college station. Pirate! is based in Boston. right stations. etc.

PUBLICISTS Publicists are experts you hire to promote your band and music to media and press outlets. Some ways you can compile your own list: • Identify which magazines. completed. 15 16 .org/news. LEAD TIME Most of the large. To get reviewed or featured in any of these publications.A full-art. Publicists will send you reports that list all the activity. TIP: Most of the time. influential magazines that review and cover music publish monthly. There are some general rules you’ll want to observe: • You can also look at the names of the people that wrote the reviews then call and ask for the mailing address of that specifc writer. a publicist will be working on more than one artist or project. • Many of these magazines have we websites as well as email address contacts. When you mail the CD to the writers and editors of any publication. comments and results regarding your project.htm to identify lists of all local and regional press outlets. • You can use places like http://newslink.000 a month. Magnet etc. For the most part. Simply send an email to the correct recipient and ask the submission policy.PRESS & MEDIA PROMOTION BY TUNECORE A great way to draw attention do your music is national and regional physical print publications like Rolling Stone. . THE PRESS WANTS TO KNOW WHEN AND WHERE YOU’RE PLAYING Going on tour or playing a gig (even in your home town) gives press another reason to review your album or talk about your band. they won’t review an album after it has already been available to buy in retail stores (called the “Street Date”). publishers and editors.yudkin.” Fees can range widely but tend to fall between $750 and $5.html and http://www.One sheet of paper including: the name of your band and album. Identify and contact the local weekly and daily publications in the city you are going to play in. these can vary a bit from publicist to publicist. Be prepared to “work” your publicist to get them to “work” others. USA Today. you must first get a copy of your album to their editors. You should expect a publicist to get a writer or editor to learn about you. Mail him or her your album. fanzines and publications are best for your music then go to the masthead (the section almost all publications have that lists the writers. WHAT TO MAIL Almost all print magazines and publications require a physical copy of your album. usually near the front) and identify the right people to target. Provide them three to four weeks of lead-time before your gig. In addition to these fees. listen to your music and provide them reasons to write about you. accurate and comprehensive mailing list of names and addresses of appropriate publications where you want your album reviewed. contact information and the street date. staff writers or freelance writers. A publicist will usually charge you a monthly fee and request a minimum number of months to work on your “project. a publicist can not guarantee a review or coverage. com/resources. mastered and sequenced final version of your CD. biographical information. THE POWER OF YOUR MAILING LIST Keep an up-to-date. it should contain: . Remember. other key press points. and they finalize their content four months before they plan on running it. most publicists also charge you expenses.


MP3 Blogs can cause significant music and gig ticket sales There are currently tens of thousands of MP3 Blogs with more springing up each day. If the MP3 blog community embraces your band, you could potentially have thousands of them talking about you and providing MP3s of your songs to hundreds of thousands of music fans. What better way to get the word out than by a real grass roots campaign of music fans talking about you because they love what you do. With the Internet, they have a vehicle to communicate with the world. The best way to reach blogs is to go to their websites and follow their submission policies. In many cases, contacting a blog is as simple as sending an email. Below is a perspective on MP3 blogs from a well respected MP3 blog called Gorilla Vs. Bear. Over the past few years, music blogs have become an invaluable medium for new bands to garner positive, and occasionally, even lifechanging exposure. By establishing personal relationships with blogs that are most relevant to their particular sound/genre, new artists have the opportunity to reach vast, unexpected audiences.

Producing unique and high-quality content is the foremost concern for any artist set on approaching influential bloggers--i.e., bloggers with a built in, growing audience. In developing ideas, artists should take advantage of all available media resources -- YouTube, Myspace, message boards, etc. -- to develop quality and compelling content and a unique, differentiating online presence. In a day and age where new acts emerge left and right, it is fundamentally essential that you have your name out in the vast web domain. Otherwise prospective fans outside of your town or inner-circle will not have any reason to know about what you do. Since bands and bloggers continue to develop a keen professionalism in promotion and content delivery, utilizing the web space (as well as the wealth of media tools) effectively will allow you to distinguish your efforts from your peers. Just be tactful in approaching the bloggers you’ve identified. Remember that bloggers with significant traffic are constantly bombarded with all kinds of press materials from bands big and small, and are much more inclined to post about something that comes off as natural and personal, rather than manufactured. Once a connection with a like-minded blogger is made, your content can spread like wildfire, producing what’s known as a viral effect, where one source with an audience disseminates the information to countless others, much like a virus. And when that happens, it can become a vital and rewarding aspect of your own online media campaign.


Gorilla Vs Bear is a great mp3 blog. Visit them at



When placing when placing your first apparel order you may want to consider a few key topics. The most important factor that will determine the direction you take is budget and demographic. Once you have established who your “core following” is, you will be able to determine if shelling out the extra money for those finishing touches is worth it. A good business model is far superior to one of “over the top” design, so keep in mind the profitability of the proposed project. The more money you make from your first couple of designs may give you that extra buffer to try new things down the road. Don’t sink your ship before you make it out of the marina.

Screen fees charges are usually around $15 -$20 per screen or per color. These costs are almost always a one time fee because the films are saved and catalogued for future use. If you plan on reordering the graphic in question, it may make sense to order a 5, 6, 7, 8 or 9 color graphic, but your profit margin will be smaller the first time that you order. The same thing goes for multiple print locations. If you select front/back/left sleeve/right sleeve, all to print on one shirt, you will end up with an awesome looking product, but always weight the benefits and disadvantages before placing your orders.

The second thing to consider before starting the design process, is to analyze your demographic. Identify who will be most likely to buy your product and study their style preferences and spending habits. Your demographic will tell you a lot about the direction that you should steer your printing endeavors. By observing your “core” followers, you will be able to determine the style of garment and artwork to decorate them with. For example: if you are a band/musician in the metal/hardcore/ grindcore genre, you will obviously want to stock up on black t-shirts. This will be the bread and butter of your operation. You will be able to identify trends by studying magazines in your area of interest if you are not already familiar with the customs of any specific clique or group of people.

You can increase your profit margins in a number of ways. The first method is producing large quantities. Many printers up-charge smaller quantity orders. The second way that you can yield larger returns, is to keep your graphics simple. Often times it is the 1 and 2 color designs that are most effective, graphically speaking, so don’t feel the need to go overboard your first time around.




files too small or too low of resolution. If you do so, you will be asked to rebuild your graphics from scratch, so be very careful. Ask your printer if they prefer that you prepare your own separations or if they prefer to have you send “flattened” files. This means that all of the layers have been condensed to one flat picture. If you want to go the safe route, ask your designer to build your artwork in a vector based program such as Adobe Illustrator. Vector artwork is saved in such a way that you can resize your graphic to any size without compromising the print quality of the image. The last thing to consider before you begin is what color mode is most appropriate for your project. For apparel printing, it will usually be RGB. Once you have graduated your first successful print job, you can begin to experiment with more advanced techniques such as metallic inks and foils, puff inks and embroidery. Once you have established a following, you may want to consider additional finishing options that may give the effect of a more professional looking product, such as hang tags, relabeling and poly bagging. If you have any questions what options are most appropriate, always consult your sales representative. They will usually be considerate to your cause, and help you weigh your options in a point of view that you may not be considering.

Once you have a business plan, and a general idea of how you would like your shirts or other decorated apparel to look, you will need to begin designing your graphics. To avoid many headaches and prolonging valuable turnaround time, design your files following the proper preparation guidelines the first time around. If you do not have access to the proper tools, such as computers and the preferred graphics programs of your printer’s choice, find a designer that does. When considering a graphic artist, be sure to get quotes from multiple sources and from people that are sympathetic to your cause. You may be able to find more reasonable design rates if you just shop your ideas around. If you design your files yourself, first request templates or the measurements of available print areas from your printer. Once you have determined how “big” to build your files, and what dimensions will restrict your graphics, be sure to build them at the proper resolution. It will almost always be 300 dpi “at actual size” if you have chosen to build your files in pixel or raster based graphics programs such as Adobe Photoshop. You can always build your graphics “too big” and resize them to be smaller. You cannot however build your



COM ONLINE EDUCATION & MUSIC RESOURCES COLLEGE RADIO PROMOTION PIRATE RADIO at WWW.for-robots. & MORE JakPrints HARMONY CENTRAL at GoodCop PR: GRAPHIC DESIGN Shore Fire Media: Big Shot: http://www.youaintnopicasso.bighassle.NET or any of these great music blogs: Fanatic Promotion: http://www.teamclermont. BEAR at www.COM ONLINE CD & MERCHANDISE SALES MUSIC BLOGS PUBLICISTS Team Clermont: http://www.goodcoppr. change and update your very own custom web store Check out GORILLA VS.chromewaves.stereogum.girlieaction.blogspot.fanaticpromotion.GUITARCENTER.COM GUITAR CENTER at Tag Team: 23 24 .fluxblog.RESOURCE GUIDE AND LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS DIGITAL DISTRIBUTION GEAR AND EQUIPMENT MUSICIAN’S FRIEND at www.bigblurdesign.htm Girlie Action: www.HARMONYCENTRAL.pdf www.myoldkyhome.COM ARTIST HOUSE MUSIC at WWW.

Birdmonster . Rhapsody or whomever pays (no percentage taken WHAT ARE PEOPLE SAYING ABOUT TUNECORE? “With the record business the way that it today this is a welcome help and support to the free thinking independent artists in the industry and I appreciate it immensely.” YOUR MUSIC ON ITUNES TM NAPSTER. NO CONTRACTS. Manager. and would highly recommend TuneCore for any band that’s trying to do it on their own. New Order “At last a fair and honest way for musicians to distribute music. We found it very appealing that we retained all the rights. just like Frank Black. it’s easy to understand and allows the user to do everything themselves.. CANCEL ANYTIME. TuneCore proved the perfect fit.“The great thing about TuneCore is that anyone can now have their music distributed. well it’s not. GO TO TUNECORE. and could easily remove everything if we wanted. just paid a one-time fee and then in turn received all the money that iTunes. AND YOU’RE DONE. manager of Tapes ‘N Tapes from Pitchforkmedia. the hardest part of the sell is that people think it’s too good to be true. “ Ziggy Marley “The corporate record industry is suffering a disconnect from both the consumer and the artistic community that is unparalleled in my 25 years as a label executive and artist manager. EMUSIC AND MORE TM TM TM Keri Weiss.COM. Any difficulties are dealt with immediately by a dedicated support team. for that matter. TuneCore provides the tools for artists to access their audience without penalty or compromise. it’s true and it’s good!” Roger O’Donnell of The Cure “TuneCore is without a doubt the best way to distribute music online. The Pixies “For an unsigned band like Tapes ‘n Tapes.” KEEP ALL YOUR RIGHTS.[We] had no problems with the service thus far.” David Klein. RHAPSODY. like most distributors do). Manager. or. I’ve been promoting TuneCore to every musician and band I meet. It’s a great way for a tiny label or unsigned band to get their music into iTunes. KEEP ALL THE MONEY. UPLOAD YOUR ART & SONGS. There’s no need for record companies anymore. TuneCore’s web site makes the service a pleasure to use. any other artist. Tom Atencio. Where the hell were you 20 years ago?” Ken Goes.



......... founder of TuneCore THE RIGHT TO REPRODUCE......19 ABOUT THE AUTHORS..............................TABLE OF CONTENTS TUNECORE MUSIC INDUSTRY SURVIVAL MANUAL INTRODUCTION..13 PUBLIC PERFORMANCE..........8 PUBLIC DISPLAY.....................................25 ALL TEXT COPYRIGHT 2011 © TUNECORE™ FREE FOR USE — SPREAD IT AROUND......24 REFERENCE GUIDE.......5 DERIVATIVES & SAMPLES.............................23 TUNECORE FACTOIDS................................... BUT PLEASE TAG TUNECORE 1 .........................16 DIGITAL TRANSMISSIONS..................................................................................................................3 by Jeff Price....................................14 THE RIGHT TO DISTRIBUTE.........................................................................

be it on a cocktail napkin or sing it into your iPhone. These six legal copyrights (in no particular order) are: Reproduction Derivatives Public Display Public Performance Distribution Digital Transmission These rights protect your song. it is your song after all!) These laws were written by Congress (or the equivalent in other countries) to protect and empower you . and advance a culture of creativity. control your rights. These six rights drive and dictate the rules and money of the entire music business. you get six excusive legal copyrights as granted by the government. which the government believes benefits society at large. make money and pursue your passions on your own terms.INTRODUCTION BY JEFF PRICE. The purpose of this booklet is to arm you with the knowledge that enables you to make informed decisions. allow you to make money off it and control how others can use it (hey... 2 . TUNECORE the six exclusive copyrights that drive the entire music business! The instant you write or record an original song. FOUNDER.

The actual recording of Whitney singing Dolly’s song is controlled by Columbia Records – this is the ℗ . For example. If you are both the songwriter and the performer. it’s important to have the stands for “Copyright” Many of the copyright laws benefit the songwriter (Dolly) more than the performer (Whitney). Dolly Parton (Performer) could make no money while Dolly Parton (Songwriter) could make a bundle due to copyright laws. it’s important to imagine yourself split in two.THE BASICS Before we drill into the six stands for “Phonogram” The song itself is owned by Dolly. 3 . This is Dolly Parton. This is Columbia Records. this is the © . that is not a bad name for an adult film!). There are two copyrights to every recorded song – a © and a ℗. Which brings us to the first copyright: The Right of Reproduction (and no. She wrote the song “I Will Always Love You”. Columbia Records hires Whitney Houston to sing Dolly’s song “I Will Always Love You” This is the recording of Dolly’s song “I Will Always Love You” that Columbia Records hired Whitney to sing. Columbia Records then makes a deal with Dolly Parton (the Performer) to sing Dolly Parton’s (the Songwriter’s) song. Dolly wrote the song.

4 .

THE RIGHT TO REPRODUCE The Right To Reproduce is obviously the sexiest one of the copyrights you get when you write a song. Dolly’s song has been “reproduced.” The same holds true if Columbia Records manufactures anything physical — be it a vinyl record. eight-track tape or any other physical product. cassette. and defines the maximum amount that must be paid to the songwriter for each reproduction.” The recording of the song (the ℗) is controlled by Columbia Records (Label). let’s go back to the example in the front of this booklet: Columbia Records hires Whitney Houston to sing Dolly Parton’s song “I Will Always Love You. wax spool.” The Mechanical Royalty rate is set by the government. Each time the CD gets made (not sold). and it’s also one of the more technical. The basic concept behind the right to reproduce is this: under federal law. Columbia Records decides it is going manufacture 1 million CDs of its recording of Whitney singing Dolly’s song. no one else can reproduce it without paying the songwriter(s) a “Mechanical Royalty. To explain this further. if you write a song. the song itself (the ©) is controlled by Dolly Parton (Songwriter). Under US law (and the laws around the world) each time Dolly’s song is physically reproduced she must be paid by the party who reproduces it the “Mechanical Royalty” rate as set by the government. As an example. 5 .

anyone that covers your song MUST pay you the mechanical royalty rate. the copyright holder (Dolly) can pick who gets to release her song first (herself or someone else). there are some nuances to this law. if Columbia Records manufactures 1 million CDs that have Dolly’s song on it.091 = $91. is $0. As with anything. If Columbia Records manufactures 1 million CDs that have TWO of Dolly’s song on it.000 and so on. it does not matter if Whitney or Columbia Records made any money. Each time the song is downloaded to a hard drive it is being “reproduced. Second. First. they have violated the law and you can sue them. or even if the CD is released — Dolly Parton (Songwriter) must be paid her mechanical royalty even if Dolly Parton (Performer) makes nothing. 6 . However. The rate goes up fractionally if the song is over five minutes in length. and negotiate any rate she wants for that first use.” The Mechanical Royalty rate in the U. If they don’t. It does not matter if the CDs sold. The same holds true when a song is downloaded.091x2) = $182. you cannot stop anyone from covering it. Dolly gets paid 1 million x $0. Therefore. under the letter of the law. if the songwriter (Dolly) has commercially released her song. anyone who wants may cover her song on their release as long as the songwriter is paid the “mechanical royalty” for each reproduction.A second way a song is “reproduced” is when it is downloaded to a computer.091 cents (just under a dime) for each and every reproduction.S. if the song has NOT been commercially released. In other words. once you release a song. It makes no difference if the song is bought from iTunes or downloaded for free from a blog or peer-to-peer file sharing service. Dolly gets paid 1 million x ($0.000.

One is for services that charge a fee to listen to a song on demand (like Napster. The owners of these sites and services are required to pay the songwriter a mechanical royalty. she can agree to get paid mechanical royalties only on CDs that sell. if you write a song.” There are two types of interactive streams. Mog. With these two new types of reproductions. There is one more type of “reproduction” – these are called “interactive streams. but the basic premise is that there is a starting point that everyone must negotiate from. the other is for services that do not charge a fee to listen to a song on demand but are ad supported services (like YouTube). For example. Rhapsody. She may also be willing to accept less than the $0. you are to be paid each and every time it is reproduced. And this is one of the reasons why Paul and John have so much more money than George and Ringo. etc).091 per reproduction (called a reduced mechanical). 7 . This royalty stands alone and must be paid to the songwriter (and only the songwriter (Dolly) – not the performer (Whitney)) regardless of anything else. Mechanical royalties are significantly lower for those sites that are non-interactive (like Pandora). which is a combination of a percentage of the revenue generated by the site and a payment per each subscriber. There are lots of permutations of this. than they are for interactive sites (like Rdio) The very short version of all of this is. Rdio. the songwriter (Dolly) can waive or modify any of her rights associated with her exclusive right of reproduction.Third. the government expanded the definition of reproduction and came up with additional mechanical royalty rates.

The Gypsy Kings decided to do a version of The Eagles’ “Hotel California. One of the rights that you don’t hear about very much is the right to create a “derivative work. as we discuss above in the “Right to Reproduce” section. it was a translation of the original work. Put simply. as a whole. or adapted.e. the Gypsy Kings had to get permission from the copyright holder(s) of “Hotel California” (the songwriter(s)) in order to create this “derivative” version of the work. you are automatically granted six exclusive rights. record it).DERIVATIVES As previously mentioned. A work consisting of editorial revisions. fictionalization.” sung in Spanish (as seen in The Big Lebowski). transformed. abridgment. annotations.e. condensation. elaborations. motion picture version. Remember. dramatization. singing the song in another language When. when you are the author of an original work (like a song). or other modifications which. like all the other rights. is codified in the United States Copyright Act and states: A “derivative work” is a work based upon one or more pre-existing works. Thus. represent an original work of authorship. for instance. not a cover. art reproduction. such as a translation.” It. the only person who can create or grant the rights for a derivative work to be created is the holder of the copyright for the original work. and you abide by the mechanical license (i. sound recording. you can cover any song that has been publicly released without getting anyone’s permission so long as you don’t make substantive changes to the lyrics or melody. musical arrangement. legal) requirements. Translations – i. and you fix that work in a tangible medium (write it down. is a “derivative work”. and as such. 8 . or any other form in which a work may be recast.

it’s not just translations that are deemed derivative works. is deemed to be a substantial change. and . or adapted. Sampling is one of the most confusing elements of the music business.depending on which side of the fence you’re on (sampler or sampled) .the money to be paid/made. for instance. Samples Where I believe derivatives will be relevant to most readers is with respect to sampling. it would be deemed a derivative work (we. but understanding derivatives will help you better understand both the rules of sampling. as an exclusive right of the holder of the copyright (the songwriter). A sample is when you take a piece of an existing copyrighted work (the © and/or the ℗) and combine it with another work. requires permission to be granted. and therefore a derivative work. which. wanted to create a movie or TV show based on a song. however. In other words. transformed. As you can see from the above quote from the Copyright Act. like you. If you refer back to the language from the Copyright Act regarding derivatives you’ll see explicitly where samples and derivatives overlap: “…any other form in which a work may be recast.A translation. If you.” 9 . and require permission from the holder of the copyright. are anxiously awaiting the TV show adaptation of the Justin Timberlake song “SexyBack”). you can say “no”.

e.the ©). transformed.the © 2. and negotiate a deal with the copyright holder to the version of the song from the recording from which you are sampling (The Beatles’ label . Either party can reject the request and refuse to grant you the right to create a derivative work.the ℗). Simply put. so publishers and master holders will negotiate in order to get everything they can .Because a sample clearly involves “recast[ing]. A lesser-known approach to sampling is often referred to as a “replay. the copyright holder of the work being recast. Should they not reject the request outright. Unlike mechanical royalties (see the Reproduction chapter) there is no legally required maximum rate for samples. or adapted must grant permission for this to occur. if you want to sample the guitar riff from a Beatles’ song. you would need to negotiate a deal with the copyright holder to the song (The Beatles’ publisher(s) .” This is where a derivative work is created and used as part of another 10 . Note that there are typically two copyrights that must be addressed when a work is sampled (and thus two copyright holders from whom you must get permission in order to avoid infringing): 1. you cannot sample someone else’s copyrighted work without permission. The copyright to the version of the song (i. The copyright to the song itself .including the rights to the copyright of the song that is using their sample. they will negotiate with you to attempt to come to terms that allow you to create a derivative work. or adapt[ing]” one work in order to merge it with another work. transform[ing]. because a sample is a derivative work. the master) – the ℗ For instance.

In this situation. Supreme Court held in Campbell v Acuff-Rose Music Inc. (i. Pretty Woman” (the ©) in their song called “Pretty Woman”. the “2 Live Crew Case”) that while 2 Live Crew’s unauthorized use of 11 .S. The U. instead of taking the sample of a guitar riff from a Beatles’ record. the replay cannot be used. but not the master.e.e. It cuts both ways. the publisher can reject the request. but not with the copyright holder of the recording (i. should someone want to sample your copyrighted work.” The band 2 Live Crew used a sample of the Sony/BMG controlled master (the ℗) from the Roy Orbison song controlled by the publisher Acuff-Rose “Oh. the publisher). of course. and you can be sued. plays the riff herself and then uses her version within her own song. he or she will have to negotiate a deal with you in order to do so. she creates a derivative work of the composition (the song). or risk you suing them for infringing upon your exclusive right to create derivative works.e. the master holder .work via a re-performance/re-recording of a piece of the original work. the label). A note on the fair use defense of “transformativeness. you are infringing on the exclusive right of the copyright holder(s) to create a derivative work. the person creating the derivative “replay” would need to negotiate a deal with the copyright holder of the song (i.typically. Of course. For instance. in which case. If you do not negotiate the rights to create a derivative/sample work with the relevant copyright holder(s). if an artist.

Pretty Woman” constituted a derivative work.i. but you didn’t know about this prior work . However. if you can show that there was no knowing or intentional infringement.e.without legal risk. There is no such thing as a “small enough” sample Don’t be confused with respect to misinformation regarding the right to use small amounts of another’s copyrighted work in your composition . 12 .. and thus you are at risk if you use someone else’s copyrighted work no matter how short that “use” is.elements of “Oh. a “short” sample . There is no clear standard for what is considered de minimis usage. and thus represents socially important commentary (this is very similar to/overlaps with the fair use defense of parody). the damages will be less than if you intentionally and knowingly infringed.g. the infringement was defensible due to fair use because 2 Live Crew’s version provides new insight to listeners. Ignorance is not a Defense The courts do not view ignorance as a defense. If you create a derivative work without knowing or intending to do so .e. This transformativeness fair use defense is likely what the sampling artist Girl Talk will rely on should any of the various copyright holders sue him for infringing upon their exclusive right to create derivative works. you put a riff in your work that is so similar as to be seen as a derivative work of another’s copyrighted material.the law states that you are still infringing on the copyright holder’s exclusive right to create a derivative work.

This right is more often thought to relate to photographers.DISPLAY As soon as you write down or record an original song you get the exclusive right to display this work in public. It is unlikely that these websites that make money via advertising have negotiated with the copyright holder to display their lyrics. distribute and/or reproduce sheet music. this exclusive right does have relevance to those who hold copyrights in musical works (songs) as well. The display (and. (ii) when it is at a place with a group of people larger than a gathering of family or the normal circle of friends. Increasingly. of course. Such a display is considered public in one of four situations: (i) when it is at a place open to the public. directly or via some “device or process” (like the Internet or a t-shirt). can only occur if the copyright holder has granted the right. This same right needs to be negotiated and granted to anyone that wants to create. sculptors or others who work in the visual realm. However. a song) is done is by displaying the lyrics – for example. television and radio broadcasts). or (iv) where it is transmitted to the public (i. they are making money through advertising off of other people’s copyrights. The Copyright Act defines displaying a work as showing a copy of the work.. in a book.e.e. 13 . this right to display comes into play with respect to online lyric/tab sites. reproduction) of song lyrics on a t-shirt. painters. on a website etc. The most obvious way in which the exclusive right to display a “copyrighted audio work” (i. a website that publishes song lyrics. In other words. (iii) when it is transmitted to a place open to the public or a group of people larger than a gathering of family or the normal circle of friends.

at the same or different times (like being at home and watching the gig on the internet). outside of a gathering of family and friends (like a live gig). etc. Additionally. PERFORMANCE The Copyright Act grants copyright holders to musical works (the ©) the exclusive public performance rights.Of course. Thus. a public performance is: (1) it occurs at a place open to the public where there is a substantial number of persons. for example. must be cleared by you prior to its being publicly displayed. you will have the exclusive right to display these elements as well. Under the law. posters.. play the song in a club. The Exclusive Right to Publicly Perform a Copyrighted Work As one example. if you are the songwriter and record label you likely have the copyright to the graphic elements associated with the package (cover. songs played on radio or TV. the exclusive right to publicly perform a copyrighted work means that only the copyright holder of the song (the songwriter) may. This performance includes both live performances and transmissions of performances. it means that in order for a radio station to broadcast that artist’s copyrighted song. etc. album artwork used on t-shirts. for instance. or (2) the performance is transmitted to such a place (like being in a bar watching the live gig happening somewhere else). the radio station must have an agreement in place with the songwriter 14 . or (3) the performance is transmitted so that members of the public can receive the performance at the same or different places.).

Same deal if. and SESAC.  In the United States. publicly perform) these artists’ copyrighted songs.(the ©). SESAC In order for the above to take place. a place an entity can go that represents a whole lot of songwriters.e. In a similar fashion. clearinghouse agencies were created – that is. The Performing Rights Organizations (also known as PROs): ASCAP. the PROs monitor radio play and music played on TV in order to determine which of the writers who have affiliated with them are having their copyrighted works publicly performed. these agencies are known as Performance Rights Organizations (PROs). for instance. For instance.  Each does the same thing: they act on behalf of the songwriters who have affiliated with them. BMI. BMI.  There are three dominant ones in the United States: ASCAP. club owners pay the PROs a flat annual license fee that allows artists to perform copyrighted music in their club.  The PROs use a variety of methods (including visiting clubs) to determine which songs are being publicly performed. and issue licenses to those who wish to broadcast (i.  Further. 15 .  This is how any artist is able to stand up on any stage and sing a Bob Dylan song. a TV station airs a show in which a copyrighted song by the artist plays during the opening credits or in the background of a show. these PROs distribute the money they collect in license fees from these broadcasters to their members whose copyrighted songs are publicly performed.

or lease copies of your songs without an agreement in place. and you want someone to distribute copies of your records (either physically or digitally). for instance. Below. this simply means no one can sell. Columbia Records and Whitney get nothing. only one copyright holder gets paid: The Songwriter (the ©). you must enter into an agreement with the distributor to do so. and then register each song. the writer must become a member of one of the above-mentioned PROs.For all of the above. broadcast on TV or performed by Whitney Houston in concert. With respect to CDs. that every time Columbia Records’ version of Whitney Houston singing Dolly Parton’s song “I Will Always Love You” is played on the radio. So. if you are an artist who releases your own records. or downloads (also known as “phonorecords”). This exclusive right to publicly perform a copyrighted work is incredibly important for artists and songwriters to understand as it can generate significant amounts of money. vinyl.  This means. In addition. RIGHT TO DISTRIBUTE Once you write down or record an original song. you get the exclusive right to distribute. rent. it is Dolly Parton (and those who represent her) who receive the public performance royalties from the PRO. 16 . we address each of these things. In order to receive this royalty. there are important elements of the “right to distribute” that relate to the use of music in movies and TV shows.

you are actually handing over (distributing) the very same copy of the work that you bought. in a digital world. rent. and then sell a copy of that song (keeping a copy on your hard drive). and sell that burned copy to a used CD store. relates to another exclusive right of the copyright holder: the right to reproduce. you are not allowed to buy a CD. burn a copy of it. because you are reproducing the work. First Sale Doctrine as it Applies to Digital Copies The First Sale Doctrine is different with digital copies like a download or Internet based stream. In other words. and you don’t have the right to do so. or lend those works (i. Similarly. On the other hand. because you’re violating the exclusive right to reproduce. they are able to resell. give it to a friend or sell it on eBay).e. This is how used CD stores and libraries. The rationale. This is known as the “First Sale Doctrine”. 17 . for example. under the law. are not infringing on the exclusive right of distribution held by the author or publisher of the work. you cannot download a song to your hard drive. It states that while you may purchase a digital copy of a song. of course. you do not have the right to then distribute it digitally in the same way you are able to resell a CD to a used CD store.First Sale Doctrine One wrinkle with respect to the right to distribute is that once someone buys a copy of copyrighted work (like a CD). you are not reproducing that copy. When you resell or lend a physical CD that you have bought. Congress passed The Digital Millennium Copyright Act to address issues with respect to the “First Sale Doctrine” in the digital age.

If he does this without getting the rights. maybe not. he could be sued for more money than he made off Titanic (well. Cameron must make a deal with both Dolly (for the song) and Columbia Records (for the recording of the song). One side-note. Mr. as described in greater detail above in the “Performance Right” section. for instance. James Cameron wants to use the Dolly Parton song (the ©) “I Will Always Love You. TV show. If.The Right to Distribute as it Applies to Synchronizations . Some of you may be asking what about the right to have the film shown on TV. and not infringe upon the copyright holder’s exclusive rights to publicly perform.e. He does this by offering to pay them a lot of money. is that those rights are negotiated with the broadcasters (i. When a producer of a film. or ad desires to use music in a production. the TV stations) on behalf of the copyright holders of the song by the Performance Rights Organizations. Cameron the right to reproduce and distribute the film with Columbia Records’ recording of Dolly’s song in it. He needs Dolly and Columbia Records to grant him the rights to both reproduce and distribute their copyrights. and TV placement One key component of the right to distribute is its impact on the ability to use a song in a TV show or movie. movie theaters in the US are exempt from paying public 18 . These licenses grant Mr. but you get the point). Cameron must obtain what is called a “synchronization license” from the copyright holder of the song (Dolly) and a “master usage” license from the label (Columbia Records). The answer.” that was recorded and released on an album by Columbia Records (the ℗). the producer must obtain the rights to use this music from the copyright holder(s). Thus.

when music is played on AM/FM radio. but Columbia (Label) and Whitney (Performer) 19 . the person(s) that actually wrote the song must get paid a royalty for the “public performance. no one may take your song and use it in a film.) your work without your having granted them the rights to do so. Digital Transmissions happen via the Internet (like Pandora or another Internet radio station).” Taking our example from the front of this booklet: Columbia Records negotiates a deal with Whitney Houston to sing Dolly Parton’s song “I Will Always Love You. Dolly (Songwriter) gets paid for the public performance. The Right to Distribute relates directly back to revenue. the new “Digital Transmission” way: for the most part.performance fees. etc. Additionally. a satellite (Sirius Satellite Radio or Scotty beaming music down to the poor doomed Enterprise Red Shirt). And second. or ad and distribute your work without negotiating with you and getting your permission. TV show. Under federal law. DIGITAL TRANSMISSIONS There are two ways for your music to get “radio” play: The old fashioned way: AM/FM radio where a “terrestrial” (meaning a broadcast tower sitting here on planet earth) transmits your music to the world via good old fashioned radio waves. or Cable TV (like Music Choice).” Columbia Records’ version of the song is played on AM/FM radio. as no one may distribute (sell. lend.

you now know why Paul and John made a lot more money than George and Ringo. the music streaming companies provide detailed electronic play logs which are matched to individual recordings allowing an entity called SoundExchange to pay out exactly what is earned. Therefore. plays from sites like YouTube or MySpace do not fall under this law because these sites are deemed to be interactive.)* The Digital Performance Right in Sound Recordings Act of 1995 and the Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998 (DMCA) changed this by stating when music is played via “digital transmission” radio. If it’s your song. you are owed money that is sitting and waiting for you to collect. a non-profit organization. Just to you can collect royalties you’ve earned dating back to the beginning of collections in 1996. MySpace and 20 . As soon as you sign up online for free with SoundExchange (SoundExchange. This means that although YouTube. Dolly Parton (Songwriter) AND Whitney Houston (Performer) AND Columbia Records (Label) must get paid. it’s weird. U.get nothing for this public performance. federal law requires that you receive royalties. It is free to register with SoundExchange to collect your past or future royalties. or your instrumental on the recording. Yeah. meaning listeners can select the specific tracks they wish to stream (a function radio does not have). but that’s the way it works (and once again. or your voice. if your recordings have been played via Digital Transmission. was appointed by the Library of Congress to collect and distribute these royalties to artists like you. To monitor and collect this money. SoundExchange. The amount paid to the performer (Whitney) and the record label (Columbia Records) is a rate set by the government.

With this information at your fingertips it should help you make the best decisions to pursue your goals.others pay a PRO like ASCAP/BMI/SESAC (talked about elsewhere in this booklet). the decision is yours. Remember. EXCEPT the United States. After reading this booklet. they are NOT ALSO paying SoundExchange. requires both Whitney (Performer) and Columbia Records (Label) to be paid when they play the song. the Performer (Whitney Houston) and the Record Label (Columbia Records) and you register with SoundExchange and a PRO like ASCAP/BMI/SESAC you will receive the maximum amount possible each time there is a public performance via Digital Transmission of your music. It is vital that you understand them. THIS JUST MAKES MY HEAD HURT These six rights can sound complex and confusing. these are YOUR rights. 21 . your next steps should be registering your songs with the copyright office and registering with a PRO and SoundExchange. Don’t let them intimidate you. make money and pursue your passions on your own terms. If you are the Songwriter (Dolly Parton). The point is there are rules and laws in place for you to use as you deem appropriate. The rest you can deal with on a case-by-case basis as the opportunities pop up. either enforce them vigorously or waive them. every industrialized country in the world. control your rights. as these are the rights that enable you to make informed decisions. and you can do with them as you wish. This is your music and you career. *For terrestrial AM/FM radio play.

Clem Snide. He is most easily found on Twitter at: twitter. ABC News. after becoming angry with digital distribution companies demanding artist’s rights and revenue from the sale of their music. Currently. and many others and from time to time teaches at Berkeley. Ron Sexsmith. he is the Executive Editor of Artists House Music and is a Professor and Executive in Residence in the college of Business Administration at Loyola. New York Times. New Orleans. George advises numerous entertainment and non-entertainment firms and individuals. and is proud to still work with Jeff to continue to grow the company. and Gary Burke all sat around Jeff’s father’s dining room table to flesh it out.MEET THE AUTHORS Jeff Price Jeff co-founded and ran spinART Records for 17 years with his high school friend Joel Morowitz releasing bands like The Pixies. The Deers and many more.  George has stayed involved with TuneCore since those early days. CNN. NYU. has appeared and been interviewed on the emerging digital music space by Nightline. In 2005. 23 . George Howard George knew Jeff Price way back when Jeff was the president of spinART and George was the president of Rykodisc. Wall Street Journal. Additionally. Peter Wells.  When Jeff originally conceived of the idea that became TuneCore. Pace and more. George. he founded TuneCore. Boo Radleys. Along the way he worked to launch eMusic. Billboard. MSNBC. Echo & The Bunnymen. NPR. Apples In Jeff.

managers and publishers in the world More music is released in one day via TuneCore than by a major record label over three years TuneCore markets and promotes its artists and has had thousands featured in the digital stores 24 .com/TuneCore) Over 20 million iTunes customers buy music from TuneCore Artists The first TuneCore Artist was Frank Black On iTunes.TUNECORE FACTOIDS TuneCore Artists have generated over $140 million dollars in gross music sales selling over 300 million songs TuneCore has a branded section of Amazon where it features its artists (Amazon. there have been over 25 TuneCore Artists with a Top 10 album and over 100 with a top 100 album More than two songs a second sell by a TuneCore Artist on iTunes Over 20% of TuneCore Artists are from outside of the United States TuneCore is the largest music distributor of labels. artists.

com Where To Register To Collect Digital Transmission Money SoundExchange Find Us Online TuneCore’s Twitter account . Based Performance Rights Organizations ASCAP Where To Register Your Copyrights United States Copyright ArtistHouse Music Where To Distribute Your Music TuneCore Where To Get More Free Information For Artists TuneCore Blog Future Of Music BMI http://www.REFERENCE GUIDE U.tunecore.ascap. Library of Congress George Howard’s blog: SESAC Other TuneCore Music Industry Survival Guides TuneCore on Facebook: http://www.9giantsteps.twitter. George Howard’s Twitter account .sesac.artistshousemusic. 25 .S.


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