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Liang Chemistry Notes Pt. 4 BALANCING CHEMICAL EQUATIONS Chemical equations illustrate the process of which reactants are combined to form a product Reactants Products
catalyst heat

COMBUSTION Something burning in the air, reacting, and combining with O2 Exothermic Reaction 2 Types o Complete Produces CO2 and H2O Occurs when there is sufficient oxygen Creates more heat o Incomplete

Things to remember to include o Catalyst alters the rate of reaction, but does not participate in the reaction itself. The catalyst goes over the arrow. o Heat when a flame or any other type of heat source is used, it is written over the arrow o (s), (l), (g), (aq) subscripted beside each compound to identify its state There must be the same amount of each element on both sides of the equation Therefore, coefficients are added in front of molecules to balance the equation Common Compounds o Glucose C6H12O6 o Ammonia NH3(g) o Ammonium NH4+ o Methane CH4 o Propane C3H8 o Butane C4H10 o Octane C8H18 Rules for Balancing 1. Metals first 2. Polyatomic Ions second note that they are to be treated as one block 3. Nonmetals except oxygen and hydrogen 4. Oxygen and Hydrogen last Example o Na2CO3 + H3PO4 Na3PO4 + H2O + CO2 o 3Na2CO3 + 2H3PO4 2Na3PO4 + 3H2O + 3CO2 Note: Hydroxide (OH-) and hydrogen (H+) ions combine to form H2O

Lindsay Liang Produces C, CO, and H2O Harmful because CO is poisonous and C creates respiratory problems Occurs when there is insufficient oxygen Creates less heat When elements become stable by forming bonds, they release heat When CO2 is formed, it releases a lot of energy However, CO bonding releases less energy

TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS Synthesis o Simple substances forming more complex compounds o A + B AB o Ex) N2(g) + O2(g) 2NaCl(s) Decomposition o Compounds breaking down into simpler substances o AB A + B o Ex) 2HgO(g) 2Hg(l) + O2(g) Single Displacement o Involve one element taking the place of another in a compound o A + BC AC + B o Ex) 2Al(s) + Fe2O3(g) 2Fe(l) + Al2O3(l) Double Displacement o Like single displacement, except two compounds exchange atoms o AB + CD AD + CB o Ex) 2BiCl3 + 3H2S Bi2S3 + 6HCl FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE RATE OF REACTION Rate of Reaction o How quickly a reactant is consumed over a period of time o OR Rate of which a product is formed over a period of time Element R= Time Temperature o Directly proportional to the rate of reaction o Every 10 degrees of rise in temperature, the rate halves o Greater amount of particles that will have sufficient energy to break bonds Catalysts o Alter the rate of reaction o Itself will note change, except perhaps its state o Can provide correct orientation and energy, or the opposite Concentration of Acids o Higher concentration, faster reaction o Increases probability of collision 2

Lindsay Liang Surface Area o Rate of reaction is directly proportional with surface area (more surface area, faster reaction) Nature of Reactants o Depends on reactivity of agents themselves Pressure o For Gasses o Volume decreases, concentration increases