CORROSION & DEGRADATION of Materials

SCIMATP
August 4, 2010

CORROSION
• reduction in performance of component during lifetime • the deterioration of materials by chemical interaction with their environment. • Also refers to degradation of plastics, concrete and wood, but generally refers to metals.

CORROSION .

sulfides. carbonates. silicates.Why do metals corrode? • They are more stable in an ionic state than as metals – Essentially. and sulfates . all metals occur in nature as compounds –oxides. carbides.

Chemical Corrosion • Direct dissolution – A material dissolves in a corrosive liquid Liquid metal attack Selective leaching • Selective dissolution of one particular element in an alloy – Dezincification – Graphitic Corrosion .

corrview.com/images/corr_07d.andersonmaterials.jpg .gstatic.jpg • Graphitic Corrosion » Occurs when iron (in gray cast iron) is selectively dissolved in water or soil leaving behind interconnected graphitic flakes and a corrosion product http://www. Deep pitting is initiated and the pipe becomes porous prior to producing an actual leak http://t2.Chemical Corrosion • Dezincification » The zinc component of the metal is leached out to leave copper.com/images/metal3.com/images?q=tbn:YFRGRV0xQhQ4 NM:http://www.

g. e.Chemical Corrosion Dissolution and Oxidation of Ceramics • Nitric Acid could selectively leach iron or silica from some ceramics Chemical Attack on Polymers • Plastics – Corrosion resistant. Teflon ™ and Viton ™ • Aggressive solvents can diffuse into polymers and cause swelling .

Electrochemical Corrosion • Occurs when metal atoms lose electrons and become ions • Most common form of attack of metals • Occurs most frequently in an aqueous medium .

OXIDATION • Basic principles: – Metals in aqueous solutions tend to form ions .

REDUCTION .

Electrochemical Corrosion .

which may protect the underlying metal PASSIVATION .What happens to the metal ions? • They can simply remain in solution • They can react with the electrolyte to form a solid product ‒ This may take the form of a film.

0 M ZnSO4 .GALVANIC CELL + cathode half-cell Cu+2 + 2eCu 1.0 M CuSO4 1.1 volts anode half-cell Zn Zn+2 + 2e- Cu Zn 1.

Galvanic Corrosion • Occurs when dissimilar metals are in contact .

0.1.0.262 .250 .0. Callister 6e.2.1.744 .340 .126 .440 .0.136 .714 .0.0.0.STANDARD EMF SERIES metal Au Cu Pb Sn Ni Co Cd Fe Cr Zn Al Mg Na K Vo metal +1.0.2.662 .763 . .277 .420 V +0.924 more anodic more cathodic Data based on Table 17.2.403 .

2 is M.GALVANIC SERIES • Ranks the reactivity of metals/alloys in seawater more cathodic (inert) Platinum Gold Graphite Titanium Silver 316 Stainless Steel Nickel (passive) Copper Nickel (active) Tin Lead 316 Stainless Steel Iron/Steel Aluminum Alloys Cadmium Zinc Magnesium Based on Table 17. 1986. Corrosion Engineering.2. 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Fontana.G.. (Source of Table 17.) more anodic (active) . Callister 6e.

Localised corrosion • Oxidation reaction concentrated at one area of surface • component can fail without warning and even at low overall corrosion rates . • Corrosion process is predictable and unproblematic.Corrosion types Uniform corrosion • Oxidation and reduction reactions occur randomly across whole surface.

Crevice Corrosion • Occurs in water when oxygen content varies across component .

Crevice Corrosion .

Pitting Corrosion • Similar to crevice corrosion • Arises from local breakdown in protective oxide film .

Galvanic Corrosion .

Protecting Against Corrosion • Isolate metal surface from electrolyte – Passivation – Paint • Inhibit anodic reaction – Cathodic protection or Sacrificial protection .

Protecting Against Corrosion • Inhibit cathodic reaction – Minimize dissolved oxygen • Reduce conductivity of electrolyte .

wikipedia.• Please read about corrosion at http://en.org/wiki/Corrosion • Read about oxidation and reduction • Read about rusting .

Polymer Degradation .

ppt .pdf – • http://www.nace.org/nace/content/ publicaffairs/images_cocorr/ccsupp.• www. Donald (2010) Materials Science and Engineering • http://academic.pgcc.uk/MSE3/Topics/MSE206/Lecture%20corrosion.cmse.org/nace/content/ www.nace.ed.pdf • Askeland.edu/~ssinex/E_cells.ac.