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Sustainable architecture is architecture which is designed in an environmentally friendly way. The goal of sustainable or ³green´ architecture is to create structures which are beautiful and functional, but which also contribute to a sustainable lifestyle and culture. Interest in sustainable architecture grew radically in the early 21st century in response to growing concerns about the environment, but in fact people have been building sustainably for thousands of years, because sustainable projects are often practical in nature. A truly sustainable building will have a design which addresses a number of issues, including heating and cooling, water usage, environmental quality, and energy usage. Architects can deal with environmental aspects of building construction in a variety of ways, all of which are designed to increase efficiency without being cumbersome or detracting from the function of the building. Much of sustainable architecture focuses on building intelligently. For example, a building may be oriented towards the south in the Northern Hemisphere so that the building will be warmed through the day by the sun, and a building may be insulated with extra care to minimize heat loss. Plumbing systems may be designed to utilize less water while still functioning normally, and the building might include smart lighting which turns off when people are not around to save energy. Installing green roofs or living walls is another example of sustainable architecture. These projects increase heating and cooling efficiency, help scrub the air, and look aesthetically interesting, making them beneficial from many points of view. Other sustainable architecture trends include the use of geothermal energy for heating, reclaimed water for flushing toilets, and other innovative techniques which are designed to reduce the environmental footprint of a building. Many architects build sustainably to show people that it is possible, and to illustrate the fact that being environmentally friendly does not have to make a building ugly. In fact, many of the measures which increase efficiency can make a building more interesting and beautiful to look at, and they can also improve quality of life for users of the building. A courtyard with plants, for example, can be a good sustainability move, and it also creates a pleasant outdoor space for people to use. Anything from a private home to a towering office building can be constructed with sustainable ideals in mind. Sustainable architecture principles can also be applied to the retrofitting and remodeling of existing structures, because conversion is more environmentally friendly than demolition and rebuilding in most cases. Many governments provide incentives for people who address sustainability issues in construction projects, which has contributed to the rise of sustainable architecture around the world.
What Are the Different Types of Sustainable Architecture Design?
Sustainable architecture design uses types of design techniques to achieve greater sustainability in energy, land, and water usage, as well as in building materials. Sustainable energy design takes climate and natural
geographical features into consideration, in an effort to use those attributes to reduce impact on the environment. Energy conservation can be achieved to a greater degree in new construction, as choices are many at the pre-construction stage. For example, in planning to build a home on a lot, sustainable architecture design would factor in geographical features, such as a lot's orientation to the angle of sunlight throughout the day and seasons. This sunlight factor may be considered as both a potential negative and positive on the overall energy usage of the structure. If there is abundant sunlight from one direction, then solar panels may be installed on the roof. At the same time, window coverings may be designed to respond to more or less light through manual or automatic means, with an aim toward reducing the amount of heating or cooling that is required. Another type of eco-friendly architecture addresses energy needed to maintain a certain comfort level. Many possibilities for reducing energy consumption are available and include technology that regulates energy output, stores energy, produces energy, and conserves energy through active or passive means. For example, for a home situated in a windy place, a small wind turbine could offer a homeowner cheap, renewable energy generation. The choice of building materials is another type of sustainable architecture design. The choice in traditional building materials arose in various cultures over time, with people generally using locally abundant materials to erect buildings. These included plants, stones and rocks, wood, and animal hair, fur, or hides. In modern societies, building codes were developed that conformed to specifications for load-bearing, zoning, and other methods used both to make safer buildings, and to limit development in certain areas. The challenge in sustainable architecture design is that these materials are not necessarily the most scientific choice, but since they are traditional and have been included building codes, they are easier to use. Alternative building materials may incorporate natural fibers and materials, as well as mixtures of fibers and resin called composites. An example of this type of architecture design would be straw bale construction. Bales of straw are stacked and placed in spaces between outer and inner walls. Since farming practices around the world produce abundant straw, the material is readily available and inexpensive, and it offers significant reductions in energy costs for heating and cooling. Composites are lightweight, but very strong, and can replace other manufactured materials requiring more energy to be produced and shipped. Landscaping in sustainable architecture design is another type of design technique. Choices in plants that are more suited to the local environment can decrease water usage while preserving topsoil. Replacing the traditional grass lawn with sustainable plantings of native grasses and plants can also eliminate mowing.
What Are the Different Types of Green Home Building?
There are three primary types of green home building, which is a type of construction that is eco-friendly. These generally include buildings constructed or renovated with sustainable or renewable materials, energy efficient homes, and structures with both characteristics ² made with sustainable materials and operate in an environmentally-friendly manner. Many of those fabricated using green home building plans are also designed to be healthier for residents and visitors. Green homes built or renovated with sustainable ² also sometimes known as renewable ² materials are items and products that can be replenished, or are recycled or recyclable. For example, when a building or home is
knocked down, or a portion of it is demolished, some companies reclaim any building materials that can be used in making other homes. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), some common reclaimed building materials include marble fireplace mantles, antique fixtures, old-growth hardwood floors, wide-plank lumber, and knot-free wood with a fine grain. Using recycled materials to build or renovate a home is another type of green home building. Recycled home building materials may be used items, items that have been rebuilt or reconditioned, or products that are manufactured from re-made parts. The second type of green home is one that is energy efficient. This can originate from a multitude of places. For instance, installing energy efficient appliances that use less water and require less energy to operate is more efficient and can make a home more green. Proper insulation is another example of ways to maximize energy use in the home. For those who take this form of efficiency a step further, the home may contain solar panels on the roof, use rain barrels to capture water for landscape irrigation, and be painted with paints that do not emit toxic fumes. The final green home building type is a hybrid of the two aforementioned options. In such a newly-built home, the entire building may be made of sustainable, renewable, or recycled products. In addition, features like the insulation, appliances, and heating and cooling system may be as energy efficient as possible, Also, the structure may be void of toxic materials, so that the home is healthy for the people in it and is friendly to the environment. While it may be necessary for some new parts to be used in building a home, the less waste created and the more reused materials are included, the more green the home is.
What Are Sustainable Homes?
Sustainable homes are those that incorporate sustainable or recycled building materials into the design. They also use renewable energy sources wherever possible, and rely on eco-friendly furnishings, paints, appliances, and cleaning products. Residents of sustainable homes also often try to incorporate sustainable living into their everyday lives. They look for new ways to shrink waste, conserve energy, and reduce their carbon footprint. This is often accomplished by using less water, less electricity, and more eco-friendly products as often as possible. Also called "green homes," "eco-friendly homes," "sustainable construction," and "solar houses," sustainable homes are generally beneficial for the environment as they rely on the five basic principles of sustainable architecture and sustainable building. Sustainable homes use earth's natural resources wisely and improve indoor air quality. They optimize the use of the sun and use the land responsibly. Sustainable homes are highperformance, moisture-resistant dwellings. Sustainable homes are not only green on the inside, but they are also green outside. This means the owners of green buildings, whether they be commercial, multi-family, or public, and owners of green homes will frequently use all-natural pesticides and fertilizers instead of commercial products for landscapes, lawns, and gardens. They are also more likely to compost. Many homeowners will plant trees and shrubs on the northern exposure to create a natural windbreak, and they may also allow a small portion of their lawn to grow wild in order to provide a natural habitat for butterflies, birds, and other wildlife. Many benefits are offered by sustainable homes, but the main benefit is how it helps to reduce emissions. In the United States, average homes generate 20 percent of the nation¶s emissions. By opting for a sustainable home, green homeowners can help reduce the greenhouse gasses added to the atmosphere.
Sustainable homes can be built from the ground up or prefabricated, or an existing home can be converted into a sustainable home. Prefabricated homes, such as the modular Glidehouse®, can be erected just about anywhere. In addition, they may offer a shortened sustainable construction time frame, prepackaged green living solutions, and high-quality sustainable architecture design. People who are interested in living a greener lifestyle, but who don't have the resources to build a new sustainable house, can improve the sustainability of an existing structure. Green building novices can convert one area of their home or apartment at a time, while others can hire a green building specialist to help with a building overhaul. A few of the sustainable materials and furnishings commonly used in sustainable building or rehabbing include ceiling fans, triple paned windows, reclaimed lumber or natural flooring, compact fluorescent lights, and insulation made from cotton, mineral wool, or cellulose. These are natural materials, as mineral wool is made from natural rock or blast-furnace slag ² a by-product of steel production, and cellulose is made from recycled newsprint.
What Is Sustainable Building?
Sustainable building is an environmentally friendly approach to the creation of new structures, as well as the remodeling of existing buildings. The concept of green building is based on the idea of using materials that are renewable in the construction of the edifice, as well as making use of alternative energy strategies to make the building comfortable for the occupants. By using various methods that are considered ecologically sound, the building and its occupants will leave a smaller carbon footprint on the landscape and thus promote the well being of the environment for future generations. The process of sustainable building seeks to make the best use of building materials that are already on hand, or that are renewable in nature. This provides a wide range of resources that can be called upon when engaging in the task of creating sustainable architecture. The design may call for using materials that are recycled, such as harvested bricks or timber, or even unconventional materials such as glass bottles or old car tires. Sustainable designs may also make use of harvested materials such as straw for the insulation or wall construction, effectively using a resource that is easily renewable each growing season. Along with using renewable or recycled building materials, the sustainable architect will also address the use of green methods to provide energy and utility services for the building. This may involve the inclusion of solar panels to collect natural energy for heating, cooling, and operating appliance within the space. Turbines to capture wind and create energy may also be incorporated into the sustainable building design. These systems may be used as the main source of power, or be utilized to augment the power obtained off the local power grid, if current regulations require the new building to be connected with a preexisting grid. One of the best resources for the creation and design of sustainable building is the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, commonly referred to as LEED. This type of system provides data on the various types of sustainable design and construction that are likely to make a positive impact on the environment while also creating a safe and healthy space for people to live and work. The use of LEED-based recommendations and data can also prove helpful when remodeling an existing edifice into a sustainable building, since the system can provide helpful information on a number of building alternatives. LEED can help builders with such matters as the installation of alternative energy sources, environmentally friendly ways to insulate the space, and other valuable tips that can be used to make the building a truly green one.
What Is Sustainable Design?
Sustainable design is a kind of design meant to yield products that are made only of renewable resources. Furthermore, products made though sustainable design are intended not to seriously impact the environment either when they are being created or when they are being used. These products are also often designed to allow the users to feel more connected or to relate more closely to the natural environment. Sustainable design is also called "environmental design" and "environmentally-conscious design." It is also sometimes called "environmentally sustainable design" or "ESD." No matter what it is called, this kind of a design is just as much a philosophy as it is a practice. It is based on economic, ecological, and social principles regarding the importance of sustainability. Products that are yielded from this kind of design range from the tiny to the massive. A tote bag made of recycled products that is intended to be used instead of paper or plastic bags at the grocery store is an example of sustainable design. While this everyday product is small, when folded up, to fit inside of a purse, it is a perfect example of the philosophy of sustainable design. Sustainable design can create much, much larger products. In fact, this kind of design can be used to create buildings, even skyscrapers. In fact, it can be used to plan and develop entire cities. Not only can it be applied to civil engineering and architecture, but it can also be applied to landscape architecture. Some fashion designers have also used the philosophy of sustainable design in their work by producing entire lines of clothing that are made with renewable resources. Interior designers have done the same by using earthfriendly fabrics, wall coverings, and flooring materials in their work. Because of this new trend among fashion and interior designers, many textile companies have begun to market more fabrics made out of renewable resources. For the past few decades, it has become increasingly clear that it is important to protect the earth and its resources. Many researchers and activists have pointed out that if we reap the earth of all of its resources that we will leave ourselves without a place to live. The philosophy of sustainable design leads to a way of life and products that are used during everyday life that protect the earth and sustain its resources so that it can continue provide humans wth sufficient resources.
What Is Green Building Design?
Green building design is a term used to identify the various aspects of creating structures using environmentally friendly materials and methods. The green design concept also encompasses the idea of ensuring the buildings are energy efficient and continue to interact more favorably with the ecosystem than other building options. In general, there are three important areas that must be addressed in order for the architecture to be considered a true green building design. The selection of materials is one of the key aspects of green building design. Selecting materials that are considered sustainable is very important when it comes to building green. Using recycled materials to construct interior and exterior walls helps to divert those materials from ending up in landfills. In like manner, the reuse of materials obtained from demolished structures can often meet this requirement. Even the use of renewable resources such as bales of straw for the walls of the home would count as an eco-friendly approach to construction of a new building.
making the building energy efficient is also important to the task of green building design. The selection of plans for the space focuses on plants that require little water and can thrive without the need for the use of chemical based pesticides. and design. toilets and even for washing clothes and doing dishes is usually addressed. The creation of a true green building design can take time and precision to accomplish. This not only helps to ensure the materials are friendly to the local environment but also minimizes the use of fossil fuels to transport materials to the building site. Along with the selection of materials. Decorative beds are designed and constructed so they can be maintained using compost and mulch generated on the property. The building does this by integrating electrical generators in the structure. and the purchase of energy efficient appliances to minimize the use of energy from any source. the landscaping does the same. This is why a zero energy building is sometimes called a green building. This results in zero net energy usage. Solar panels and wind turbines are commonly used as they rely mostly on natural weather conditions and are not as invasive to the environment as other sources of energy. local materials should be used in the construction of the green building. Landscaping on the building site is also part of the overall process of green building design. Ideally. can provide information on how to construct a home or other building so it can rightfully be known as a green building design. it is important to minimize energy consumption as much as possible. This removes some load in the generators. Just as the building itself makes efficient use of recycled or reclaimed materials. In many countries. standards have been put in place to determine if a building project can truly be referred to as green. The electricity typically comes from renewable energy sources. The efficient use of water for showers. The layout and materials used in the building normally assist in maintaining an ideal atmosphere inside the structure. Any paving is accomplished using recycled products. What Is a Zero Energy Building? A zero energy building is a type of structure that produces the same amount of energy as it consumes. a true sustainable building design will situate the structure so that it works with the surrounding terrain and causes minimal impact on the area. which gives the building its name.When possible. making it easy to achieve zero net energy consumption. When designing a zero energy building. thus maximizing the insulation of the home while also allowing the structure to blend in with the countryside. LEED. By creating a building that relies primarily on alternative energy. Homes may be constructed in a manner that allows one side of the structure to be enclosed by a hillside. These reduce the . the dependence on fossil fuel is minimized. or Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design. appliances. The building is designed to be selfsufficient when it comes to electrical needs. Environmental concern is the main reason why the net zero energy building was conceptualized. thus eliminating the need to fashion benches or other seating from previously unused resources. Even any outdoor furnishings should be constructed using natural or reclaimed materials. the installation of power sources such as solar panels or wind energy generation devices. A zero energy building commonly utilizes energy efficient fixtures. Even details such as the selection of colors for the home may come into play as a means of enhancing the green aspects of the energy saving measures. In the United States. Often this means finding ways to maximize the use of natural lighting.
The house is able to generate more energy than it consumes. commercial interiors. These credits are then combined to arrive at a number score for the entity. however. schools. Water efficiency criteria include landscaping. and how wastewater is managed. emissions. the building may acquire the extra energy it needs from the power grid.energy required from the generators. There are LEED credits for new construction. The voluntary certification program was developed by the U. only recyclable materials were used during construction. Some communities assemble a cluster of zero energy houses. There are several advantages in a zero energy building. In 2000. materials and resources. What Are LEED Credits? Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) credits are a series of qualifications that were devised to rate the effectiveness of green building. cores and shells. a German architectural firm built the first triple zero energy house. They form a de facto electrical grid that shares the energy. the house has zero net carbon emissions. The energy and atmosphere category also includes evaluation of energy savings in addition to the overall efficiency of the project and the use of green power when possible. Weather conditions may not always allow the building's generators to produce sufficient energy. and how many services are available for tenants seeking to use alternative transportation. environmental impact. including: sustainable sites. The proximity of the houses reduces transmission and distribution losses and minimizes the cost of constructing the generators.S. water efficiency. The final zero comes from the building materials. a zero energy building costs more than a conventional building of the same size. and the operations and maintenance of existing buildings. Green Building Council (USGBC) in order to provide guidelines for environmentally friendly building to property and building owners. including storm water runoff. which it can store or transfer to an electric grid. The categories for LEED credits are organized into six sub-categories. energy savings. and sensitivity to the surrounding environment. innovation and design process. The criteria for sustainable sites includes evaluation of the design of the building. Independence from the electrical grid also saves the owners from fluctuating energy costs. energy and atmosphere. In addition. According to adherence to the guidelines in each category and the underlying subcategories. and indoor environmental quality. . and other energy functions. whether or not the project allows for water conservation of at least 20%. Localities that have no established electrical infrastructure often make use of this arrangement to create a stable energy source. Each entity is evaluated in the categories of building efficiency. Improvements in solar cell and turbine technology may also save on future building costs. the temporary and long term effect of construction on the environment. Entities are evaluated by representatives of the independent Green Building Certification Institute. A green building may increase market value for environment conscious homeowners. Using renewable energy reduces carbon emissions from fossil fuels. Some people argue that the accumulated energy bill will eventually outweigh the high initial cost of the building. heating. LEED credits are assigned for each item under review. In such instances. On average.
only one part of this exam is necessary. This experience can be had on LEED-accredited projects or through professional development as well as through a course of accredited educational programs. online modules and a two-day classroom workshop. is worthwhile only if you believe that certain questions were technically inaccurate. All of the designations require that candidates possess experience in green building or sustainability. Indoor environmental quality is also evaluated. compared with two for the LEED AP designation. to attain certain LEED AP statuses. you must meet certain requirements. and recycled content. energy and atmosphere. the organization that oversees the entire LEED certification process. There are several levels of certification. you must determine which level of accreditation you would like to pursue. The LEED credits are given according to a 100 point scale. The top level is platinum which requires a minimum of 52 points. materials and resources. To become a LEED Accredited Professional. . LEED AP Interior Design + Construction. To become a LEED Accredited Professional (AP). taking an exam is also necessary. To become a LEED Accredited Professional at the LEED Green Associate level. You also can submit an appeal to the United States Green Building Council (USGBC). There are also additional bonus points available in increments of 10. sustainable sites and water efficiency. The test consists of 80 questions that cover most every aspect of the LEED rating system. In order to achieve the middle levels ² silver and gold ² the entity must receive 33 to 38 and 39 to 51 points respectively. certified wood. from ventilation. This exam requires you to participate in training beforehand. You also must pass the appropriate tests.Materials and resources are evaluated for the use of rapidly renewable and regional materials. If you pass. it must receive at least 26 points. you will then be notified of your success and will be able to begin using your LEED credentials. How Do I Become a LEED Accredited Professional? The Land Environment Economics and Development (LEED) credentialing program allows designers. There are also criteria for the project¶s capacity to recycle waste from both the construction and long-term operations. you must take the LEED for Homes Green Rater exam. primarily for special regional considerations. This appeal process. LEED AP Building Design + Construction. For instance. lighting. including a series of self-guided. For the entity to receive certification. the attainment of which depends on the number of LEED credits given. LEED permits you to register for exams two more times while your application to become a LEED Accredited professional is still active. and thermal comfort to low-emitting materials and fixtures. LEED AP Operations + Maintenance and LEED AP Neighborhood Development. The LEED credentials that were available as of November 2010 were those of LEED Green Associate. When you first decide to become a LEED Accredited Professional. builders and other professionals the opportunity to prove that they are current in knowledge about green building and the LEED rating system. such as having experience working on green projects or in sustainability. LEED AP Homes. The basic certification level is from 26 to 32 points. If you fail. including the five main topic areas of green building and sustainability: indoor air quality. for instance. You must score 170 or above on the required section of this exam to become a LEED Accredited Professional. however.
regional. A LEED certification generally adds to another job. . Sometimes this involves coordinating business divisions in more than one country or region. Although most positions are in the private sector. and/or write informative pamphlets and other publications. The architectural profession generally is one of the largest areas of employment for accredited professionals. an industrial or business venture. A LEED implementation manager may oversee projects. a LEED accredited professional may work with building designs. healthcare. several government jobs require LEED accreditation. A LEED accredited professional may be a technical resource for the company's customers and inform them on energy and operating efficiency. and a consultant usually strives to help the client reach as many of these as possible. and consulting firms. Other government jobs may involve neighborhood or community planning. and environmental considerations while remaining true to the LEED standards. Jobs that may require LEED certification might be in the fields of finance. This may involve setting up and maintaining an indoor quality program for existing buildings. The job often requires a person to balance the LEED program with the needs of the company. The certified worker might coordinate a national. For instance. In the realty profession. including jobs in the building industry. For example. an architect's job is enhanced with the certification. and/or local project. This resulted in diverse job opportunities for people with LEED accreditation. an environmental program administrator may be a city employee responsible for implementing government policies. This may involve a government or public project. help the company comply with LEED standards. depending on the base job. and more.What Does a LEED Accredited Professional Do? To standardize environmentally sustainable building development. Many job titles do not indicate that the job is for a LEED accredited professional. and therefore LEED accredited professionals are needed globally. achieving cost savings through LEED standards. and many more. the United States Green Building Council created Leadership for Energy and Environmental Design. Usually a LEED accredited professional works within several departments in a company to ensure that all areas of the business incorporate LEED standards. or a private one. He or she may need to balance economical. In this industry. and enforcing environmental strategies. A LEED accredited job hunter may need to research his or her career field thoroughly to find an appropriate job. a LEED accredited professional might need to help building owners and managers to achieve LEED standards. neither the titles director of engineering nor A/V consultant reference LEED accreditation. the real estate profession. he or she may explore the possibilities within his or her field of expertise. For example. If a person is searching for a job and is a LEED accredited professional. The LEED program has a system of six standards. Job requirements vary. These buildings may include retail or residential rental units. but accreditation may be a requirement for either job. social. but usually not reliant upon it. process information. Many professions requiring a LEED accreditation are consulting jobs. LEED generally is internationally recognized. or LEED. new construction. or existing buildings.
John¶s International University in Italy.How Do I Become a Green Architect? The 21st century¶s focus on environmental design. You can obtain a bachelor¶s degree in environmental architecture. you may be able to work with them to design your own curriculum through a combination of your major in architecture and a minor. and many professionals strive to add LEED certification to their credentials. certifications. as that will also help you qualify for the exam. but to qualify for the Architecture Registration Examination. If you are seeking a degree in architecture. or. you might want to research programs that offer a special focus on environmental architecture. While many sustainable energy jobs require special training and education. they are available in many different fields. and green living has fostered interest in the emerging field of green architecture and sustainable design. Yale University offers a joint Master of Architecture and Master of Environmental Management program that is specifically designed to help you become a green architect. if you are already an established architect. GBCI uses LEED as a measurement tool and rating system to assess green buildings in the United States and Canada. An established professional who wants to become a green architect should consider becoming certified with the LEED program. LEED AP. you must fulfill different requirements. and many others offer bachelor degrees in environmental architecture or design. will help you become a green architect. you can also earn your master¶s degree after your pre-professional degree. The Green Building Certification Institute (GBCI) took over management of the LEED credentialing program from the US Green Building Council in 2009. For example. you must have completed a five-year bachelor¶s program or master¶s program. There are three levels of certification ± LEED Green Associate. and North Carolina State University. There are several paths you can take to become a green architect. Be aware that some colleges and universities offer four-year pre-professional environmental architecture degrees that will help you become a green architect. All three of these methods alone. Contact your local college or university¶s architecture program and ask if they offer a combination degree for architecture and environmental studies. Consult the GBCI¶s website for details on those requirements. LEED certification requires you to take an exam that tests your knowledge of the LEED rating system and of environmental building issues. or a combination thereof. depending on the time and resources you can afford to devote to that goal. Instead of taking that extra year of coursework. you may need to take an additional year of architectural courses to ensure you qualify for the exam. St. What Are the Different Types of Careers in Sustainable Energy? According to many business experts. Some bachelor¶s degree programs combine those specialties: the Massachusetts College of Art and Design offers a Bachelor of Science degree in environmental design and architecture. and electoral coursework in environmental management and design. you can obtain a graduate degree in environmental architecture. Some of the many different types of . If they don¶t offer a degree that specifically meets your needs. you can become a certified Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) professional. careers in sustainable energy are poised to grow tremendously throughout the 21st century. and LEED Fellow ± and to qualify for each stage of certification. If your degree is a pre-professional program. from software development to construction. sustainability.
and in what ways these numbers can be lowered effectively. and commercial structures to run on sustainable energy. engineering. Green construction firms may also build new homes. as well as certification from environmental agencies. and adapt energy resources to meet the growing demand. which combine training in mathematics. The career of sustainability consultant is fairly new. Technicians may be able to find jobs in alternative power plants. laboratory corporations. Some of these careers provide on-the-job training. Careers in this field may include serving as an in-house consultant to an industrial company that must comply with new energy standards. budgets.careers in sustainable energy include scientific research and development. As fossil fuel resources fall and data about climate change becomes more prevalent. Those wishing to enter the field may have specific knowledge of particular industries or may have an understanding of the environmental impact certain practices have on the world as a whole. monitoring businesses as a government agent to ensure compliance with environmental law. the call for sustainable energy alternatives has dramatically increased. These professionals help individuals calculate how much energy they use. monitoring. and green construction. Careers in sustainable energy that focus on green construction often require less formal education than scientific or consulting jobs. What Is a Sustainability Consultant? A sustainability consultant is an individual who is trained to help businesses or homeowners lower their environmental impact. Entry-level jobs in this field may require little educational experience. repairing. how much is wasted. Environmental analysis and consulting helps existing businesses and residences determine their energy use. It is required that consultants be knowledgeable in the areas they intend to work in. Careers in sustainable energy that focus on scientific research and development may be available through alternative energy providers. Professionals in this field may provide services such as the installation of solar panels. . and classical science to help prepare students for jobs in the field of energy development. and there are no set guidelines or educational requirements for prospective consultants in many areas. Administrative and technical careers in sustainable energy may also be available for those with appropriate skill sets. Many universities offer science-based degrees in alternative energy. and retrofitting of existing structures to use alternative energy sources. develop new methods of creating sustainable energy. Careers in sustainable energy consulting often require advanced scientific degrees. working with construction companies to help create green buildings. Jobs in administration and maintenance may also be plentiful in some areas. and adapt to appropriate energy alternatives. construction of wind farms and geothermal plants. and government energy departments. or creating plans. and maintaining the equipment crucial to the operation of the plant. and timelines to help businesses switch over to alternative energy. Qualified scientists are needed to help refine existing alternative energy technology. Consultants may also provide information on contractors and other professionals who provide sustainable living services. apartment buildings. such as solar panel installation and organically grown food products. environmental analysis and consulting. Alternative energy companies are frequently in need of skilled administrators and office workers to manage the day-to-day business of the company. while advanced jobs may require the completion of certification programs. and can be a good way to get involved with the industry while obtaining an education or starting out in the professional world.
Consultants should also be aware of which companies do business in environmentally-friendly ways so they can direct their clients to new suppliers or partners. Lowering a company¶s environmental impact may include simple measures. manufacturing and installing solar panels for use in homes and businesses. only accept new merchandise from manufacturers who produce their goods using sustainable materials or through environmentally friendly production processes. solar power is on the cutting edge of sustainable energy technology. waste materials and wind energy. or breaking them down as fuel. but more stringent educational requirements and specialized knowledge will undoubtedly become more valuable. Consultants must become familiar with common ways of doing business and discover new technologies or supplies which make reducing waste easier. Some retailers. renewable energy companies have been working tirelessly to harness the energy given by natural and more sustainable sources. designing. Each of these may hold the potential for becoming an energy source. either through combining them with other ingredients. What Do Renewable Energy Companies Do? Renewable energy companies may be involved in creating. Now there are solar power. . It is important to work well with people and have inside knowledge of emerging trends for lowering one¶s carbon footprint. Due to the threat of global warming and climate change. Research companies set out to discover this hidden potential and make it a reality. vehicles and businesses. for instance. implementing and inventing new and sustainable energy sources to replace fossil fuels. Other renewable energy companies study various potential energy sources and work to develop new technology that allow them to be used. The role of the consultant is to find these businesses and direct them to one another. This does not necessarily mean that consultants will lose their place in many industries. As consumers become more involved with decreasing their environmental impact. Those who work as sustainability consultants work primarily with business owners. burning them. which gives off enough power in one second to provide electricity for every home on the planet. wind energy and hydroelectricity to help take the burden off the earth¶s nonrenewable resources as well as the atmosphere. Since the sun is always available and does not run out of energy. This is especially important for those who specialize in a particular industry. but it is possible for a usable amount of solar power to be captured and implemented with the use of solar panels. this is no longer the case.There is speculation that eventually the sustainability consultant job title will become obsolete as businesses become more environmentally friendly in order to boost sales and attract new customers. Each panel is filled with small wires that carry the energy into the building where it is used as electricity. Solar energy companies specialize in developing. This amount of energy cannot be harnessed. Potential energy sources include plant matter. such as doing more business virtually and allowing employees to work from home. This not only lowers carbon emissions by reducing the number of commuters on the road each workday. harnessing. Petroleum and coal were long the only viable sources of energy for powering homes. but sometimes they work with homeowners who are looking to lessen their impact on the environment. doing business in the new way may become common practice. However. but it also lowers the overall energy costs by requiring less office space and electricity. One such source is the sun.
and grocery stores. particularly those versed in new technology that makes buildings safer and better for the environment. restaurants. allows residents to live. One new form of urban architecture gaining popularity in some cities is the concept of multi-use buildings. Special considerations of this area of design are concerned with the practicalities of city life. and.Some renewable energy companies are involved with education used to alert citizens of the dangers of climate change and other damaging effects caused by fossil fuel emissions. and the Taipei 101 are all products of urban architecture. In a rural or suburban setting there is no need to build a 20-story apartment complex that can house more than a thousand residents. Many of the most famous structures in the world are triumphs of urban design. the Leaning Tower of Pisa. With nearly half of the world's population currently living in urban cities. harmony of form and function. With experts predicting the city population . Because urban areas are typically high sources of pollution and smog. In order to fully replace the world¶s dependence on fossil fuels and other environmentally toxic energy sources. and the proximity of necessities can allow residents more down time from the fast-paced city life. What is Urban Architecture? Urban architecture comprises buildings made for an urban setting. High rise apartments and businesses are classic examples of urban design. Many top universities offer degrees that allow students to specialize in urban development and design. rooftop gardens and pre-installed appliances that are energy-saving all represent innovative techniques used to make urban architecture more green. it is important that each of these companies work together to promote change. style and artistry need not be neglected. With new technology comes new opportunities in this career field. it can be beneficial to the health of a city's residents. Urban architecture provides the space and design principles to allow a lot of people to live and work in close proximity. urban architecture has become a vital and thriving field of design. Because of this. work. Combining these types of buildings with ground-level commercial enterprises. Although the practicality of urban architecture is paramount. With recent publicity over the deteriorating natural resources of the planet. offer public speaking services and travel to schools and universities to encourage others to use renewable energy sources. including high-capacity housing and workplaces. New renewable energy companies are being created everyday. These men and women write books. more recently. their mission is equally as important to the success of renewable energy¶s progress in the marketplace. incorporating environmental advances into new buildings isn't just trendy. The use of recycled material as insulation. Although they may not be involved in the making and distributing of these sources (although some educators are involved with researching and providing alternative energy). and shop all in the same building. energy-efficient design. This growing field of architectural design is constantly in need of new visionaries. such as boutiques. Multi-use buildings epitomize the efficiency of space. specifically for large or growing cities. efficient use of space is a highly important factor in this kind of design. In the age of telecommuting. Far from austere and impersonal. The Petronas Twin Towers of Kuala Lumpur. these multi-functional buildings can provide both living space and private offices for those who work from home. environmentally-friendly design and buildings. much of urban architecture is becoming devoted to sustainable. urban architecture can be beacon of innovation and artistry. the Empire State Building. solar panels.
design and construction documents. the student may apply to sit for the architecture exam which will allow him or her to become a Registered Architect. As an intern's work improves and grows stronger. The graduate is then eligible to gain experience as an architect and write the architect licensing examination. It is important to choose your education with a clear understanding of the impact on your career options. and construction contact administration. the American Institute of Architects (AIA) and the National Council of Architectural Registration Boards (NCARB). a student is expected to complete a minimum of 700 training units. In Architecture. and to remind architects that charitable applications of their professional skills are an important part of a well-rounded life.to continue throughout the 21st century. although there are a few exceptions. The goal of the IDP is to confirm that architects have received sufficient education and on the ground experience to be able to practice architecture on their own safely and effectively. quality. They must also identify an employer and a supervisor who is in charge of monitoring the intern's work and submitting performance reports. An architectural college is usually part of the Faculty of Architecture or may be an independent school. People who wish to enter the IDP must demonstrate that they have completed at least three years of architecture school. Once in the IDP. In the IDP. and safety. The program also includes a community service requirement. An architecture college can provide the training necessary to become an architect or an architect technologist. admissions requirements. including management. accreditation. . What Is the IDP? The Intern Development Program (IDP) is a program which most American architects complete before becoming certified as architects. students learn about the day to day practice of architecture. This experience can be very valuable. Two organizations. An architectural college within a university offers programs that are four years in length. This is the only path to become a professional architect. resulting in an architecture degree. and faculty. because use of this term is limited to people who are fully qualified architects. he or she will be allowed to be more and more independent. Students must also satisfy requirements in a number of categories. Many nations have programs similar to the IDP for people who intend to practice architecture. with each training unit corresponding to eight hours of work. and file an application to enter the IDP. someone can be known as an Intern Architect or Architect Intern. Over the course of the IDP. as it allows students to see real world situations and to explore a variety of problems which they would not have encountered in the school environment. developed the Intern Development Program in the 1970s. Almost all of the regions overseen by these organizations require completion of the IDP from architecture students who wish to apply to take the licensure exam. which is designed to promote positive community relations for the architecture field. The creation of standards for people in the architecture field promotes a high level of skill. Upon completion of the IDP. but not as an architect. students choosing to pursue a career in urban architecture may have a bright and busy future ahead of them. How do I Choose the Best Architectural College? There are four items to consider when choosing the best architectural college: education institutions.
and the costs are the main difference between these two educational institutions. a combination of high marks in high school courses and an interview are required. plans. or even the landscaping that will be created around a building. If you are looking at the best architectural college in the country or state. and any awards they have received. detailed revisions. effectively allowing the architect to enjoy privacy when working on projects at home. The typical architecture firm will provide each architect in their employ with some type of studio space. What is an Architect Studio? Also known as an architectural studio. When looking for an architectural college. think about applying to schools that offer a multi-discipline program instead. The length of program. publications. In order to qualify for admission to architectural college. The creative efforts often involve the use of computer technology that help to create the prototypes and models for the buildings. a single architect will occupy the studio. The single or group architect studio is equipped with all the tools necessary to conceive and develop ideas for new building projects. which provides freedom from a number of distractions. the studio is normally a room that is located away from the main areas of activity in the house. there are also examples of architect studios that are designed to allow several architects to occupy the same space at the same time. In addition to the architect studio that is found at an architectural firm. research focus. intensity of the workload. helping the architect to move at a faster pace if his or her creative inspiration demands it. Find out in advance if this is required and begin to prepare at least six months in advance.Programs available through a community college are two years in length and provide the training necessary to become an architecture technician. Review their portfolio to learn more about their style and focus. the architect studio is the space set aside for architects to create designs for all types of structures and the surrounding landscape. take note that the admissions standard is higher to reflect the increased demand. . Courses from an accredited school can be transferred to other postsecondary institutions. However. Work surfaces that are slanted and equipped with direct lighting make it possible for the architect to work on detailed sketches and plans for homes. Space for printed and electronic resources relevant to architectural design is one common element. In this setting. This is very important. Only students with the very best combination of marks and portfolios are offered admissions. as over 20 percent of all students transfer schools. many architects also maintain a studio at home. Accredited schools are able to offer students access to government student aid programs. There are also examples of studios that are created by renovating garages or other stand alone structures that are also on the property. The information provided typically includes the academic credentials. An accredited school has been reviewed by an independent third party. If you do not have the very best marks in your class. The best architectural colleges provide the biographies of their faculty or instructors on their websites. office buildings. The best programs often require candidates to submit a portfolio of their best work for review. Look at the type of experience they have and the range of settings. completing drawings. A technician works under the direction of the architect. check the accreditation status. and related tasks. In some cases.
but most exams include sections on CAD. The minimum educational requirement to become a home architect in many states and countries is a bachelor's degree from an accredited university. allowing the area to provide a relaxing environment for visitors who are waiting to meet with the architect. The organization of the space can be tailored to the specific tastes and needs of a given architect. They draft the initial blueprints for a home along with detailed schematics for various systems. including plumbing. and legal responsibilities. full-time students can expect about five years of coursework. The studio may feature a conference room. ventilation. an individual who wants to become a home architect has the chance to learn about the profession firsthand from established experts in the field. An intern might be engaged in actual drawing and CAD design. where new workers assume a variety of responsibilities. complete with audiovisual equipment that makes it possible to share electronic presentations with current and prospective clients. the purpose of the architect studio is to allow the architect to have easy access to all the tools and support materials needed to successfully create new building designs. Many people are able to find internship positions after obtaining bachelor's degrees. ethics. but some students choose to pursue additional two-year master's degree plans to further their education and improve their chances of finding work. Students have the opportunity to learn about the history and theory of architecture in classroom lectures. an education in business principles can help prospective workers determine the best ways to find jobs and deal with clients. it is not unusual for studios to include additional areas that are set aside for meetings with potential clients or to display examples of the architect¶s past work. How Do I Become a Home Architect? Home architects design residences of all types. blueprint design. In addition to the formal requirements. Bachelor's degree programs in architecture typically take about one year longer than most programs. The studio may also include space for a receptionist or assistant who handles the general clerical details while the architect focuses on the creation and design aspects of his or her work. Whether a shared space or a private work environment. and pass extensive licensing exams. A master's program in home architecture can better prepare an individual for the business side of the profession.While an architect studio can be a strictly utilitarian space. an individual can improve his or her chances of finding employment by developing strong communication and computer skills. from small housing complexes to huge mansions and estates. including the various computer aided drafting (CAD) programs commonly used in the professional world. Since a large number of professional architects are self-employed. After gaining sufficient experience. as well as gain hands-on experience in specialized drafting and design courses. Internship programs are commonly found at large architectural firms. During an internship. or focus more on speaking with clients and selecting proposals. Experienced teachers introduce students to the fundamentals of home architecture. Successful test-takers are awarded . A person who wants to become a home architect is usually required to obtain at least a bachelor's degree. Graduates of accredited degree programs are required to work as assistants or interns for up to three years in most countries. A gallery displaying models of designs that the architect created in times past may be coupled with comfortable seating. gain several years of internship experience. and electrical units. helping to ensure the work space is conducive to getting the job done. an individual can take a licensing exam to officially become a home architect. The content of written licensing tests varies between different states and countries.
one must have many years of experience as an architect. the best way to become an architect associate is to find a unique niche. High school students who aim to become architects should focus upon math and science courses in addition to general courses. In order to become an architect associate. students should also apply for part-time jobs within architecture firms. Only those architects who excel within the field are chosen to become associates. As with most other professions. Therefore. architects that are highly sought after tend to be those that have specialized knowledge. and energy-efficient homes. This will help college graduates to secure a position within an architecture firm following graduation. If an architecture firm requires the assistance of a specialized architect. This type of relationship tends to be an independent one. While attending an architecture program at the college level. Architecture is one profession that rewards those professionals who have spent a great deal of time studying all the ins and outs of architecture. Following high school.licenses and allowed to begin practicing independently. Some schools offer five-year bachelor's programs. What Is a Master of Architecture? . There are a number of choices when it comes to selecting a college level architecture program. There is generally a strong need and many job opportunities for architects who can create attractive. Generally. an associate architect may be retained. Since a large portion of architecture is math-based. Often. This task can be accomplished by meeting with a high school guidance counselor. functional. successful graduates should apply to colleges that have strong architecture programs. architect associates work with other architects outside of a particular company. Either program will help an individual to become an architect associate. an excellent grasp on complicated mathematical equations is necessary. to become an architect associate. Most firms hire recently graduated architects that already have work experience. Two-year college programs are generally followed by a two-year Master of Architecture degree. while other schools may offer two-year programs. The architecture field is extremely competitive. A newly licensed architect might choose to work at an established firm or try his or her hand at a private practice. you must first gain all the necessary skills and training to become a licensed architect. though those people who stand out within the field often secure well-paid positions. though it is possible for one company to hire a contractual architect to work with a staff architect. Therefore. In this instance. specialization within this profession is crucial. A person who is able to become a home architect can secure a steady client base by exhibiting strong communication skills and business sense. Once a graduate passes necessary government examinations. How Do I Become an Architect Associate? An architect associate is a licensed architect who shares a temporary work agreement with another architect. the main goal of this relationship is to complete a scheduled project through collaboration. This is precisely why it is important for current architecture students to acquire internship positions while still in school. there are certain steps that can be taken in order to become an architect associate. though it is essential that all programs are recognized and accredited.
. students who completed undergraduate studies in engineering or design may apply for a Master of Architecture as well as students who completed undergraduate studies in English or history. Therefore. They are likely to study examples of architecture that range from antiquity through to the modern period. meaning that they are not connected to an undergraduate program. They may also be required to complete research projects. both academically and in terms of relevant skills and work experience. The process of obtaining an Architecture PhD first begins with the application and admission to an institution of higher education offering graduate programs in Architecture. In addition to attending lectures. proving that he or she is a competitive applicant. and some schools may require candidates to earn a master's degree as well prior to applying to a PhD program. such as civil engineering. In most cases. As such. students working toward this degree are usually required to complete projects independently and in teams. As with most PhD programs in other disciplines. There are some undergraduate architecture programs that allow students to matriculate directly into a graduate program in architecture within the same academic institution the semester after the students successfully complete their undergraduate studies. it is important for a person to have a strong resume. There are many graduate degrees that require a course load that can be managed by people who are holding down part-time or even full-time jobs. For highly-ranked programs. In most cases. a Master of Architecture is not this way.A Master of Architecture. admissions rates can be as low as 3%. or M. methods. Arch. a Master of Architecture program takes two or three years to complete. There are some condensed Master of Architecture programs that allow students to complete all of the required coursework in 12 months of intensive study. design aesthetics. How Do I Earn an Architecture PhD? Many universities around the world offer graduate programs in architectural studies. Some of these programs only require an extra year of study for students to complete a Master of Architecture program. Students working to complete a Master of Architecture will be required to study a number of topics related to architecture. the length of time necessary to earn a doctorate in architecture is variable. especially if these buildings represent the application of new architectural ideas. Graduate students of architecture often spend long hours studying and working in studios to complete assignments and projects. several grant PhDs ² or Doctorates of Philosophy ² in architecture. A Master of Architecture program may accept students who have studied architecture as undergraduates as well as students who completed their undergraduate work in other fields that may not be related to architecture. but typically in the range of four to six years. or technology. Out of these institutions. The best way to prepare academically for the majority of graduate programs in Architecture is by first earning an undergraduate degree in Architecture or some related field. Many students in these programs focus all of their efforts on their studies and do not maintain any kind of job during the semester. They will likely also study buildings that are presently in the process of construction or have recently been completed. This is especially true of programs that stand alone. is a degree that is conferred onto a graduate student who has successfully completed all of the requirements that an accredited institution of higher learning requires of a students studying the field of architecture. Those wishing to earn an architecture PhD must first earn a bachelor's degree in a related field.
such as the National Architectural Accrediting Board in the US or the Canadian Architectural Certification Board. such as Civil Engineering. The number of years or semesters spent pursuing an Architecture PhD depends on several factors. Accreditation boards review programs and give accreditation to those institutions that meet the quality standards of the architecture industry. it is not unusual for graduates of bachelors programs in Architecture to pursue post-graduate programs in related fields. Other considerations include the number of hours spent in apprenticeship or gaining field experience throughout the program and the individual¶s own motivation and success in completing his or her thesis project. How Do I Choose the Best Postgraduate Architecture Program? When choosing the best postgraduate architecture program. Prior to accepting an admissions offer from a PhD program in Architecture ² or even applying to such a program ² one should consider the advantages. though people often pursue additional degrees in order to have access to higherpaying jobs. To ensure the best education. and History of Architecture. coupled with work experience. The ranking of the school or program among other postgraduate architecture programs may be a factor for some candidates. in the field of Architecture. but require candidates to choose more specific fields. For example. and City and Regional Planning.When applying to Architecture PhD programs. . Most state registration boards or industry associations in the US require that members graduate from an accredited program. Cultural Meditations and Technology. and it is important to seek a program that is able to keep up with these changes. This is because most PhD programs in Architecture focus on the more theoretical aspects of the subjects. It is wise to choose a program whose focus and technology is aligned with the specific type of future job expectations one has. it is important to note that many schools do not simply grant PhD¶s in general Architectural studies. Some of these determinants may include the specific curriculum of the school and classroom credit requirements. For instance. The technology in the architectural industry changes fairly quickly. one must consider the monetary cost of attending an institution of higher education in pursuit of a PhD. rather than on the development of more practical skills and experience that are most useful in the work force. it is important to consider the accreditation of the school. a specialized undergraduate degree in the subject. Some of the most cutting edge programs include the best technology in computerized programs for architecture. Knowing the prerequisites required will help with academic planning. has typically been shown to be one of the best way to get jobs as an Architect. the postgraduate architecture program should be accredited by a recognized accrediting institution. Though many schools grant financial aid and stipends to their PhD candidates. Other post-professional Architecture PhD programs may be separated into concentrations such as Urban Design. and alternatives to post-graduate work in Architecture. There are many different types of architecture programs that focus on different areas and may utilize certain technology. Potential scholarships offered by the program may also be important for those considering these programs. disadvantages. Instead of applying to PhD programs in Architecture. Lastly. this is not necessarily guaranteed at all schools for people of all financial backgrounds. Other important considerations include the technology used in the coursework and the program's method of keeping up to date with the changing industry upgrades. for example. some programs may be subdivided into two different tracks: History of Architecture and Urban Development.
either at the institution itself or at other job sites. Architecture coursework will require that you have or can obtain certain computer programs. Accreditation is the process of evaluation done by an independent agency. and its ability to grant degrees that are respected and valued by employers and other educational institutions. If requirements have not been met. as they may become a liability after the degree is completed and you are searching for a job. the student may need to rework his or her academic plan. the National Council of Architecture Registration Boards (NCARB) offers a ranking system for architecture training institutions. thereby broadening your options for the best quality education. and interactive websites. The best architecture distance learning programs will utilize current technologies to make communication with instructors quick and easy. research the best programs specific to those areas. Eliminate non-accredited institutions as possibilities. To choose the best architecture distance learning course. and it may make transferring earned credits to other institutions more difficult. podcasts. Some scholarships are not publicized. mp3 downloads. Some architecture distance learning programs may require you to do on-site work. Attending a non-accredited institution could eliminate your eligibility for certain types of financial aid. Be sure you either have the programs required for the degree program or have some way of obtaining them. Beginning the search for a postgraduate program prior to completing undergraduate coursework can help students to ensure that they can complete the required courses before graduating. resulting in fewer competitors. Many distance learning . In the US. Non-accredited institutions should be eliminated from consideration as your architecture distance learning provider. It can be beneficial to inquire with each school regarding the types of scholarships offered. Be sure to find out what the requirements are for each program you are considering. and scholarships are a great way of easing the cost. If you are interested in a certain type of architecture. as some may be early in the year. Postgraduate school can be expensive. Knowing what prerequisites are required in each program will help determine if a student is prepared for the coursework in the postgraduate architecture program. start by choosing programs that cover the topics of architecture in which you are interested. while others may include streaming media such as audio and video. How Do I Choose the Best Architecture Distance Learning Program? An architecture distance learning course will allow you to obtain an architecture degree without actually attending an on-site location. and keep in mind that it may be difficult or impossible to avoid on-site work at some point. This includes the way classes are conducted: many classes are conducted via online message boards exclusively. There are similar international organizations who rank each learning institution. Find out if the architecture distance learning program can get you the programs for free or for a reduced fee. Make sure the programs are using up-to-date software and programs both for the architecture-specific applications as well as for the day to day classwork. Many institutions offer full and partial scholarships. Consider your budget and research financial aid options before settling on an architecture distance learning program for you. the agency will grant accreditation if the institution has demonstrated its ability to deliver instruction that is high quality.Many architecture firms only accept employees who have completed their postgraduate architecture training in one of the highest ranking programs. but students should be mindful of application deadlines. There are non-profit organizations or boards that govern the architecture industry and the training institutions.
They are experts when it comes to zoning. you will have to successfully complete the required courses. you will need to become very comfortable with using computers. you will need to fill out an application for each school you apply to. possibly a teaching assistantship. you can work in an urban planning job for a few years after the master¶s degree. and quantitative analysis as it applies to urban planning.institutions make accommodations for people who are far away from the institution itself. These samples of your work can be shown to prospective doctoral programs when it is time to apply to an urban planning PhD program. Working after the master¶s degree can be valuable for you because it will enable you to gain real-world experience while also enabling you to build your portfolio. urban planners often use computers to analyze information. Of course. Typically required with each application is a purpose statement which highlights your reasons for applying to the doctoral program along with your research interests and professional goals both short term and long term. Also. Also. or perhaps environmental design can be helpful. and it may be possible to set up on-site job training or instruction at a location closer to you. you have a multitude of choices. not all universities offer an undergraduate major in urban planning. map areas of land. Urban planning professionals often use computers for recording information and data analysis. getting an urban planning PhD requires several years of work. and building code rules. you will achieve a PhD in urban planning. comprehensive written and oral exams. which could include courses such as urban theory. Once accepted to an urban planning PhD program. conservation efforts. If there is no available urban planning undergraduate major at your university. recommendation letters from professors and former employers. Completing an undergraduate degree with a focus in urban planning can be useful if you aspire to eventually get the urban planning PhD. or drafting legislation related to the planning of buildings or landmarks. If you can successfully complete these requirements. individuals who hope to become urban planners will seek the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degree because having a graduate degree makes it more likely they will be considered for employment. political science. and samples of your urban planning work. an internship. Often. you can pursue a Master of Science (MS) degree that focuses on urban planning or public affairs. environmental rules. do forecasting. you will be required to complete various research projects. For example. Graduate Records Examination (GRE) scores. Application to an urban planning PhD program will require that you gather materials such as your college transcripts. After completion of an undergraduate degree. This can lead to confusion and hesitance when it comes . and make recommendations. Also. Odds are. How Do I Earn an Urban Planning PhD? Urban planners are responsible for developing plans pertaining to construction of new buildings in order to meet the specific needs of the population of a city or town. Also. How Do I Choose the Best Architect Companies? You can find the best architect companies for your next project by shopping around and asking welll-chosen questions. they are involved in controlling pollution. and a final dissertation done under the supervision of a dissertation chairperson or faculty mentor and other committee members. urban planning history. geography. prepare reports. If you want to pursue an urban planning PhD. then majoring in economics. Granted.
Make appointments to go over your plans. A technician must be able to collect. Start by calling several local architect companies and speaking with the person you would be working with. You can also ask questions about working with that company and get a better feel for the overall experience of dealing with them. plan. collate. Questions can include experience level. By doing this. people proficient in relevant industrial areas are needed in the construction field. but if you take your time and consider each option carefully you will have no trouble making the right choice. Consider speaking with local construction crews who handle cases like yours. Architectural technicians must also stay up-to-date with new technology. He or she is responsible for developing new projects in collaboration with other technicians and people in the construction field. In addition to organizing and planning new building projects. you can actually see the way a project has come together. architectural technicians are often needed when a city wants a dangerous building upgraded. Once you have narrowed down the options to only one or two architect companies. it¶s time to go around and view live samples of each firm's work. including blueprints.time to make a decision. If more than one architect works at a firm. When companies or individuals require a building remodeled. and organize technical information. speak with several of them to get a good feel for each person. As technological advances are continually developed. technicians in this field are often usually necessary as well. Ask about architects who they have worked with and get any information you can about each one. It is also a good idea to speak with the owner of a building you find particularly interesting or appealing. and inspect building projects. Also ask for pictures of buildings they have designed to get an idea of the quality of work you can expect. former clients. Make a list if necessary to help you remember what you want to find out. If the architect you¶ve chosen seems unyielding or overly attached to his own design work. and figure out which of the architect companies he works for. Ask about the architect who designed it. They will likely give you legitimate information. . building regulatory requirements in their area. price ranges and turnaround times. build. Especially important is the opportunity to take a live tour of one of the buildings the architect has designed. and are more likely to refer you to an architect that is well respected in your area. What Does an Architect Technician Do? A professional architect technician uses technology to design. They should be well versed in architectural design. By having them do a little bit of work ahead of time. and be prepared to ask a lot of questions. move on to someone more flexible and accommodating. sit down with each potential firm and discuss your own project in great detail. and find out how flexible the designs are. and applying technology to construction in general. you can get a closer look at what it might be like working with them long term. An architect technician can expect to utilize a wide variety of skills. After you have talked with various architect companies and narrowed down your options. Ask if you could see some rough sketches representing what they might do for you.
Architectural engineers are responsible for coordinating these systems and making sure they are designed and built properly. and electrical systems. building inspectors. the focus is on the systems used to construct new buildings or restore older ones. risk assessment. architectural engineers troubleshoot preliminary designs from a technical standpoint and solve problems that arise before and during construction. A bachelor's degree from an accredited engineering program is needed to get a job as an architectural engineer. In the case of a tall office building.During a project. ventilation. User health and safety is also key in building development. they are considered a vital part of an architectural team. and potentially dangerous equipment. site surveys. These may include building surveys. To concentrate in architectural engineering. Most architect technicians do not work alone. Some other professionals that an architect technician may work with include engineers. Instead. Technicians may also anticipate working with hazardous materials. Technicians may incorporate computer aided drafting. an architect technician will often be responsible for making decisions regarding home or business owner needs. development factors relative to an area. such as drawings. and other technicians. and technical information the user should be aware of. Architectural engineering is a unique discipline within the broader engineering framework. and economically. and . Other engineering systems include the plumbing structure. students take mostly engineering courses. sound. They should expect to work with heights. or CAD. In architectural engineering. During the final years of an engineering program. and help secure the funds for building projects. introductory engineering. safely. Travel is often an aspect of the position as well. they also may be expected to attend meetings. basic sciences. structural engineering. including asbestos. These include courses in design. architects. Architectural engineers work closely with architects and other engineers to design and construct buildings that reflect the architect's artistic vision. the lighting. and air conditioning systems. electrical engineering. prepare documents and presentations. and energy conservation. Architect technicians are credited with providing the middle ground between construction workers and architects. These systems include the building structure itself. for example. programs to foster the most ideal solutions. students take courses to prepare them to work as professionals in the field. an architectural engineer might make recommendations about what materials to use based on their ability to withstand high winds or heavy snowfall. Design safety and building inspections are usually at the heart of an architecture technician's job. Regular visits to a building site are typical job tasks. The field of architectural engineering is a collaborative one. Course work during the first two years is varied. fire safety systems. usually with a concentration in one branch of engineering. Traditional methods of architecture. An architect technician may also be responsible in securing and managing a contract. In contrast. What Is Architectural Engineering? Architectural engineering is the branch of engineering concerned with the application of engineering principles to the design and construction of buildings and other structures. with students taking humanities classes in addition to courses in math. Most engineering programs take four years to complete. His or her plans are often integral in building a strong structure and securing its safety. and the heating. and computers. Architects generally focus on the aesthetics and functionality of a building project. In a professional capacity. People look to architectural technicians for new innovative solutions to building problems and challenges. thermodynamics. are also employed. though some take five years. ladders. surveyors.
Civil engineering structures requiring structural analysis engineering typically include dams. In addition to maintaining structural integrity. Prior to that time. and engineering to make sure building projects are structurally and functionally sound. but may also be used for other structures such as ships. Students also study architectural history from a design viewpoint. These elements are also classified as being either curved or straight. Many architectural engineers eventually choose to work for themselves by starting their own consulting companies. They are sometimes constructed in highly corrosive environments at sea and underground. often in different locations. bridges.construction management. beams. These engineers must make allowances for such forces as wind. and mechanical. aircraft. The basic elements that make up most structures include columns. domes and skyscrapers. Many architectural engineers work as consultants in the construction industry. What Is Structural Analysis Engineering? Structural analysis engineering is a type of engineering that deals primarily with the design and analysis of various structures that must support or resist loads. necessary building services such as heating. Today. bridges. communications. Mechanical structures such as ships and aircraft are . As the knowledge of certain structural theories began to increase during this period. an architect and a structural analysis engineer were essentially the same position. Job opportunities in the field of architectural engineering are varied. physics. usually in an office-based setting. arches. This type of engineering is typically utilized when constructing large or unusually shaped buildings. climate changes. the need arose for a type of civil engineer who specialized in structural analysis. rain. Architectural engineering structures. elevators. The field of structural analysis engineering first began to be recognized during the industrial revolution of the late 19th century. snow. are often very complex and require a team of structural analysis engineers in order to complete their design and construction. the complexity of most modern structures requires a great deal of creativity from a structural standpoint to ensure that these structures are able to support and resist the loads to which they are subjected. fire and earthquakes when designing a structure. and shells as well as plates and cables. These structures are often subjected to extreme forces caused by wide temperature variations and dynamic loads from waves or traffic. Architectural engineers use their knowledge of math. or natural disasters. air conditioning. pipelines. Their work also includes visits to construction sites. Structural analysis engineering theory is generally based upon known physical laws as well as experiential knowledge of the past performance of various types of structural materials. Mechanical structures requiring this type of engineering typically include ships. known as a master builder. Structural analysis engineering is usually required to ensure that a structure will be able to endure certain weight loads. and lighting must be taken into account in the overall design. aircraft and industrial manufacturing plants. such as warehouses. This type of engineering typically uses only a few basic elements in order to build up a very complex structural system. pipelines and offshore structures. architectural. The basic principals of structural analysis engineering are frequently applied in the construction of certain types of mechanical structures as well. and cranes. such as construction in earthquake zones or energy efficient construction. and one or two-dimensional. Some architectural engineers choose to focus on specific engineering challenges. The field of structural analysis engineering is generally divided into three separate categories: civil. railroad cars.
Structural engineering combines creativity and hard mathematical data. In the real world. Detailed graphics and diagrams are provided for presentation purposes. Usually. When designing this type of structure. allowing for a more dynamic and three dimensional presentation. or structural analysis. footings and rafters. it is employed mostly by civil engineers. What Is Structural Software? Structural software is software used to prototype and analyze architectural designs.often subjected to extreme forces that are likely to occur repeatedly during the lifetime of their service. this part of the software is able to replicate the design of such elements and provide mathematical analysis specific to any one element. These databases track a variety of measurements specific to a component. structural software also performs other critical functions for engineers. Any reliable piece of structural software will offer database and spreadsheet features so that the structural engineer or the civil engineer can more clearly research the type of elements being used in a design at any given time. set figures such as lines. Color coding may also be available to differentiate groups of data. Engineers and architects create such diagrams in the process of developing plans for a new building to make sure that the building is engineered to address the strain to which it will be subjected with the weight . calculated for structural engineering purposes. From a mock up of a concrete slender wall to one of a steel beam with torsional loads. Components can also be drawn by the engineer using the software. polygons. an engineer must make sure that it will be able to endure these stresses over a long period of time. An important part of many of these programs is the calculation. Also referred to as structural engineering software or civil engineering software. For this reason. that engineer can refer to the software's database which gives the weight. and boxes are provided for this purpose. civil engineers and structural engineers design with components such as beams. it is important that this type of software provides a way for the engineer to create specialized databases that pull all the components of a particular project into one spreadsheet. For instance. Custom databases and spreadsheets can be made according to the engineer's needs. Some types of structural software provide animation. area. In addition to structural analysis. What Is a Load Diagram? A load diagram is a detailed representation of the loads on a structure. depth. if an engineer needs a rolled steel section for a design. Many of these programs require that the engineer know what type of loads are weighing down on the component and precisely what sort of component it is. These engineers require a high level of data analysis and digital dimensional manipulation to meet their professional objectives. module. Structural software gives them an opportunity to visualize these components on screen. and many other specifications of numerous rolled steel sections. joists. This module calculates data specific to a wide range of building elements. Reporting features allow users to gather data. Most structural software programs offer a way to create different elements from scratch. These components can then be viewed and manipulated in the software's design module.
For example. the engineer should be able to show the distribution of loads in the building. In the load diagram. the span between supports. If the load diagram reveals a hot spot where forces are particularly high. space requirements.of the components and contents. They are commonly used to create a foundation or internal support for a larger structure. such as carbon steel. Beam analysis is a technique used to adequately design beams to withstand forces and stress while minimizing beam weight. There also are engineering programs that can perform similar tasks. width and breadth of a building. Beam analysis requires a combination of mechanical engineering. design principles. The process typically involves factors including the types of forces that will be applied. The construction of a beam will influence its bending and deflection while under load. because they might lead to situations such as under-engineering in the belief that a building is perfectly stable and does not need additional supporting trusses and other structural elements. such as a building or a bridge. the material. and material properties. Computer-aided design (CAD) programs can calculate a load diagram using known parameters that are inserted by an engineer. cantilevered beams are supported at one end only and require a different design than simple beams. particularly projects that have large amounts of open space and interesting new materials. Beams can be constructed using a single material. using known information about the construction and how the building will be used. With innovative new design. They can also be constructed as a composite or laminated structure consisting of varying numbers of different layers of materials. engineers might also have to consider earthquakes. In some regions. including bending and shearing forces. What Is Beam Analysis? Beams are used all around us in many mechanical and structural engineering applications. The engineer can point out what kinds of loads will be present and might map out their intensity. In addition to thinking about the loads that are intrinsic to the building. This is part of the structural analysis performed to make sure that a building will remain stable while in use. or it might be necessary to change the building design slightly to redistribute the loads more appropriately. or an engineer can check manual math with the assistance of the computer program. Incorrectly designed beams can prematurely fail and have catastrophic effects. which are supported at both ends. by absorbing and distributing the stress rather than crumpling or cracking under the strain. Different types of beam designs are based on the loading and mounting configurations. and material cost. Many types of strain can occur along the height. The deflection of a beam . because the engineer might not have a similar existing building to use as a model. the load diagram is very important. Using a computer might help ensure the accuracy and detail of the calculations. the beam shape. the building might need special engineering to address it. and the design of the joints to allow one beam to be mechanically connected to other structural members. storms and other factors that could add stress to a building. The copy demonstrates that the calculations were performed. Errors in a load diagram can be a significant issue. A load diagram should be able to show how the building will maintain its integrity in the event of a situation such as an earthquake. a copy of this diagram must be submitted along with other supporting details in permit applications and the documentation that accompanies the construction project.
Some products offer a number of features and can perform a variety of calculations while others are more simplistic. however. In addition. In the software program. for instance. Free beam software can be useful for contractors and homeowners who want to double check their math or explore some scenarios with a construction project. Beam analysis software can analyze different beam shapes and materials. Until recently. how it is supported. size. Beam analysis will determine the amount of bending and deflection. the user enters the known specifications of the project. Most beams have a safety factor that serves to oversize the beam in the event of loading or other factors that cannot be predicted in the design of the beam. want beams that are so flexible they cannot support . she can discuss the overall projected weight of the structure and the conditions where it will be used. An important consideration in beam analysis is the margin of safety or safety factor. Some home improvement stores install beam software and other design tools in consoles around their facilities to allow customers to check on math. In the event changes need to be made. to allow the user to assess options and select a final beam design that optimizes the ratio between cost and functionality. the material. due to the increased development costs. These programs complete a mathematical analysis of the beam stresses and deflection. its cross-sectional shape. Some companies have free services available for quick calculations while others may have a pay wall that only allows access to subscribers. The sophistication level can be highly variable. and materials used. She can specify the shape of the beam. as the product is designed just for them. and select the right products for their needs. shearing.depends on its length. Numerous companies manufacture beam software or include beam modules in their structural engineering software. They do not. and where the deflecting force is applied. Engineering firms that order custom software will pay even more. It can also be useful during construction to check work and confirm that beams will meet the needs of the given conditions. It is also possible to use beam software online. Beam requirements for a bridge. explore different configurations for a project. The software can evaluate the beam in terms of general performance as well as adherence to the building code and other guidelines. and also create diagrams showing stress distributions within the beam under various loading conditions. and compressive forces. Today. The software can perform some calculations to determine how the beam will respond to bending. will be different than those for a private home. manual methods using force diagrams and a series of complex mathematical equations were necessary for beam analysis. What Is Beam Software? Beam software is engineering software for structural engineers that provides them with information on beam performance in hypothetical conditions. software can be critically important for performing calculations to make sure they are done right. Beam analysis software uses a computational method known as Finite Element Analysis (FEA). causing possible weight problems and higher fabrication costs. More extensive software tends to be more costly. this procedure is usually completed using engineering software that is designed to accept input data and determine a beam design to meet the performance criteria. Structural engineers want their beams elastic enough to rebound slightly under pressure instead of immediately failing. An excessive safety factor will drive a beam design that is larger than necessary. They can use the software in the process of designing a structure to develop appropriate technical specifications.
Dead loads simply are the weight of the structure. earthquakes. and it is dependent on the load type. Many factors contribute to a beam¶s capacity to resist bending. the load and the supports. Beam calculation also has its applications in mechanical engineering. traffic or wind. reinforced concrete or aluminum. The force per unit length is another parameter used in beam calculation. steel. typically uniformly or asymmetrically. but in most practical applications. such as the load that an airplane wing can withstand before developing potentially dangerous stresses. such as I-beams. The entire discipline of structural engineering is devoted to this analysis and design. or supported on one end. easily bending or compressing in adverse conditions. Beam software can help engineers play with different constraints and variables to determine the best beam for a given project. The boundary conditions apply to all points along the beam's length. and imposed or live loads are the forces that the structure will be exposed to intermittently. ensuring that roofs do not collapse under the weight of snow. It also might be concentrated at a point. such as snow. such as characteristics of the beam. It is necessary to calculate beam load capacity in order to construct structures with the lightest and most inexpensive materials while fulfilling safety requirements and maintaining the structure¶s aesthetic quality. Each material has a different tendency to deform elastically. which refers to the material¶s ability to spring back into place. such as snowfall or a pile of dirt. as well as having many types of flanking. which repetitively apply force for an extended duration. round or hollow. called the modulus of elasticity. but particular attention must be paid to dynamic loads. that underground parking garages are safe when traffic drives overhead and that skyscrapers built along fault lines meet earthquake safety requirements. . Beam design requires striking a balance between these two needs. A beam might simply be supported on both ends. beams are made out of wood. waves and hurricanes. when testing the load resistance of individual parts of a machine. Calculating the load displacement of a single beam using the Euler-Bernoulli beam equation is straightforward. Most loads are static. Finally. the material will deform plastically. The cross-sectional shape of the beam is the second characteristic that is considered in beam calculation. Each shape has a different moment of inertia. architects must consider beam deformation when building and renovating houses with post and beam construction and when considering the visual impact of sagging floors. At its yield point. The boundary conditions for beam calculation depend on the beam support type. Beam calculations are used to ensure safety and avoid overbuilding in a variety of disciplines such as construction and aeronautics. like a floor joist between two load bearing walls. maintaining the deformation after the applied force is removed. which predicts a beam¶s stiffness. Typically.weight. centrally or at various intervals. It might be cantilevered. beam software is used. A load might be distributed. otherwise known as second moment of area. One of the most important factors when calculating a beam¶s load bearing capacity is the choice of materials. What Is Beam Calculation? Beam calculation is the measurement of the stress and deflection of a structural beam when a given load is applied to it. like a balcony or airplane wing. Zbeams or T-beams. Beams might be rectangular. roofs and balconies.
depending . A model maker is someone who makes 3D models. the beam and jacks are typically left exposed. especially those that incorporate large open space or a loft-style upper story. Buildings such as log homes are often designed with large wood beams spanning the width of the upper stories. What Is a Floor Beam? A floor beam is a large beam. may often use a large wooden floor beam to give architectural strength as well as visual appeal to the structure. In a practical setting. typically physical models. typically steel. describes this relationship for a dynamic load. The floor beam itself is commonly hidden by the ceiling tiles of a finished basement. The beam is usually supported along its length with adjustable jacks that rest on cement footings and are adjusted upward to secure the floor beam and prevent it from sagging. bending moments and shear force of a beam given an applied load can be derived. Some jobs for model makers can be found with architecture firms. the Euler-Lagrange beam equation. the joists are commonly nailed to the beam to prevent squeaks and slippage. The open space of a basement forces the builder to take steps to prevent the sagging of a floor as the joists span the opening with no support. threedimensional (3D) models as a common aspect of the profession. though they all share the creation of physical. and just about everything else to create models before work begins on the actual product. With the advent of the manufactured particle board beam. It is common for a builder to use a floor beam only on the first floor of a building and rely on interior walls and other inside features to give support to any subsequent upper floors. including the roof. What Are the Different Model Maker Jobs? There are many different types of model maker jobs. but because of the complexity of its application. to give needed support without sacrificing the traditional visual appeal. that spans the width of a house at the center and gives support to the floor joists. Some building designs. One advantage in using the steel beam is that it is less prone to twisting and bowing than a similarly-sized wooden beam. There are many different model maker jobs available. On a wooden beam. nothing is as successful in supporting a floor as a floor beam. load charts are used to summarize this information. for use in advertising. paneling or wallpaper. cars. some builders choose to forgo the steel beam for the manufactured wood product. With all of the materials used by builders to prevent this from happening. and they list common materials that fulfill the safety requirements for a known load. Commonly fashioned from a steel "I" beam. static approximations typically are used. The length of the beam will dictate how many floor jacks will be required to give support across the length of the beam. while the jacks are usually boxed in and blended into the surrounding area by use of paint. where a model is often made to represent a building for a client. and other business interests. In an unfinished basement. Model maker jobs can also include model makers who work on film or television to create physical models and props for productions. the floor beam rests in notches built into the house's foundation on each end.The relationship between a beam¶s deflection and a static load is described by the Euler-Bernoulli beam equation. The floor beam is commonly used in houses that have a basement. entertainment. When using a steel floor beam. The deflection. There are also technical model makers who work with designers of electronics. Another equation. some builders apply a bead of epoxy or strong glue under the floor joists to prevent them from sliding on the steel surface. For more complicated applications. beam calculators are readily available on company websites and as add-ons for computer aided design (CAD) software.
and by a vast amount of complexity and functionality. as is CAD standards management. These types of jobs often require a model maker to have a keen eye for design and a sense of how appliances and electronic devices should look. the self-named DataCAD®. Sometimes one company has different versions of a basic CAD program. some physical models are still used.on what someone is interested in and the type of models he or she likes to make. AutoDesk® AutoCAD®. Workgroup collaboration. and some are more general. and Graphisoft® ArchiCAD®. Some examples of professional architectural design software include Vectorworks® Architectural by Nemetschek®. Architectural model making is one of the most prevalent types of model maker jobs and typically includes creating scale models of buildings to demonstrate how the final building will appear after construction. CAD (Computer-Assisted Design) software is software used to create 2D and 3D objects in a way that will appropriately translate into the real world. Productivity and non-core features that are also important include digital security as a means to confirm file approvals and controlling digital rights. and vehicles. photorealistic rendering. as well as for large buildings that an architectural firm may be trying to construct. This is often done for model homes to convince investors to move forward with a construction project. assumptions. This often depends a great deal on the director of a production and the effects being created. Some model maker jobs also include the creation of props for use in a production. A well-thought-out library is also very useful. While digital models made in computers have become increasingly common for use in special effects. This may include several passes and different models until one is approved and finalized. The capabilities in 2D drafting and 3D modeling are a given. which may require constructing a model that perfectly represents the final product. Architectural design software is CAD software that is specially crafted and specialized for the work that an architect has to do. settings. Model makers that work in film and television often create models and props for use in entertainment productions. as well as some inexpensive ones for home owners who wish to try their hand at designing their own home. such as futuristic weaponry. In this case. Some of the key aspects of professional architectural design software include elements that are very specific to the task of designing a building. and printing capabilities are also key. IMSI® Design TurboCAD® Pro Platinum. Professional architectural design software is separated in price by at least $1000 US Dollars (USD) in most cases. These types of jobs are often closely tied to working with a concept artist and other artists in creating a final vision that matches what is desired by a director or producer. Bentley® MicroStation®. There are also model maker jobs within the technological and industrial industries. but different programs have different approaches to Building Information Modeling (BIM) functionality. including how files are shared and how . the self-named Chief Architect® Full. buildings. appliance. What Is Architectural Design Software? Architectural design is the process an architect goes through in his or her work in doing the preparatory work for the construction of a building. and tools reflect what is most useful to architects. or device may actually appear. Model maker jobs in these types of industries often include creating a model based on a piece of conceptual artwork to establish how a vehicle. the architectural design version will be the one whose features. Shading. There are some free architectural design software programs.
¶ µSave As. verify. which can be quite useful in sourcing more data on particular aspects of the design or overall operation. A variety of file format options are important for µCopy¶ and µPaste. It may also have a company logo. a title box is a rectangle that contains all the information needed to identify. its number. For instance. or 3D CAD. The information may include data on the type of drawing. on many different levels. One section in the block is used to note down the drawing title and the drawing number. which is important in understanding whether a drawing is spread out over numerous sheets or is a stand-alone drawing. 3D CAD is commonly used in the design of a variety of objects. including Google® SketchUp® along with more traditional file types. while ArchiCAD® uses a BIM Server® to coordinate teamwork and sharing with clients. Basically. these are important for filing and verification purposes. including automobiles and other vehicles. Knowing who gave the schematic the final approval and the name of the legal owner of the drawing can be important for resolving issues. The choice of µExport. It is quite helpful in tracking down additional details and also lists other schematics that are crossreferenced in the drawing being considered and is dependent on the conventions of the vendor or site. It may also have the sheet number. such as the title. for example. copyright information. these names may help in resolving inconsistencies between the schematic and other sources of data. Details on when that particular system or component was designed is also found here. commercial or . A program that runs on multiple operating systems can also be desirable. Another element normally found within a title block contains reference information and is known as the reference block. This block contains details about other schematics that are related to the present component or system. and other construction professionals design schematics for three-dimensional objects. Other details that may be found in the title block vary depending upon the site and vendor ² it may be possible to find data regarding the scale of the drawing and contract information. and details about the site. engineers. Signatures and copyright data are also contained within the title block. MicroStation®. The schematics are mostly filed according to the unique drawing number because the title may be shared by numerous architectural prints. A typical title block is subdivided into numerous areas that contain different types of information. What Is 3D CAD? Three-dimensional computer aided design. First. is extremely important for team projects. revision details. The drawing number is unique to a particular schematic and is usually a code containing critical data about the drawing. What Is a Title Block? The title block is an important element found in professional architectural drawings that contains data about the drawing. and some professional programs keep the range as broad as possible. and the name of the architect. uses Microsoft® SharePoint®. interpret. and archive any architectural schematic. is a kind of software that helps architects.¶ too. and data on the date it was completed. and it is usually found on the bottom or lower right-hand corner of any drawing.versioning is handled. as is the ability to assemble multiple file formats. Interoperability is crucial in architectural design software. and this allows the person studying the schematic to know who drew it up and who verified it. the ability to import files from a wide variety of origins is helpful. industrial.¶ and µPublish¶ file formats are also important.
The images of these people would be borrowed from other sources and would be sized to match the scale of the rendering. displayed dynamically on an electronic screen. and architects to understand as it was for those working in the 1960s. was developed as a professional field in the 1970s. Depending on the size and scope of an architecture firms. even the costs of 3D CAD itself have gone down considerably over the last three decades. An architectural rendering of very high quality may look. To illustrate this. at first glance. and modern architects and designers require as much. but it is usually clear to the naked eye that the renderings are not. All of the work is virtual. it is possible now to create relatively complex designs with fairly basic personal computers. Nevertheless.residential buildings. for example. and virtually every category of household device or appliance. renderings may be created by in-house staff members. regional weather. a computer model can be edited. Ideas such as geometry. It began as a substitute for both paper schematics and clay models. and even completely reworked with no added cost. other than time spent. however. Many of the concepts involved in 3D CAD are the same as those used in traditional paper or clay modeling CAD. Although previously purpose-built computer systems were needed to run 3D CAD software. if not more education and practice to master the latest computer-aided design techniques. engineers. Computer aided design. and population. One of the greatest benefits 3D CAD enjoys over paper drafting or clay modeling is the idea of virtualization. or CAD. and can be revisited and modified ad infinitum. designing an automobile frame with 3D CAD could be compared to traditional schematic design in the same way that word processing could be likened to hand-writing a letter. Modern CAD technology has allowed design companies to increase productivity while reducing manpower. The larger and more realistic the rendering. photos of real places. Modern designers can incorporate new ideas and recommendations far more easily than their predecessors. may be illustrated in an architectural rendering in a manner that situates the building in relationship to existing structures. but with ongoing advances in operating systems and computer hardware. In addition. A proposed university building. in fact. In many cases an architectural rendering will include elements of landscape. 3D CAD is also a crucial tool for creating computer-generated animation. mass. as the time needed to complete a single project has decreased dramatically thanks to computerization. Such renderings are meant to be photorealistic. who would have to literally 'go back to the drawing board' and start anew with any changes. as a way to lower costs and the time associated with the design and testing phases of product development. adjusted. and even biomechanics are all as necessary for modern designers. the more expensive it is to create. This is not to say CAD users no longer require training. It may also include superimposed images of people walking near the building or standing in the building. What Is an Architectural Rendering? An architectural rendering is a two-dimensional document used by architects to present a proposed design by illustrating the way that a structure will look after it has been completed and while it is in use. scale. professional results demand the latest in hardware and software. It is also common for firms to contract this work out to companies that specialize in architectural models and renderings. as though it is a real photograph. That is. . has gone a long way towards replacing them as a production tool.
In addition to using a rendering to present a design concept to a client. gold and platinum. including silver. cabinets and elsewhere. if existing buildings on project sites must come down. For example. Eco builders might focus on building clean. lights and other items when not in use. eco builders will deconstruct them to green standards. They use systems such as photovoltaic roof panels." standards. They often work with "green-educated" architects. reduce carbon dioxide emissions and more. there are also computer-animated renderings. and may also be displayed in the office lobby. As it can take make years for a structure to go from design to completion.There are various uses for an architectural rendering. Renderings may be used in marketing materials. Eco builders are certified in different categories and at various levels. They might pulverize the wood from existing buildings for mulch and grind up and recycle concrete and other materials. It is most common for this kind of architectural rendering to be created for a large or highly specialized structure. These sorts of renderings allow users to take a virtual tour of a proposed structure. . or a design that is a slightly altered version of what is presented in the rendering. This is especially true if a client decides to go with the design presented in the rendering. so that they do not have to be updated every few years to keep up with changing trends. or "green. A major goal of eco building is to reduce the amount of materials needed to build and maintain projects over time. contemporary styles that require fewer materials to build. Some examples of materials and systems that eco builders work with include bamboo and reclaimed woods for flooring. the highest achievable level. engineers and other building professionals to design sustainability into projects. products and systems. and high-resistance insulations to help conserve energy. on the company's website. offices and other buildings to sustainable. to reduce energy consumption and other effects of transporting the materials. Eco builders often seek to build homes and buildings that are of timeless design. Many eco builders seek to achieve Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Certification for their building projects. They sometimes try to use materials that can be found locally to project sites. reduces waste in landfills and more. These builders are experts in green building technologies and sustainable building practices. To achieve certification builders must demonstrate that their projects were designed and built to reduce energy use. What Do Eco Builders Do? Eco builders build homes. Eco builders not only build in a sustainable way. In addition to still architectural renderings such as the ones described above. Using fewer materials saves energy. a rendering might also be used in the company's marketing materials. they also seek to tear down old structures that way. Being able to say that a project is LEED certified is the pinnacle of success for many eco builders. They also renovate homes and buildings to make them more environmentally friendly. an architectural firm may use an architectural rendering to display a structure that has not yet been finished. Such virtual tours of proposed structures may include tours of interior and exterior spaces related to the structure. landscape designers. Eco builders also might add water capture and reclamation systems to homes and buildings and incorporate hot water solar systems. This internationally recognized certification is awarded through the United States Green Building Council. smart technologies that monitor and turn off computers. save water.
In the United States. Eco roofs also provide homes. Individuals can test for credentials specializing in green home building.5 cm) in thickness.16 to 16. Sewer systems can overflow and release sewage into the streets following a heavy bout of rainfall. while others enjoy the additional space for growing edible plants. which can include variations of local and exotic plant life. Conventional shingled roofs result in large amounts of waste from excess material or old shingles that are removed for re-roofing. A drainage system is constructed. Professional certificates in residential and commercial building sectors designate a complete understanding of LEED building principles. such as carbon dioxide. altering their natural behavior. Adding an eco roof on a major city building. There is very little concern about waste or hazardous by-products from green roofs. carbon dioxide levels decrease. and large buildings with better insulation compared to other roof types. Green roofs require a multilayered configuration. This layer ranges from 4 to 6. regardless of height. also called a green roof. A root barrier is placed on top of the waterproof membrane to stop roots from attaching themselves to the house. Green roofs can retain up to 75% of the rainfall that falls on them and absorb pollutants into the soil. Some may choose to add aesthetic details to their house. As more roofs are converted. shingle waste accounts for up to 10% of construction and demolition waste in a year. interior design and construction and other areas. allows plants to absorb carbon dioxide. is an environmentally friendly alternative to a conventional roof. An increase in eco roofs substantially cuts the amount of waste produced by the construction business. Cities produce great amounts of carbon dioxide in a very dense space. beginning with a waterproof membrane to prevent water from entering the house. cleansed of many impurities. with little to no vegetation to recycle the gas into oxygen. The water stored in the soil eventually transpires and evaporates into the atmosphere. The amount of harmful gas buildup in the upper atmosphere. . A layer of soil is placed on the roof where vegetation is then planted. businesses. and creates a more usable area out of the same space. due to their organic nature. Creating eco roofs can help reestablish ecosystems that were demolished during construction. particularly in urban areas. Employing a green roof has been proven to significantly reduce energy expenses. restoring balance. Birds and insects were driven out or forced to survive in urban cityscapes. The final component of the eco roof is vegetation. Water runoff is a problem in urban environments that can be prevented by installing a green roof. the harmful effects of city construction and maintenance on the existing ecosystem were given little thought. is lowered. What Is an Eco Roof? An eco roof.Professional LEED credentials and certifications for individuals are also awarded. reduces the amount of construction debris from shingles. and encouraging them to feed on their natural prey instead of human by-products or waste. The influx of plant life into an urban environment helps reduce greenhouse gases.5 inches (10. neighborhood development. on top of which the soil layer is situated. This adds insulation. which contributes to ozone deficiency and warming trends. Many people find that the extra space afforded by an eco roof is useful for creating their own garden. Eco roofs provide extra living space for animals. Adding more green space to an urban environment can help reestablish former ecosystems that were lost during early urban development in the 19th and 20th centuries. During these times.
While a green roof has the potential to significantly lower costs within years after its implementation. have an upkeep cost. If the roof includes container gardens. They serve as an economical and easy-to-install alternative to intensive green roofs. like others. . What Is a Green Roof? There are many different varieties of green roofs. These roofs can include items such as container gardens and other installations that may require a substantial amount of money or labor to maintain on a regular basis. Sedum roofs are considered a type of extensive green roof. This can include individual homes. which are designed to provide an elaborate park-like setting on the roof of a building. installing one is more expensive than a traditional roof. Similar materials and processes may also be employed when creating an extensive green roof. Eco roofs. It is usually much lower than maintenance costs for shingle roofs. Instead of just using sod as a roof covering. though there may be a number of benefits. or retrofitting an existing building. The sod could then extend its roots down into the bark and help to hold it in place. Container gardens on rooftops may be used as either vegetable or flower gardens. A variant known as the sod house was also found in Canada and the US during the original settling of the prairies in those countries. and its favorable attributes. while the roof itself may last longer than a traditionally constructed one. but also offer a number of environmental benefits to building occupants and the community. though the process may differ. there is also the possibility of growing fresh produce. reduce expenses in the long run. Sedum roofs not only serve as added green space in urban areas. a variety of roofing felts and water-proofing materials may be used. Sod is also sometimes used in the roofing of modern structures. a green roof can be a way to make use of space that would otherwise be left bare. which includes roofs planted with small shrubs and flowers that are largely self-maintaining. This type of building covering. Certain green roofs may even help increase the property value. The result may be a sort of rooftop park or garden. all of which may incorporate some form of living plant matter. such as added insulation. Designing a structure to have a green roof. A green roof may contribute to the energy efficiency of a building. This was a common type of roof in many Scandinavian countries. In other situations. potentially resulting in a more stable structure. the walls of of these houses were constructed of stacked up pieces of turf. An intensive or semi-intensive green roof may need to be watered regularly. and other modern structures that are designed specifically to support heavy vegetation. can be costly. What Are Sedum Roofs? Sedum roofs include any roof surface lined with plants rather than traditional roofing materials. Green roofs were first traditionally composed of two layers of sod laid over birch bark. a green roof may refer to a structure that is covered in sod or other vegetable matter.The downside of eco roof conversion is the high initial cost. however. and can involve other potential yearly investments such as the purchase and application of fertilizers. In urban and suburban environments. The other main categories of green roofs are known as semi-intensive and intensive. canceling out the cost of upkeep. is typically composed of living vegetable matter that often requires very little maintenance after being installed. high-rises. Rather than initially covering the roof in birch bark. like the sod roof.
These kits include frames to support the planting beds.To create a sedum roof. Like other types of green roofs. or vermiculite. a green garden should benefit the environment by encouraging ecological diversity. and can live solely on rainwater. This is accomplished in a number of ways. gravel. Typically. which helps to regulate the temperature within the structure. starting with a change in garden design which puts a focus on native plants and species diversity. they can reduce their negative impact on the environment. Resource- . In certain climate zones. drive green cars. Ideally. these roofs may require additional structural framing support. a green garden should have little to no negative environmental impact. The green movement has spread from individuals to companies and businesses as well. as gardeners realized that they could make a difference in their environment. Each bed is filled with some form of planting medium. or from access points on the roof itself. with these organizations consciously choosing a more green way of doing business. small sprinkler systems may be required to support these roofs. People can build green houses. sedum roofs provide many benefits to occupants. which includes many species of hardy. sedum roofs tend to cost more than traditional asphalt or rubber roofs on average. and purchase green food. What is Green Landscaping? When landscaping reduces environmental harm as well as conserving money and resources. use green technology. These roofs also serve as an attractive space when viewed from higher elevations. Depending on the size and weight of the sedum. contractors start by installing traditional roof framing and sheathing. It also helps to improve energy efficiency and cut heating and cooling costs year round. Some companies also sell pre-manufactured kits that allow users to easily create sedum roofs. Finally. or planting beds. A number of concepts come together in green landscaping to create a beautiful but also highly efficient garden. Small shrubs. They may also pose a challenge to building owners in terms of maintaining effective drainage channels. it is referred to as ³green landscaping. Simple frames are used to create compartments. green plants. which may include soil.´ Followers of the green movement believe that by reducing their own usage of resources. The plants and plant medium act as a layer of insulation. Added green space also improves air quality and helps to reduce the phenomenon of urban heat islands. These green roofs are named for the plant genus Sedum. Many of these species are largely self-sufficient. among many other things. These materials are covered by a waterproofing membrane. when the term ³green´ is used to describe a product or way of life. it means ³environmentally friendly.´ A growing awareness of environmental issues among consumers in the late 1990s led to an explosion of green landscaping projects. and influence culture to the same ends. flowers. which could increase building costs. Some also include built-in drainage systems to ensure proper waterproofing and moisture protection. which prevents moisture from entering the structure. and may not fit every project budget. and reducing the use of resources contributed on the part of the garden's owner. as well as mesh membranes equipped with a planting medium and seeds or young plants. many consumers start small and work their way up. In fact. and grasses can then be added to the planting medium. creating a space for wildlife to live. Since the green movement believes that every little bit counts.
and natural fertilizers are used rather than chemicals. in choosing small trees for landscaping.intensive lawns are shrunk in favor of more natural landscaping. Since landscaping areas vary significantly from one site to the next. Even small trees vary in their height and the spread of their branches. When considering the landscaping site. In the alternative. while others need cooler weather to grow. the gardener must think about whether she wants deciduous or evergreen trees. Before purchasing the trees. it is important to look at each tree individually and select healthy specimens from the nursery or home garden store. and planting deciduous trees or vines on the South side of a building to shade it in the summer and allow sunshine through in the winter. even in the winter months. How Do I Choose the Best Small Trees for Landscaping? There are several factors to consider when selecting small trees for landscaping. It is important to know the temperature range. reusing the water in the garden rather than allowing it to flood waterways and spill out to sea. Well placed plants can help buildings be more heat efficient. The soil type of the landscaping site should also be evaluated. Planting trees as a windbreak to protect homes from cold winds and weather can be a great way to reduce energy bills. . The next consideration is whether any special features of the trees. the altitude. and some trees need more space than others. while others prefer sandy soil. The small trees for landscaping need plenty of space to grow healthily and to keep their natural shape. Gardeners use integrated pest management in green landscaping. and plants are plotted in an efficient and logical way. Then. Climate also is an important consideration when choosing small trees for landscaping. the landscaping area and the general climate of the area should be analyzed. When a green building is combined with green landscaping. it is beneficial to know the soil type of the area as well. So can using a living roof of grass and native plants to insulate a building. Some gardeners may prefer a splash of color to an evergreen tree. and the likelihood of strong winds for the landscaping site. Some trees thrive in warm temperatures. It may also be helpful to know whether the soil is acidic or alkaline since some trees grow better in one or the other. but bare branches in the winter. deciduous trees may have colorful foliage in the fall. They also control storm water runoff. mandating a larger landscaping space. Once that information has been determined. but the color of the foliage may not change. Lastly. are desired. which leads to reduced reliance on air conditioning and heating measures. evergreens will have foliage all year long. rather than toxic sprays. Yard and household plant waste are composted. it is important to accurately measure the site to be landscaped before choosing small trees for that area. The use of a garden plan which takes the natural environment of the region into account will certainly reduce resource usage. the average rainfall. Seasonal interest is another consideration when selecting small trees for landscaping. but most gardeners take additional measures. while others may despise bare branches. Some trees grow well in clay soil. An important part of green landscaping is also the ability to reduce heating and cooling bills for both businesses and homes. such as colorful flowers or an abundance of fruit. trees that match those criteria will grow better than those that do not match the criteria. For example. energy bills can drop quite significantly.
green lawn. With the popularity of miniature gardens. What Are the Different Types of Front Garden Designs? Front garden designs can be elaborate. Some gardeners prefer a manicured look with plush lawns. ponds. Some homeowners want an attractive but understated entrance to their home. and waterfalls. The tree should have a firm trunk and should be free from dead foliage as well. and choose appealing furniture and other attractive objects to complete the look. some trees produce fragrant flowers. with a white picket fence and multi-colored wildflowers that cover the yard and spill over the front gate. combinations of wildflowers and perennials may grow on both sides. flanked by small bushes and a stone pathway. size. using textured rocks to form pictures or words that can be changed whenever desired. Plants like clematis and wisteria can be trained to climb the fence posts. if possible. and Rose of Sharon may add color and texture. A pond might have a waterfall under a willow tree. A gazebo may fit well within such a design. In a large yard. . along with a wooden. and catalogs have sprung up devoted to this unique pastime. while others do not. acquire miniature plants for planting in the garden. Japanese maple trees. or classic depending on the taste of the homeowner. Others enjoy more of a country type setting. colorful. cones. entire stores. Look for trees with roots that spread out evenly and are not clumped together. some small trees generate fruit. sculpted shrubs. Small trees planted in front of the windows may offer both privacy and curb appeal in a classic front yard. Once the landscaping area and preferences of the gardener have been narrowed down. Yet another type of front garden landscape may have more unusual designs. you need to find the ideal container. front garden designs might include statues that double as planters. particularly with birds and animals. daffodils. swinging bench. and nuts that may be beautiful or a problem. and brick edged walkways. websites. colorful combinations of sunflowers. Choosing a healthy tree is essential. patience. For gardeners who enjoy a more elaborate display. A variety of plantings. and bears. and whole lot of imagination. How Do I Make a Miniature Garden? To make a miniature garden. such as pussy willows. Such front garden designs may include white gravel under potted plants that line the walkway. deer. Also. For example. the foliage of the tree may have a particular color. or shape. such as exotic rock gardens. Those features should blend with the overall effect of the landscaping.The specific features of the trees must also be a factor when choosing small trees for landscaping. If the front yard has a fence. it is time to select the trees. For a fence that is white or natural wood. such as squirrels. This kind of garden may feature a walkway lined with colorful pebbles alongside a Koi fish pond that can be lit after dark. polished pebbles. texture. In this type of garden a few rhododendron bushes and a birdbath may ornament the way to the main entrance of the home. Some homeowners design their own rock gardens. or tulips can create a pleasing contrast. with a healthy. Hanging plants and wind chimes might be placed inside to create a peaceful sitting area. in an variety of natural front garden designs. a multi-storied bird house can round out this combination of natural and man made features. In addition. Miniature gardening ² or miniature landscaping ² is a fun hobby that requires a green thumb. and miniature waterfalls.
Green roofs also often help regulate the temperature. or green architecture. such as good insulation that blocks noises from outside. stepping stones. dwarf wintercreeper. refers to environmentally safe building designs. or even a simple tray are perfect items to serve as the base of the miniature garden. dwarf Canadian hemlock. You can either paint and decorate these or leave them unadorned. or heat stored inside the Earth. You want to choose plants that complement your color scheme and fit into the overall structure of the design. Underground homes are another type of sustainable housing. your miniature garden will provide an entertaining addition to your yard for the entire season. but also for the surrounding area. Also pay attention to the soil requirements of the plants you choose so you have the right dirt with the appropriate acid levels laid down in the container before planting commences. birdbaths. wheelbarrows. such as sun or water. ornaments. Locating the right plants for a miniature garden can make or break the design of the finished product. stonecrop pink spurium. With proper watering and nourishment. many of these houses have strategically-placed windows that allow natural sunlight to brighten them. to power the homes. There are many different types of sustainable housing. vegetables or flowers that improve the air quality not only for the home. Too little space will cause overcrowding and prevent all the plants from successfully maturing. plants. They can be used as gardens for growing fruits. Some popular plant recommendations include hen and chicks flowers. Green roof homes are buildings with roofs that include various kinds of plants. use renewable energy. you need to decide on an appropriate container to house your garden. Some of these might include small garden furniture. Drawing up a rough sketch is a good preliminary step to crafting your garden. When your garden is complete. Some miniature gardens can be started indoors and placed in windowsills in the colder months. Many of these houses make use of geothermal energy. Despite being underground. Arguably the most fun part of planting a miniature garden is choosing the accessories that will accompany the plants. arbors. . keeping the building cooler during the summer and warmer in the winter. This will help determine what kind of container. and bonsai trees. and objects you eventually need to purchase for your miniature garden. and seasonal decorations. watering cans. walls. but are built partially or fully underground. too much space may leave the design looking sparse and unattractive. Plants that are too large will overpower the garden. you will want to place it in an area with the right amount of sun for the plants you have chosen. These are usually made much like traditional homes. What Are the Different Types of Sustainable Housing? Sustainable housing. When planting a miniature garden. and plants that are too small may be out of proportion to other objects within the garden. There are countless types of miniatures on the market that make a whimsical addition to any miniature garden. be sure to take into consideration the potential size a plant can become. Flower pots. Next. to regulate temperature. either fully or partially.The first thing you'll want to decide on is the overall look you're going for. fences. The vegetation brings many advantages to the home. Some have moss-covered roofs that blend in with the vegetation outside. This type of housing can.
. The consideration of travel time and increased emissions also relates to transporting supplies such as food. sustainable planning can make a difference in creating healthier living environments. Through programs and designs that are both workable and environmentally responsible. These homes often include photovoltaic panels. such as a tree left to continue growing through the building ² it's trunk inside the home and it's branches over the roof. their design typically makes the most use of space. Another unique type of sustainable housing is found in the form of floating homes. Wooden homes are often designed to blend in with the trees outside and may include special features like sliding glass-door ceilings to further blend the home and outdoors. meaning fewer emissions. planning for more locally based agricultural and community gardens can help solve the problem. Many floating homes make use of solar and hydro power. What are the best Methods for sustainable Planning? The best sustainable planning methods for city development take into consideration the region and its various systems as a whole. There are many variations of this type of housing. Sustainable planning to create work areas closer to living spaces means less driving and congestion on city roads during rush hour. For example. Glass houses are generally supported by steel frames and have walls made almost entirely from glass. adjoining neighborhoods. These objectives can easily fit in with community recycling programs that help residents create less garbage by recycling more items. Many wooden buildings are also designed to let air and light into the rooms and create a sense of space. often making them feel spacious inside. This feature allows natural light to warm the entire home during the day. nature is literally included in the house. City living also relates to the distance residents must travel to get to work. Sustainable planning for bicycle and walking lanes in strategic areas of the city creates clear options for more people to walk or bike to work.Modern wooden homes are also an example of green architecture. which convert sunlight into electricity that can power the home at night. Some of these structures are filled with argon gas which helps to insulate and keep the house afloat. natural waterways. transportation. These ecofriendly houses float on water and are typically light-weight and small in size. In other words. energy and many other systems should be integrated so that the area is livable for people. or houseboats. Sustainable planning to reduce the amount of garbage in a city's landfills is something residents are likely to support and become involved in. This in turn relates to reducing carbon dioxide emissions that harm the environment. This system reduces electricity bills and impact on the environment. but some are rectangular-shaped and covered in oak. Although houseboats are not usually large. Sometimes. Sustainable planning to lower each resident's consumption of energy fits in with a city plan to use more renewable energy sources. Planning to use energy sources more efficiently and carefully leads to considering how a city's land can be used most effectively. or power generated from water currents. to make electricity and heat. careful waste management leads to creating community awareness programs on the importance of reducing garbage. City land planning for a sustainable future must be in focus since half the population of the world now lives in urban areas.
Transportation is also considered to be part of planning. meaning that the health of a local economy is in part due to the policies and budgetary restrictions that are placed on this component of infrastructure. urban. These activities entail decision making regarding land usage. A department of planning and infrastructure also may be responsible for the planning of power grids and communications. What Does a Department of Planning and Infrastructure Do? A department of planning and infrastructure is a department within a government or business entity responsible for developing components that contribute to the health of a society or population and the strength of an economy. The overall quality of life of citizens of a town. Whar is a town planner? A town planner is the person who determines what a town and its citizens need to thrive. Issues such as the rebuilding and development of neighborhoods and districts are often managed by this kind of department. budgets are created that should. television. and waste disposal are often the subjects of debate and policy making of this department. Departments that deal with these issues have various names established by their founders. Town. Factors such as health and economic prosperity are often primary qualifiers when determining quality of life. trains. and subways. These factors are instrumental in the transportation of goods and services. analysis of budget. it is a department of planning and infrastructure that may be responsible for factors such as the state of roads and highways. this brings more money to merchants and their cities. Some town planners work in conjunction with other local or regional planners to devise plans that may cross-benefit citizens in adjoining neighborhoods and districts. or country also may be determined by this department. The economic health of a region is often partly determined by the actions taken by a department of planning and infrastructure. Creating tree-lined walking areas with desirable stores in pedestrian malls also help make the mall attractive to tourists. also play a part in a region's prosperity. such as local industry and the wealth of consumers. sewers. and the consideration of functions such as transportation and sanitation are often the concerns of this kind of department. A pedestrian mall is a popular type of no car shopping zone. water supply. such as buses. not all refer directly to planning and infrastructure. Officials who serve in a department of planning and infrastructure may either be elected or appointed and may work with or without pay for their duties. region. Functions such as trash pickup. or city planning are common functions of a regional department of planning and infrastructure. ensure that waste is safely disposed and that sewers are functional. if effective. . Policies may be drafted which dictate where potentially harmful plants or other manufacturing centers may be built in order to reduce dangerous pollution and contamination. city. He conceives and develops strategies that he believes will benefit the most people in the most cost-effective ways. and radio. such as phone lines and access to Internet.Sustainable planning for many cities worldwide includes downtown pedestrian malls. The writing of policies. although "Department of Planning and Infrastructure" is the proper name of the sector of the Australian federal government that deals with them. Public health is also a common concern of the department of planning and infrastructure. Likewise. and which methods of public transportation. where roads are built. While other factors. and decisions and policies made by the department may direct what kind of budget transportation departments receive. are funded.
such as planning commissions or urban growth boards. distributed retail. Building recreational parks or improving existing ones is a regular goal of a town planner. Before a town planner draws up any official proposals for public review. Since a town planner is typically changing or upgrading an existing town rather than planning a new one. his first task is normally to decide what features and systems are successful as they are. electricity. better streets and roads and slum renovation. such as water. Demographic information generally provides him with information vital to planning for his town¶s present needs and future growth. Suburbs are typically residential communities. What Is a Suburb? A suburb is an urban area. These rail networks allowed the middle classes to work in downtown areas but live away from the crowded and dirty city centers. Educational requirements for the position of town planner vary by region. Some areas hold town meetings to allow the citizens to review the plans and provide immediate feedback to the commission and planner. and extensive road networks designed to facilitate the inflow . Suburbs are often associated with the United States. Some towns require a master¶s degree in a subject related to town planning. the town planner usually presents his proposals to local government entities. he customarily moves on to areas he feels could be improved. Suburbs first emerged in Europe and America as a response to the development of commuter rail systems in the latter part of the 19th century. located on Long Island and designed to provide homes for middle-class Americans looking to move out of New York. Common goals of a town planner often include better land management. Once the positives have been established. adjacent to and economically interconnected with a larger metropolitan area. Levittown. Background in city. are often the focus of his renovation plans. and the archetypical American suburb was Levittown. natural gas and underground telecommunications structures. A town planner typically introduces his reformation strategies by presenting general ideas and progressing to specific ones. A significant number of towns require at least a bachelor¶s degree in regional planning or urban development. He may offer his own ideas or merely listen and take notes on the ideas proposed by others. This may be done in a private setting or a public forum. Life in a suburb.Planning a town is generally considered to be an extremely challenging task. The emergence of the automobile and highway systems further encouraged the growth of suburban communities. His investigation typically reveals the city¶s past triumphs and challenges in project administration and land development. generally requires access to an automobile. a product of the boom years following World War II. and a large percentage of a suburb¶s population is apt to commute to the metropolitan core community. Once his information is complete and organized. he normally conducts detailed research of the town¶s history and its demographics. He may get his proposals in motion by holding a town meeting to entertain comments and suggestions from the citizens on general areas of concern. Upgrading outdated public utility systems. town or community planning is helpful when applying for this position. particularly in an American suburb. improved public transportation. Suburbs typically have a lower population density than central cities with a greater degree of urban sprawl. was the first of many American suburbs to feature single-family homes.
such as walking or riding a bicycle. and that smaller. Factors such as the climate. defined not by endless miles of roads but by rank after rank of identical towering apartment complexes and mass transit connections to the city center. A sustainability plan often involves making the most efficient use of available resources. it is usually not possible to develop a truly sustainable plan for a city or town without spending a great deal of . This racial segregation accompanied financial segregation. although not always in the American model. Critics argued that the low-density housing typical of American suburbs was a very poor model for land use. as well as in the design of road systems. There is no one ideal process for developing a sustainable plan. In cities such as Chicago and Los Angeles. each new suburb required the development of vast tracts of land. or neighborhood often includes not only using available resources in the most prudent manner. a pattern that dominated the American suburban landscape for much of the 20th century. so long as they were well-designed and maintained. as well as account for the use of automobiles and similar vehicles. denser urban areas were a better alternative. At the same time. planning a sustainable city. type of raw materials available in the area. while also seeking to ensure that the impact for later generations is as positive as the benefits derived by the current generation. a truly sustainable process of city planning will include ways to preserve the integrity of existing business districts and residential areas in such a way as to allow issues such as urban blight and decline to be minimized from one generation to the next. For this reason. Urban whites often took advantage of their greater mobility to leave behind racially-mixed urban neighborhoods. Today. A sustainable plan will also look closely at the types of materials used in constructing buildings. although one that began to break down thereafter. a sustainable plan will consider such factors as laying out a grid of streets that allow the use of alternative modes of travel. and the general condition of the environment in the area are all important considerations that will affect one or more components of the plan. while also laying the groundwork for the needs of future generations. the population of the community.and outflow of commuters rather than steady traffic. but also taking into account the present and future impact of the planning on the environment. creating sewage systems. The layout of the streets will often allow for future widening of various thoroughfares. often fertile farmland. tended to be much whiter than urban areas. a sustainable plan is a structured course of action that is designed to meet the current needs of those concerned. Suburbs grew quickly around the world during the postwar years. The history of the suburb in America is associated with several controversial social trends. and even strategically incorporated live flora and fauna into the overall design for the community. What Is a Sustainable Plan? Also known as sustainable development. For this reason. Moscow acquired suburbs of its own. with suburbs being more prosperous than older urban areas throughout the 20th century. This is because there is a much higher awareness of the need to preserve the environment for future generations than in decades past. Urban sprawl is typically seen as a legacy of the growth of the suburb in America. especially during the 20th century. The concept of a sustainable plan is often used in various types of urban and suburban planning. anticipating the population growth of the area and the need to accommodate increasing amounts of traffic in generations to come. This tended to produce white suburbs and black inner cities. town. Suburbs.
This system reduces electricity bills and impact on the environment. many of these houses have strategically-placed windows that allow natural sunlight to brighten them. These are usually made much like traditional homes. There are many different types of sustainable housing.time and effort to consider all relevant factors. Underground homes are another type of sustainable housing. but also for the surrounding area. Modern wooden homes are also an example of green architecture. Sometimes. They can be used as gardens for growing fruits. A large percentage of the human population around the world lives in cities and urban areas. often making them feel spacious inside. This feature allows natural light to warm the entire home during the day. vegetables or flowers that improve the air quality not only for the home. There are many variations of this type of housing. Glass houses are generally supported by steel frames and have walls made almost entirely from glass. such as a tree left to continue growing through the building ² it's trunk inside the home and it's branches over the roof. to power the homes. This type of housing can. Sustainable cities aim to change the way they operate for the benefit of future generations. such as good insulation that blocks noises from outside. or green architecture. Some of these structures are filled with argon gas which helps to insulate and keep the house afloat. The vegetation brings many advantages to the home. or houseboats. nature is literally included in the house. Many of these houses make use of geothermal energy. Green roofs also often help regulate the temperature. Some have moss-covered roofs that blend in with the vegetation outside. either fully or partially. such as sun or water. or power generated from water currents. What Are the Different Types of Sustainable Housing? Sustainable housing. Wooden homes are often designed to blend in with the trees outside and may include special features like sliding glass-door ceilings to further blend the home and outdoors. which convert sunlight into electricity that can power the home at night. Despite being underground. and determine how to proceed in a manner that will be beneficial over the long term. Many floating homes make use of solar and hydro power. but are built partially or fully underground. keeping the building cooler during the summer and warmer in the winter. These ecofriendly houses float on water and are typically light-weight and small in size. Green roof homes are buildings with roofs that include various kinds of plants. Many wooden buildings are also designed to let air and light into the rooms and create a sense of space. underscoring the need for sustainable practices in these environments. Although houseboats are not usually large. Another unique type of sustainable housing is found in the form of floating homes. . use renewable energy. to make electricity and heat. What Is a Sustainable City? A sustainable city is a city which has been designed with environmental concerns in mind. to regulate temperature. or heat stored inside the Earth. but some are rectangular-shaped and covered in oak. These homes often include photovoltaic panels. their design typically makes the most use of space. refers to environmentally safe building designs. ensuring that they do not put a strain on resources which will cause such resources to vanish before future generations have an opportunity to benefit from them.
operational savings are . including manufacturing. This also helps to serve as a marker for comparison analysis between similar systems or structures. bike lanes. centralized recycling facilities. energy systems. In short. These changes may not have immediate effects and they can take years or decades to implement. meaning that people can continue using these practices without harming the environment. reducing water needs and reusing water as much as possible. The city may become independent of the surrounding area. permeable pavement. water recycling. it¶s generally much easier to reap the benefits of sustainable engineering when designing from the ground up. It also usually requires the engineer to suggest necessary modifications to the existing design or construction in order to implement these strategies. In terms of existing energy systems. and generating energy inside the city. buildings. and may allow a city to be more secure in the event of a natural or civil emergency.Sustainability is a complex topic. better public transit. reuse of building materials. production quality. but over time. transportation. Reduction of reliance on surrounding areas includes growing food in a city. all of which are intended to reduce the environmental impact of the city as a whole. energy efficient heating and cooling systems for large buildings. new and existing construction. In effect. reducing strain on outlying communities. and possibly with some benefit to the environment. and environmental remediation. it involves practices which are designed to be sustainable in the long term. can radically reduce the rise in temperature commonly associated with cities. as such materials may be pushed onto surrounding communities unless the city takes responsibility for them. New construction and development are another matter. wind energy. This mission is largely accomplished through efforts to redesign and retrofit existing systems based on an analysis of current operations. One goal of a sustainable city is to reduce needs and reliance on surrounding areas. civil and environmental engineers specializing in sustainable engineering will typically review and benchmark energy and resource usage over a period of time for the purpose of evaluating function and performance. Some examples of things a sustainable city might implement include: green roofs. any industry in which energy is expended or resources are consumed can benefit from responsible sustainable development. A sustainable city must also think about what it is putting out into the surrounding environment. Sustainable engineering practices may be applied to a variety of industries. solar panels. On a city-wide level. this can also be economically beneficial. and community service programs. In addition. These changes can include individual lifestyle changes made by citizens as well as city-wide shifts in policy. and the functional deficiencies that may potentially hinder these processes. rooftop gardens. sustainability encompasses a wide variety of changes. and industrial processes. tougher air quality controls. so to speak. This is especially important in cities with limited processing capacity for things like waste. In fact. Just installing green roofs in a sustainable city. they can have a cumulative benefit. In addition to being environmentally sustainable. changes to the workweek which reduce congestion. What Is Sustainable Engineering? Sustainable engineering is the science of applying the principles of engineering and design in a manner that fosters positive social and economic development while minimizing environmental impact. The engineer may then look for ways to improve function and performance by identifying and prioritizing measures that will promote sustainability and reduce reliance on non-renewable resources. this equates to increasing overall profitability through realized savings in operational costs. Sustainable cities want to reduce waste in addition to lowering pollution. waste management. On a basic level. for example.
typically sooner recognized simply based on the fact that installing sustainable systems at start-up enhance the performance and life cycle of the equipment or constructional materials involved from day one. refinement. sustainable engineering is a growing industry and many colleges and universities now offer graduate study programs in this field. can be used repeatedly until biodegradation takes over and the materials rot back into organic compounds. In the US. When corn is grown. because it may take hundreds or thousands of years to degrade. life cycle. the World Engineering Partnership for Sustainable Development (WEPSD) and the World Commission on Environment and Development were both instrumental in the development of the Earth Charter. however. but with the caveat that the material must also be biodegradable. as the burning of fossil fuels adds polluting elements to the air. Fossil fuels are a clear example of a completely unsustainable resource. Additionally. sustainable engineering is a global movement with an international community that exercises practices that extend beyond environmental conservation and restoration. the resulting product may be renewable. most definitions include the concept that the material can be used at a rate that will allow future generations access to the same abundance of resources without causing ecological harm. the rate at which humans consume the fuel means that the quantity is continually diminishing. crops that can be harvested but continually replanted and grown again. wild berries might be considered sustainable in an unvisited. depending on the chemical composition of the plastic. the use of this non-sustainable set of materials cannot be seen as having no impact on the environment. Renewable materials can be. Others consider sustainable materials to be those which can be repeatedly reused through recycling. particularly if green practices are employed to offset damage to the local ecosystem. but are not always. may be recyclable but is not usually considered sustainable. Additionally. Although the Earth naturally produces fossil fuels as part of the breakdown of organic material. and cooling systems. Perfectly sustainable materials are very hard to find. leaving no measurable negative impact on the Earth. In fact. sustainable materials. healthy . for instance. Theoretically. Although there is no universally agreed-upon definition for sustainability. or practices as ³sustainable. and decomposition of any material can occur with no impact on the Earth. waste heat and water recovery systems. Plastic. Recommendations regarding sustainable design are likely to include consideration of geothermal construction. few terms cause more confusion than the description of objects. What Are the Different Types of Sustainable Materials? In the entire concept of ecology. it can be harvested and replanted using some of the harvested seeds. an international agreement intended to provide guidance toward the establishment of global sustainability as a means to promote world peace and the preservation of human rights and biodiversity for future generations. solar and wind-powered lighting. this cycle can continue endlessly. and sea. and other ³green´ initiatives. land. Cotton cloth. Some people consider recyclable materials to be sustainable materials. the environment may be harmed as detrimental chemicals leech into the Earth from the material. However. heating. Much of what determines sustainability has to due with the rate of consumption. sustainable materials are those which are renewable. If the corn is refined into ethanol. due to the environmental pollution caused by the refining process.´ To some. but is not sustainable. it is rare that the growth. resources. for instance.
coal. The Earth's oceans act as gigantic solar collectors that trap heat in their upper layers. These processes. The water is usually kept behind a dam and formed into a reservoir. Wood from forests continually re-planted and maintained. being part of the Earth's natural order. For those looking to live an environmentally-friendly existence. Another renewable energy technology utilizes the force of the wind to generate power. and power plants can use the steam and heat from these to provide electricity. Geothermal energy has the potential to utilize the heat from rock 3 to 5 miles (4. It can also act as a substitute for fossil fuels in power plants. are sustainable for human consumption and not harmful to the environment. such as its dwindling supply and environmental consequences. including solar. and hydroelectric. Hydroelectric renewable energy technology uses the force of river or lake waters to produce electricity. . including the production of electricity through thermal energy powered turbines in power plants. Pockets of geothermal heated water can be found beneath the Earth's surface. What is Renewable Energy Technology? Renewable energy technology was created to offset the global reliance on non-renewable resources like natural gas. and food from organic sources that take care in ensuring a safe turnover of the Earth. The great difference in temperature between the upper and lower levels of the ocean produces thermal energy. but if a thousand people ran in and harvested them. Yet materials that do not quite match the concept of perfect sustainability may still be considerably less harmful to the environment than non-renewable or recyclable sources. but not sustainable.8 to 8 km) beneath the surface of the Earth and possibly heat from magma. but may still do a lot of good. When the wind passes the turbine's blades. This energy is present in all of the Earth's oceans and can be used to accomplish many processes. This technology is an attempt to solve problems with fossil fuels. It uses naturally occurring and replenishing processes to provide sources of energy that will never be depleted. geothermal. Wind turbines are mounted atop a tall spire. It can be converted directly to usable energy via solar cells and stored to provide power to buildings. In many cases. where it is used to boil water. which drives a turbine and creates electricity. and oil. Renewable energy technology most commonly refers to seven different energy sources. The water from the reservoir is allowed to pass through the dam in a slow and steady manner that will turn the turbines housed within and generate power. it is important to investigate all claims of sustainability carefully.forest. the blades turn. the most desirable source of geothermal energy. and tactics that offset any ecological damage may not be perfectly sustainable materials. moving the turbine and producing electricity. Geothermal renewable energy technology uses heat transmitted from the Earth's core through its crust to either provide direct heating or to generate electricity through a power plant. Purveyors of renewable energy technology look to the natural forces at work in and on the Earth. the formerly sustainable crop would be quickly obliterated. Solar energy is derived from sunlight and is a very versatile renewable energy technology. recycled denim insulation. materials deemed sustainable are actually renewable or recyclable.
and plants can be converted into biofuels. and hydro power are all areas that are seeing technological advances and new means of application. fossil fuel reserves maintain a shaky existence. Some financial managers may have a lot of knowledge about green investing. Over time. but many suggest it is a necessary wave for the future and has the chance of paying off remarkably in the future. These can help point out growing trends in the fields. wind power.Biological renewable energy technology. as reserves deplete. or when it is time to buy or sell. and the only byproduct it releases is water. What Are the Best Tips for Renewable Energy Investors? Lucrative investing strategies often depend on finding new and developing technologies that have the opportunity to become major power players in the future. . For renewable energy investors. For renewable energy investors that prefer to hire an investment account manager instead of managing a portfolio independently. Many websites profile renewable energy companies that are open for investment. Choosing to invest in green technology may not be highly profitable for years or even decades. Renewable energy investors can have a very profitable future. it may be difficult to determine which pursuits will be the most successful. At the dawn of the 21st century. This process is considered to offset the carbon dioxide that bioenergy technology produces. Many financial experts agree that the key for renewable energy investors is to think long-term. Read journals and publications that focus on the renewable energy industry. Since the field of renewable energy is so young. the executives. but still account for most of the energy used in the world. and bioproducts. Being honest about investment goals can help ensure a good relationship between a client and manager. provides energy through the naturally occurring biological processes that take place in a number of sources. becoming conversant in the field of green technology can help reduce the amount of guessing about which type of energy to invest in. biopower. Solar plants. which can be recycled for human consumption and needs. residues. geothermal plants. they remove carbon dioxide from the air. but research can help narrow down the possibilities for initial investments. also referred to as bioenergy. Hydrogen fuel cells can be applied in many different fields. and the stock profile can help renewable energy investors single out the best opportunities. Hydrogen fuel cells are capable of providing heat and electricity. Parts of organic waste. to produce power. whereas others prefer to avoid this developing area. it may be important to discuss renewable energy investing before signing on with a particular manager. and will need a manager who understands that the social agenda may need to take priority over financial gain. Many renewable energy investors choose to invest in green technology for environmental reasons and to promote renewable development rather than just the opportunity for profits. but it is important to maintain reasonable investment strategies despite the promise of the industry. Renewable energy is often considered to be an exceptionally important developing industry that will become increasingly lucrative as fossil fuel supplies dwindle worldwide. examining the company makeup and mission. and may open the investor's eyes to new opportunities. biofuels. it is likely that more and more attention will be shifted toward renewable energy and applications. found in many molecules and compounds. space solar ventures. including powering automobiles and transportation devices. A certain amount of investing with a view to future profitability will always rely on luck. Hydrogen-based renewable energy technology uses the element hydrogen. When plants grow.
These companies extract. There are hundreds of thousands of contractors. Not only does clean energy help conserve fossil fuels that can never be replaced.What Is the Solar Energy Industry? The solar energy industry is made up of a number of businesses that are constantly seeking creative ways to harness the energy of the sun. refine. The major players in the energy industry are coal. a large portion of the workforce is inside laboratories trying to reinvent the ways that people store energy. which is why so many governments advise consumers to purchase solar panels for their homes and businesses. or service that is involved with the creation. Instead. the entire world will ultimately benefit from this technology. Research and development within the renewable energy industry are extremely costly. even if such companies do not create. gas industry. association. and while they are an integral part of developed societies. Energy industry participants may be involved in the petroleum industry. Marketing agencies can also be considered part of the energy industry if they participate in marketing campaigns for energy companies or entities. but it also provides a means for the average citizen to access inexpensive electricity for his home. extraction. and repairmen worldwide that install solar cells on a daily basis. they are also some of the biggest polluters in the world. and distribute energy in their specific forms. gas. development. which is why there are so many activists involved within the solar energy industry. Scientists are finding answers to these long-term problems in other areas as well. the green energy movement gained traction in many developed nations to offer an alternative to unsustainable energy sources and high pollution. or even alternative energy industries such as wind and solar energy. but none of them are considered even remotely as readily-available as sunlight. As new innovations within the solar energy industry become available in the future. while others are out finding new streams of revenue. there are actually a whole slew of professionals studying the geothermal energy industry. it is expected that a battery the size of a tennis ball will be used to power entire housing complexes. While many consumers may believe that the solar energy market only consists of contractors and repairmen. Standards for clean energy have been developed and are constantly evolving in countries throughout the world to prevent global warming and other long-term effects of pollution resulting from energy consumption. . there are even lobbyists employed by the renewable energy industry to encourage the governments of the world to increase funding and to help create a greener Earth. Solar energy industry professionals actually take up this cause for a variety of reasons. Companies involved with the sale and distribution of energy are also part of the energy industry. the key is finding ways to harness and save that energy so that it is readily available on demand. freelance installers. One-hundred years from now. extract. and nuclear power companies. As a result of air quality issues and safety concerns. It is not a secret that the sun is easily powerful enough to provide electricity to the entire Earth. oil. The solar energy economy is largely dependent on government funding to achieve global freedom from fossil fuels. The main employment sector of the solar energy industry does not focus on the sun's rays or solar panels. What Is the Energy Industry? The energy industry is comprised of any business. Scientists continually seek ways to better store solar power while manufacturers strive to increase quality control procedures to limit the cost to consumers. or develop the energy themselves. In fact. or delivery of the many different types of energy available.
and prioritizing risks associated with uncertainty in the energy markets. making other energy sources such as coal or oil vital to growing economies. delivering. They can also assist with energy purchasing. Because of these difficulties. Solutions may include reducing the energy risk. Controlling energy risks can provide greater market assurance for companies like oil and gas producers. or eliminating the risk altogether. Different risks occur in different types of energy markets. and energy resource scarcity. In other cases. In addition. evaluating. regardless of how big or small a role that company plays in the overall process. a company may shift the risk to another party. though their presence on the world stage is quite limited. impacted companies often implement energy risk management strategies. It can also give confidence to the insurance companies. In order to address these issues. banks. The final step in an energy risk management assessment usually entails finding ways to address the risk. While wind and solar energy are both cleaner energy sources. and delivery companies can transport various energy sources from factory to fuel station. and energy risk management strategies may vary depending upon which sector of the energy industry is being assessed. the risks associated with these threats are usually quantified and prioritized. they can assist companies with assessing the impact of energy regulations. Local gas stations provide an important outlet for the products large energy companies produce. refining. Once potential energy threats have been identified. The electricity market. or selling energy in any way can be considered part of the industry as well. they also tend to be more expensive and more difficult to establish and maintain. The strategy chosen is usually based on the type of risk at issue. Companies generally employ one or more methods for handling energy risk. Solar energy and wind energy are the forerunners that fit into this category of the energy industry. Energy risk management involves the process of pinpointing. may pose different threats to a company than the oil or natural gas markets. Even companies that deliver firewood to small towns or to areas of developing countries. or companies that develop and distribute batteries can be considered part of the energy industry since they provide an energy source to a population of people. and developing energy conservation plans. and gas utilities. and they can help companies create solid energy risk management plans. What Is Energy Risk Management? Managing risks associated with the energy industry is becoming increasingly complicated due to factors such as government regulations. Retailers are an important part of the energy industry as well. The first step requires identifying all possible energy threats. for instance. electric providers.Green energy is considered to be energy derived from renewable resources that cause less global pollution than other energy types. An energy risk management assessment typically involves several steps. evaluating energy costs. . a company may either avoid encountering the risk or find ways to minimize negative impacts associated with the risk. and manufacturers who work with these energy companies. In some cases. public policy. such as an insurance company. These firms are usually highly knowledgeable about the energy industry. financial concerns. Another frequently used energy risk management strategy involves accepting and accounting for outcomes associated with the risk. Other factors that often present energy risks include climate change and environmental concerns. Companies in the energy industry may use the services of an energy consulting firm. Any company that has a hand in extracting. the presence of wind and solar energy has been limited to small areas in some countries. monitoring the risk.
Geothermal energy is such a reliable form of renewable heat that it is often the only heating system used in many new. biodiesel. Superinsulated structures are required to have a thermal insulation gradient nearly twice that which is required by local building codes. which supplies warmth directly to the home¶s flooring or panels in the walls or ceilings. Liquid systems are often used with radiant heat.Some energy consulting firms serve as ambassadors for companies to government bodies. Wood is possibly the oldest form of renewable heat and can be used to power a wood-burning furnace or a woodstove. Furnaces. Biodiesel is often associated with transportation vehicles. renewable wind energy is simply the wind itself and the energy it produces. and cellulose for those not wanting to use fiberglass materials. Once in the chamber. there is generally an endless supply of wind. geothermal. Solar panels have been used for several decades to supplement traditional electrical systems. and traditional fiberglass insulation. The major advantage of this energy source is that usually no special equipment or expensive modifications are required for oil-based systems to use biodiesel. In this role. and very large. and from a practical perspective. a firm may help structure competitive power markets or provide advice on energy tariffs. New methods of insulation. Wood. Some energy consultants also provide expert testimony in front of regulatory agencies or courts. and lower carbon emissions. but it can easily be used to generate renewable heat when used in an oil-fired furnace or boiler. What is Renewable Wind Energy? In an abstract sense. Solar collectors can be used to directly heat the air in a room or in conjunction with a heat pump. Renewable insulation materials are also made from recycled denim. absorb. Wind is renewable because natural processes on the planet cause the wind to blow. and circulate heat from solar radiation. . wood. are not kept in the main living area and are better suited for heating multiple rooms. however.´ are often used in conjunction with renewable heat systems. Existing systems can also use biodiesel exclusively or as a supplement to reduce carbon emissions. for example. however. the coils release heat to the surrounding air. What Is Renewable Heat? Renewable heat refers to any heating system that is powered by a source of renewable energy. which is then blown in to the building structure. New solar systems. better efficiency. The two major disadvantages of woodstoves are the mess involved with operation and the fact that they are best suited for open floor plans. constructions. Woodstoves often offer several benefits over a wood-burning furnace. can be replaced within a decade or two. This technique uses double walls. and solar radiation are all renewable sources of energy that can be used to generate heat. Wood. usually near 75 degrees. The wind is considered a type of energy because it is in motion. The fluid rotates through the coils and gets warmer before being circulated back through a heat exchange chamber. Renewable energy is generally defined as any energy source that can be replaced with the span of a human lifetime. Biodiesel is often referred to as "biofuel" or "bioheat" when used in this manner. such as a lower initial cost. Geothermal systems bury liquid-filled coils at a depth where the temperature of the earth is consistent. often referred to in the green building industry as ³superinsulation. continuous air and vapor barriers on all window and door seals. use green architecture designs to collect. depending on the type of tree harvested.
A zero energy house is distinguished not by the lack of energyusing materials but by the source from which energy is drawn. People have been using renewable wind energy since ancient times. heated water. There are also a lot of power companies around the world that already use wind energy for large percentages of their power. A basic application of renewable wind energy from ancient times is the sailboat. people invented windmills. especially on farms in areas without much human population. The term zero energy is somewhat vague. It is a mistake to think that a zero energy house has no electricity or devices that use energy. These wind farms are usually placed in locations where there is a lot of natural wind and a lot of open land without forests. people found ways to use the windmill to generate electrical power. One complaint about the use of windmills is that they may kill a lot of birds every year. and some wind power-based companies have taken measures to try and make birds safer. and they are usually arranged on large wind farms with a lot of windmills all together in one place. a zero energy house will have few or no carbon and greenhouse emissions. or will replace energy taken from traditional sources with materials from renewable sources. the primary use for windmills was mostly in producing grain and water pumping. Eventually. so it may not always be as reliable as some other energy sources. A zero energy house may produce all of its energy from renewable or sustainable sources. such as through the use of solar power. washing machines. and over the centuries. and that technology is considered relatively mature. The sail captures the wind and allows sailors to propel boats faster and more efficiently. One of the main advantages of wind energy is that there is a lot of technology available to harness it. which are towers with fan-like attachments that capture the wind's power. Solar power can be used to produce energy for a home or building. just like a power plant can for a large grid of buildings. Generally. The main disadvantage of wind energy for the purposes of electricity is the amount of space it takes to produce a significant amount of power. People also still occasionally use windmills for water pumping. The windmills are attached to electrical generators. If a house can rely totally on self-produced energy and takes nothing from a traditional electrical grid. such as lights. will produce all its own energy through renewable sources. Eventually. People have been using wind for such a long time that windmill designs have had a lot of time to be refined and generally perfected. and this is now the primary use for renewable wind energy. This was economically helpful because it meant fewer people were required to do these jobs. Originally. What Is a Zero Energy House? A zero energy house is a home that has a net energy consumption of zero. It¶s also generally true that wind isn¶t available in the same quantities at all times of the year. such as sawing wood.and people have found many different ways to harness that motion and use it for various purposes. it is often considered a zero energy house. as well as a mechanism for replacing or generating energy without creating carbon or energy emissions. and general use electricity. Renewable wind energy has some advantages over many other kinds of renewable energy along with some disadvantages. Zero energy houses usually have all of the appliances and conveniences of modern homes. . but other uses were eventually developed. so wind power is tested. and can be applied to a variety of different situations. they have generally found several different ways to take advantage of it.
Weather conditions may not always allow the building's generators to produce sufficient energy. This means that the house does not necessarily produce its own energy. Independence from the electrical grid also saves the owners from fluctuating energy costs. . Solar panels and wind turbines are commonly used as they rely mostly on natural weather conditions and are not as invasive to the environment as other sources of energy. These reduce the energy required from the generators. This may also be called net zero cost. but buys it from a renewable energy company. A zero energy building commonly utilizes energy efficient fixtures. As renewable energy technology increases. Zero energy building is often portrayed as financially beneficial for residents. In such instances. What is Zero Energy Building? A zero energy building is a type of structure that produces the same amount of energy as it consumes. The building is designed to be selfsufficient when it comes to electrical needs. Environmental concern is the main reason why the net zero energy building was conceptualized. thermal. This is why a zero energy building is sometimes called a green building. The term zero energy house may also be used to describe a house that has a net zero carbon emission rating.In some areas where renewable energy sources are publicly available. as using home-generated solar. With offsite energy providers. There are several advantages in a zero energy building. and design. A green building may increase market value for environment conscious homeowners. This results in zero net energy usage. appliances. it is often necessary to consider the energy lost in the transmission process when determining if a house or other structure is truly zero energy. By creating a building that relies primarily on alternative energy. the dependence on fossil fuel is minimized. it becomes far easier to incorporate zero energy design into modern homes without sacrificing the comfort or convenience of residents. as the owner of the house can sometimes sell excess renewable energy to a main power company to offset the amount of fossil fuel power used by the house. When designing a zero energy building. The building does this by integrating electrical generators in the structure. the building may acquire the extra energy it needs from the power grid. Using renewable energy reduces carbon emissions from fossil fuels. This means that the house creates enough on-site renewable energy to balance the emissions caused by using some fossil fuel energy. which gives the building its name. Some environmental experts consider zero energy homes to be a major part of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and reducing the impact of sustained global warming. The amount of energy needed to transmit and use renewable energy will be higher than the amount required just for use. making it easy to achieve zero net energy consumption. a house can be considered to have net zero energy if it only uses power from an offsite renewable source. or wind power can lower electricity and gas bills from main power companies significantly. The layout and materials used in the building normally assist in maintaining an ideal atmosphere inside the structure. This removes some load in the generators. it is important to minimize energy consumption as much as possible. The electricity typically comes from renewable energy sources.
and other energy functions. much of the efficiency of a true high-rise depends on certain technologies. What Is a High-Rise? In most of the world¶s big cities. The benefits of high-rises. By maximizing vertical space. a building must have a structure that can withstand a tremendous amount of weight. A high-rise is a building that helps to ease the tension between these competing demands. they are often referred to as ³multidwelling units. High-rise structures are also popular settings for urban offices. The high-rise is characterized by its height ± usually at least twelve floors ² and its density. Some cities tightly regulate high-density housing. Some people argue that the accumulated energy bill will eventually outweigh the high initial cost of the building. .670 feet (509 meters). heating. Steel framing was the first tool to revolutionize the art of building high-rises.717 feet (828 meters) tall.´ The regulations and restrictions for where high-rise housing units can be built. are obvious. The Burj Khalifa is 2. The final zero comes from the building materials. Some communities assemble a cluster of zero energy houses. Slightly shorter than the Burj Khalifa. a zero energy building costs more than a conventional building of the same size. more offices means more jobs and a more robust economy. In order to sustain floor after floor after floor. and held 101 floors. United Arab Emirates. it is not uncommon for city office towers to reach 60 or 70 floors. Taiwan. When high-rises are used to house apartments or individual condo units. More residents means more business and more consumption. what sorts of safety precautions must be made for fire escapes and other evacuations. another of the world's tallest building is the Taipei 101 tower in Taipei. A building that takes up the space of but a modest apartment house or office building in terms of actual landmass can easily house hundreds of units if built straight up. While an office building in the suburbs may sit on a campus of several low-lying buildings. They form a de facto electrical grid that shares the energy. cities can accommodate tremendously more people than if they were limited to their horizontal landmass. the demand for land and space far outweighs the amount of land and space that is actually available.´ or MDUs. the house has zero net carbon emissions. The proximity of the houses reduces transmission and distribution losses and minimizes the cost of constructing the generators. and contains 206 floors. Improvements in solar cell and turbine technology may also save on future building costs. In addition. and will not be compromised by a relatively high center of gravity. High-rise offices are synonymous with skyscrapers. which stands at 1. In 2000. Localities that have no established electrical infrastructure often make use of this arrangement to create a stable energy source. and the residential laws with which the building must comply vary by city. for towering floors to be useful and accessible. they are also frequently called ³tower blocks. Still. One of the tallest high-rises in the world is the Burj Khalifa in Dubai. however. while others allow builders and rental companies much more freedom. at least from the perspective of economy of space. a German architectural firm built the first triple zero energy house. Urban planners have tried to maximize vertical space with high-rises for centuries. only recyclable materials were used during construction. The house is able to generate more energy than it consumes. which it can store or transfer to an electric grid.On average. Of course. In Europe. many of which are more modern.
landscape design firm. Also. drawing. plant cultivation. a good design sense and. The online learning is augmented with off-line landscaping study projects. computer aided design. Every major city in the world is home to a range of high-rises. soil types and climate conditions. trees and shrubs. and the efficiencies are generally believed to far outweigh the risks. It is a good idea to research landscape design colleges and pick one that offers excellent teaching and practical experience. Training to become a landscape designer can be obtained through a three year diploma or four-year degree program in landscape design. there is no realistic way for any elevator system to be able to carry every one of a tower¶s many residents in a limited amount of time. it is necessary to have a creative eye. workers. High-rise disasters are relatively rare. engineers. although you won't get the type of learning interactions possible in an actual college environment. and irrigation techniques and maintenance requirements. It will also help to know about various stone types. . buildings lose power. market his or her services.there must also be an easy way for people to get to them ² which generally requires an efficient elevator system. an interest in gardening and horticulture. A landscaper must have a thorough knowledge of different varieties of plants. of course. People with educational backgrounds in horticulture or agriculture can also take up this profession. is evacuation safety. landscape installation contractors. Additional certification or licensing from a professional landscape architecture association will be necessary if you want to put up a shingle as a landscape architect. it is usually impossible for individuals on floors above seven or eight to be able to walk out of an occupied burning high-rise before it fills with smoke. and interact with clients. but does not have the time or finances to attend a full-time program. but will also help you build contacts within the industry. in most emergency situations. and landscape design projects. design theory. Some of the biggest criticisms of high-density buildings. or by taking on some landscaping projects on their own. You will also be able to build up your resume and portfolio. sales representatives and a host of other people. Landscape design courses generally cover aesthetics. Anyone who wants to become a landscape designer must be able to estimate and manage finances. This will not only give you an idea of how to manage within set budgets and work completion time frames. Even with emergency staircases. color theory. botany. It will help to brush up on your business and communication skills as well. To become a landscape designer. Along with completing college projects. paving blocks and other construction-related materials. plans and oversees the installation of aesthetically pleasing landscapes that are appropriate to a particular locale. High-rise living is often considered a quintessential city-living experience. and elevators do not operate. whether they be offices or housing units. students should consider getting some real world work experience by working with an established landscape designer. garden ornaments. No matter how efficient a building¶s elevators are. architects. including fires. plant cultivation and plant care. How Do I Become a Landscape Designer? A landscape designer creates. Accredited online colleges can be a convenient choice for someone who wants to become a landscape designer.
. You can work as a freelance consultant. keeping tabs on current design trends. however. Pursuing a degree in the field of interest is the key to a successful career. and problem solving. Several years of education along with an internship and testing is required to become an architect designer. should pursue a degree specially designed for a career as a landscape architect. After graduation from college. a student must first complete a professional degree at a college accredited by the National Architectural Accrediting Bureau (NAAB). residential architect. an internship is required. the classes and skills learned differ. To become an architect designer. particularly an online one. perusing landscape magazines and books.Having a landscape design portfolio. Architects are constantly looking for new ways to expand designs so they are both functional and beautiful. Each state has different requirements for maintaining an architecture license. While the requirements are roughly the same for both degrees. or work full time with a landscape design or architecture firm. the interested person must also check with his state or jurisdiction about local licensing laws. Maintaining the license and keeping it up to date is required to practice as an architect. Licensing is required regardless of the field or area of work the architect wishes to work in. is important to get started in this career. Typically a student pursuing a degree to become an architect designer will start his internship during his fourth or fifth year of college. manage your own landscape contracting business. It is important to keep on developing your artistic landscaping and garden design skills. such as solar design or hospital design. math. will enjoy this program. A student interested in landscape architecture. Architects take on a variety of projects and may work as a church architect. the student take his licensing exam. it's important for an interested person to decide what he wants to design. To become an architect designer. He can then continue on after graduation for the rest of his three-year internship. Those interested in special areas. Once a student successfully passes his licensing exam. This degree program takes about five years to complete. or in a more modern field on business designs. the architect is then officially licensed and legally allowed to take on jobs as an architect. Testimonials from clients and from professionals in the landscape design business will be a definite plus. and continue learning new things about the landscaping business. How Do I Become an Architect Designer? An architect is responsible for creating the designs and plans for a building. and seeing varied landscapes from different cultures will help you stay on top of the game. A typical architecture program at a college will cover most buildings and a student interested in building design. At any point after the degree and internship requirements are met. Attending trade shows. Before setting out to become an architect designer. may earn another degree in these areas. Your portfolio should include design sketches and plans as well as photographs of completed projects. Those who consider this job should enjoy design. whether for businesses or homes.