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This charger will charge any 12V lead acid battery including flooded, gel and AGM. It is fully automatic and will charge at a rate up to about 4A until the battery voltage reaches a preset point at which it will switch to a very low current float charge. If the battery voltage drops again the charger will begin charging until the voltage once again reaches the cut off point. In this way it can be left connected to a battery indefinitely to maintain full charge without causing damage. An LED indicates when the battery is fully charged.
Part R1, R3 R2 R4, R5, R7, R8 R6 R9 C1 D1 D2 D3 D4 2 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Total Qty. Description 330 Ohm 1/4W Resistor 100 Ohm 1/4W Pot 82 Ohm 2W Resistor 100 Ohm 1/4W Resistor 1K 1/4W Resistor 220uF 25V Electrolytic Capacitor P600 Diode 1N4004 Diode 5.6V Zener Diode LED (Red, Green or Yellow) Any 50V 5A or greater rectifier diode 1N4002, 1N4007 Substitutions
If the circuit is powered off. set the pot to midway. The charger has now been set. . 4. R2 will have to be adjusted to set the proper finish charge voltage. If you are cycling the battery (AGM or gel) then 14. Case. 3. Using a higher voltage secondary (16V18V) will allow you to charge 16V batteries sometimes used in racing applications. 120VAC 5A Wire. T1 is a transformer with a primary voltage appropriate to your location (120V.Q1 Q2 T1 F1 S1 MISC 1 1 1 1 1 1 BT136 TRIAC BRX49 SCR 12V 4A Transformer 3A Fuse SPST Switch. turn on the charger and then connect a battery to it's output.8V. the battery should be disconnected from it's output otherwise the circuit will drain the battery slowly. etc. To charge multiple battery types you can mount the pot on the front of the case and have each position marked for the appropriate voltage. 220V. Q1 will need a heatsink. Binding Posts or Alligator Clips For Output. Heatsink For U1. Monitor the charge with a voltmeter until the battery reaches the proper end voltage and then adjust the pot until the LED glows steadily. If the circuit is mounted in a case then a small fan might be necessary and can generally be powered right off the output of D1. Board. 2.) and a secondary around 12V. To set up the charger. Flooded and gel batteries are generally charged to 13.5V to 14.9V is generally recommended by battery manufacturers. Fuse Holder See Notes Notes 1.
RPl and RP2 are selected membrane variable resistor . Kl maintain pull state . regulator diode VSl. transistor relays K2 and V2 composition . over voltage detection control circuit and under voltage detection control circuit . Kl pull . the VS2 and V2 closed . rectifier diode VDl. as before. Under voltage detection control circuit by the resistors R4-R6. HL2 for the output voltage of the normal light . VD2 . K2 release . HLl and shame are all made of neon lights H . Cl-C3 are selected voltage value of 16V aluminum electrolytic capacitors . potentiometer RP2. load and T were cut off the power supply circuit . as shown in Figure 5-178 . HL2 off . Sl for the PV of the control switch voltage meter . VSl and VS2 use 1/4W or l/2W silicon voltage regulator diodes . so that Vl saturated conduction . Adjustment RPl of resistance . regulator diode VS2. Power circuit from the starter button and S2. then Vl end . can change the size of high-voltage threshold . under voltage indicator . 3DG8050 silicon NPN transistor . HLl too . normally open contact connected to the load A power supply circuit and T circuit cut off . . can change the size of low-voltage threshold . the utility voltage by T Buck . diodes VD3. transistor Vl relay Kl and composition . VDlVD4 were selected 1N4001 or 1N4007 type silicon rectifier diode . HLl light . After pressing the S2 . Vl and V2 use C8050 or S8050. When a power voltage is low at 170V. If the high voltage electricity at 250V. capacitor C2. under voltage protection circuit automatically from the power circuit . S1 and S2 of the contact current load should be more than 5A . K2 pull . while HL2 point Light . Kl and K2 are selected JRX-l3F type gV DC relays .gV . under voltage automatic protection device . normally closed contact is open.Under-Over Voltage Cut off battery Charger This example describes the utility over . then VSl breakdown conduction . K2-l and K2-2 in the normally open contact connected . diode VD4. Kl and K2 release . HLl light . under voltage detection control circuit to provide DC power . Components Selection Rl-R6 are selected 1/4W metal film resistors . capacitor C3. VDl and VD2 Cl rectifier and filtered . Kl-l and Kl-2 in the normally closed contact is open. PV use 0-300V AC voltmeter . V2 conduction . When a power voltage is normal . After the release S2 . can be in the city less than 170V or higher than 250V electricity is cut off automatically Circuit works Power over the city . potentiometer RPl. Adjusting the resistance of RP2 . the second voltage power transformers for the two. the power transformer T. T use 3-5W. Overvoltage detection control circuit consists of resistors Rl-R3. the load of the power is turned . Vl and V2 has also closed . and filter capacitor Cl form .
The charging system shown is designed for multi-cell battery pack of 2 to 6 series connected cell or series/paralel arrangements. ICL7665 is a voltage monitor with dual over/undervoltage detection.6V (6×2.Charging is accomplished with a constant current of 60 mA for AA cells to a cutoff of 2. It is essential that all cells assembled in the pack are at an identical stateof-charge (voltage) before charging. the maximum upper cut-off voltage is 15.4V per cell. at which point the charge must be terminated.6V). .
. stable and efficient schematic diagram for a 500w modified sine wave inverter circuit. (2 channel view) You can see the two 5v pulses from pins 17 & 18. The PIC16F628A is programmed to produce a logic 5v signal for 5ms at pin 17 then 15ms off. This results in the signals below on the oscilloscope. but then I thought a simple PIC micro controller with its internal clock would produce a stable 50Hz frequency without the need for two IC's. Then the same at pin 18.17ms for 60Hz).Here is a simple but powerful. 5ms on then 15ms off (4. That is one cycle which is then looped. The CD4017 and 555 Timer circuit can be seen here should anyone want to try that. Originally I used a 555 timer and a CD4017 decade counter to produce the modified sine wave. As you can see its a very simple circuit. Some information on this circuit.
They also have a very low 0. That's no fun though is it! Also don't forget that even to run . They are capable of switching loads up to 55A (or 30A for the STP36NF06L) which makes this a powerful inverter if used with a large (~800VA) transformer. although I don't think they are the most efficient transformer cores around.014Ω Source to Drain resistance when on which means they can switch high currents without wasting power as heat. This keeps the whole system efficient. but the 55A MOSFET's should be fine. Of course if you live in a country with 120v. We are using the low voltage side as the primary. Of course you could use a smaller transformer for small loads. If you need 50Hz or 60Hz the PIC files ready to be programmed are at the bottom of this page. Just give each its own 470Ω gate resistor and a 22kΩ from each gate to source. The low voltage side must be centre tapped. The main losses in power will be within the transformer itself. I am going to rewind the secondary of a microwave oven transformer with about 11-0-11v and see how that goes. The transformer is wired up in reverse. These are special power MOSFET's that require just 5v to switch on fully. and the high voltage side as the secondary. you can just use a 10-0-10v to 120v transformer. I get around 240v AC from the 10-0-10 with a 12v battery but as this circuit is so efficient a 12-0-12 should give you no less than 220v AC at 12v. I might add I have not tried this circuit at 500w as I don't have a large enough transformer at the moment. The MOSFET's could be in parallel pairs for even more power. it could be an easy and cheap way to make a 500w centre tapped transformer for this project. They do run cool although a heat sink is required. Will need some chunky primary wire! Its certainly not worth buying a large transformer for this project. Still. For the price of that you could buy a commercial inverter or three.These two pins are then sent to the gates of the STP55NF06L (or STP36NF06L) logic MOSFET's.
The advantage for the inverter with using a modified sine-wave is that the MOSFET's are either fully on or fully off. Here is the finished driver board.a 100w load you will need 12v at almost 10A (calculator). The image below is the modified sine wave output you will get from this circuit. . Small sealed lead acid batteries are not going to be much help apart from to light your Christmas tree or charge your mobile phone. never operating in their linear region which would cause heating and poor efficiency. It is the same as most of the commercial inverters that are out there that aren't pure sine wave.
Don't think that the 5v regulator will fix the spikes! It and the PIC got hot and then the PIC died. I learnt the hard way and burnt out 2 PIC's before looking into the problem with the scope. The 47Ω resistor limits the current. These clean up the voltage spikes coming from the transformer centre tap into the positive rail and protect the PIC from them. This works because the 1000µF capacitor will be seen as a low impedance to a voltage spike.Note the large 1000µF capacitor and 47Ω resistor. Twice! The image below shows what the power supply looks like at each end of the 47Ω resistor Left is power supply end and right is regulator end. The simple resistor and cap cleans it up. The spikes and waveform of them changes with load. . so the spikes are dissipated in it as can be seen below. This is with no load on the transformer.
I would be interested to hear from anyone who has built this circuit and what results you have had so please let me know! 50Hz HEX file for programming the PIC16F628A 60Hz HEX file for programming the PIC16F628A 16F628A_50Hz_Inverter.If you wish to build this circuit you will need a PIC programmer to program the microchip with the HEX file below. I also have some STP55NF06L MOSFET's if you require those too.zip Good luck! .zip 16F628A_60Hz_Inverter. If you do not have access to a PIC programmer. please contact me and I can send you a pre programmed PIC16F628A for a small paypal payment to cover the chip and postage.