PERMAINAN KANAK-KANAK 1.0 TAJUK PERMAINAN : Ping Ton Kategori permainan : Jaring/ dinding 2.
0 MATLAMAT Permainan kanak- kanak ini diwujudkan adalah unutuk memenuhi syarat-syarat ujian amali PJM 3102 Pergerakan Asas. Terdapat empat jenis komponen di dalam permainan kecil pergerakan asas iaitu sasaran (target), pukulan, jaring/ dinding dan kategori serangan/ kawasan. Permainan yang dibincangkan ini adalah dalam kategori jarring / dinding. Nama permainan ini ialah Pington iaitu gabungan antara permainan badminton dan pingpong. Permainan ini dikatakan dapat meningkatkan kemahiran pergerakan asas individu dan ia juga dapat meningkat kemahiran psikomotor, kognitif dan efektif seseorang individu itu. Selain itu, permainan ini juga dapat meningkatkan kecergasan tubuh badan dengan melakukan beberapa pergerakan asas yang merangkumi pergerakan lokomotor dan bukan lokomotor. Justeru itu, seseorang individu dapat mempraktiskan aspek jasmani, emosi, rohani, intelek dan sosial (JERIS) yang selaras dengan kehendak Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan (FPK)
3.0 OBJEKTIF Permainan kanak-kanak di sekolah banyak bertujuan untuk membantu muridmurid mencapai perkembangan yang menyeluruh menerusi kegiatan jasmani yang tersusun. Terdapat tiga objektif terhadap dominan perkembangan iaitu psikomotor, kognitif dan efektif. 3.1 : Bidang Psikomotor • Dapat menghasilkan kertas kerja untuk mengelola sekurang-kurangnya satu permainan kecil kategori jaringan/ dinding. • Dapat melibatkan koordinasi otot-saraf,kelajuan,imbangan,kelenturan dan daya tahan secara maksimum • Dapat merekacipta satu permainan kecil yang sesuai untuk murid Tahap Satu dan Tahap Dua. • Dapat mengaplikasi pergerakan-pergerakan asas yang dipelajari dari subjek Pendidikan Jasmani dan Kesihatan (PJM 3102) ini. • Dapat mengaplikasi pemahaman terhadap tahap kecergasan seperti kepantasan, ketangjasan dan kekuatan dapat dipertingkatkan.
semangat berkerjasama. • Dapat membandingbeza permainan kecil yang dilakukan dengan permainan tradisional yang sebenar.
3.3. • Dapat belajar membahagikan tugasan yang diberi bagi memastikan kerja dapat diselesaikan teapt pada masanya.2 : Bidang Kognitif • Dapat belajar dan menghasilkan satu kertas kerja yang bermutu. • Dapat membina keyakinan dan komitmen pelajar terhadap tugasan yang diberi.3 : Bidang Efektif • Dapat memupuk sikap berkerjasama dalam ahli kumpulan.
. • Dapat menyelesaikan dan menyatakan langkah-langkah permainan serta peraturan permainan tersebut. • Dapat menerapkan nilai-nilai murni seperti semangat kesukanan. kebolehan menyesuaikan diri dan kebolehan memimpin pasukan dalam diri pelajar. • Dapat mencipta satu set permainan yang sesuai dengan tahap murid yand dipilih.
• Memberi taklimat ringkas kepada pemain. • Memastikan keadaan gelanggang selamat. makanan dan membeli peralatan. • Membuat kertas kerja. Menyimpan semula alatan yang digunakan.
Selepas • • • • Post mortem. • Mengadakan mesyuarat perbicangan untuk merancang pertandinagan permainan kanak-kanak.SENARAI SEMAK GERAK KERJA Sebelum • Mengadakan perbicangan dengan semua ahli kumpulan • Melantik ahli jawatankuasa pertandingan serta senarai tugas masing-masing. • Pengadil mestilah berada di kawasan sepanjang permainan berlangsung.
Semasa • Memastikan keselamatan pemain semasa bermain. • Menghantar kertas kerja kepada pensyarah bembimbing dan diluluskan. • Membuat tempahan hadiah. Membuat refleksi terhadap pelaksanaan permainan. Mengemas kawasan gelanggang. • Memastikan pemain berada di venue permainan sewaktu permainan hendak dijalankan.
c. d. Penyampaian. a. Pengenalan. 2. Komen anda mestilah merangkumi aspek-aspek ini:1. Arahan dan kepatuhan peserta. Bilangan peralatan b. kawasan dan peserta. Persekitaran permainan. Kawalan. Disiplin peserta.
. Pengelolaan permainan. i. Kefahaman dan keyakinan. b. a. h. Keadaan kawasan. c. e. Penerangan dan demonstrasi. 3. e. Pelaksanaan prosedur permainan. e. d. Persediaan awal. g. Kemahiran dan kebijaksanaan. Penggunaan alatan. f. peralatan. Persekitaran pelaksanaan permainan. Keadaan peralatan. Pengurusan dan kawalan. d. b. Kedudukan peralatan. Tindak balas dan respons peserta. c. Motivasikan peserta. g. Aktiviti sebelum mengambil bahagian.kekuatan dan kelemahan berdasarkan daripada pengelolaan permainan kanakkanak kumpulan-kumpulan lain. f. Menyeronokkan. a. Kesihatan peserta.
pembelajar mulai meningkatkan kemampuannya tidak hanya dalam mendeteksi penyebab kesalahan geraknya tetapi juga dapat mengembangkan strategi yang tepat untuk menghilangkan kesalahankesalahan tersebut. (2) Tahapan Pembelajaran Assosiatif Pada tahapan ini siswa sudah menyeleksi strategi terbaik untuk penyelesaian tugasnya dan mulai memperhalus keterampilannya. misalnya memperhatikan lingkungan sekitar untuk berjaga-jaga untuk menghadapi rintangan yang menghalangi performanya. melakukan sedikit kesalahan dapat mendeteksi secara umum dan mengoreksi setiap kesalahan yang terjadi. TEORI TAHAPAN BELAJAR FITS & POSNER Fits dan Posner (1967). yaitu: kognitif. dan tugas utamanya adalah mengembangkan pemahaman yang dibutuhkan dalam gerakan. bentuk gerakan masih sangat sederhana. (3) Tahapan Pembelajaran Otomatisasi Pada tahapan ini.
. (1) Tahapan Pembelajaran Kognitif Pada tahapan ini siswa diperkenalkan terlebih dahulu pada keterampilan gerak yang baru. Siswa pada tahap ini selalu konsisten. Pada tahap ini mengajarkan gerakan yang sifatnya masih sangat dasar. Dan Gentile's Two-Stage Model yaitu belajar melalu pendekatan terbuka dan tertutup. dan autonomus. Idea dan kreativiti. Pada tahapan ini. tahapan yang paling awal. TAHAP BELAJAR Tahapan belajar gerak akan mengadopsi model Three-Stage Model (Fitts & Posner’s) dan Two-Stage Model (Gentile's). siswa dapat memulai untuk mencurahkan perhatiannya ke aspek keterampilan umum yang lain. atau fokus pada tugas berikutnya. peneliti di bidang psikologi mengajukan tiga tahapan utama dalam pembelajaran keterampilan gerak .j. asosiatif. percaya diri.
Associative stage a) Consistency of performance b) Ability to identify inappropriate performance and attempt new solutions 3. and internally through muscle spindles c) Much trial and error 2. Cognitive stage a) Learners try to form overall concept of a motor skill b) Learned via gathering information through the senses. stable. Two stage model (Gentile. Motor stage (same as Fitts' and Posner's autonomous stage) C. observation. somewhat effortless b) Automaticity allows learner to focus attention on details of environment c) Ability to self correct and make minute adjustments B. 1967) 1. 1971) 1. Stage models A. verbal feedback from others. Getting the idea a) Learner understands how movement must be organized to accomplish the goal b) Learner determines the relevance of available information for the motor skills 2. Classic three stage model (Fitts and Posner. Two stage model (Adams. 1972) 1.CHAPTER 4: BASIC TENETS OF MOTOR LEARNING I. Autonomous stage a) Learner's movements appear automatic. Verbal/motor stage a) Combined cognitive and associative stages of Fitts and Posner b) Acknowledged an association between cognitive and motor aspects of learning 2. Fixation/diversification
. Novice = freezing out -degrees of freedom 2. Classification models (taxonomies) A. Shape and effort 8.a) Fixation 1) Closed skill requiring consistent repetition of the same action 2) Example: parallel bar routine b) Diversification 1) Open skill requiring variability of action 2) Example: tennis forehand drive out of reach of opponent D. Goal of skill 6. Advanced = freezing out + degrees of freedom 3. Focal/ambient and magno/parvo visual skills 4. Movement characteristics 5. Many types of models 1. II. 1991) 1. The uniqueness of the individual must still be considered in creating instructional strategies. Expert = individual perception + what is needed to accomplish goal + reorganization of degrees of freedom Key point: many different models exist for describing motor skill acquisition. Thought processes hierarchy (Bloom) 2. Use of body as projectile 7. Slow and fast twitch muscle fibers 3. Three stage model (Vereijken. The models each contribute to understanding the motor learning process and helping field based professionals structure learning and practice situations for maximum success in skill acquisition.
hopping) 4. hitting. Isolated limb movement (throwing. Locomotor behavior (jumping.B. Environment from stable to in motion 2. Konorski suggested postural & basic locomotor skills precede limb and object/limb tasks
. kicking. Fitts' and Posner's (1961) two dimensional model focused on individual and environment 1. open environments E. skipping. standing. balancing) 2. baseball pitch) 2. pushing. sliding) 2. Fitts' (1964) 1. Suspension (hanging. Support (sitting. Perceptual adaptability of performer and flexible. Motion (running. Knapp's (1963) continuum based on environmental demands in sport 1. Broer's (1966) classification of motor skills by purpose 1. swimming) C. Individual from at rest to in motion D. dangling) 3. Postural movement (standing) 4. pulling) 5. Force reception (catching) F. Continuous skill (series of movements repeated or linked with other skills. Discrete skill (movement has specific and ending. Konorski's (1969) classification that specified purpose & designated neurological control centers 1. Habit and stable or closed environments 2. running. dribbling ) 3. Moving external objects (throwing.dynamic.
c) rising/sinking 6. Whiting's (1969) classification through use of an object (ball) 1. Depression/elevation 3. Medial/lateral rotation 6. free/bound b) Type of spatial adaptation or shape used: advancing/retreating. light/heavy (strong). Circumduction 4. Acquiring object in flight and redirecting it towards goal or target 3. Body capable of moving in 26 directions from body center 4. growing/shrinking. Laban Notation classification specific for dance 1.G. General space (space outside personal reach of the body) 2. Included subclassifications a) Type of exertion or effort: sustained/explosive (sudden). Acquiring object in flight 2. Described motor skills and variations in movement quality
. Kinesphere (space within personal reach of the body) 3. Logan's and McKinney's (1970) classification by type of joint movement 1. Abduction/adduction 5. 27th direction was kinesphere 5. Flexion/extension 2. Directing already acquired object towards goal or target H. This classification useful in physical therapy and rehabilitation I.
Gentile's (1972) two dimensional model: environmental conditions and relative movement 1. This theory useful for movement exploration experiences
J. movement characteristics. physiological experiences. Positive: learning of one skill facilitates the learning of another skill 2. Types of transfer 1. Negative: learning of one skill interferes with learning another skill 3. Definition of transfer: the amount of influence the learning of one skill has on learning another skill B.7. III. Neutral: one learned skill has no influence on learning another skill Key point: the ability to perform one skill can have a positive. purpose or goals of the skill. negative. joint movement. Transfer of motor behavior skills A. neurological control centers. These taxonomies can be used individually or in combination by field based professionals to develop teaching methods and skill progressions that will optimize learning. use of an object. Control a) Temporal b) Spatial Key point: many different types of classification systems of motor behavior exist. These theories have classified behavior according to thought processes. Environmental conditions a) Stable (closed skills) b) Dynamic (open skills) 2.
. or neutral effect on the transfer of learning to a new skill. environmental factors and other perspectives. use of the body as a projectile. shape and effort.
Bransford et al. brain activity. Positive transfer occurs by practicing cognitively similar skills even if not physically similar 2. (1977): transfer-appropriate processing model 1. Exact elements included brain cells. diver using trampoline Key point: key theories of transfer include identical elements theory.IV. Thorndike and Woodworth (1901): identical elements theory 1. and behaviors B.
. Lee (1988): modified transfer-appropriate processing model 1. Osgood (1949) and Holding (1976): modified identical elements theory 1. The more similar the cognitive processing characteristics the greater the transfer D. Theories of transfer A. Direction and amount of positive transfer of verbal skills important 2. Examples: Red Cross rescue skills. and transfer-appropriate processing models stressing the importance of cognitive similarity in skill transfer. Transfer related to similar cognitive processing characteristics 2. theories stressing the importance of similar verbal skills. The more exact physical components between skills the greater the transfer C. Transfer occurs when the exact skill elements were present in the old and new skills 2.
Can increase positive transfer by using sequentially related movement drills B. the creation of learning environments that closely simulate actual performance environments. and the creation of dynamic practice settings. Applications of transfer theory A. and reductions in external feedback. Dynamic practice settings improve opportunities for positive transfer 1. However. Can create learning environment that simulates actual performance environment C. drill variations. Using variations of the same skill (soccer dribbling variations) 3. Contextual interference: use of different practice environments (contexts) 2. and reduced feedback Key point: transfer theories can be applied in practical settings by using specific techniques.
. Dynamic practice settings can include the use of contextual interference.V. These techniques include the use of sequentially related movement skills. Combination of using contextual interference. with learning a new skill there will always be some decrease in initial performance. Reducing external feedback to avoid paralysis by analysis enables athlete to develop his/her own cognitive processing abilities 4. drill variations.
This category is responsible for describing which BODY parts are moving. dance technique. such as: fitness. somatic therapies. and more. the founder of the Laban/Bartenieff Institute in NYC. LMA/BF is the integrated study of Laban and Irmgard Bartenieff's embodiment of his theories. The majority of this category's work was not developed by Laban himself. shape. Sequencing of movement between parts of the body. called "Patterns of Total Body Square Connectivity". as well as the other categories. and general statements about body organization. The difference between punching someone in anger and reaching for a glass is slight in terms of body organization . through the "Bartenieff Fundamentals" (sm). but developed by his student/collaborator Irmgard Bartenieff. Connection of different bodies to each other. each of which has two opposite polarities. is a system for understanding the more subtle characteristics about the way a movement is done with respect to inner intention. the control of the movement and the timing of the movement are very different. Several subcategories of Body are:
• • • •
Initiation of movement starting from specific bodies. or "Neuromuscular Shape-Shifting Patterns". The Body category. continue to be further developed through the work of numerous CMAS. Effort has four subcategories.
• • • •
Space: Direct / Indirect Weight: Strong / Light Time: Sudden (or Quick) / Sustained Flow: Bound / Free
.both rely on extension of the arm. or what Laban sometimes described as dynamics. and space. which parts are connected. The attention to the strength of the movement. and applied to ever extending fields. rehabilitation. which parts are influenced by others. effort. "Developmental Hyper Movement Patterns".
Effort. and Patterns of body organization and connectivity.
The body category describes structural and physical characteristics of the human body while moving.Laban Movement Analysis
Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) is an outgrowth of Laban's theories that comprises four main categories: body.
Ball-like. Slash. and Press. and Pin-like. Examples
.Laban Effort graph Laban named the combination of the first three categories (Space. There are several subcategories in Shape:
"Shape Forms" describe static shapes that the body takes. Weight.) and Arc-like (swinging a tennis racket. or Action Drive. It is divided further into Spoke-like (punching. and Shape is often an integrating factor for combining the categories into meaningful movement. Glide. movement must be contained in a single initiation and action. the way the body changes shape during movement is further experienced and analyzed through the Shape category. pointing. The Action Efforts have been used extensively in some acting schools to train the ability to change quickly between physical manifestations of emotion. on the other hand. Dab. This could be amoebic movement or could be mundane habitual actions. "Modes of Shape Change" describe the way the body is interacting with and the relationship the body has to the environment. etc.
While the Body category primarily develops connections within the body and the body/space intent. Wring. such as Wall-like. The eight combinations are descriptively named Float. rubbing an injured shoulder. and so a full analysis of Effort will typically need to go beyond the Effort Actions. Punch(Thrust). is responsible for the continuousness or ongoingness of motions. o Directional: Representing a relationship where the body is directed toward some part of the environment. It is important to remember that all categories are related. There are three Modes of Shape Change: o Shape Flow: Representing a relationship of the body to itself. and Time) the Effort Actions. shivering. painting a fence) o Carving: Representing a relationship where the body is actively and three dimensionally interacting with the volume of the environment. Flow. which is why there are specific names for the Flow-less Action configurations of Effort. In general it is very difficult to remove Flow from much movement. etc. like shrugging. Flick. Without any Flow Effort.
The Space category is currently under continuing development. and more. This category also describes and notates choices which refer specifically to space. and with spatial patterns. As with music. business consulting.•
include kneading bread dough. which refer to specific dimensions of spatial orientations. "Shape Flow Support" describes the way the torso (primarily) can change in shape to support movements in the rest of the body. and historically. wringing out a towel. Spatial Intention: the directions or points in space that the mover is identifying or using. but added later by his followers. psychotherapy. though many practitioners feel that all three Modes of Shape Change are "shaping" in some way. avoiding laser-beams or miming the shape of an imaginary object. this is referred to as Shaping. anthropology. and the structure of the human body. It is often referred to as something which is present or absent.Rising. pathways. In some cases. Spreading. This category involves motion in connection with the environment.
One of Laban's primary contributions to Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) are his theories of Space. There are more specific terms . leadership development. there is much of the Space category that does not specifically contribute to the ideas of Space Harmony. health & wellness.
. In practical terms. Advancing. Space Harmony sometimes takes the form of set 'scales' of movement within geometric forms. "Shape Qualities" describe the way the body is changing (in an active way) toward some point in space. more so since exploration of non-Euclidian geometry and physics has evolved. and lines of spatial tension. in the same sense as music can be harmonious. Laban described a complex system of geometry based on crystalline forms. Platonic solids. etc. Warren Lamb was instrumental in creating a significant amount of the theoretical structure for understanding this category. Geometrical observations of where the movement is being done. such as peace studies. and Retreating. though there are more refined descriptors. originally directed toward the performing arts.
The majority of the Shape category was not developed during Laban's life. this describes whether the body is currently Opening (growing larger with more extension) or Closing (growing smaller with more flexion). planar movement. in terms of emphasis of directions. places in space. He felt that there were ways of organizing and moving in space that were specifically harmonious. have been spreading to many and new exciting fields. These scales can be practised in order to refine the range of movement and reveal individual movement preferences. Enclosing. paying attention to:
• • •
Kinesphere: the area that the body is moving within and how the mover is paying attention to it. Some combinations and organizations were more theoretically and aesthetically pleasing. and that the term is thus ambiguous and overloaded. The applications of LMA/BF. Sinking. In the simplest form. The abstract and theoretical depth of this part of the system is often considered to be much greater than the rest of the system.
the horizontal dimension of the staff represents the symmetry of the body. paths. (October 2007)
Labanotation . jumps.
This section does not cite any references or sources. body parts.also called Kinetography in Europe and South America . Labanotation is a record of how you move so that you can do the same thing again and again. and floor plans can all be notated by specific symbols. The symbols are placed on a vertical staff. symbols on the right represent the right side of the body. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. The staff is read from bottom to top and the length of a symbol defines the duration of the movement. Labannotation uses bar lines to mark time measures and double bar lines at the start and end of the movement score. Laban's theories of effort (see Laban Movement Analysis) can also be represented in Labanotation. and the vertical dimension time. Although the abstract symbols represent Laban's work on shape. Drawing on western music notation. Spatial distance. centre of weight. spatial relationships. the left side. The centre line of the staff represents the centre line of the body. turns.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.Anatomy and kinesiology
The system involves no departure whatsoever from conventional anatomy and kinesiology. The starting position of the dancer can be given before the double bar lines at the start of the score. The four effort categories are:
• • • •
Space: Direct / Indirect Weight: Strong / Light Time: Sudden / Sustained Flow: Bound / Free
and they appear in the notation as an effort graph:
. The location of the symbol on the staff defines the body part it represents. transference of weight. symbols on the left.uses abstract symbols to define the:
• • • •
Direction of the movement Part of the body doing the movement Level of the movement Length of time it takes to do the movement
The shapes of the symbols indicate nine different directions in space and the shading of the symbol specifies the level of the movement.
. Those practicing Labanotation (The Dance Notation Bureau) believe that the system was developed to record body movement. Movement analysis. Motif Description is a subset of Labanotation that depicts the overall structure or essential elements of a movement sequence. who trained with Laban before moving to the USA and becoming a physiotherapist and one of the founding members of the American Dance Therapy Association. Human movement simulation and Human movement synthesis. Labanotation is used in a variety of settings including Laban Movement Analysis. dance notation. the Founder of the Laban/Bartenieff Institute of Movement Studies .
Bartenieff Fundamentals(sm) are an extension of LMA originally developed by Irmgard Bartenieff .LIMS NYC.
It is this difference that explains the differing interpretations of the notation by the two groups. Robotics.Laban effort graph The basic difference between Kinetography Laban and Labanotation is how the system is perceived:
Those practicing Kinetography Laban (International Council of Kinetography Laban) believe that the system is based on spatial analysis. documentation and reconstruction.