Colegio de San Juan de Letran

Intramuros, Manila PHILIPPINE HISTORY By: Batalla, Mary Christine Diane E. FM2A The Politics of the Philippines takes place in an organized framework of a presidential, representative, and democratic republic whereby the president is both the head of state and the head of government within a pluriform multi-party system. This system revolves around three separate and sovereign yet interdependent branches: the legislative branch (the law-making body), the executive branch (the lawenforcing body), and the judicial branch (the law-interpreting body). Executive power is exercised by the government under the leadership of the president. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two-chamber congress²the Senate (the upper chamber) and the House of Representatives (the lower chamber). Judicial power is vested in the courts with the Supreme Court of the Philippines as the highest judicial body.

"Effective leadership is the ability to successfully integrate and maximize available resources within the internal and external environment for the attainment of organizational or societal goals."

Philippine history is really an essential thing to learn especially when you are a Filipino. It is an important step in loving the Philippines and courage of the heroes that fought and died for us. Obviously, when we study the history of the Philippines, we will know its entire history as a country and as subject of colonization. We can also know how the civilization began. We will know also, its struggle for independence, the heroic experiences that the Filipinos had done just to get their own independence against the colonizers who devoured the natural resources, and by studying the Philippine history, we will discover why this country is still suffering poverty in spite of its rich natural resources. The study of phil. history is important in understanding the present. By studying history, we will have an idea on how our world has been shaped by events in the past. We will also learn mistakes committed in the past which will serve as lessons for us at present.

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On the other hand. He and so as the other heroes of the Philippines paved the way to an independence. Sr. Aguinaldo then became the president of the 1st Philippine republic COMMONWEALTH PERIOD (American Period)  (1935-1944) President: Manuel L. saying that the Filipino people knew of his record of 40 years of honest and faithful service. Osmeña refused to campaign. the Japanese made the mission of Laurel's administration incalculably exasperating and perilous. Sr. coupled with arbitrary asserts.S. (Assumed the presidency upon the death of Quezon while the Philippine Commonwealth government is in exile in the U. Osmeña. 2|Page . Japanese rapacity had the better of it all. The government exerted every effort to increase production and bring consumers' goods under control. and Ramon Avancena  During Laurel's tenure as President.S. He continued the fight for Philippine independence.THE PRESIDENTS WITH THEIR CORRESPONDING VICE PRESIDENTS OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES FIRST REPUBLIC (Revolutionary Government/The Philippines under Spanish rule)  President: Emilio F. Quezon (Died in exile in the U. However. Prices of essential commodities rose to unprecedented heights. Trias (1897)elected VP during the Tejeros assembly  He and his follower were the one who staged the cry of pugad lawin which started the Philippine revolt. Sr. SECOND REPUBLIC (Japanese Occupation)  (1943-1945) President: Jose P.)  Commonwealth government Osmeña became president of the Commonwealth on Quezon's death in 1944.)  (1936-1944) Vice-President: Sergio S. Osmeña.  He is the Father of our language ³Tagalog´  (1944-1946) President: Sergio S. After the war.For the presidential election of 1946. Aguinaldo (1899-1901)  Vice-President: Mariano C. Laurel  (1943-1945) Vice-Presidents: Benigno Aquino. He returned to the Philippines the same year with General Douglas MacArthur and the liberation forces. Osmeña restored the and the various executive departments. Resorting to district-zoning and domiciliary searches. hunger was the main worry. guerrilla activities and Japanese retaliatory measures brought the peace and order situation to a difficult point.

had Osmeña for president and Senator Eulogio Rodriguez for vice-president. The Philippines ranked second in Asia's clean and wellgoverned countries. Magsaysay (Magsaysay died in an airplane crash on March 16. particularly in the rural areas. the Philippine military was at its prime. Roxas and Quirino won the ticket. Garcia (Assumed the remaining term and re-elected)  (1957-1961) Vice-President: Diosdado P.  (1948-1953) President: Elpidio R. 1957 on Mt. remained unsolved. and the Filipino people were given international recognition in sports. Manunggal in Cebu)  (1953-1957) Vice-President: Carlos P. Macapagal  Filipino First Policy: President García exercised the Filipino First Policy. culture and foreign affairs. Lopez  Elpidio Quirino's six years as president were marked by notable postwar reconstruction. He also made a program focused on thriftiness. on the other hand. Garcia  His administration was considered one of the cleanest and most corruption-free. however. for which he was known. Basic social problems. This policy heavily favored Filipino businessmen over foreign investors.  (1953-1957) President: Ramon F.THIRD REPUBLIC  (1946-1948) President: Manuel L. Roxas (Died of a heart attack)  (1946-1948) Vice-President: Elpidio R. 3|Page . and increased economic aid from the United States. The Nacionalistas. 1946. Quirino  Senate President Roxas and his friends bolted from the Nacionalista Party and founded their own Liberal Party.  (1957-1961) President: Carlos P. Quirino (Assumed the remaining term & re-elected)  (1949-1953) Vice-President: Fernando H. general economic gains. On April 23. his presidency was cited as the Philippines' Golden Years. Roxas then became the standardbearer for presidency for the Liberal Party and Elpidio Quirino for vicepresident. Trade and industry flourished. and his administration was tainted by widespread graft and corruption. He was also responsible for changes in retail trade which greatly affected the Chinese businessmen in the country.

 (1961-1965) President: Diosdado P. Marcos (the first to win 2 presidential terms)  (1965-1972) Vice-President: Fernando H. Pelaez  Twenty days after the inauguration. Ramos was also known as the most-traveled Philippine President compared to his predecessors with numerous foreign trips abroad. but continued to be adopted by succeeding administrations. Macapagal  (1961-1965) Vice-President: Emmanuel N.80 to the dollar. Marcos (unseated by the People Power Revolution) (Marcos died in exile in Hawaii on September 28. there was the choice between the democratic and dictatorial systems. encourage private enterprise. and reduce corruption. there existed a choice of methods. On this. supported by a $300 million stabilization fund from the International Monetary Fund. Tolentino (proclaimed but did not serve due to the revolt) FIFTH REPUBLIC (Under the new "People Power" Constitution)  (1986-1992) President: Corazon Cojuangco-Aquino  (1986-1992) Vice-President: Salvador H. FOURTH REPUBLIC (Martial Law. To ensure 4|Page . exchange controls were lifted and the Philippine peso was allowed to float on the free currency exchange market. Ramos began implementing economic reforms intended to open up the once-closed national economy.  (1992-1998) President Fidel V. Ramos  (1992-1998) Vice-President: Joseph Ejercito Estrada  Ballot boxes were used in succession of the presidency  During his administration. The currency controls were initially adopted by the administration of Elpidio Quirino as a temporary measure. and stabilized at P3.To achieve the national goal of economic and social progress with prosperity reaching down to the masses. the choice was easy as Filipinos had long been committed to the democratic method. "The New Republic" & Parliamentary Government)  (1965-1972) President: Ferdinand E. The peso devalued from P2. 1962 that "the task of economic development belongs principally to private enterprise and not to the government. First. generating about US$ 20 billion worth of foreign investments to the Philippines. A. Lopez  (1972-1986) President: Ferdinand E. 1989 of Lupus complications) (1981-1986) Prime Minister: Cesar E. however. Macapagal stated the essence of free enterprise in layman parlance in declaring before Congress on January 22.With the democratic mechanism.64 to the US dollar. the next choice was between free enterprise and the controls system. invite more foreign and domestic investment. Laurel  She became the president because Marcos was impeached  First Woman president and the mother of democracy in the Philippines. the latter prevailing in Communist countries. Virata (1986) Vice-President: Arturo M.

allegations of corruption spawned a railroaded impeachment trial in the Senate courtesy of house speaker Manuel Villar.2% in 1997.7% average of Ramos. has made the economy the focus of her presidency.[12] In 2000 he declared an "all-out-war" against the Moro Islamic Liberation Front and captured it's headquarters and other camps.  Implemented various laws and working on the economic stability. thereby slowing the economic growth to 0.6% in 1998 from a 5.0% during the Arroyo presidency from 2001 up to the first [34] quarter of 2008. That afternoon the new president delivered his inaugural address at the Quirino Grandstand in Luneta. Guingona (1st term of Arroyo)  (2004-2010) Vice-President: Manuel "Noli" Leuterio de Castro (2nd term of Arroyo)  In her second term she used the ballot boxes. economic growth in terms of gross domestic product has averaged 5. 1998 in the historical town of Malolos in Bulacan province in paying tribute to the cradle of the First Philippine Republic. He assumed office amid the Asian Financial Crisis and with agricultural problems due to poor weather conditions.4% in 1999 and 4% in 2000.a positive financial outlook on the Philippines. This is higher than in the administration of the previous recent presidents: 3. with real GDP growth exceeding 7%.[4][13] However. Ramos led the 4th Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Leaders' Summit in the Philippines on November 1996.  Arroyo.[36] Arroyo's handling of the economy has earned praise from former "friend" and classmate in Georgetown.7%[35] average of the Joseph Estrada administration.  (1998-2001) President: Joseph Ejercito Estrada (Deposed by "People Power")  (1998-2001) Vice-President: Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo  Ballot Boxes were still in used. The Philippine economy grew at its fastest pace in three decades in 2007. and in 2001 Estrada was ousted from a coup after the trial was aborted. 5|Page .  (2001-2010) President: Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (Assumed Estrada's remaining term & re-elected)  (2001-2004) Vice-President: Teofisto T. who cited her "tough decisions" that put the Philippine economy back in shape  (2010-Present) President: Benigno Simeon "Noynoy" Cojuangco Aquino III  (2010-Present) Vice-President: Jejomar "Jojo" Cabauatan Binay  The first elected president who used the ELECTRONIC VOTING SYSTEM.8% average of Aquino. 3. Based on official (National Economic and Development Authority) figures.[11] The economy recovered by 3. and 3. ex-US President Bill Clinton.  Estrada was inaugurated on June 30. a practicing economist.

org 6|Page .ph/history/history. As I¶ve said I¶m not in the position to judge them.org/presidents.html  http://pinas.edu. At first he well loved by the people. My Conclusion: Being a president is not that easy.wikipedia. The big part of their job is being responsible and that thing is not simple.  For me the most effective President is Ferdinand Marcos.philippine-history. Noynoy Aquino is not included) is the most responsive to the people and who is the least? Explicate your answer. I can¶t think of any president whose the least effective because I believed that they all did what they think is the best for their country and countrymen and I think that being a president is a difficult job and I¶m not in the position to judge them because I don¶t know what they have gone through to make a better country. Point of References:  http://www. if only he didn¶t become so greedy in power I believe that he¶ll become the Most Responsible and well lived President. My assumption is that they do all their jobs perfectly it is such that in some way they¶ve been carried away by the power they have. though he became the most hated president but still he made the economy reached to it¶s highest peak and he made almost the other countries looked upon us because he is really good in making the Philippines really productive. they carry a big responsibility on their shoulder. because I think I don¶t have the right simply because I don¶t experienced their hardships.Who among the 14 Presidents (Pres.dlsu.html  www.

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