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PROSE "Euphues" is a Greek word and means "graceful, witty." Euphuism is a peculiar mannered style of English prose.

It takes its name from a prose romance by John Lyly. It consists of a preciously ornate and sophisticated style, employing in deliberate excess a wide range of literary devices such as antitheses, alliterations, repetitions and rhetorical questions. Classical learning and remote knowledge of all kinds are displayed. Euphuism was fashionable in the 1580s, especially in the Elizabethan court, but never previously or subsequently. Herbert says about the art of style in below mention words, "style is not an ornament, it is not an exercise, not a caper, nor complication of any sort. It is the sense of one's own self, the knowledge of what one wants to say and the saying of it in the most fitting words." Style is the dress of thought. Use of exact words at the exact place and at the exact moment makes the true definition of Style. Style of a writer is like the leaves of a tree, which complete the shape of tree to its best. ____'s mastery of style in ____ can be seen from the appropriateness of ____'s own manner of narration and description, which fits the matter as closely as a glove fits a hand. elude REDRESS OF POETRY Plato had a love-hate relationship with the arts. He is said to have been a poet before he encountered Socrates and became a philosopher. Some of his dialogues are real literary masterpieces. On the other hand, he found the arts threatening. He proposed sending the poets and playwrights out of his ideal Republic, or at least censoring what they wrote; and he wanted music and painting severely censored. The arts, he thought, are powerful shapers of character. Thus, to train and protect ideal citizens for an ideal society, the arts must be strictly controlled. In Plato's view, poetry is the wrong method for trying to find the truth for any number of reasons, which he explains in his great work, the Republic Attack on Poetry Plato raises the fundamental question of whether the pleasure produced by poetry is good for us. He finds poetry unacceptable altogether in his ideal Republic, and feels compelled to exclude poetry altogether y the poet write not through understanding or reason but by inspiration y poetry teaches the wrong stuff: for instance, "god" is by definition all that is "good", thus the poets clearly do NOT represent the gods as they really are (poets not only lie, says Plato, but "lie in an ugly fashion"!) y poetry arouses emotions in a way that is not in accord with reason y Poetry, as an imitation of a material world that already imitates the "really real", is at a second remove from the truth y poetry doesn't teach us anything: no one is better governed, or knows more about generalship, because of Homer: Homer conveys no practical or theoretical information y Poetry is ignorant about the thing described (does the painter or smithy know the proper quality of reins and bits for horses?) y poetry is not only ignorant, but dangerous, because the spell of the rhythm and song is so convincing that this description, which in fact holds no truth but is simply an ignorant representation, seems like the truth itself

poetry is ignorant and dangerous to the soul, since it produces the wrong emotions, and interferes with the striving towards pure reason that is the proper conduct of the "good" soul In sum, Plato's 4 arguments are: y Poets compose under inspiration, not by using reason y Poetry is ignorant about what it teaches, and thus teaches the wrong things y Poetry is a mimesis (imitation), and twice remove from the "really real" (that is, from the world of the Forms) y Poetry encourages the wrong emotions in the audience Poetry is tossed out of the Republic, but with a challenge Plato has now raised clearly the question of why representations of people suffering is a pleasurable experience Moreover, he has clearly linked this to the irrational side of one's being, thus setting it in the context of the "ancient quarrel between poetry and philosophy" Since the irrational cannot be allowed into his utopian, philosophy-ruled state, Plato tosses poetry (esp. tragedy) out of the Republic But at the same time, Plato issues a challenge to those who would care to make an argument to find a rightful place for poetry in the philosophical utopian state. "And we would allow [poetry's] advocates who are not poets but lovers of poetry to plead her cause in prose without meter, and show that she is not only delightful but beneficial to orderly government and all the life of man. And we shall listen benevolently, for it will be clear gain for us if it can be shown that she bestows not only pleasure but a benefit." Aristotle, Plato's most famous student, now takes up this challenge, point by point! Aristotle's answers to Plato's 4 principal arguments against tragedy: (1) Poetry is a skill, with rational rules (like shipbuilding or any other skill), and not really a process of inspiration The principles of poetic composition, set forth in detail in the Poetics, demonstrates that poetry is not simply inspired, but is a skill which can be learned, and has rules comprehensible by reason (2+3) Poetry represents reality in a useful way from which we can learn: poetry represents universals (as opposed to history, which represents particulars); poetry represents the actions of good men. The poet is the one who approaches the truth more directly by focusing on what is universal (rather than what is incidental or "particular") about human experience (4) Poetry arouses the emotions in such a way as to increase our ability to control them: catharsis. Controversy over what is intended by catharsis, which in Greek means "purification." Aristotle makes this argument in this way because it is an essential part of his rebuttal to Plato: if we are not sympathizing with good men, then clearly the experience of watching a tragedy cannot be allowed into the ideal state y yet there are times when a deeper need enters, when we want the poem to be not only pleasurably right but compellingly wise, not only a surprising variation played upon the world, but a re-tuning of the world itself. The subject that Seamus Heaney has treated, the redress of poetry, is not a new subject. The nature and purpose of poetry has been a subject of practical importance to everyone who has an interest in poetry. Seamus Heaney is the modern savior of poetry as it was liberated by Aristotle thousands years ago. Like Aristotle he also frees poetry from the stains of allegation. Heaney liked any other poet and intellectual was a Humanitarian and was well aware of the functions of the poetry. He quotes that

poetry gives us the picture of perfection like any other art from. Poetry takes us away from the sufferings to the world of happiness. A very famous critic is of the view, Life worries man, but poetry relieves man. Defenders of poetry; Sydney asserted (emphasized) that the poet takes us to the ideal. She straightforwardly wrote in Apology For poetry , A poet is a nightingale who sits in darkness and sings to cheer its own solitude with sweet songs; his auditors are axmen and trance by the melody of unseen musician who feel that they are moved and softened, yet know not whence or why. Shelley supported poetry because they reach the perfection. Oscar Wilde said that life should imitate art because art presents the perfection. Mathew Arnold went to extend that all that now goes in the name of religion or philosophy will be replaced by poetry. Poetry will perform the role of religion. It will show man the right path and it will bring consolation to man. Poetry has a power of sustaining aman in difficulties. This is the thesis of Heaney that in the present world only poetry can save man. This he calls redress of poetry . poetry is a violence from within that protects us from a violence without. Wallace Stevens A good poem helps to change the shape and significance of the universe, helps to extend everyone's knowledge of himself and the world around him. Dylan Thomas Poetry is the music of the soul, and, above all, of great and feeling souls. Voltaire Writing a poem is discovering Robert Frost Many brave men lived before Agamemnon; but all are overwhelmed in eternal night, unwept, unknown, because they lack a sacred poet. Horace (65 BC - 8 BC), Odes Poetry is finer and more philosophical than history; for poetry expresses the universal, and history only the particular. "The distinction between historian and poet is not in the one writing prose and the other verse... the one describes the thing that has been, and the other a kind of thing that might be. Hence poetry is something more philosophic and of graver import than history, since its statements are of the nature rather of universals, whereas those of history are singulars." Aristotle, On Poetics Painting is poetry that is seen rather than felt, and poetry is painting that is felt rather than seen Leonardo da Vinci Poetry heals the wounds inflicted by reason. ~Novalis A poem begins with a lump in the throat. ~Robert Frost Poetry is not a turning loose of emotion, but an escape from emotion; it is not the expression of personality but an escape from personality. But, of course, only those who have personality and emotion know what it means to want to escape from these Emily Dickinson The poet is in the end probably more afraid of the dogmatist who wants to extract the message from the poem and throw the poem away than he is of the sentimentalist who says, "Oh, just let me enjoy the poem." ~Robert Penn Warren Poetry is man's rebellion against being what he is. ~James Branch Cabell If Galileo had said in verse that the world moved, the inquisition might have let him alone. ~Thomas Hardy

When power leads man toward arrogance, poetry reminds him of his limitations. When power narrows the areas of man's concern, poetry reminds him of the richness and diversity of his existence. When power corrupts, poetry cleanses. (John Fitzgerald Kennedy) Poets are masters of us ordinary men, in knowledge of the mind, because they drink at streams which we have not yet made accessible to science. ~Sigmund Freud Poetry is the art of uniting pleasure with truth. ~Samuel Johnson The question about the redress of poetry means whether poetry can give man confidence, whether poetry can give man some assurance, whether poetry is the useful activity in the present situation, whether poetry is an aesthetic work or a pragmatic work, whether poets and poetry are of any use in the complexities and miseries of life or not. Right from the beginning, poets have been condemned as idle people. Some are of the view that poets are worthless people and some consider them an essential need of life. Heaney makes an fresh attempt to defend poetry in this age of science and technology when everyone is becoming utilitarian and even education has been commercialized. Poetry and Philosophy are now considered idle mental luxuries while commerce computer and business administration have been given the name of education. Heaney s start his thesis by distinguishing two planes of existence. He refers to his own poem, Squarings , which tells the story of an apparition that comes on the earth but could not stay here because it would have been drowned in the human element. The world of apparitions is one plane of existence, while the human element is the other plane of it. Besides, Seamus quotes George Herberts's Pulley which suggests that "the mind and aspiration of the human beings turned towards the heavenly in spite of all the pleasures and penalties of being upon the earth. These two dimensions of reality can be brought to reconcile with each other. This can be done by poetic sixth sense which provides a passage from "the domain of the matter-of-face into the domain of the imagination." Heaney is of the opinion that the world of reality and the world of imagination are two different worlds but they depend upon each other and therefore reinforce each other. Pulley is a parable, a moral story. There is a mystic and religious tough in this story. God created relentlessness in the mind of man in spite of all the pleasures and pains of life. The two above mentioned poems show that there are two dimensions of reality but there is a relationship between them. They can be brought to reconcile with each other. Pinsky in Responsibilities of the poet, says that the poet has a responsibility to answer. He is to answer the questions raised by life. Life raises questions and poets give their answers. Heaney is a didactic poet who believes that poetry gives lessons. This approach of Heaney is a blend of the romantic and the classical. Poetry focuses from delight to wisdom, not from wisdom to delight. (children + playhouse example) art shows what life ought to be. Heaney gives another example of Hardy's poem "afterwards". He says that poet tries to answer the questions raised by life. Life creates anxieties; poetry tries to relieve them. Life disturbs but poetry consoles. A work of art is created when man is neither fully awake nor fully sleep. This is a creative state and is also known as ecstasy. Neither he is too much bound with reality nor too much detached from it. This is what Richard Wilbur, an American poet, called the marginal area of creative mood. In his poem Marginalia, he describes that the best things can be perceived in a hypnologic state of mind.

Poetry gives an understanding of life. Poetry does not change life. It only shows what should be change. Poetry speaks of love for all people. Politics forces them to split. If poetry becomes politics then it will not remain poetry. It will become propaganda and in this way it will divide humanity into foes. Poetry is the joint effort of the reader and the writer. It means a poet should be the spokesman of the reader; he should feel and say what the reader feels and wants to say. He must be integrated with his society. We don't read and write poetry because it's cute. We read and write poetry because we are members of the human race. And the human race is filled with passion. And medicine, law, business, engineering, these are noble pursuits and necessary to sustain life. But poetry, beauty, romance, love, these are what we stay alive for.

--A man must make his opportunity, as oft as find it. --A little philosophy inclineth man's mind to atheism, but depth in philosophy bringeth men's minds about to religion. --A man that studieth revenge keeps his own wounds green. --A wise man will make more opportunities than he finds. --Choose the life that is most useful, and habit will make it the most agreeable. --For also knowledge itself is power. --If we do not maintain justice, justice will not maintain us. --It is as hard and severe a thing to be a true politician as to be truly moral. --It is impossible to love and to be wise. (Russell) --Knowledge and human power are synonymous. --Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digest --Nothing doth more hurt in a state than that cunning men pass for wise. --People usually think according to their inclinations, speak according to their learning and ingrained opinions, but generally act according to custom. --Read not to contradict and confute, nor to believe and take for granted... but to weigh and consider. --Certainly virtue is like precious odors, most fragrant when they are incensed, or crushed. --I have taken all knowledge to be my province. --Silence is the sleep that nourishes wisdom///--Silence is the virtue of fools. --The desire of excessive power caused the angels to fall; the desire of knowledge caused men to fall. --Histories make men wise; poets, witty; the mathematics, subtle; natural philosophy, deep; morals, grave; logic and rhetoric, able to contend. --Reading maketh a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man. --There is a difference between happiness and wisdom: he that thinks himself the happiest man is really so; but he that thinks himself the wisest is generally the greatest fool. --Whosoever is delighted in solitude is either a wild beast or a god.

BERTRAND RUSSEL --Extreme hopes are born of extreme misery.

-- One of the most powerful sources of false belief is envy. --Pride of a race is even more harmful than national pride. -- To realize the unimportance of time is the gate to wisdom. -- As soon as we abandon our own reason, and are content to rely upon authority, there is no end to our troubles. -- Patriotism is the willingness to kill and be killed for trivial reasons. -- I would never die for my beliefs because I might be wrong. -- If there were in the world today any large number of people who desired their own happiness more than they desired the unhappiness of others, we could have paradise in a few years -- In the part of this universe that we know there is great injustice, and often the good suffer, and often the wicked prosper, and one hardly knows which of those is the more annoying. -- No one gossips about other people's secret virtues. -- The main things which seem to me important on their own account, and not merely as means to other things, are knowledge, art, instinctive happiness, and relations of friendship or affection. -- The whole problem with the world is that fools and fanatics are always so certain of themselves, but wiser people so full of doubts. -- There are two motives for reading a book: one, that you enjoy it; the other, that you can boast about it. -- Not to be absolutely certain is, I think, one of the essential things in rationality. -- Of all forms of caution, caution in love is perhaps the most fatal to true happiness. (Bacon) -- Aristotle maintained that women have fewer teeth than men; although he was twice married, it never occurred to him to verify this statement by examining his wives' mouths. Impact of Science on Society -- We have, in fact, two kinds of morality side by side: one which we preach but do not practice, and another which we practice but seldom preach. -- The point of philosophy is to start with something so simple as not to seem worth stating, and to end with something so paradoxical that no one will believe it. -- Fear is the main source of superstition, and one of the main sources of cruelty. To conquer fear is the beginning of wisdom. -- Man is a credulous animal, and must believe something; in the absence of good grounds for belief, he will be satisfied with bad ones GULLIVER S TRAVEL --I cannot but conclude the bulk of your natives to be the most pernicious race of little odious vermin that nature ever suffered to crawl upon the surface of the earth." (Part II) -- as to those filthy Yahoos, although there were few greater lovers of mankind, at that time, than myself, yet I confess I never saw any sensitive being so detestable on all accounts; and the more I came near them, the more hateful they grew, while I stayed in that country." (Part IV) --I never wonder to see men wicked, but I often wonder to see them not ashamed. --as a literary artist he is consummate n his skill: yet no man probably ever attended less to rules of art. His charm chiefly lies in the absolute ease with which he could by words create the very mood humourous or grave, gay or cynical, profoundly misanthrope, or playful and tender in which he desired to place his readers.

--Bacon's genius for compression lends much to his style. Every aphorism that we come across startles us by its novelty. Every epigram arrests us. Every pithy sentence holds our attention and by all charm, delight and thrill us because they all cloths weighty and valuable ideas, suggestions, lessons, and so on and what adds to their appeal is the fact that bacon does not seem to have made conscious efforts to produce them. The aphoristic style is not "laboured" in the case of bacon; it is truly spontaneous.