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views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Directors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequences of their use. Terminology used may not necessarily be consistent with ADB official terms.
Managing Non Revenue Water Losses - SAJH Non Revenue Water Strategy
Gary Wyeth, Project Manager, Ranhill Water Services S/B Anuar Abdul Ghani, Head of Non Revenue Water Reduction Department, SAJ Holdings Sdn Bhd 1.0 Introduction
Non Revenue Water (NRW) is a measure of a water companies operating efficiency and as such has a direct affect on profit levels and company reputation. SAJ Holdings Sdn Bhd (SAJH) has a further reason to reduce NRW in that it has set agreed targets under its concession agreement. To enable SAJH to achieve its concession set NRW targets, and thus improve operating efficiency, a strategy has been developed aimed at reducing and then managing SAJH’s NRW levels. NRW is a continual process with new forms of water loss evolving on a daily basis. The faster that these problems can be identified and resolved, the less water will be lost. Therefore the basic strategy has been based on three stages of NRW management, Awareness, Location and Repair. The faster that SAJH can undertake each of these stages, for the various NRW components, the lower it can maintain its NRW levels.
Volume of Water Lost Cubic Metres per Day
Volume Lost= Quantity X Time
Volume of Water lost over Time Total Time to Stop the Leak
Awareness Time in Days
In addition the strategy takes a long term look at SAJH’s assets and the maintenance of these assets to prevent, or at least delay, further anomalies from happening. These maintenance works are nothing radical, but basic operational activities, but managed under a scheduled program. The strategy is holistic in its approach covering SAJH’s entire operations from raw water intake volumes to customer consumptions, ensuring that it encompasses all the components of NRW including: Mains Leakage Reservoir Leakage Reservoir Overflows Customer Metering & Billing Errors Production Metering Pressure management Illegal Connections Water Theft All of the above components have an effect on SAJH’s NRW level and all must therefore be considered when developing the NRW strategy, not just the high profile components such as mains leakage. 2.0 2.1 NRW Strategy Awareness
New NRW components arise everyday, such as bursts, leaks, overflows, meter malfunctions, etc and the time taken to become aware of their existence has a large impact on the NRW level. To reduce this awareness time, this strategy requires the implementation of extensive flow, pressure and level monitoring at the following locations: • • • • • Water Treatment Plants Booster Pump Houses Reservoirs District Meter Zones Large Customers
The data collected at these locations is telemetered back to District Control Rooms, where the data is analysed and actions formulated. 2.2 Location
Being aware that a NRW loss exists is the first step in its resolution, however the time taken to locate the exact reason for the loss will affect the NRW level as well. Certain types of loss can be quite easy to locate, such as an overflowing reservoir, whereas others may require long/extensive investigations, such as a small buried leak. To reduce this locating time, this strategy requires the implementation of the following programs: • Active Leakage Control • Operations / Call Centre • GIS Mapping • Network Modelling • Public Awareness Campaign 2.3 Repair Once the exact cause of the loss has been determined and located, the repair can be made. High quality, of workmanship & materials and rapid repairs are essential to reduce the current losses and to reduce the likelihood of repeat failures. To reduce this repair time, policies: • • • • • 2.4 this strategy requires the implementation of the following Construction methods and materials specifications Pressure and Flow management Customer Charter Customer Meter Testing Staff training
Many of the NRW losses that arise can be prevented through preventative system maintenance. The following preventative system maintenance activities are to be undertaken under the NRW strategy: • Meter accuracy testing program • Valve servicing program • Reservoir cleaning and leakage testing • Mains refurbishment • Customer meter servicing & replacement programs 3.0 NRW Strategy Implementation The NRW strategy was developed in Q3 of 2003 and, along with the implementation plan and budget, gained board approval in Q4 of 2003. The full implementation of the strategy is expected to take two years, with completion due at the end of 2005. The first year of the program consists mainly of installation programs, with the second year more concerned with the utilization of these installations. The following table outlines progress, of installation works, to date and expected progress by end of 2004. Activity Production Metering Reservoir Monitoring District Metering Pressure Control Telemetry Data Loggers Temporary Flow Monitoring Mains Replacement Completed to date 97 No. 59 No. 455 No. 75 No. 185 No. 26 No. 710 km By end of 2004 111 No. 114 No. 583 No. 175 No. 430 No. 205 No. 830 km
In addition the following operational programs are in progress: Operations / Call Centre SAJH has set up a company wide Operations Centre, based at its HQ in Johor Bahru. This Operations Centre receives all customer calls, through the toll free help line, & internal job requests and monitors their progress through an integrated Job Management System. A GIS map is being developed for the whole of Johor State. To date the background map is completed 100% and some 50% of SAJH’s assets drawn. SAJH has 38 leakage control teams across Johor actively undertaking leakage detection activities including, step testing, leak noise logging, correlating
Active Leakage Control
and basic sounding. During the first half of 2004 these activities have led to 6944 leaks being detected. Mains Replacement SAJH inherited a pipe system consisting of over 60% Asbestos Cement pipe material. This AC pipe is in a poor condition and an extensive mains replacement program is currently being carried out. To date 710 km of mains have been replaced throughout Johor.
Customer Meter Replacement
The accuracy of customer meters reduces over time and therefore regular meter replacement is required to ensure billing accuracy. SAJH’s internal policy states that all customer meters will be replaced after a maximum of 9 years operation. During 2004 34,944 customer meters will be replaced under this program. The cleaning of all large customer meters is done on a yearly basis to ensure billing accuracy. SAJH has 3041 customer meters of 2” and above in size. All of these will be serviced during 2004. The calculation of NRW requires accurate production volumes and customer consumption volumes. To ensure the accuracy of these volumes regular functionality & volumetric tests are undertaken. SAJH meter readers are issued with a Hand Held Terminal, into which the current meter reading is entered. A bill is then issued on the spot and handed to the customer. This reduces non-delivery of bills, data entry errors and meter reading errors. A major action in any NRW reduction program is the education of both the water company staff and the public. Staff awareness programs are held regularly and public awareness campaigns are planned throughout Johor.
Customer Meter Servicing -
Meter Accuracy Testing
These are a selection of the installation works and operational programs that are ongoing or planned under the NRW strategy. A work plan has been developed from the strategy, scheduling the works for the first two years, which will see all of the installation works and most of the operational programs in place. The next phase will be to utilise these equipments and programs fully and optimize them economically.
Economic Level of NRW
Most regulated water companies have NRW levels as a contractual target, with the levels to be reduced to, set without much consideration. All systems have an economic level of NRW, which is determined by plotting the costs of NRW reduction and the cost of water lost on a graph as shown below.
Economic level of NRW
COST OF WATER LOST COST costs The cost of water lost is based on a combination of water production OF and sales NRW CONTROL tariffs. This is a straight line as it is dependant only on the volume of water being lost.
The cost of NRW reduction has more components, such as staffing, equipment, repair, maintenance costs, etc. This line is curved, with the costs increasing as the NRW level gets lower. This is because as the NRW level decreases the NRW loss components NRW LOSSES become harder to detect and repair, the leaks become smaller and more are underground, reservoir overflows occur in remote areas, etc. Using the above methodology, SAJH plans to determine the optimum level of NRW for each DMZ in its system and develop a work plan to meet them. It is important to remember that these graphs will change as costs change, ie staff costs, tariff changes, chemical & electrical costs, etc. Therefore the economic level of NRW is a live parameter that needs to be regularly monitored and refined. 5.0 Summary
In summary SAJH understands that the reduction of NRW is not just a contractual issue, but both a financial, and a business sense issue. SAJH has therefore developed an NRW strategy aimed at reducing NRW to contractually set targets. In addition SAJH will determine the optimum level of NRW and refine its strategy to meet these new targets. The reduction of NRW is not something that can be done overnight, but requires a long term plan of equipment installation, staff awareness & training, improved methodologies
and policies and a willingness to succeed. In SAJH it is understood that this strategy will take 2 to 5 years, but the staff and management can see the benefits to the implementation of this strategy and are backing it 100%.
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