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International Aquafeed is published five times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2009 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058
The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry
F: Gustor Aqua
and consequently antimicrobial efficacy, in proximal stomach of catfish is similar for the three acids, it is greater for butyric in distal stomach.
F: Gustor Aqua
ient formulation of commercial feeds. thus extracted soy is the most commonly As described in mammals, butyrate utilised soy product. The alcohol-soluble provides anti-inflammatory properties fraction of extracted soy, however, still in the distal intestine by modifying contains active antinutrients, being ascribed as the cause of inflammation in distal intestine (enteritis) (Francis et al. 2001). Several investigations have reported soy-induced enteritis in salmonids (Baeverfjord and Krogdahl 1996; Krogdahl et al 2003), sea bream (Bonaldo et al 2008), sea bass (Boonyaratpalin et al 1998) and common carp (Urán et al 2008). This pathological alteration is microscopically characterised by hypertrophic mucosa, infilFigure 2: Beneficial effects of GUSTOR Aqua tration of inflammatory cells, hyperaemia, and shortening transcription factors, which in turn of the enterocyte microvilli, leading to control the expression of inflammatory decreased absorptive capacity and conseresponse genes (Hamer et al 2008, Le quently reduced nutrient utilisation and Gall et al 2009). performance (Baeverfjord and Krogdahl In fish, the anti-inflammatory effect of 1996; Urán et al 2008; van de Ingh et al sodium butyrate was detected by sup1991). plementing 0.01 percent to a salmon diet In addition, there is some indication containing 25 percent extracted soy, which that susceptibility to bacterial disease may be negatively affected by soyinduced enteritis (Krogdahl et al 2000). As a result, Krogdahl et al Providing proficient tools to (2003) conachieve cost-effective cluded that and sustainable aquaculture practices no more than 5-15 percent of soy (weight basis) should be included in salmon diets in order to prevent enteritis, thus limiting higher dietary incorporation levels of this ECOBIOL Aqua available source a highly effective single strain probiotic of protein. GUSTOR Aqua In this situa natural growth promoter ation, sodium butyrate arisBIOMET Aqua an organic mineral source es as a tool to prevent the rl development Natuna trition u of soy-induced For more information visit www.norel.es enteritis and allow for a more conven-
Trophic effect on intestinal epithelium
While pH in proximal intestine of pigs and broilers is acidic, it is closer to neutrality in fish and shrimp (Page et al 1976; Yúfera et al 2004). In addition, pH alkalinity increases further down the digestive tract, reducing the presence of the acidic forms and the subsequent efficacy of SCFA to reduce microbial load in intestine. Therefore, the higher pH along the intestine of aquaculture species favours the butyrate or dissociated form of the acid. The stimulatory effect of butyrate on intestinal epithelium development in different animal species has been demonstrated in both in vivo and in vitro conditions, elucidating greater epithelial cell proliferation with the administration of sodium butyrate when compared to sodium acetate and sodium propionate (Sakata and Tamata 1978a, 1979; Sakata 1987). In a study conducted by Galfi and Bokori (1990), 0.17 percent sodium butyrate supplemented in pig diets increased cell proliferation in ileum by 33 percent, resulting in 30 percent increase in villi length. This stimulatory effect can be interpreted as a combination of direct and indirect mechanisms along the different sections of the intestine (Sakata 1984). While the caloric content of butyrate is higher than that of propionate and acetate, and it is preferentially oxidised by the epithelial cells when compared to other energy sources (Ardawi and Newsholme 1985; Roediger 1982, Roediger and Rae 1982), butyrate also stimulates insulin secretion, which in turn exerts a stimulatory effect on intestinal epithelium (Jordan and Phillips 1978). As a result of improved villi development, absorptive surface area is enlarged, leading to better nutrient utilisation and enhanced animal health status and performance.
An effective solution to optimise health status and nutrient utilisation
by Waldo G Nuez-Ortín, DVM, MSc Aquaculture Technical Manager at Norel SA, Spain Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.norel.es
quaculture today is facing a number of challenges: high stocking densities and the consequent proneness to pathogen transmission; the increasing limited - or even banned - use of antibiotics; the feeding of less degradable plant-based diets to name a few. As a result reduced survival, as well as lower efficiencies and growth, lead to unprofitable aquaculture practices. When confronting this situation the inclusion of Gustor Aqua in both fish and shrimp diets stands out as a natural tool to stimulate health and growth in aquaculture practices. Gustor Aqua contains sodium butyrate, which is the sodium salt form of butyric acid. Butyric acid is a weak and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) resulting from microbial fermentation of mainly undigested dietary carbohydrates, thus it is naturally produced and present within the intestine of both carnivorous and herbivorous fish (Holben et al 2002; Mountfort 2002). Several publications have addressed the effects of SCFA and their salts on the health and performance of fish showing improvements in digestibility, growth performance and health (Lückstädt 2008). These SCFA are commonly known by their specific antimicrobial activity, how-
ever, other key benefits such as trophic and anti-inflammatory effects on intestinal epithelium have been attributed to sodium butyrate (Gálfi and Bokori 1990; Le Gall et al 2009). From a practical feeding perspective, and unlike the acid form, sodium butyrate is characterised by reduced pungent odour, non-corrosiveness and non-volatility, allowing for convenient storage and feasible addition of Gustor Aqua before feed processing.
consequent disruption of the metabolic processes) and reduced energy availability due to the effort required transporting the proton out of the bacteria (Dibner and Buttin 2002). The subsequent reduction in the butyric acid intolerant microorganisms contributes to a diminished risk of subclinical infections and nutrient demand by the gut-associated immune system; this leads to enhanced health status and nutrient utilisation. As reported by Page et al (1976),
The magnitude of the beneficial effects of sodium butyrate is largely dependent on two factors; concentration and pH. Each SCFA has a pKa value, defined as the pH at which the acid is half dissociated, thus pH determines the extent of dissociation/undissociation Figure 1: Dissociation/undissociation state of of the acid (see Figure 1). butyric, formic and lactic acids The same as the undissociated state of other SCFA, the stomach pH of channel catfish ranges the butyric form is strongly lipophilic and approximately from one to three proximally capable to diffuse across the membrane of and from three to four distally, while pKa gram negative bacteria (Gálfi and Bokori values for butyric, lactic and formic acids 1990). Once inside the bacterial cytoplasm, are 4.82, 3.83 and 3.77, respectively (Dibner the more alkaline pH causes dissociation and Buttin 2002). Thus, these values suggest of the acid, resulting in two fatal incithat while the degree of undissociation, dents for the bacteria: pH decline (and the
22 | INTERNATIONAL AQUAFEED | July-August 2011
The increasing shortage of fish oil and fishmeal is motivating research towards the quest of alternative vegetable raw materials and their utilisation in aquaculture diets. Soy is a high protein ingredient with favourable price and available in large quantities on a world-wide basis. The use of whole soybeans as dietary ingredient is not recommended due to its high content of antinutrient factors (lecithin, saponins, allergenic proteins, etc.),
July-August 2011 | INTERNATIONAL AQUAFEED | 23
ANUNCI 90X132.indd 1 27/06/11 18:24
Professor Simon Davies in the feed technology of Life Sciences in London on warm his first degree, a BSc with Honours, from fish funded by the Chinese (Drying, InstituteandAquaculture explainedbasic relaSalting of Smoking), looking at In 2010 George M Hall edited this book lab with water fish nutrition and breeding background: “I Holger Kuhlwein, Daniel Leeming, last year she Cardiff University in Wales. He quickly folthe have and post-harvesting to right) had close Government and Sam smoking tionships, drying, salting,Staggs, and Ben Eynon (left Fish, Processing, Sustainability, Opportunities technology of tilapia. lowed that with an MSc in agricultural in fish smoking along with sustainability. with contributions from S Kose, J C RamirezIn later chapters subjects covered are sustainability of fermented Ramirez, K Shirai and K S Williams. This books looks to address the major challenges facing the global COMPLETE PLANTS AND MACHINES fish products, on INDUSTRY FOR THE FISH FEED board fish processing, fishmeal production and sustainability, utilization of fish processing by-products for bioacseafood industry by addressing the issues of efficient raw material tive compounds and life cycle assessment of bulk packaging used utilization, energy usage, environmental impact, water usage, packKAHL Extruder OEE to transport fresh fish products: Case Study. aging and transport among others. for Fish Feed This book has brought together a lot of information about the fish It looks at the latest information on current technologies and processing industry and introduces new ideas and technologies. ● Flexible production has presented it in a clear and concise layout ● Flexible production Chapter of Directors of introductory chapter, which from the ● Hydraulically adjustable die and the image of aquaculture one acts as an Republic capital, Prague, sets held Hydraulically adjustable die inthat is easy to follow and understand. I believe this book will become Nice, France. The event he Boards ● ents and feed additives for a valuable of toigh quality presenthose slowly tone for the book by presenting the 1-5, 2012. ● Production of floating, slowly comprises an international scien- activities. Our new technologies for the European Aquaculture September background against which ● Productionassetfloating, who work and design future is what we health and tations related it will be ofanimaluse to new growth, to the global fish processing industry and fish processing will exist the AQUA events are co- tific sinking, and water stable pellets sinking, and international make how Society (EAS) and the in The near future. It will also serve conference, anwater stable pellets of it now – great we alle• the advances in animal as students. m a n i p u l a t i o n o f ● exhibition, up to 30 in and upcoming to 30 for viate well as an introduction to later chapters by EAS processes tradeFat content upscientists% Wor ld Aquaculture Society organised on specific and WAS and ● Fat contentworkshops% this field aspover ty; how we manage finished animal product feed ingredients and ● Pellet diameter 2 - 12 mm additives ● Pellet producers, 12 mm (WAS) have the pleasure to every six years, and AQUA 2012 aquaculturediameter 2 -forums our future resource needs and quality, optimizing availare now invited for the FIAAP AMANDUS KAHL GmbH & Co. KG, Dieselstrasseorganised Reinbek / Hamburg, Phone: +49 40 727 71 0, Fax: +49 40 727 71 100 5-9, D-21465 by students and by especially how we educate, train able raw materials, food Asia Conference 2012, to email@example.com, www.akahl.de the European Commission and manage knowledge for the ISBN: 978-1-4051-9047-3 chain safety, environmental take place February 16, 2012, MIXING CONDITIONING PELLETING EXTRUSION COATING next Directorate General for research COOLING generation of aquaculture impact or physical pellet Bangkok Thailand. DEADLINE: and many other satellite work- researchers, producers and other quality. September 1, 2012. stakeholders. shops and meetings. The 4th in the series of An integral par t of FIAAP July-August 2011 | INTERNATIONAL AQUAFEED | events AQUA 2012 Programme coThe previous AQUA 3 ASIA 2012, the specialized feed FIAAP Conferences will take each attracted more than 2000 chair s Marco Saroglia, José ingredients and additives event place Febr uar y 16, 2012 participants from over 50 coun- Polanco and Zdenek Adamek will be the FIAAP Conference. at a new venue: the BICC, tries, showing the global impor- have put together a vast proHigh quality presentations are Bangkok, Thailand, in assotance of aquaculture and specif- gramme of more than 50 technow invited from qualified ciation with Victam Asia nical sessions that will be open for ically this event. experts that deliver new infor- 2011. The theme “Securing our abstract submission. Major pillars The deadline for presentamation to the feed industr y Future” has several aspects. It has of the technical programme worldwide, and particularly in tion submission is September obvious implication in global and include Environment, Biodiversity 1, 2012. Asia Pacific on: BENEO-Animal Nutrition capitalizes on BENEO‘s unique expertise in theregional food security and aqua- and Climate Change; Aquaculture food world. It offers a broad formulation • feed range of culture value placing aquaculture Cer tification; Aquaculture and ingredients from a natural source that improve the nutritional and technologicaltrade, of fish food. It covers • nutrient requirements MORE Production speciality products such as vegetable proteins, functional carbohydrates and prebiotics from chicory. products in the global fisheries Human Health; INFORMATION: • tr Connecting nutritionaditional and novel Feedstuffs, Feeds and Suzi Dominy economic Systems; announcewww.BENEO-An.com that the AQUA 2012 succeeds the 2006 event in market. It also refers to and health protein sources Email: firstname.lastname@example.org event will take place in the Czech Florence, Italy and the 2000 event and environmental sustainability Feed additives; Molluscs & other • the application of ingredi- Website: www.feedconferences.com
duction, worldwide. The agreement will enable Chinese grad-
2 to 12 mm
Email: email@example.com Website: www.amandus-kahl-group.de
PRODUCT SHOWCASE • PRODUCT SHOWCASE • PRODUCT SHOWCASE
Call for Papers announced: AQUA 2012: Global Aquaculture - Securing Our Future FIAAP Asia Conference 2012
Active ingredients for healthy fish
Inver tebrates; Mar ine Shr imp; G e n e r a l Finfish Culture; Freshwater Fish Culture; Marine Fish Culture; S e awe e d s ; Ornamentals; Aquaculture Economics; Animal Welfare, Health and Diseases; Breeding and Genetics and other specialised topics. The programme therefore covers many aspects of the global aquaculture value chain for contribution by authors from all over the world. Following the approval of the location by EAS and WAS Boards, Michael New OBE, Chair of the AQUA 2012 Steering Committee commented: “After somewhat delicate discussions over the past two years with our partners and authorities in
St Petersburg, Russia and subsequently in Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt, the approved location in Prague is for me definitely not a ‘third choice’ location. We just hadn’t considered it in our earliest discussions. After visiting Prague for the first time early this year, I was taken in by its beauty and fascinated by the centuries-old tradition of aquaculture, pond and water management in the Czech Republic. Pr ague is at the centre of
Europe. It is an easy 2012 at the upcoming inaugulocation to fly or drive ration of the South Bohemian ® Research Center to and the congress Brabender of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses centre is close to the Extruder centre, with excellent is one that we will not miss. Our Brabender® Laboratory metro links stopping Institute staff members are young, Extruder motivated and in front of the building dynamic and instruments we are our utmost to support and with an extremely will do used for research the and of AQUA 2012. wide choice of luxury success development ”for more e r n f years. t i o F u r t hthan i50 o r m a Then o n a n d bu d g e t h o t e l s single- and twin-screw AQUA 2012 will be published within easy reach”. extruder systems stand AQUA 2012 will be on the web sites of EAS and WAS, with abstract submisor ganised with the out for the low output of 0.1 kg up to of sion and registr ation local par tner ship 25 kg/h. Electronically controlled,availrecipes of be developed and within the coming the University canSouth able online improved, and the the are statistically weeks. Bohemia, data home of Czechevaluated. Segmented screw set ups allow for configurations which are adapted aquaculture and pond fisheries. to Otomar Linhart, Dean M and lead to optimum Professor the corresponding productORE INFORMATION: modules of theresults. Different additionalAlistair Lane (like pressure Faculty of Fisheries and transducer, dosing univer- European Aquaculture Society Protection of Waters at the devices, etc.) in combination with Brabender® extruders, can Email: firstname.lastname@example.org sity expressed his support, saying be Website: www.easonline.org in a laboratory the basis “the University of South Bohemia of a successful final to host on John is exceptionally proud productthe the Cooksey market. organisation of AQUA 2012 in World Aquaculture Society our country. This year, we are celebrating the 90th birthday of the Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology and the chance that we have to announce AQUA
Email: email@example.com Website: www.was.org
PRODUCT SHOWCASE • PRODUCT SHOWCASE • PRODUCT SHOWCASE
Mario Stael MAREVENT Email: Mario.Stael@Scarlet.be
AQUAFEED | July-August 2011
REGISTER TODAY AT WWW. ALGAECONGRESS.COM
12 | INTERNATIONAL AQUAFEED | July-August 2011 July-August 2011 | INTERNATIONAL AQUAFEED | 9
July-August 2011 | INTERNATIONAL
MICROALGAE & AQUATIC BIOMASS
Interactive Presentations on: Aquatic Biomass - BioFuels & By-products - Production Systems; Scale & Economics - BioRe nery Concepts - Genetic Engineering vs. Strain Collection - Sustainable Aquatic Cycles - Innovative Applications of Advanced Biotechnological Solutions I Information Market - Posters
1 & 2 DECEMBER 2011 BERLIN, GERMANY
July-August 2011 | INTERNATIONAL AQUAFEED | 43
Alltech European Bioscience Centre | Sarney | Summerhill Road | Dunboyne | Co. Meath | Ireland Tel: +353 (1) 825 2244 | Fax: +353 (1) 825 2245 | alltech.com facebook.com/AlltechNaturally twitter.com/@AlltechTweets
F: Gustor Aqua
diet was supplemented with 0.5kg Gustor Aqua B92 per tonne of feed and fed twice daily during 56 days. Results (see Table 1) showed significant improvements in weight gain (+35%), specific growth rate (SGR) (+30%), feed conversion ration (FCR) (-16%) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) (+35%) relative to the non-supplemented diet. In a second trial conducted at the College of Aquaculture and Fisheries at Can Tho University (Vietnam), a shrimp (Penaeus monodon) diet was supplemented with one kg of Gustor Aqua B-coated per tonne of feed and fed during two months. Coefficients of digestibility were determined by the use of chromic oxide as an inert marker. As shown in Table 2, the supplementation of Gustor Aqua B-Coated significantly enhanced digestibility of drymatter (DMd) (+12%), crude protein (CPd) (+5%) and energy (Ed) (7%), leading to numerical improvements in weight gain, survival and FCR. In both experiments, the observed positive outcomes can be attributed to two facts derived from the use of sodium butyrate; reduced pathogenic microbial load due to the antimicrobial effect and enhanced nutrient utilisation due to the better intestinal absorptive surface area.
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Current aquaculture practices are exposed to high risk of disease and reduced performance due to the high stocking densities and use of plant-based diets. Thus, aquafeed formulations must focus not only on nutritional specifications but also on the health status of digestive tract and the resultant nutrient utilisation. Gustor Aqua, by providing antimicrobial, trophic and anti-inflammatory effects to the gastrointestinal tract, warrants reduced microbial competition as well as enlarged and healthy intestinal absorptive surface area. This is reflected in optimal health status and nutrient utilisation by the Table 2: Effect of dietary supplementation of GUSTOR Aqua B-coated (0.1%) on digestibility and performance animal and consequently in increased parameters of shrimp (P. monodon) productivity (see Figure 2). Therefore, DMd (%) CPd (%) Ed (%) Weigh gain (g) Survival (%) Gustor Aqua is a natural and costeffective alternative that ensures safe Control 64.90 a 85.20 a 78.10 a 13.67 90 and profitable production.
GUSTOR Aqua B-Coated (0.1%) 72.46 a 89.11 b 83.26 b 4.01 93 Means with different superscripts in the same column are significantly different (P<0.05) DMd: Dry matter digestibility / CPd: Crude protein digestibility / Ed: energy digestibility / FCR: Feed conversion ratio
26 | INTERNATIONAL AQUAFEED | July-August 2011
B-coated contains 30-40 percent sodium butyrate protected with vegetable fat, ensuring the delivery of sodium butyrate to the lower tract, and consequently the trophic and anti-inflammatory properties on intestinal epithelium. B70 is the latest developed form, Forms containing both 40 percent free and Gustor Aqua is manufactured in three 30 percent protected Table 1: Effect of dietary supplementation of GUSTOR Aqua B92 (0.05%) on s o d i u m performance parameters of catfish (P. hypohthalmus) butyrate Initial Weight SGR and providFCR PER weight (g) gain (g) (% day) ing antimicrobial, Control 6.90 a 37.56 a 3.34 a 1.65 a 1.34 a trophic and anti-inflamGUSTOR Aqua 6.75 a 50.68 b 4.32 b 1.39 b 1.81 b B92 (0.05%) m a t o r y p ro p e r t i e s Means with different superscripts in the same column are significantly different (P<0.05) SGR: Specific growth rate / FCR: Feed conversion ratio / PER: Protein along the efficiency ratio entire gastrointestinal tract different forms: B92, B-Coated and BP70, each of them designed to deliver different beneficial effects of sodium butyrate along Trial data the different sections of the gastrointestinal The efficacy of dietary supplementation tract. of Gustor Aqua - in both B92 and B-Coated B92 is 92% free sodium butyrate, thus forms - on performance parameters have maximising the antimicrobial activity as well been evaluated in different species. as the intestinal epithelium development in In a trial carried out at Nong Lam University the upper tract of fish. (Vietnam), a catfish (Pangasius hypohthalmus)
resulted in reduced enteritis when compared to the non-supplemented diet and in similar growth rate when compared to the same diet containing fish oil instead of soya (Koppe 2009).
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An effective solution to optimise health status and nutrient utilisation
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