July | August 2011 Feature title: Update in Phosphorus Nutrition in Aquaculture

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The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry

F: Phosphorus
phosphate [DFP]), in rainbow trout Channel catfish and salmon Mirror carps*** P source Salmonids* ** (Ogino et al 1979; Lovell, 1978; Lall 1991). This was MSP 98 88.6 further confirmed MCP 94 90-94 in the 90’ for MDCP 81.7 different species. DCP 71 74.8 46 Kim et al. (1996) DFP 64 54.8 13 determined MCP b i o av a i l a b i l i t y Notes: * Ogino et al (1979), Hua & Bureau (2006) **Eya & Lovell of 90percent in (1997) ***Kim et al (1996). mirror carp. In channel catfish, Eya and Lovell (1997) also published higher yet at the current production levels. This values for water soluble sources (MSP, means that, as gain/feed ratio increases, the Monodicalcium phosphate [MDCP]). requirements (stated as fraction of the diet) In table 2, we can summarize what must also be increased if the rest of the literature has published about P availability factors remain the same. of inorganic P sources. This situation enhances the challenge of today’s Aquaculture since more available P should be added in the formulas. Modern diets: Later on, in 2000, Rodehutscord et al, Current developments in Aquaculture feed estimated the requirement of P as function production are seeking the substitution of fish of Digestible Energy (DE), reporting a value protein by mainly vegetable proteins. This trend of 0.25 g P per MJ of DE. is driven by both economic and ethical concerns. Commercial diets have changed from more than 40percent fish meal to less than 20percent, with Organic P sources: excellent/similar As it was the case in other monogastric production results. species (Van der Klis & Versteegh, 1996 and Recently, Jongbloed et al., 1996), during the 90’ there Brinkera and Reiteb was an extensive evaluation in Aquaculture (2011) evaluated of the raw materials both from vegetable as the replacement of well animal origin. fish meal by plant Again, as in other monogastric animals, P protein, aminoacids digestibility in vegetable feeds was found to and highly available be variable and depending on the amount inorganic phosphate of phitate P (Riche & Brown, 1996). The in trout feeds. They authors found that values ranged from 75 confirmed the percent in Soybean meal of phitate P, to 52 potential value of percent in case of Corn gluten meal. plant proteins as Regarding sources of animal origin, sigcomponents in feeds nificant differences could be found within to reduce eutrophifish meals. Herring meal was significantly cation by fish farm higher than Anchovy, Menhaden or Sardine wastes. The low meal. intrinsic P content In table 1, true P availability of various allows dietary levels feedstuffs can be observed. (Riche & Brown, to be easily adjusted 1996) to meet, without exceeding, the physiInorganic P sources: ological needs of the With regard to inorganic sources, we fish, thus minimizing find a similar situation to the one already the excretion of described for organic sources. the excess P. As a Before NRC 1993, information from result of this trial different fish species, revealed that water the authors found soluble sources (Mono sodium, potasium P digestibility sigand calcium, MSP, MKP and MCP respecnificantly improved tively) had higher availability (94% to 98%) with the diet based than non-water soluble sources (dicalcium on 100percent plant phosphate [DCP] or defluoriated rock

F: Phosphorus
origin, but also found healthier livers and leaner filets. This confirms what Lee et al. (2010) had published in rainbow trout regarding growth performance and feed utilization when a well-balanced ingredient mix of plant-proteins was supplied with limiting aminoacids and highly available inorganic phosphate.

Highly available inorganic feed phosphates should be used to formulate fast growing modern fish diets based on vegetable protein to accurately meet P requirements, helping the environment.

Update in Phosphorus Nutrition in Aquaculture
by Juan M. Hernandez Vieyra, Yara Phosphates Oy/ Argent Export SA, Argentina. Email: jmhv@argenexport.com.ar

Literature available upon request

Yara Phosphates Oy provides highly available phosphate sources, Monosodium and Monocalcium phosphates, which are the perfect combination for the modern high plant protein diets, collaborating to reduce water pollution and thereby supporting the sustainability of Aquaculture.

Aquaculture is the fastest growing food production system, with annual rates of 21 percent in Latin America (leading Chile and Brazil) and 23 percent since 1980 in Asia (mainly China, but also Thailand and Indonesia). Hence, it also has the responsibility of being environmentally sustainable and safe for consumers. In i n t e n s i ve Aquaculture systems, feeds provide the largest "Aquaculture is the fastest growing source of environmental pollution (Seymour and food production system, with Bergheim, 1991): mainly annual rates of 21 percent in Latin nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). America (leading Chile and Brazil) If pollution loads are to be reduced, feed must and 23 percent since 1980 in Asia be designed to maximize (mainly China, but also Thailand and nutrient retention and minimize nutrient losses Indonesia). Hence, it also has the to the environment. Among the minerresponsibility of being environmentally als required by fish, P is sustainable and safe for consumers" crucial because of its limited availability in natural waters. P accounts for the greatest expense in the mineral supplement. could estimate that by 2050 the Over-supplementation of P results in an farmed fish will represent close to unnecessary important investment, while 70 percent, and it is expected to leading to an inefficient utilization of the reach production levels similar to nutrient by the cultured species. Therefore, those of chicken.
32 | INTERNATIONAL AQUAFEED | July-August 2011

q u a c u l t u re t o d ay represents almost 47 percent of the total fish consumption. According to FAO, this percentage can grow significantly in view of the increasing world’s population coupled with the steady wild catch. One


it will increase the nutrient loading of the culture systems and effluent waters (Velasco et al 1998).

P Requirements:
In 1997 Åsgård & Shearer made an experiment in which they measured the requirement of absorbable P in Atlantic salmon, reaching 10 mg g-1. This value was higher than previously reported ones in the literature. When compared to them, it was found that in Åsgård & Shearer trial, the feed efficiency was higher, although not
Table 1 True P availability Protein source % Canola meal (30% CP) Soybean meal (solvent extract) Soybean meal (extruded) Soybean (raw, fullfat) Peanut meal Corn Gluten meal Herring meal Anchovy meal Menhanden meal Sardine meal 48.40 9.70 16.80 31.50 41.70 43.50 55.40 35.50 21.50 37.10

July-August 2011 | INTERNATIONAL AQUAFEED | 33

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