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BREAD TECHNOLOGY AND CANCER Simac V., Sandric M.M., Caragia V., Nicolaeva D., Golovco Ju.

National Institute of Research & Development for Food Bioresources - IBA Bucharest, Interdisciplinary Research Compartment, Bucharest, Romania 2 Scientific-Practical Institute of Horticulture, Viticulture and Food Technology, Laboratory of Food Technology, Chisinau, Moldova 3 "SVD-GROUP" SRL, Chisinau, Moldova
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Bread and other bakery products are the most important consumed worldwide daily food products. The classical bread quality approach has been focused on the bread crumb porosity and whiteness. It has so much spread over the world that, even in our days, when nutrition science have discovered the importance of some biologically active compounds, which are missing here, most of the consumers and of the producers are looking for or producing a such type of bread. Its normally and good consumer behavior and food production practice or not? If the bread and bakery products would be representing a little slice of our daily intake, may be the situation would not be so bad. But in most of the cases, bread and bakery products bring about 20-30% of our daily calories. According to classical bread quality approach, to achieve the best crumb porosity and whiteness the producer will need the flour with lower extraction rate, the whitest as possible, besides the quality and quantity of gluten, the content of -amylases, etc. For the same purpose it will be necessary to add some additives. As a result, the final product looks good, but its nutritional value is the poorest possible and even may be harmful. This is the correct explanation for some of the identified connections between white bread consumption and kidney and colorectal cancer. Different studies conducted in different countries (UK, Italy and Poland) came to the same conclusions. The fact is so clear, that for non-harmful bread even has been established a new characteristic: non-white, meaning any kind of bread (whole meal, brown, rye, multi-cereal, with seeds, etc), except white bread, which is now qualified as bad. While the scientific proves is evident, still remain a gap between science and production, between science and consumption preferences. The explanation of that gap is simple: the producers are looking for money and consequently sell everything can be sold, in this case white bakery products. On the other hand, the consumers usually are buying the products which are widely sold, because it gives an impression of safety. So, its a vicious circle, with apparently no exit. To solve this situation is the role of the scientist and of the scientific dissemination. They are the people who know and who own the best means to spread this knowledge at large scale for producers, consumers and other scientists. The best way to escape cancer is to prevent it. Let than our food be our medicines, as Hypocrites has said. On the way to new and healthy bread, its useful to take into account not only the fiber intake, which is very important, by the way, but also the nutritional and sensorial characteristics, the shelf life, the absence of mycotoxins, chemical pollutants or pests, the type of the ingredients (natural, organic preferably and non-GMO) and utilization of latest available food safety systems and standards, like ISO 22000, HACCP and Good Manufacturing Practices. Besides the wheat and rye flour (even whole meal), the sensorial and nutritional characteristics may be improved by using of different kind of ingredients, which are not normally used to make bread: herbs and spices, fruits, seeds, vegetables, legumes and cereals. These materials may be used in different forms: grounded, dried, powder, meals, flour, flakes and oil. Potential ingredients suppliers in this case may be the following: producers of food supplements and natural medicines, which usually have natural by-products, food companies with natural products or by-products, farmers. An example of new ingredients to be used in bakery is by a merging with the supercritical CO2-extraction technology. That technology extracts from natural raw materials, at low temperature, different fraction rich in biologically active substances. Normally, these fractions may be used in pharmaceutical, cosmetics or food supplements industry. But there will be some by-products, which may be very well used in bakery technology. A bilateral project Development of CO2 - extraction technology of biologically active substances of wheat germ was financed by Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Moldova (project No 24/RoA) and National Authority for Scientific Research of Romania (project No 417/2010) which will apply exactly this principle of utilization the extracts in some industries and the remaining by-product in bakery. With the classical methods of extraction in pharmaceutical or food industry will result some by-products, like press cakes, filter-cakes or extraction cakes, which may be used in bakery (taking in account of course the solvents content and avoiding possible toxicity). The main idea is to improve, as much as possible, the bread nutritional and sensorial characteristics by low-cost and ecological materials and methods. This should be included also in governmental strategy and supported by the state in all the aspects, because bread is the strategic food in the country it may improve or deteriorate the health of the entire population (like water for instance).
Literature: 1. M. A. Sanjoaquin, P. N. Appleby, M. Thorogood, J. I. Mann and T. J. Key, "Nutrition, lifestyle and colorectal cancer incidence: a prospective investigation of 10.998 vegetarians and non-vegetarians in the United Kingdom", British Journal of Cancer (2004) 90, p.118121, doi: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6601441. 2. E. Bidoli, S. Franceschi, R. Talamini, S. Barra, C. L. Vecchia, "Food consumption and cancer of the colon and rectum in northeastern Italy", International Journal of Cancer, Vol. 50, Issue 2, p. 223229, 21 January 1992. 3. H. Boeing, W. Jedrychowski, J. Wahrendorf, T. Popiela, B. Tobiasz-Adamczyk and A. Kulig, "Dietary risk factors in intestinal and diffuse types of stomach cancer: a multicenter case-control study in Poland", Cancer Causes and Control, Volume 2, Number 4, p.227233, doi: 10.1007/BF00052138.