Project Report on Study of wind energy


Submitted By:
ANKIT KUMAR Roll No. : 11916051004 ASHUTOSH VIVEK Roll No. : 11916051043 VIKAS KUMAR Roll No. : 11916051031 PRABRIT BANDYOPADHYAY Roll No. : 11916051014




Guide: Mr. JAYANTA BASU (Department of Electrical Engineering, S.I.T.)


SILIGURI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY P.O. SUKNA, SILIGURI, PIN:734009, WEST BENGAL ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Certified that project work entitled :- “Study of Wind Energy” is accomplished by ASHUTOSH VIVEK ANKIT KUMAR VIKAS KUMAR PRABRIT BANDYOPADHYAY Roll No- 11916051043 Roll No- 11916051004 Roll No- 11916051031 Roll No- 11916051014

in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award for degree of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY in ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING under WEST BENGAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, KOLKATA during the year2008-2009. It is certified that all corrections/ suggestions indicated for internal assessment have been incorporated in the report submitted in the Department.The project report has been approved as it satisfies the academic requirements inrespect of project work prescribed for achieving Bachelor of Engineering Degree.

Signature (Project Guide)

Signature (Head.Of.Department.)


This dissertation could not have been written without Mr. Jayanta Basu who not only served as our supervisor but also encouraged and challenged us throughout our academic program. He and the other faculty members, Mr. Dipak Bhattacharya and Dr. S. Dasgupta patiently guided us through the dissertation process, never accepting less than our best efforts. We thank them all.

10. 9. 13. Introduction History Wind energy in india Renewable source of energy Major components of wind energy system and factor effective wind energy Types of wind mills Working principles and construction Termonologies related to wind energy Wind turbine characteristics Distribution of wind speed Study of generation of wind energy About matlab Matlab simulink model and analysis Global science in wind power Some important aspects regarding wind energy Economics and feasibility Utilization of wind power 6. 7. 3. 14. 8.CONTENTS 1. 15. 5. 4. . 12. 17. 16. 2. 11.

and for irrigation. grinding grain. There are about a dozen wind pumps of various designs providing water for agriculture. USA. Reference INTRODUCTION Wind energy is the kinetic energy associated with the movement of atmospheric air. Realizing the growing importance of wind energy. or further converting to electric power to generate electricity. Wind turbines transform the energy in the wind into mechanical power. and domestic purposes. Gujarat has 167MW followed by Andhra Pradesh. 19. which can then be used directly for grinding etc. Wind energy continues to be the fastest growing renewable energy source with worldwide wind power installed capacity reaching 14. all scattered over the country. Spain and India – account for 80% of the world’s installed wind energy capacity. in the sea) wind farms in some regions of Europe.e. Denmark. Wind energy systems for irrigation and milling have been in use since ancient times and since the beginning of the 20th century it is being used to generate electric power.18. Wind turbines can be used singly or in clusters called ‘wind farms’. . Another important development has been the offshore (i. At the end of March 2000 India had 1080-MWs capacity wind farms. of which Tamilnadu contributed 770-MW capacity. Wind energy systems convert this kinetic energy to more useful forms of power. aforestation.000 MW. Small wind turbines called aerogenerators can be used to charge large batteries. manufacturers have steadily been increasing the unit size of the wind electric generators since the late 1980s. In India the states of Tamilnadu and Gujarat lead in the field of wind energy. which have several advantages over the on-shore ones. Five nations – Germany. Advantage of wind energy Conclusion 20. which has 88 MW installed wind farms. It has been used for hundreds of years for sailing. Windmills for water pumping have been installed in many countries particularly in the rural areas. The third major development has been the use of new techniques to assess the wind resource for techno-commercial viability.

It has a high tripod tower and its double-action pump increases water output by about 60% compared to the conventional singleaction pumps. .The design of the Auroville multi-blade windmill has evolved from the practical experience gained in operating these mills over a period of 20 years or so.

In 1891. for many years. which were otherwise devoid of readily accessible water. But generation of electricity from wind was initiated at the end of the 19th century. The first practical windmills were later built in Sistan. These were vertical-axle windmills. and were used in the gristmilling and sugarcane industries. and many Dutch windmills still exist. The first modern wind turbines were built in the early 1980s. although more efficient designs are still being developed. Horizontal-axle windmills were later used extensively in Northwestern Europe to grind flour beginning in the 1180s. and architects have used wind-driven natural ventilation in buildings since similarly ancient times. Dane by the name of Poul La Cour built the first electricity generating wind . these windmills were used to grind corn and draw up water. by pumping water from wells for the steam locomotives. the development of the "water-pumping windmill" was the major factor in allowing the farming and ranching of vast areas of North America. The use of wind to provide mechanical power came somewhat later in antiquity. They contributed to the expansion of rail transport systems throughout the world.500 years to propel sailboats and sailing ships. Wind pumps that use mechanical energy from wind mainly for water-pumping purposes are in use since long. to bring the temperatures inside up to 1100-1200 Celsius. Made of six to twelve sails covered in reed matting or cloth material. An early historical reference to a rudimentary windmill was used to power an organ in the 1st century AD. The ancient Sinhalese utilized the monsoon winds to power furnaces as early as 300 BC evidence has been found in cities such as Anuradhapura and in other cities around Sri Lanka The furnaces were constructed on the path of the monsoon winds to exploit the wind power. The multi-bladed wind turbine atop a lattice tower made of wood or steel was.HISTORY Humans have been using wind power for at least 5. from the 7th century. Afghanistan. In the United States. which had long vertical driveshafts with rectangle shaped blades. a fixture of the landscape throughout rural America. The Babylonian emperor Hammurabi planned to use wind power for his ambitious irrigation project in the 17th century BC.

By the end of 1989. It was improved by the Danish engineers and used to supply energy during energy shortages in World War I and II. Now wind turbine of capacity 5 MW is in use. a 300 kW wind turbine with a 30 m rotor diameter was state-ofthe. 1500 kW turbines with a diameter of about 70 m were manufactured. The wind turbine built by the Danish Company F L Schmidt in 1941/42 can be considered the forerunner of modern wind turbines. Then the technology was improved and it was used in many countries.turbine. .art. The wind turbines were not used much till 1970s when energy crisis occurred. Then ten years later.

wind energy is currently making a significant contribution to the installed capacity of power generation. Owning a wind turbine assures them of uninterrupted power supply to their factory or business in a country where power cuts are common. If the present expansion rate is maintained. with other states. some Indian manufacturers have started to export their products. This is beginning to change. About 10 wind turbine manufacturers are currently offering their products to the Indian market. There was a move to encourage diversification of fuel sources away from the growing demand for coal. This has resulted both in more cost-effective production and in creating additional local employment. Nearly 1150 wind-monitoring and mapping stations were set up in 25 states and union territories as part of the Wind Resource Assessment Programme. All state governments have been directed to create an attractive environment for the export. especially the southern state of Tamil Nadu. and is emerging as a competitive option. and gas required to feed the country’s rapid economic growth. More recently. this target will easily be surpassed . Fifty of these windmonitoring stations are in operation. MNES undertook an extensive study of the wind regime. Th energy in India came in the early 1980s from the erstwhile Department of Non-conventional Energy Sources. often consist of clusters of individually owned generators. and cricket stars to invest in wind power. wheeling. oil. some companies now source more than 80% of the components for their turbines from India.WIND ENERGY IN INDIA Among the different renewable energy sources. Maharashtra. and Rajasthan. which made it possible to assess the national wind potential and identify suitable areas for harnessing wind power for commercial use. It is not surprising that more than 97% of original impetus to develop wind investment in the wind sector in India comes from the private sector! Due to a stronger domestic manufacturing sector. Spain. and USA in wind power generation. assumes one per cent land availability for wind power generation in the potential areas. Gujarat. catching up. These incentives have encouraged industrial companies. Bollywood actors. purchase. now known as the MNES (Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources). The result is that wind farms can be seen under construction right across the country. establishing a countrywide network of wind speed measurement stations. and banking of electricity generated by wind power projects. Onshore wind power potential assessed at 45 000 MW in early 1990s. The Indian government now envisages a capacity addition of around 5000 MW by 2012. The government has since allocated 80% of the depreciation in the first year of installation of a project as direct taxes and a tax holiday till 2006. ranks fourth in the world after Germany. with an installed capacity in excess of 4220 MW (megawatt). including A n d h r a Pradesh. Wind farms in India. from the coastal plains to the hilly hinterland and sandy deserts. therefore. which accounts for more than half of all installations. As a result. India. The geographical spread of Indian wind power has so far been concentrated in a few regions.


000 small (20–100 watt) solar power systems sold per year. wind. such as geothermal energy. with 13% coming from traditional biomass.8% of final energy consumption. where energy is often crucial in human development. providing 3% (15% of global electricity generation). sometimes in rural and remote areas. . peak oil and increasing government support are driving increasing renewable energy legislation. or from heat generated deep within the earth. yet the market is growing for many forms of renewable energy. wind. wind.RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY Renewable energy is energy generated from natural resources—such as sunlight. tidesand geothermal heat—which are renewable (naturally replenished). Some renewable energy technologies are criticised for being intermittent or unsightly. New government spending. tides and geothermal heat.3%. wind power. as the International Energy Agency explains: "Renewable energy is derived from natural processes that are replenished constantly. Each of these sources has unique characteristics which influence how and where they are used. followed by solar hot water/heating. In its various forms. renewable technologies are also suited to small off-grid applications. solar power. rain. such as wood-burning. about 18% of global final energy consumption came from renewables. Modern technologies. and policies should help the industry weather the 2009 economic crisis better than many other sectors Renewable energy flows involve natural phenomena such as sunlight. In 2006. regulation. Kenya has the world's highest household solar ownership rate with roughly 30. which contributed 1. Climate change concerns coupled with high oil prices. it derives directly from the sun. Hydroelectricity was the next largest renewable source. and biofuels and hydrogen derived from renewable resources. and ocean energy together provided some 0. Included in the definition is electricity and heat generated from solar. While most renewable energy projects and production is large-scale. incentives and commercialization. hydropower. biomass. geothermal resources. ocean.




The tubular towers are more popular among modern turbines because of their lower airflow interference and downstream turbulence creation. On large turbines the nacelle with rotor is electrically yawed into or out of the wind. Tower “A steel lattice or tubular pole tower is used. Also.MAJOR COMPONENTS OF WIND ENERGY SYSTEM A wind turbine generator system usually consists of the following parts. but the latter are becoming popular and have a number of technical advantages. they seem to be more aesthetically acceptable. In twobladed designs the hub is lighter and thus.” Rotor blades “ The current design uses either two. the entire structure is lighter.or three-bladed wind turbines.” The nacelle “ This sits atop the tower and holds the rotor blades in place while housing the gearbox and the generator. This is traded off by the fact that three-bladed designs are much better understood aerodynamically and also have a lower noise level than the two-bladed turbines.” . These blades are made of GRP (glass-reinforced plastic).

sites have to have average wind speeds of about 10 m/s. In order to be economical. a number of wind turbines are established to tap most of the energy from the wind. But there is a physical limit for blade size. On the other hand. Diameter of rotor Power by the wind turbine is proportional to the cross-sectional area at which it intercepts the wind. taller hubs become more expensive and hence it is economically decided. The bigger the diameter. P Air density The higher the density of air. This is called a wind farm. Elevation of blade hub above ground The higher the blade hub is above the ground. the more is the power carried by the wind. too close a spacing will lead to interference. However. Too far a spacing of turbines will prevent the maximum amount of wind to be intercepted. As the air density decreases with height above sea level.FACTORS AFFECTING WIND ENERGY Wind velocity As power generated is proportional to the cube of wind velocity. and downwind units will be less productive. usually sites in mountainous regions are less preferable than those at flat. sea level locations. it is natural that the site for the plant must have higher wind speed for most part of the year. In other words. the more is the power generated. it depends on the diameter of rotor blade. Spacing of wind turbines on wind Farms In a particular area with adequate wind velocity. . the higher is the wind velocity (to the 1/7th power).6% higher. An increase in hub elevation from 30 m to 50 m leads to an average wind speed 7.

Wind machines stand tall and wide to capture more wind. Horizontal-axis wind machines can be further divided into three types.5 to 4. The more wind the more power. The largest wind machines in the world have blades longer than a football field.speed propeller type windmills .type grain grinding windmills ii)Multiblade water-pumping windmills iii)High. i) Dutch.0 million kilowatt hours (kWh) of electricity a year. Most windmills are the horizontalaxis type. One wind machine can produce 1. A typical horizontal wind mill stands about as tall as a 20-story building and has three blades that span 200 feet across. HORIZONTAL-AXIS WIND TURBINES Horizontal-axis wind machines have blades like airplane propellers. These windmills have their main shaft parallel to the ground. That is enough electricity for to power 150-400 homes.TYPES OF WINDMILLS There are two types of wind machines used today: horizontal–axis wind machines and vertical-axis wind machines.

it looks like a stack of wheel rims. The concave surfaces channel wind toward the turbines. Eneco. Each module has a pair of small.VERTICAL-AXIS WIND TURBINES Vertical–axis wind machines have their main shaft perpendicular to the ground. i)The Savanious rotor ii)The Darrieus rotor THE WIND AMPLIFIED ROTOR PLATFORM (WARP) The Wind Amplified Rotor Platform (WARP) is a different kind of wind system that is designed to be more efficient and use less land than wind machines in use today. Vertical-axis machines come in two types. The WARP does not use large blades. instead. They have blades that go from top to bottom and look like giant egg beaters. Vertical-axis wind machines make up just five percent of the wind machines used today. The typical vertical wind machine stands 100 feet tall and 50 feet wide. plans to market the technology to power offshore oil platforms and wireless telecommunications systems WORKING PRINCIPLE AND CONSTRUCTION . high capacity turbines mounted to both of its concave wind amplifier module channel surfaces. amplifying wind speeds by 50 percent or more. the company that designed WARP.

. At those times. like the effect on airplane wings. today’s wind machines use blades to collect the wind’s kinetic energy. causing them to turn. Windmills work because they slow down the speed of the wind. there is still the problem of what to do when the wind isn’t blowing. other types of power plants must be used to make electricity. With the new wind machines.Like old fashioned windmills. The wind flows over the airfoil shaped blades causing lift. The blades are connected to a drive shaft that turns an electric generator to produce electricity.


MULTIBLADE WATER-PUMPING WINDMILL . Orientation of the blades are done by fan-tail system. When the wind direction changed. The blades generally four are inclined at an angle to the plane of rotation. the fan-tail rotated and turned the main windmill back to the wind. exerted a force in the direction of rotation. The wind being deflected by the blades. The blades were made of sails or wooden slats. there is a windmill behind and at right angles to the main one.DUTCH WINDMILLS Dutch windmills operated on the force exerted by the winds. When the main mill faced the wind. the fan-tail did not. direct driving the orientation system.

The later dominates the low winds.Modern water-pumping windmills have large number of blades-generally wooden or metallic slats-driving a reciprocating pump. These are hinged to a metal ring to ensure structural strength and low speed rotation adds to the reliability. The windmill orientation depends on a combination of the axial thrust of the wind on the rotor and the thrust on the tail-vane. orienting the rotor almost in the direction of wind. The blades are made of flat steel plates. working on the thrust of winds. even at low winds. These machine should have an inbuilt protection against high winds and storms. These mills must be able to operate at slow winds. Hence sometimes these are called fan-mills. But the former dominates at high winds and make the rotor face away from the wind. HIGH-SPEED PROPELLER TYPE WIND MACHINE . The large number of blades give a high torque required for driving a centrifugal pump. this may be achieved by mounting the orienting tail-vane slightly off the axis of the main rotor.

The horizontal-axis wind turbines that are used today for electrical power generation do not operate on thrust force. They depend mainly on the aerodynamic forces (lift forces and drag forces) that develop when wind flows around a blade of aerofoil design, these forces are determined by the wind speed, called the relative wind. Actually lift force creates the torque in a modern wind turbine. The blades are of aerofoil section, which move along the stream of wind. They are so aligned that drag force is minimized and the lift force is maximized, and thus gives the blade a net positive torque.


The savonius rotor is extremely simple vertical axis device that works entirely because of thrust force of winds. The basic equipment is a drum cut into two halves vertically. The two parts are attached to the two opposite side of the vertical shaft. As the wind blowing into the structure meets with the two dissimilar surfaces- one convex and the other concave-the forces exerted on the two surfaces are different, which gives the rotor a torque. By providing a certain amount of overlap between the two drums, the torque can be increased. This is because the wind blowing into the concave surface turns around and gives a push to the inner surface of the other drum, partly cancelling the wind thrust on the convex side. An overlap of about one third the drum diameter gives optimum result.


The darrieus rotor has two or more flexible blades attached to the vertical shaft. The blades bow outward, taking approximately the shape of a parabola, and are of symmetrical aerofoil section. Fibre-reinforced materials with fibres aligned along the blade are quite suitable for construction. The generator and the gear assembly are located at the ground level, hence cost is lower. It develops a positive torque only when it is rotating, when it is stationary torque is zero. This means that such a rotor has no starting torque and has to be started using some external means(generally by an electrical machine). The design has an inbuilt protection for stormy weather-the rotor tends to stall at high winds

6 for large ones. The solidity of savonius rotor is unity. it is typically around 0. 3) POWER COEFFICIENT The power coefficient of a wind converter is given by Cp = power output from wind machine / power contained in wind 4) SPECIFIC RATED CAPACITY Specific rated capacity (SRC) is defined as SRC = power rating of the generator / rotor swept area It varies between 0.01 and 0.1. Solidity has a direct relationship with torque and speed. 5) AXIAL SPEED OF WIND Speed of wind through the rotor n m/sec. For multiblade water-pumping windmill. denoted by V 6) SPEED OF BLADE ELEMENT The speed of blade element at a distance r from the rotor axis is 2ПrN in m/sec. N is the rotational speed in rev/sec.2 for small rotor to 0. it lies between 0. High solidity rotors have high torque and low speed and for low solidity rotor it is vice versa. R is the radius of the swept area (in m).7. V is the wind speed without rotor interruption (in m/sec). For high-speed horizontal axis machines and darrieus rotor. 2) TIP SPEED RATIO The tip speed ratio (TSR) of a wind turbine is defined as ʎ = 2ПRN / V where ʎ is TSR (non-dimensional). it is the blade area met by the wind or projected in the direction of wind. The projected blade area does not mean the actual blade area.TERMONOLOGIES RELATED TO WIND ENERGY 1) SOLIDITY The solidity of wind rotor is the ratio of the projected blade area to the area of the wind intercepted. denoted by U 7) RELATIVE VELOCITY .

denoted by i. It is given by Fd = PA⍺^2Cd/2 where Cd is the drag coefficient. whose axis is the rotor axis the section is aerofoil-shaped. denoted by I. 14) DRAG FORCE The component of the aerodynamic force in the direction of the relative wind. it is also called angle of attack i=I-⍺ 13) LIFT FORCE The lift force is the component of the aerodynamic force in the direction perpendicular to the relative wind. 12) ANGLE OF INCIDENCE It is the angle between the relative velocity vector and the chord line of the aerofoil. 11) ANGLE OF INCLINATION The angle between the relative velocity vector and the plane of rotation. 15) TOTAL AEROYNAMIC FORCE Total aerodynamic force on a blade is given by F = Fl + Fd 16) THRUST FORCE The component of F along the direction of wind. W=v–u 8) BLADE AXIS The longitudinal axis going through the blade. 10) PITCH ANGLE The angle ⍺ between the chord of the aerofoil section at r and the plane o rotation. 9) BLADE SECTION AT r The intersection of the blade with the cylinder of radius r. denoted by Ft 17) TORQUE FORCE . It is given by Fl = pA⍵Cl/2 newtons where c is the lift coefficient and A is the blade area in sq. also called the setting angle. m.The velocity of air flow relative to the blade.

the power extracted from the wind is maximized if Cp is maximized. The maximum value o the shaft mechanical power or any wind speed can be expressed by Pmax = Cpп(R^5/ʎ^3)⍵^3 i. the rotor speed should be adjusted proportionately to adhere always to this value of ʎ for maximum mechanical power output from the turbine. For each wind speed there is an optimum turbine speed at which the extracted wind power at the shaft reaches its maximum.e. The optimum value of Cp always occurs at a definite value of ʎ. For a given wind speed. where the power coefficient is plotted against the TSR.denoted by Fm 18) AERODYNAMIC MOMENT The moment of F about the axis in Newton metres. The mechanical power transmitted to the shaft is Pm = (pCpAV^3)/2 Where Cp is a function of the TSR. denoted by M WIND CHARACTERSTICS POWER-SPEED CHARACTERISTICS TURBINE The wind turbine power curve illustrate how the mechanical power that can be extracted from the winds can be extracted depends on the rotor speed. Such a family of wind turbine power curves can be represented by a single dimensionless characteristic curve namely.The component of F along u . ʎ and pitch angle ⍺. the Cp . This means that for a varying wind speed. maximum mechanical power is .ʎ curve.

. the darrieus rotor and the savonius rotor are given below. and the maximum shaft torque varies approximately as the square of the rotational speed.ʎ the torque is quadratically related to the rotational speed. In case of electricity production. For the propeller turbine and the darrieus rotor torque is maximum at a specific rotational speed. The T – S characteristics if the two blade propeller type wind turbine. This is shown in fig TORQUE-SPEED CHARACTERISTICS Studying torque-speed characteristics is very important for matching the load and ensuring stable operation of electrical generator. It is seen that at optimum operating point on the Cp . Since torque and power are related by Tm = Pm / ⍵ and at optimum operating point the relation between aerodynamic torque and rotational speed is Tm = {(pCpп(R^5/ʎ^3)⍵^3}/2.proportional to ⍵^3. the torque can be made to vary as the square of the rotational speed. and by choosing it properly. the load torque depends on the electrical loading.

The choice of the constant of proportionality is very important. the load curve follows the maximum shaft power. At the optimal value. Conesquently. But at a higher value. the load torque may exceed the turbine torque for most speed. the machine would fail to speed up above a very low value. . The power output is a product of torque and speed. activating the speed limiting mechanism. it also has a maxima that vary as the cube of rotational speed. If the constant k is lower than the optimum value the machine may overspeed at the rated wind speed.

Different locations will have different wind speed distributions. there are about 10 times as many wind turbines in Texas as there are in Kansas." The larger the WPD calculation. described for example as "Mean Annual Power Density at 70 Meters. To assess the frequency of wind speeds at a particular location. half of the energy available arrived in just 15% of the operating time. The consequence is that wind energy from a particular turbine or wind farm does not have as consistent an output as fuel-fired power plants. It further takes into account wind velocity and mass. in particular the use of stronger inter-regional transmission to link widely distributed wind farms. Wind power density (WPD) is a calculation relating to the effective force of the wind at a particular location. and an average value for a given location does not alone indicate the amount of energy a wind turbine could produce there. The Weibull model closely mirrors the actual distribution of hourly wind speeds at many locations. The Weibull factor is often close to 2 and therefore a Rayleigh distribution can be used as a less accurate. much of the energy comes in short bursts. frequently expressed in terms of the elevation above ground level over a period of time. the higher it is rated by class. . since the average variability is much less. The 2002 Lee Ranch sample is telling. Even though wind power is comparable in Texas and Kansas.Distribution of wind speed The strength of wind varies. but simpler model." The results of the above calculation are used in an index developed by the National Renewable Energy Labs and referred to as "NREL CLASS. Making wind power more consistent requires that various existing technologies and methods be extended. utilities that use wind power provide power from starting existing generation for times when the wind is weak thus wind power is primarily a fuel saver rather than a capacity saver. Because so much power is generated by higher wind speed. a probability distribution function is often fit to the observed data. the use of hydro storage and demand-side energy management. Color coded maps are frequently prepared for a particular area.

The surplus power produced by domestic microgenerators can. At a substation. Transmission systems operators will supply a wind farm developer with a grid code to specify the requirements for interconnection to the transmission grid. Induction generators. this medium-voltage electrical current is increased in voltage with a transformer for connection to the high voltage transmission system.Electricity Generation Grid management system Typical components of a wind turbine (gearbox. or wind turbines with solidstate converters between the turbine generator and the collector system. Different types of wind turbine generators behave differently during transmission grid disturbances. have generally more desirable properties for grid interconnection. rotor shaft and brake assembly) being lifted into position Electricity generated by a wind farm is normally fed into the national electric transmission network. Doubly-fed machines. This will include power factor. Individual turbines are interconnected with a medium voltage (usually 34.5 kV) power collection system and communications network. require reactive include power for excitation so substationsused wind-power collection systems substantial capacitor banks for power factor correction. . unlike steam or hydro turbine-driven synchronous generators (however. properly matched power factor correction capacitors along with electronic control of resonance can support induction generation without grid). be fed back into the network and sold back to the utility company. constancy of frequency and dynamic behaviour of the wind farm turbines during a system fault. in some jurisdictions. induction generators cannot support the system voltage during faults. producing a retail credit for the consumer to offset their energy costs. so extensive modelling of the dynamic electromechanical characteristics of a new wind farm is required by transmission system operators to ensure predictable stable behaviour during system faults (see: Low voltage ride through). In particular. often used for in wind power projects.

35x24x365 = 3. The ratio of actual productivity in a year to this theoretical maximum is called the capacity factor.066 MWh. with projection 2009-2013 based on an exponential fit.35 MW. with values at the upper end of the range in particularly favourable sites.760 megawatt-hours in a year (1x24x365).For example. Since wind speed is not constant. Online data is available for some locations and the capacity factor can be calculated from the yearly output. . averaging to 0. Typical capacity factors are 20-40%.Capacity factor Worldwide installed capacity 1997-2008. a wind farm's annual energy production is never as much as the sum of the generator nameplate ratings multiplied by the total hours in a year. a 1 megawatt turbine with a capacity factor of 35% will not produce 8. but only 1x0.

According to a 2007 Stanford University study published in the Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology. as long as minimum criteria are met for wind speed and turbine height. . and so are run at full output and achieve a 90% capacity factor. Capacity factors of other types of power plant are based mostly on fuel cost. Gas turbine plants using natural gas as fuel may be very expensive to operate and may be run only to meet peak power demand. A gas turbine plant may have an annual capacity factor of 5-25% due to relatively high energy production cost. baseload electric power. the capacity factor is limited by the inherent properties of wind. interconnecting ten or more wind farms can allow an average of 33% of the total energy produced to be used as reliable.Unlike fueled generating plants. Plants with higher fuel cost are throttled back to follow load. with a small amount of downtime for maintenance. Nuclear plants have low incremental fuel cost.

and (at high penetration levels) could require an increase in the already existing energy demand management. At low levels . load shedding. However these challenges are no different in principle to the substantial challenges imposed by other forms of generation such as nuclear or coal power. or storage solutions or system interconnection with HVDC cables. and seasonally. which can also show very large fluctuations during unplanned outages and have to be accommodated accordingly. Intermittency and the non-dispatchable nature of wind energy production can raise costs for regulation. daily.Intermittency and penetration limits Intermittent Power Sources Wind turbines on Inner Mongolian grassland Diagram of the TVA pumped storage facility at Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Plant Electricity generated from wind power can be highly variable at several different timescales: from hour to hour. incremental operating reserve. Because instantaneous electrical generation and consumption must remain in balance to maintain grid stability. but is not as significant. Annual variation also exists. this variability can present substantial challenges to incorporating large amounts of wind power into a grid system.

000.000 x 100 / 4. a fluctuation in load and allowance for failure of large generating units requires reserve capacity that can also regulate for variability of wind generation. Total annual US power consumption in 2006 was 4 thousand billion kilowatt hours. A series of detailed modelling studies which looked at the Europe wide adoption of renewable energy and interlinking power grids using HVDC cables. indicates that the entire power usage could come from renewables. peak wind speeds may not coincide with peak demand for electrical power. according to this model.a. when winds tend to be stronger in many areas. the cost of $60 billion investment would be about 5% p. but it is not envisaged that this would apply to a large proportion of wind energy generated.of wind penetration.000 x 1 exp9 = 0. but not to all the power produced from the 30 or so GW of nuclear plants in the UK. Geothermal heat pumps also allow renewable electricity from wind to displace natural gas and heating oil for central heating during winter. According to a 2007 Stanford University study published in the Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology. Thus the 2 GW Dinorwig pumped storage plant adds costs to nuclear energy in the UK for which it was built. by a combination of geographic dispersion to de-link weather system effects. Stored energy increases the economic value of wind energy since it can be shifted to displace higher cost generation during peak demand periods. In California and Texas. The potential revenue from this arbitrage can offset the cost and losses of storage.a. interconnecting ten or more wind farms allows 33 to 47% of the total energy . hot days in summer may have low wind speed and high electrical demand due to air conditioning. to reduce electricity demand during the summer months by making air conditioning up to 70% more efficient. with 70% total energy from wind at the same sort of costs or lower than at present. Some utilities subsidize the purchase of geothermal heat pumps by their customers.000. In particular geographic regions. the cost of storage may add 25% to the cost of any wind energy stored. Dividing by total power used gives an increased unit cost of around $3. Pumped-storage hydroelectricity or other forms of grid energy storage can store energy developed by high-wind periods and release it when needed. Over an asset life of 40 years and low cost utility investment grade funding. ie $3 billion p. In the USA it is estimated that to upgrade the transmission system to take in planned or potential renewables would cost at least $60 billion. Another option is to interconnect widely dispersed geographic areas with a relatively cheap and efficient HVDC "Super grid". Intermittency would be dealt with. and the ability of HVDC to shift power from windy areas to non-windy areas.075 cent / kWh. for example.[27] widespread adoption of this technology would better match electricity demand to wind availability in areas with hot summers and low summer winds.

In the UK. On daily to weekly timescales. during the non availability of other conventional plant. A demonstration project at the Massachusetts Maritime Academy shows the effect. as back up. The limit for a particular grid will depend on the existing generating plants. demand for electricity is higher in winter than in summer. (in the UK. whereas in many areas wind energy is lower in summer and higher in winter. The cost of keeping a fossil fuel power station idle is in fact quite low. This means that reserve capacity on a system equal in MW to 20% of added wind could be retired when such wind is added without affecting system security or robustness. 5 times the capacity credit value) is its fuel and CO2 savings. Wind does not require any extra back up. as long as minimum criteria are met for wind speed and turbine height. entirely from renewable sources. is required. More spinning reserve. On seasonal timescales. Solar power tends to be complementary to wind. using a widely accepted and meaningful definition. base load electric power. biogas and hydrostorage to provide load-following power around the clock. but this again is already built and has a low cost comparatively. and which are started up during low wind periods. high pressure areas tend to bring clear skies and low surface winds.produced to be used as reliable. since the main cost of running a power station is the fuel (see spark spread and dark spread). whereas low pressure areastend to be windier and cloudier. The Institute for Solar Energy Supply Technology of the University of Kassel pilot-tested a combined power plant linking solar. since it uses the existing power stations which are already built. Thus the intermittencies of wind and solar power tend to cancel each other somewhat. equal to about 20% of its rated output (but this figure varies depending on actual circumstances). There is no generally accepted "maximum" level of wind penetration. Capacity credit and fuel saving Many commentators concentrate on whether or not wind has any "capacity credit" without defining what they mean by this and its relevance. Wind does have a capacity credit. But the main value of wind. of existing plant. just as they are started up now. and so are wind speeds. wind. pricing . A report from Denmark noted that their wind power network was without power for 54 days during 2002. Wind power advocates argue that these periods of low wind can be dealt with by simply restarting existing power stations that have been held in readiness or interlinking with HVDC. solar energy typically peaks in summer. Penetration Wind energy "penetration" refers to the fraction of energy produced by wind compared with the total available generation is often wrongly claimed.

in a 2004 study that. A study commissioned by the state of Minnesota considered penetration of up to 25%. and it has solved grid management problems by exporting almost half of its wind power to Norway. Germany and the Republic of Ireland (values over 6%). The Danish grid is heavily interconnected to the European electrical grid. few grid systems have penetration of wind energy above 5%: Denmark (values over 19%). this reserve capacity can also serve to regulate for the varying power generation by wind plants. Ireland's electric utility. These studies have been for locations with geographically dispersed wind farms. ESB National Grid. Denmark has active plans to increase the percentage of power generated to over 50%. some degree of dispatch able energy. . there are few technical limits. the UK System Operator. and other factors.mechanisms. and interconnection to a large grid area export of electricity when needed. An interconnected electricity grid will already include reserve generating and transmission capacity to allow for equipment failures. capacity for storage or demand management.” At present. "These balancing costs represent an additional £6 to £12 per annum on average consumer electricity bill of around £390. Spain and Portugal (values over 11%). The correlation between electricity export and wind power production is very strong. However In evidence to the House of Lords Economic Affairs Select Committee. National Grid have quoted estimates of balancing costs for 40% wind and these lie in the range £500-1000M per annum. and concluded that integration issues would be manageable and have incremental costs of less than one-half cent ($0. Studies have indicated that 20% of the total electrical energy consumption may be incorporated with minimal difficulty.0045) per kWh. demand management. or hydropower with storage capacity. concluded that to meet the renewable energy targets set by the EU in 2001 would "increase electricity generation costs by a modest 15%" A recent report by Sinclair Merz saw no difficulty in accommodating 50% of total power delivered in the UK at modest cost increases. but the economic implications become more significant. Beyond this level.

and for years was the world leader in offshore wind power until the United Kingdom gained the lead in October. other factors include the availability of transmission lines. cost of land acquisition. Aside from the availability of wind itself. and environmental impact of construction and operations.Turbine placement Good selection of a wind turbine site is critical to economic development of wind power. 2008 with 590 MW ofnameplate capacity installed. Off-shore locations may offset their higher construction cost with higher annual load factors. Europe leads the world in development of offshore wind power. due to strong wind resources and shallow water in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Studies in the UK have shown that if onshore turbines are placed in a straight line then an increased risk of aerodynamic modulation] can occur which can result in noise nuisance to nearby residents. land use considerations. The United Kingdom planned to build much more extensive offshore wind . thereby reducing cost of energy produced. value of energy to be produced. and limitations on suitable locations on land due to dense populations and existing developments. Wind farm designers use specialized wind energy software applications to evaluate the impact of these issues on a given wind farm design. Offshore wind farms As of 2008. Denmark installed the first offshore wind farms.

The 120MW offshore wind farm with a construction budget of €383 million was the first to be financed by a nonrecourse loan (project finance). Each turbine's tower rests on a monopile foundation to a depth of between 18-23 meters at a distance of about 23 km off the Dutch coast. but population centers along coastlines in many parts of the world are close to offshore wind resources. Transporting large wind turbine components (tower sections. large goods vehicles must negotiate bends on roadways. and blades) is much easier over water than on land.. Other large markets for wind power. which was a milestone for the offshore wind industry. which would reduce transmission costs. which were among the largest wind turbines in the world at the time. The project comprises 60 Vestas V80-2MW wind turbines. On 21 December 2007. . which fixes the maximum length of a wind turbine blade that can move from point to point on the road network. On land. An example is Belgium's Thorntonbank Wind Farm with construction underway in 2008. Construction and maintenance costs per wind turbine are higher for offshore wind farms. because ships and barges can handle large loads more easily than trucks/lorries or trains. and the similarly wind-swept steppes of Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia in China). Q7 (later renamed as Princess Amalia Wind Farm) exported first power to the Dutch grid.farms by 2020. including the United States and China focused first on developing their on-land wind resources where construction costs are lower (such as in the Great Plains of the U. motivating operators to reduce the number of wind turbines for a given total power by installing the largest available units. no such limitation exists for transport on open water.S. featuring 5MW wind turbines from REpower. nacelles.

site selection for wind turbines and synthetic generation of the wind speed data. site selection and aerodynamic including wake effect to improve the wind turbine performance and to increase its productivity. They studied the effect of changing the rotational rotor speed on the power performance of Nordtank 300 kW stall-regulated experimentally. The structural support component includes the tower for optimally situating the rotor component to the wind energy source. and most likely a gearbox component for converting the low speed rotational energy to electricity. the contol electronics. Also they studied the variation in the aerodynamic performance of the wind turbine rotor by changing the pitch angle experimentally in Hurghada wind farm in a way to improve the turbines’ performance.STUDY OF GENERATION OF WIND ENERGY Wind mills were used long time ago. Virtually all modern turbines convert wind energy to electricity for energy distribution. Kocak focused entirely on wind speed persistence during weather forecast. The rotor component includes the blade for converting wind energy to an intermnittent low speed rotational energy. Wind turbines are designed to exploit the wind energy that exists at a location. The generator component includes the electrical generator. There are many studies proposed to optimize wind turbine power generation. . The modern wind tubine is a system that comprises three integral components with distinct disciplines of engineering science. Herbert et al in 2007 developed models for wind resources assessment. The first utility grid-connected wind turbine operated in the UK by the John Brown company. Khalfallah and Koulib in 2007 focused entirely on the turbine rotor and blades in order to improve the wind turbine power curves. the first electricity generating wind mill generated operated in the UK was a battery charging machine installed in 1887.

a mathematical model is developed to study the parameters that affect the electrical power generated by the wind turbines. The study shows that the operational parameters has a direct effect on the generated power which will lead the developers and researchers to focus on the highest priority parameter that should be considered for manufacturing and optimizing the new generations of wind turbines . wind speed.TECHNIQUE FOR DEVELOPING WIND POWER A wind turbine captures energy from moving air and converts it into electricity. In the present study. The captured energy is affected by factors such as air density. The utilization of wind energy for power generation purposes is becoming increasingly attractive and gaining a great share in the electrical power production market worldwide. air velocity and power coefficient. turbine swept area. air density. The considered parameters are turbine swept area. and power coefficient as a function of pitch angle and blade tip speed. The analysis of generation of wind power is done using the mathematical programming language MATLAB.

an engineer. and is popular amongst scientists involved with image processing. was exposed to it during a visit Moler made to Stanford in 1983. plotting of functions and data. then chairman of the computer science department at the University of New Mexico. LAPACK . he joined with Moler and Steve Bangert. MATLAB can be used as an interactive mathematical shell. In 2000. adds graphical multidomain simulation and Model-Based Design for dynamic and embedded systems. MATLAB allows easy matrix manipulation.ABOUT MATLAB MATLAB is a numerical computing environment and programming language. implementation of algorithms. Jack Little. These rewritten libraries were known as JACKPAC. Maintained by The Math Works. Recognizing its commercial potential. Sequences of commands can be saved in a text file. He designed it to give his students access to LINPACK and EISPACK without having to learn Fortran. in the Command Window. one of the elements of the MATLAB Desktop. as a script or encapsulated into a function. . typically using the MATLAB Editor. They rewrote MATLAB in C and founded The Math Works in 1984 to continue its development. Although it is numeric only. MATLAB (meaning "matrix laboratory") was invented in the late 1970s by Cleve Moler. MATLAB is built around the MATLAB language. but quickly spread to many other domains. Little's specialty. It soon spread to other universities and found a strong audience within the applied mathematics community. and interfacing with programs in other languages. creation of user interfaces. an optional toolbox uses the MuPAD symbolic engine. MATLAB was rewritten to use a newer set of libraries for matrix manipulation. An additional package. >> . Simulink. Math Works claimed that MATLAB was used by more than one million people across industry and the academic world. MATLAB was first adopted by control design engineers. in particular the teaching of linear algebra and numerical analysis. extending the commands available. sometimes called M-code or simply M. allowing access to algebra capabilities. In 2004. In this way. The simplest way to execute M-code is to type it in at the prompt. It is now also used in education.

m V is velocity of the air. P is the mechanical power in the moving air.5. kg/m A is area swept by the rotor blades.A Where.GENERATION OF POWER The power contained in wind is given by the kinetic energy of the flowing air mass per unit time.Cp. Watt. m/s Cp is the power coefficient MATLAB SIMULINK MODEL . i. P=0. ρ is air density.e.ρ.V3.

2000) . The V52 wind turbines have been erected in many countries than any other turbines in VESTAS portfolio.100 turbines. It is tested on V52 wind turbine as an example. approximately 2. . were installed all over the world due to their highly efficient operation and flexible configuration. The V52 has the following specifications (Table 2) (VESTAS wind systems.The Simulink model is valid for wide ranges of wind turbines.

The resulted power will be increased when the turbine's swept area is increased The temperature and the air density impact on the generated power are shown in figures below. .


The effect of air density-temperature on the generated power .

(15 to 25 m/s) the wind turbine continues to produce the same rated power but at lower efficiency until shut down is initiated if the wind speed becomes dangerously high. Consequently changes in elevation produce a profound effect on the generated power as a result of changing in the air density. The larger the diameter of its blades. by taking swept area into consideration. . Air density has a significant effect on wind turbine performance (Fig. the output power of a wind turbine is directly related to the wind speed as well as to the swept area of its blades. Air density is a function of air pressure and temperature. As air density increases the available power also increases. It increases when air pressure increases or the temperature decreases. the more power can be extracted from the wind. i. 2. The power available in the wind is directly proportional to air density.e. Above the rated wind speed. 3). The power produced by the wind turbine increases from zero at the threshold wind speed (cut in speed) (usually around 5m/s but varies with site) to the maximum at the rated wind speed. The exact specifications for energy capture by the turbine depend on the distribution of wind speed over the year at the individual site. above 25 to 30m/s (gale force).RESULT OF THE ANALYSIS Wind turbines should be optimized. in terms of the local area conditions to capture power as maximum as possible. Both temperature and pressure decrease with increasing elevation. As can be seen from Fig.


Spain. Tamil Nadu has the distinction of3492. A demonstration wind farm was first established in India at Tuticorin. MNRE has established the Centre for Wind Energy Technology at Chennai with field test station at Kayathar to act as technical focal point for wind power development in the country. and the USA. The total wind power potential in the country was calculated to be 20 000 MW. Till now. 160 potential wind farm sites have been identified in 13 states and Table 3 shows the installed capacities in various states. So far. Rajasthan. an aggregate capacity of 71 MW of wind energy has been established as demonstration projects at 33 locations covering nine states. the wind energy sector grew in our country and now India is the fourth-largest producer of wind energy in the world after Germany.2% of total) wind farms. and West Bengal.AN OVERVIEW DEVELOPMENT OF WIND ENERGY IN INDIA In 1983. Madhya Pradesh. A good number of wind turbine manufacturers are active in India producing wind electric generators of rating 225 kW to 2000 kW. Tamil Nadu. that is. Karnataka. the government opened up the wind energy sector to private enterprises and gave some incentives to the entrepreneurs. the MNRE (Ministry of New and Renewable Energy) conducted an extensive wind data collection mapping and complex terrain projects covering 25 states. Gujarat. . After a recent study. Andhra Pradesh. the potential has been reassessed to 45 000 MW at 50 m above ground level. As of March 2007. The wind power has outpaced nuclear power (3360 MW) in terms of installed capacity and will soon surpass it in terms of generation also.8 MW (49. Kerala.. As a result. Wind–diesel hybrid projects have been planned for island regions and remote areas. Tamil Nadu in 1986. Gradually. the total installed capacity of wind energy in our country is 7096 MW.

the global wind power capacity is expected to be more than double its capacity by 2010 (Figure 1).GLOBAL SCENE IN WIND POWER Wind power has arrived globally. The installed capacity of wind power in the world reached 64 341MW by December 2006 and continues to grow. Similarly northern Germany and Spain are getting 35% and 8%. The average annual cumulative growth rate was 28% during the period 2000–05. Wind power capacity of some major wind power generating countries is given in Table 2. respectively. The experience so far is that the growth has surpassed the predictions. of their electricity from wind power. About 40 countries have visible amounts of wind power and 11 of them (Table 1) have exceeded the 1000 MW installed capacity.In the decade from 1995 to 2005. According to a status report prepared by the GWEC (Global Wind Energy Council). Denmark is already producing 20% of its electricity from wind. global wind power grew from 4800 MW to 59 322 MW. .



The scenarios are then run against a baseline scenario for global energy demand and a second version for high energy efficiency. which reduces demand for electricity.SOME IMPORTANT ASPECTS REGARDING WIND ENERGY Wind could displace 1500MT of carbon emissions by 2020 Wind turbines could displace the emission of 1500 MT (million tonnes) of carbon emissions by 2020. the displacement of CO2 (carbon dioxide) from wind farms would be 113 000 MT. In addition to mitigating climate change. The report urges governments to support the development of wind power through reforms of the power market and by reducing subsidies for fossil fuels and nuclear. The required CO2 reduction of one-third by 2020 and half by 2050 can only be achieved if wind power plays a major role in the power sector. and an advanced version assuming that all policy options in favour of renewables are adopted. which is key in the fight against dangerous climate change. Wind will be a major contributor to future energy supply. according to Greenpeace International and the Global Wind Energy Council. By 2050.5% of the world’s electricity by 2020 and 34% by 2050. and could generate 16. ‘Wind power will significantly reduce CO2 emissions. The outlook runs three different scenarios for wind: a reference scenario based on the data from the International energy Agency. other important drivers for wind power are challenges such as security of energy supply and the increasing volatility of fossil fuel prices. predicts Global Wind Energy Outlook 2006. . a moderate version.’ says Sven Teske of Greenpeace. which assumes that current targets for renewables are successful.

8 GW installed at the end of 2006. and that continent will have the highest annual average growth rate during the period.3% during the 2002–06 period. India will continue to be the continental leader and the fourth country globally. The Asian market has exceeded all previous estimates due to an unexpectedly strong growth in China.6 GW by 2010 and the United States will be the most important national market during the period 2007–10 with a predicted average installation of 3. but the industry is ‘set to continue their spectacular growth’. North America is expected to continue to be the second. GWEC members represent 1500 member companies in 60 countries. ‘Temporary supply chain difficulties’ will have an impact. total installed capacity increased by 25% around the world. Total installed capacity will reach 29 GW by 2010. up from 10.5 GW per year.largest regional market in terms of total installed capacity.GLOBAL WIND INDUSTRY TO EXPAND 19% YEARLY UNTIL 2010 Average annual cumulative growth in the international wind energy industry will be 19. In 2004. with average annual growth of 24.6%. an increase of 38% from the 15. The trend is expected to continue and in 2010. . it will reach 31.1% from 2010.2 GW installed in 2006. Europe will continue to be the most important market. with predicted installation of 8000 MW of turbines between 2007 and 2010. China will be a close second with the highest growth rate and a predicted installed capacity also of 8000 MW during the period. but with a smaller share than in the past as the industry becomes more global. From 9. Delays in the offshore market have pushed large-scale offshore development towards the end of the decade but offshore development will give a new momentum to the European market during the next decade. Annual installed capacity will reach 21 GW in 2010. Europe will hold only 44% of the annual global market of 9. Last year. The European Union remains the leading market in wind energy with 48 GW of capacity. Europe represented 72% of the annual market but dropped to 55% in 2005 and to 51% in 2006.3 GW but 55% of the world’s total installed capacity of 82 GW. compared with 24. but North America and Asia are developing at a tremendous pace. including all major turbine manufacturers and 99% of the world’s 74 000 MW of installed wind capacity.7 GW in 2006 and. says the Global Wind Energy Council. generating 18 billion euros of new equipment and boosting global wind capacity to 74 GW (gigawatt).


With the prospect of a further steep hike in fuel prices looming large.25% and raise the inflation rate by 0. the past few weeks have seen global oil prices entering the ‘super-spike’ phase. It is well known that new energy infrastructure takes decades to build and investments are required immediately for technologies that would be deployed for meeting future energy needs. . The rapidly changing geo-political scenario and security compulsions necessitate a hard look at this strategy.6%. There have been over 20 such instances in the last 50 years. International oil prices have vaulted to over 60 dollars a barrel. the vulnerability of the economy to the vagaries of the global oil market comes into focus yet again. as seasonal consumption peaks in winter 2005. large deficits in domestic energy supply are met through imports. This is not the first time that the economy is being subjected to the pull and push of high and fluctuating global fuel prices. The cornerstone of such an exercise has to be a high degree of energy independence. The normative scenario presented by the IPCC for arresting GHG (greenhouse gases) emissions suggests that such peaking would take place around 2030. Any laxity in making investments and preparations for the future would adversely impact the socio-political economy of the country. On the oil price scenario. Studies have indicated that a sustained 5% rise in the oil price over a year would slash India’s gross domestic product growth rate by 0. At present.A move away from fossil fuels It is expected that the fossil fuel economy will peak sometime around the middle of the 21 st century. Energy experts predict that prices could surge all the way above 100 dollars.

SODAR and satellite imagery models can aid in developing a wind climate model along with a wind weather forecast to a day/few hours in advance.WIND CLIMATE MODEL FOR INDIA It is expected that the contribution of renewable energy sources will increase over the years with the growing energy demands and the shortage of conventional fuels. Hence. . Thus. there are concerns regarding increasing penetration and vulnerability of the power supply grid to absorb the fluctuations of voltage and frequency and to maintain system stability. prediction models for wind power systems become inevitable over the coming years to ensure proper scheduling and utilization of the freely available resourceAlong with the present wind monitoring stations.

Cost per unit of energy produced was estimated in 2006 to be comparable to the cost of new generating capacity in the United States for coal and natural gas: wind cost was estimated at $55. coal at $53. which may be in excess of twenty years. Clean coal. estimated annual production.100 per kilowatt in 2005. compared to €1. wind energy cost one-fifth of what it did in the 1980s.50. Other sources in various studies have estimated wind to be more expensive than other sources (see Economics of new nuclear power plants.2 cents per kilowatt hour (2005). Not as many facilities can produce large modern turbines and their towers and foundations.Economics and feasibility Growth and cost trends Wind and hydroelectric power generation have negligible fuel costs and relatively low maintenance costs. installed cost averaged €1. and some expected that downward trend to continue as larger multi-megawatt turbines were mass-produced. Research . averaged over the projected useful life of the equipment. in economic terms.10/MWh and natural gas at $52. The estimated average cost per unit incorporates the cost of construction of the turbine and transmission facilities.80 per MWh. so constraints develop in the supply of turbines resulting in higher costs. borrowed funds. In 2004. Energy cost estimates are highly dependent on these assumptions so published cost figures can differ substantially. and Carbon capture and storage). A British Wind Energy Association report gives an average generation cost of onshore wind power of around 3. return to investors (including cost of risk). and other components. However.300 per kilowatt in 2007. wind power has a low marginal cost and a high proportion of capital cost.

up from 74 GW in 2006. The authors acknowledge that many practical barriers would need to be overcome to reach this theoretical capacity. Theoretical potential Wind power available in the atmosphere is much greater than current world energy consumption. More than 200 GW of new wind power capacity could come on line before the end of 2013. a BTM Consult five year forecast up to 2013 projects substantial growth. . the choice to increase wind capacity will depend on factors including the profile of existing generation capacity. Wind power market penetration is expected to reach 3. It assumes 6 turbines per square kilometer for 77 m diameter. In the forecast to 2013 the expected average annual growth rate is 15. Despite constraints facing supply chains for wind turbines. Although the wind power industry will be impacted by the global financial crisis in 2009 and 2010.7 percent.000 MToE (million tons of oil equivalent) per year. with the total value of new generating equipment installed in 2007 reaching €25 billion.5 MW turbines on roughly 13% of the total global land area (though that land would also be available for other compatible uses such as farming). For example. equivalent to 54.from a wide variety of sources in various countries shows that support for wind power is consistently between 70 and 80 percent amongst the general public. In terms of economic value. Existing generation capacity represents sunk costs. Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC) figures show that 2007 recorded an increase of installed capacity of 20 GW.6 percent each year. the annual market for wind continued to increase at an estimated rate of 31% following 32% growth in 2006. The most comprehensive study to date found the potential of wind power on land and near-shore to be 72 TW. or US$36 billion. not estimated average costs at project inception.9 m/s at 80 m. The potential takes into account only locations with mean annual wind speeds ≥ 6.35 percent by 2013 and 8 percent by 2018. taking the total installed wind energy capacity to 94 GW. or over five times the world's current energy use in all forms. the estimated cost of new wind power capacity may be lower than that for "new coal" (estimated average costs for new generation capacity) but higher than for "old coal" (marginal cost of production for existing capacity). the wind energy sector has become one of the important players in the energy markets. 1. Therefore. Over the past five years the average growth in new installations has been 27. and the decision to continue production will depend on marginal costs going forward.

The marginal cost of wind energy once a plant is constructed is usually less than 1 cent per kilowatt-hour. Customers may enter into long-term pricing contracts for wind to reduce the risk of future pricing changes. the average cost of wind energy per unit of production depends on a few key assumptions. the marginal revenue of the wind sector as penetration increases may diminish. since the resource available is far larger than any practical means to develop it. If wind represents a significant portion of supply. revenue for all producers per unit is higher when their production coincides with periods of higher prices. Direct costs Many potential sites for wind farms are far from demand centres. but it may be far from large populations which developed in areas more sheltered from wind. Electricity prices are highly regulated worldwide. This may be of particular concern if the output of many wind plants in a market have strong temporal correlation. . risk (as perceived by investors) will affect projected costs per unit of electricity. In some regions this is partly because frequent strong winds themselves have discouraged dense human settlement in especially windy areas. and even incorporate an implicit subsidy. whereby the system operator undertakes to purchase power from wind at a fixed price for a certain period (perhaps up to a limit). The wind which was historically a nuisance is now becoming a valuable resource. In jurisdictions where the price for electricity is based on market mechanisms. requiring substantially more money to construct new transmission lines and substations. are displaced from economic dispatch.The practical limit to exploitation of wind power will be set by economic and environmental factors. These may take the form of standard offer contracts. In economic terms. The profitability of wind farms will therefore be higher if their production schedule coincides with these periods. Since the cost of capital plays a large part in projected cost. average revenue per unit of production may be lower as more expensive and less-efficient forms of generation. such as the cost of capital and years of assumed service. The commercial viability of wind power also depends on the pricing regime for power producers. and in many locations may not reflect the full cost of production. thereby ensuring more stable returns for projects at the development stage. let alone indirect subsidies or negative externalities. which typically set revenue levels. Since the primary cost of producing wind energy is construction and there are no fuel costs. these prices may be different than purchase prices from other sources.

this wind farm has more turbines than any other in the United States. For electric production. wind energy is amongst the least costly forms of electrical production. the expense of transmission lines to connect the wind farms to population centers. Developed during a period of tax incentives in the 1980s. Critics argue that the level of required subsidies. Few mechanisms currently exist to internalise these costs. Other significant externalities can include military expenditures to ensure access to fossil fuels. reduced agricultural productivity. destruction of wild habitat. and other problems. and the total cost is highly uncertain. Incentives Some of the over 6. a greenhouse gas produced when fossil fuels are burned. carbon dioxide.External costs Most forms of energy production create some form of negative externality: costs that are not paid by the producer or consumer of the good. remediation of polluted sites. and their total . If the external costs are taken into account. Intermittency and other characteristics of wind energy also have costs that may rise with higher levels of penetration. may impose even greater costs in the form of global warming. as costs have generally decreased due to technology development and scale enlargement. wind energy can be competitive in more cases. the most significant externality is pollution. and the uncertain financial returns to wind projects make it inferior to other energy sources. A key issue is the comparison to other forms of energy production. In addition.000 wind turbines at Altamont Pass. Supporters argue that. etc. and may change the cost-benefit ratio. which imposes social costs in increased health expenses. once external costs and subsidies to other forms of electrical production are accounted for. in California. Wind energy in many jurisdictions receives some financial or other support to encourage its development. the small amount of energy needs met. loss of scenery/tourism.

Wind energy benefits from subsidies of various kinds in many jurisdictions. Another tax benefit is accelerated depreciation. mandated purchases. in addition to using recycled. and in return they can claim that they are making a powerful "green" effort. such as exemption from property tax. with assured grid access (sometimes referred to as feed-in tariffs). wind power receives a tax credit for each kilowatt-hour produced. even if there is a premium price for the electricity. and additional markets for "green credits. Secondary market forces also provide incentives for businesses to use wind-generated power. The organization Green-e http://www. For example. . such as tax credits or minimum purchase prices for wind generation.cost. and safe press wash. The Energy Improvement and Extension Act of 2008contains extensions of credits for wind. Companies like the Borealis Press print millions of greeting cards every year using this wind-generated power. Two main points of discussion arise: direct subsidies and externalities for various sources of electricity. socially responsible manufacturers pay utility companies a premium that goes to subsidize and build new wind power infrastructure. at 1. soy inks. These feed-in tariffs are typically set well above average electricity prices. chlorine-free paper. including wind. Many American states also provide incentives.9 cents per kilowatt-hour in 2006." Countries such as Canada and Germany also provide incentives for wind turbine monitors business compliance with these renewable energy In the United States. or to compensate for subsidies received by other forms of production which have significant negative externalities. including microturbines. either to increase its attractiveness. the credit has a yearly inflationary adjustment.

the highest percentage of any country -. implying an anticipated net growth rate of more than 21% per year.8% in February. in 2008 they were joined by Oregon. By comparison. but climbed to 73% by 2008 as those countries -. however.8 gigawatts in 2007 and surpassing Germany's nameplate capacity in 2008. and led the U. with a total nameplate capacity of 121. Denmark is prominent in the manufacturing and use of wind turbines. There are now many thousands of wind turbines operating. Germany. which would have ranked it sixth in the world if Texas was a separate country. while wind turbine production has expanded to many countries all over the world. Iowa and Minnesota each grew to more than 1 gigawatt installed by the end of 2007. Nordtank. By 2010. The share of the top five countries in terms of new installations fell from 71% in 2004 to 62% in 2006. by the end of 2006. up from 73. China. they have increased greatly in size.the United States.UTILIZATION OF WIND POWER The modern wind power industry began in 1979 with the serial production of wind turbines by Danish manufacturers Kuriant. 2007 from February. wind power capacity grew by 45% to 16. U. Texas became the leading wind power state and continues to extend its lead. California was one of the incubators of the modern wind power industry. was up 31. At the end of 2008. Wind power generation in the U. in installed capacity for many years.have seen substantial capacity growth in the past two years (see chart). and Bonus. the state had 7.9 GW at the end of 2006.200 MWp in 2008). Washington. Spain. the United States has added more wind energy to its grid than any other country. and India -. Denmark generates nearly one-fifth of its electricity with wind turbines -.S. Vestas.188 MW of which wind power in Europe accounts for 55% (2008). doubling about every three years.and is ninth in the world in total wind power generation. Since then. with capacities of 20 to 30 kW each. In recent years. photovoltaics has been doubling about every two years (48%/year).S. and Colorado. with a commitment made in the 1970s to eventually produce half of the country's power by wind. These early turbines were small by today's standards. 2006. although from a smaller base (15. 81% of wind power installations are in the US and Europe. World wind generation capacity more than quadrupled between 2000 and 2006. The average output of one megawatt of wind power is equivalent to the average electricity consumption of .S.116 MW installed. the World Wind Energy Association expects 160GW of capacity to be installed worldwide.

The program seeks to produce 10% of Brazilian electricity through renewable sources. of which 1422 MW through wind energy. By 2008. According to the American Wind Energy Association. and Canada currently generate from non-renewable resources. with a wind potential of 143 GW.587 MW in 2008. called Proinfa. and is one of the major wind energy harnessing centres in India led by majors like Suzlon. Muppandal village in Tamil Nadu state. the wind resource over and around the Great Lakes.5 million households) of total electricity in U. or 3% of all electricity produced in India. A Chinese renewable energy law was adopted in November 2004. has several wind turbine farms in its vicinity. Department of Energy studies have concluded wind harvested in the Great Plains states of Texas.Micon among others In 2005.000 MW. and that offshore wind farms could do the same job. . Current trends suggest an actual installed capacity near 20 GW by 2010. wind will generate enough electricity in 2008 to power just over 1% (4. Mexico recently opened La Venta II wind power project as an important step in reducing Mexico's consumption of fossil fuels. to build production capacity of 3300 MW of renewable energy for 2008. up from less than 0. India ranks 5th in the world with a total wind power capacity of 9. could by itself provide 80% as much power as the U.. with Michigan's share alone equating to one third of current U. Vestas. India.about 250 American households. electricity demand. wind power was growing faster in China than the government had planned.S. and North Dakota could provide enough electricity to power the entire nation. China has set a generating target of 30. In addition. with China shortly thereafter pursuing the United States for the world wind power lead.S.S.1% in 1999. Kansas. and will provide 13 percent of the electricity needs of the state of Oaxaca. The 88 MW project is the first of its kind in Mexico. having more than doubled each year since 2005. By 2012 the project will have a capacity of 3500 MW. after the wind industry reached the original goal of 5 GW three years ahead of schedule. The World Wind Energy Conference in New Delhi in November 2006 has given additional impetus to the Indian wind industry. following the World Wind Energy Conference organized by the Chinese and the World Wind Energy Association. China announced it would build a 1000-megawatt wind farm in Hebei for completion in 2020.S. and indeed faster in percentage terms than in any other large country. Another growing market is Brazil. The federal government has created an incentive program. U. Policymakers doubled their wind power prediction for 2010. recoverable with currently available technology.000 MW by 2020 from renewable energy sources — it says indigenous wind power could generate up to 253.

The station is proposed to have a total output of 100MW although there are negotiations to double this capacity. the provincially-owned electric utility plans to purchase an additional 2000 MW by 2013.1 34.4% 4048. which may boost the wind industry across the province. with total capacity doubling from the 684 MW at end-2005. For example.8 0. Canada experienced rapid growth of wind capacity between 2000 and 2006. though their installation trends over the past few years suggest they'll fall well short of their goal. 6 . France has announced a target of 12.8% 4149. In Quebec.500 MW installed by 2010.9 States 30. This growth was fed by measures including installation targets. Particularly rapid growth was seen in 2006.7% 4058.South Africa has a proposed station situated on the West Coast north of the Olifants River mouth near the town of Koekenaap.1% 533. 52.3% 4108. the Ontario government announced that it will introduce a feed-in tariff for wind power. The plant could be operational by 2010.6 0.0 9 1.6% 584.9 38. and showing an annual growth rate of 38%.2 5.5 0. referred to as 'Standard Offer Contracts'.4% 569.7 y United 17.451 MW.5 6. with total installed capacity increasing from 137 MW to 1. Annual generation Annual Wind Power Generation (TWh) and total electricity consumption(TWh) for 10 largest countries 2005 Ran Nation Win k d % Pow er 2006 2007 2008 Total Power Wind Powe % r Total Power Wind Powe % r Total Wind Powe % Power r Total Power 1 German 27. economic incentives and political support.7 5.9 2 26. east of Vredendal in the Western Cape province.

7 5.2 4.8 m Portuga 1.6 19. 12.7 0.7% 4] (TWh) .6 1.9 2.8 [81 3426.2 4.2 7.7 36.9 0.5% 268.9 5.8 36.7 22.1 5.7% 330.9% 774.0% 383.8% 276.7 % 0.5 35.9 United Kingdo 2.7 14.6 k France 0.1 282.0 9 0. 0.0% 50.9% 49.4 6.3 50.7 3.5% 478.746.2% 339.6 % World 15.3 5.5 16.790[8 total 99.2 % 1.3 0.1 % 4 India 6.5 7 Denmar 6.9 0.4% ] 9 8 6 Italy 2.0 8.6% 3] 124.4 4.9% 337.0 0.8 31.1 36.9 19.1% 2474.8 10 3.4 0.2% 482.1% 2834.4 11.9 5.2% 3255.5% 379.7% 407.9% 679.1% 494.6% 47.3 Spain 20.4 4.8% 480.7 l 6.5[8 16.9% 260.7 1.4 % 0.7 7.4 3.6 [80 ] 5 China 1.9 8.0 1.5 0.1 7.4 18.2 8 2.0% 726.9 1.8 27.9 % 0.0[82] 1.2 9.3 0.7 11.

ADVANTAGES OF WIND ENERGY 1) The wind is free and with modern technology it can be captured efficiently. 7) Wind turbines are available in a range of sizes which means a vast range of people and businesses can use them. 5) Remote areas that are not connected to the electricity power grid can use wind turbines to produce their own supply. 2) Once the wind turbine is built the energy it produces does not cause green house gases or other pollutants. This means that the land below can still be used. . 4) Many people find wind farms an interesting feature of the landscape. 3) Although wind turbines can be very tall each takes up only a small plot of land. 6) Wind turbines have a role to play in both the developed and third world. This is especially the case in agricultural areas as farming can still continue. Single households to small towns and villages can make good use of range of wind turbines available today.

From its wind mill installation to production only thing to tackle is variable voltage obtained due to variable speed of the wind blades aswind speed is not constant at different points of time. Here comes the need to understand the importance of wind power as one of the sources of energy which mankind is going to use after the depletion of other sources of energy such as coal.CONCLUSION Main objective of the Project puts stress on the coming inevitable demand of use of non renewable source of energy. Its use can be so usefull as has been found through the projects done worldwide and in this project too. and our project may prove a little step towards achieving the goal. Wind energy is the cleanest of any energy source found till date. Like other countries our country INDIA is trying to become biggest producer of wind power. primarily based on energy sources which produce no harmful substances or byproducts. . to meet its vast energy requirements.

Wikipedia. 1999. USA: CRC press .BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. 4. Kastha and Banerjee 2. R. 2008. Wind and solar power systems. Practical ways of evaluating wind speed persistence. Mukund. Koçak. K.the free encyclopedia 3. Wind Electrical Systems By Bhadra.

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