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Mobile Marketing 101: Chapter 4: Mobile Technologies: SMS, MMS, USSD & Bluetooth/Wireless/Infrared

Mobile Technologies: SMS, MMS, USSD & Bluetooth/Wireless/Infrared


Introduction
If reaching your audience is your primary goal, Mobile Marketing can make life very easy for you. However, if you use the right tool for the job, Mobile Marketing can be even more effective for targeting the individual in the crowd. In this chapter we will be introducing and discussing the messaging and information platforms available to Mobile Marketers, as well as the data channels which deliver these services.

Key Terms and Concepts


3G Third Generation of mobile communications systems. 3G networks enable network operators to offer users a wider range of more advanced services while achieving greater network capacity. Bluejacking The anonymous sending of unsolicited messages over Bluetooth to Bluetooth enabled devices such as mobile phones, PDAs or laptop computers. CSC Stands for Common Short Codes. Users send messages to shortened numbers, usually to get something in return, like a competition entry or multimedia download. EDGE Stands for Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution. A faster version of GSM wireless service. It enables data to be delivered at rates up to 384 Kbps on a broadband. Geographical Targeting Also Geotargeting. Used to allow you to see where your visitors come from and to give them specific information that is relevant to them. Security software which monitors and authorises access. GSM Stands for Global System for Mobile Communications. Most widely used of the three digital wireless telephone technologies. Uses a variation of time division multiple access. IEEE 802.11 IM The set of standards which outline the Wireless LAN protocol (WiFi). Stands for Instant Messaging. IM is a technology that allows its users to communicate in real-time, via text chat. Essentially your IM system alerts you when a contact on your list is online and you can then initiate a chat session. MMS Stands for Multimedia Message Service. An extension of SMS that allows picture, sound or low quality videos to be sent on a wireless network. Moblog A blend of the words mobile and weblog. A moblog consists of content posted to the Internet from a mobile or portable device, such as a cellular

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Mobile Marketing 101: Chapter 4: Mobile Technologies: SMS, MMS, USSD & Bluetooth/Wireless/Infrared

phone or PDA. Moblogs generally incorporate technology which allows publishing from a mobile device. Opt-In Also known as subscribing. Explicitly requesting to receive information from a company via email. All responsible email marketers ensure that only users who have opted in receive their communication. If you havent opted in - its SPAM! Opt-Out Also known as unsubscribing. The act of removing oneself from a list or lists so that specified information is no longer received via email. PUK Stands for Personal Unblocking Code, used to access a SIM card which has been blocked (due to lost or incorrect PIN number). Segmentation SIM Used to filter visitors into distinct characterised groups. Subscriber Identity Module, the chip used in a phone to identify the number/account. SMS Stands for Short Messaging Service. SMSs are text messages that can be sent to mobile phones from the Internet or from other mobile devices. SMSC Short Message Service Center, the platform for sending and receiving SMS messages. SPAM Messages sent to someone who has not requested to receive them EVIL! Tracking Measuring the effectiveness of a campaign by collecting and evaluating statistics. USSD Stands for Unstructured Supplementary Service Data. Works on all existing GSM phones, providing session-based communication, enabling a variety of applications. VoIP Voice over Internet Protocol is a system of rules which allow for voice and sound to be streamed, live, across the internet. This allows the system to operate exactly as a traditional telephone. WAP Wireless Application Protocol. A technical set of communication standards for the way wireless devices (like cell phones) connect to the Internet. WiFi The wireless technology which is the current standard protocol for networking and connecting to the Internet.

SMS
SMS (Short Message Service) technology is available on every GSM-enabled mobile phone in the world and is even becoming a popular service on progressive landline telephone devices.

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Mobile Marketing 101: Chapter 4: Mobile Technologies: SMS, MMS, USSD & Bluetooth/Wireless/Infrared

SMSs, text messages, texts its all instant messaging, focusing on personal communication at the quickest speed possible.

Fact According to Nielsen Mobile, the average mobile phone subscriber in the US sends 357 SMS messages every month, while US teens send an average of 1 742.

Like all direct marketing, Mobile Marketing via SMS necessitates ethical practices that require users to opt-in, and choose to be included in your communication database.

Reaching the Individual Masses with Text Messaging As the technology is so cheap, service providers often give their subscribers a free message bundle every month, or allow them to send messages for free (from their respective websites). If you think about it, 160 characters (the maximum allowed in a single message) boils down to only a few kilobytes, which is a tiny amount of data compared to the multimedia splendor one can accomplish via email, for instance. As cheap as SMS messaging is, getting the maximum benefit out of a campaign requires more than just a mumbled message. A clear message, obvious branding, engaging content and lucrative potential for both parties are some of the important ingredients for a successful campaign while opt-out information is also important for the consumer. Bulk messaging services allow you to contact countless people via one online platform and even personalise the messages with each recipients name or other details, much like Email Marketing. Cheaper in bulk, these messages can be set up for several different target groups (within your total database). Common Short Codes, (CSCs) otherwise known as Short Codes or Short Numbers, have a number of uses. Most often, they are used for premium campaigns such as competition entries, charity donations, or the purchasing of mobile content such as ringtones, wall papers and games. The use of these numbers comes at a premium fee, of course, which is charged to the user. Messages to these 4 or 5 digit numbers are monitored by systems which perform tasks according to the code words used within the messages, such as competition answers or product codes, tailored to the campaign. SMS spam can see users giving fraudsters their personal details or replying to premium numbers which then drain their funds. Once again, a clear message with trusted branding will increase your credibility with the man on the street who may

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Mobile Marketing 101: Chapter 4: Mobile Technologies: SMS, MMS, USSD & Bluetooth/Wireless/Infrared

not remember opting into your contact list in the first place. As we discussed in the first chapter of Mobile Marketing 101, the younger generation are more in touch with mobile advertising and can recall ads quicker than their seniors keep this in mind when planning a campaign. Text Messaging Short Hand The bane of teachers and educators around the world, text speak evolved out of necessity. Alpha-numeric keypads present a typing challenge and while predictive text helps with this, 160 characters doesnt allow much space for flowery poetic expression. Trimming down on vowels, cutting out repeated letters and using numbers to create a shortened but phonetically similar word is what its all about. Here are some common abbreviations you may have seen on the Web or in a text message:
Abbreviation 2NT BOL BRB BTW FTW GTG IMHO IMO L8R LMAO LOL NP PLS/PLZ ROFL RT TBH TY XLNT Meaning Tonight Burst Out Laughing Be Right Back By The Way For The Win (term of enthusiastic endearment) Got To Go In My Honest Opinion In My Opinion Later Laughing My Ass Off Laugh Out Loud No Problem Please Roll On Floor Laughing ReTweet (when quoting on Twitter) To Be Honest Thank You Excellent

Quirk eMarketing is the largest full service online marketing agency in Africa with 10 years of experience in providing holistic eMarketing solutions. From our Cape Town, Johannesburg and London offices, Quirk provides exceptional client service to a wide range of clients including: Google, Sun International, South African Tourism, First National Bank and Warner Bros.

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Mobile Marketing 101: Chapter 4: Mobile Technologies: SMS, MMS, USSD & Bluetooth/Wireless/Infrared

SMS text strips away the fat and gets down to the brass tacks, but the message can often be lost in translation. When planning a mobile campaign, keep text speak in mind when necessary, but keep it understated. Text for Success Depending on the service provider, text messages can also be sent to landline numbers which are then read out by a computer generated voice. Not only funny, but also functional, this service can often be used as an alternative to calling huge numbers of people. Like with conventional SMSs, however, it is important to try and keep these communications to a suitable time of day. This is also something that is also important to bear in mind when sending out bulk messages no one likes to have their sleep interrupted with advertising. Not only is this irritating for the user, but it may also prejudice them against your brand which could be damaging. Thus, try and keep transmissions to an appropriate time of day, and split into groups of time zones when sending messages internationally. Business to business (B2B) SMS messaging is also a versatile tool, relaying information, reminders, SMS chains or as an automated confirmation for anything from shipping to billing. Business to Customer (B2C) messaging delivers products or services directly to the consumer. Reverse SMS billing can be set up so the recipient is charged for the message, depending on what is required. An SMS gateway is used to convert messages from an external source into a channel for bulk SMS broadcasting. These messages can also be used to control electronic devices. By relaying instructions to a computer, one can control lights and appliances, alarms and security etc. Text messaging may not be the mobile medium with the most multimedia pop, but it is definitely an established and powerful tool: one that can run independently or as an integral link in a campaign intended to reach the individual masses.
Uses for Text Messaging: Customer Relationship Management Competitions Promotions and discount vouchers News updates Sports scores Tickets and reference numbers Party invitations and promotions Benefits of SMS Marketing: Immediate Private and direct Cheap for both parties Customisable Payment alternative Persuasion at the height of interest Push mobile users to your web, or .mobi site

USSD
If youve ever used an airtime recharge PIN, performed a balance enquiry or sent a Please Call Me message, then youve used a USSD service! Created specifically for standard GSM devices, Unstructured Supplementary Service Data (or USSD) messages are transferred directly over the network signaling channels. This is unlike MMS messaging, for instance, which is transferred via a wireless data connection.

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Mobile Marketing 101: Chapter 4: Mobile Technologies: SMS, MMS, USSD & Bluetooth/Wireless/Infrared

USSD applications are accessed by user request, and make use of short codes or text strings to trigger certain services in a session-based communication. These codes could perform a function, request a snippet of information, or lead the user into a series of textual menus which are navigated through the corresponding menu numbers. Simple and logical, the menu navigation can be displayed on pretty much any GSM phone some USSD services are single requests, without the need for a menu or further navigation. With the added benefit of SIM card and PUK number-specificity and of course the users account with the network provider; the personal service possibilities are endless. How Does it Work? A USSD gateway is the automated system that bridges the gap between mobile handsets and IP based systems and finally connects to the portal which retrieves the information requested. A typical USSD request looks like this:

*100# (dialed from the phone)

The asterisk (*) and hash (#) codes are much like simple programming codes, signifying the beginning and end of the request. Asterisks can also be used to separate the codes into multiple requests to access the different tiers of information. Think of it as calling an automated helpdesk. You would normally wait for the recording to present the options, and then respond with the number selection to continue to the next menu. Its the same via USSD.

*100*111*(password)*123# -User Menu1: Mail 2: News Headlines 3: Weather Update 4: Downloads

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Mobile Marketing 101: Chapter 4: Mobile Technologies: SMS, MMS, USSD & Bluetooth/Wireless/Infrared

The operator will then relay the codes to the corresponding USSD applications which return with the requested information. USSD Functionality As a result of being so cheap, straightforward and accessible, USSD has great potential for mobile banking. In addition, USSD is useful for everything from accessing news services, sports scores and fixtures, submission services, feedback and voting, advertising listings or directories. USSD is reminiscent of early information platforms such as Usenet (a primitive Internet-based system) and Teletext of the 1970s (which is still use today, especially on interactive digital television). The difference is that USSD has increased functionality, making it a powerful tool thats here to stay. Weighing Up the USSD Options Unstructured Supplementary Service Data may not be the most glamorous of mobile platforms, but it is an effective system nonetheless. Despite not being as easy to promote as other standard platforms, USSD continues to prove effective. If structured correctly (allowing for extensive segmentation and customisation), a menu-based USSD platform can provide any number of services and the potential for payment opens the door to the possibility of mobile commerce.
Advantages of USSD Services Extremely low cost Real-time Fast and responsive Interactive navigation Consumer driven Can be used as payment method Automated response Allows for mass-usage Location-based, SIM and PUK-based and user selected customisation and segmentation Disadvantages of USSD Services Little in the way of aesthetics Messages cannot be saved or forwarded USSD codes arent as memorable as other Common Short Codes (CSC) Not always reliable due to session-based timeouts

MMS
With capabilities far beyond SMS messaging, the Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) was designed to be the bigger brother the smarter, prettier, load-bearing, fourth dimension of mobile messaging. SMS and MMS are based on the similar principles and data transfer methods, but only MMS allows for rich text, video and audio attachments, using WAP to access and display the content. These messages are created with data usage in mind, rather than a character count and this is evident in the pricing which far exceeds that of SMS. One concern that MMS raises is that of security. This messaging platform has been known to transfer malicious software and the cost of the message is often shared between both parties. Currently, read and response rates for MMS are not as good as for those messages sent via SMS. Since recipients need to agree to retrieve the content, theres no

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Mobile Marketing 101: Chapter 4: Mobile Technologies: SMS, MMS, USSD & Bluetooth/Wireless/Infrared

guarantee that they will open the message. In the case of basic phones, the message may not be compatible with the phone and will therefore go unread. Even feature and smartphone users need to have their connection settings up and running if theyre going to receive premium, multimedia content. MMS allows for easy bulk-messaging, which is not always available directly through the service provider, but rather through a dedicated bulk-messaging service. Depending on the network provider, the sender is able to see when the content is downloaded and can therefore measure the penetration. Multimedia Possibilities Multimedia content creates wonderful branding possibilities. Newsletters can contain text colour corresponding to the brand identity. Brand logos have can have a bigger impact than textual brand names and videos can speak much more than 1000 words. With the multimedia possibilities of modern phones, their applications and online connectivity, user generated content has never been so accessible, interactive or hands-on. Users now have the ability to create and distribute content; meaning consumer participation has never been as much fun. Combining MMS with mobile Internet connectivity can be used to drive your audience to a Social Media profile, mobile or traditional website. With creative instruments in their hands, inspiring a culture of user participation between MMS messaging and your websites can be a rewarding experience for all concerned. Are You Getting Your Message Across? Expensive and not ideal for a technologically-challenged audience, MMS messaging may allow for greater customisation and additional bells and whistles. That said, it is not always the right channel for communication. The Multimedia Messaging Service can be an effective tool for relaying a dynamic message such as a newsletter, but simpler messaging platforms such as SMS can often be better for frequent use. The bottom line; always research your audience and budget thoroughly before embarking on a mass-MMS messaging campaign.
Disadvantages of MMS Not compatible with basic phones Content is not always adapted as expected due to factors such as screen size and resolution variations between models Users who have opted into an MMS database dont necessarily have an MMS enabled phone (which leads to excess messaging at additional cost). Sending bulk MMS messages is often only available through a dedicated messaging platform rather than a network Users are unsure of the costs associated Advantages of MMS Direct and personal MMS messages can be stored and forwarded Delivery and read-reply reporting WAP Push potential Benefit potential for sender and receiver Varying message billing options Segmentation Increased user interactivity through multimedia Image, video and other media rich content allows for better branding To make it safer for consumers, when MMS content is sent, its actually stored online, and only once the user has opened the browser is the data retrieved and adapted for the phone.

Infrared
Like Bluetooth, Infrared is a limited technology that is not yet extinct. Suitable for creating a one-to-one connection over a short range, Infrared uses LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes) to transfer data.

Quirk eMarketing is the largest full service online marketing agency in Africa with 10 years of experience in providing holistic eMarketing solutions. From our Cape Town, Johannesburg and London offices, Quirk provides exceptional client service to a wide range of clients including: Google, Sun International, South African Tourism, First National Bank and Warner Bros.

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Mobile Marketing 101: Chapter 4: Mobile Technologies: SMS, MMS, USSD & Bluetooth/Wireless/Infrared

Users with 2 Infrared enabled phones or handsets can share contacts, files and even play games against each other.

Bluetooth
Created in 1994, the Bluetooth wireless protocol never took off quite as expected due to the short range (roughly 10m) when compared to the wireless technologies which came to be shortly after. Nevertheless, transmitting a maximum of 800 kilobits of data per second via radio waves across shorter ranges, Bluetooth has been an important standard in mobile and other Personal Area Networks (PAN). Bluetooth is great for location specific messaging, such as broadcasts at a shopping centre or airport. Though most feature and smartphones do have Bluetooth capabilities, its not a given that theres a definite connection. Bluetooth services need to be switched on; something which consumers fail to do for extended periods of time due to battery concerns and malicious connections and software, known as Bluejacking.
Advantages Sending small amounts of data Uses less battery power than Bluetooth Potential as a payment method Disadvantage Unreliable, linear connection Short range

General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)


An extension of the GSM network, GPRS is used to connect to the Internet with mobile devices as well as to send and receive multimedia content (MMS). It can even be used to increase the speed of SMS message transfers. With a maximum speed of up to 80 kilobits per second, the second generation of GPRS allows for TCP/IP connectivity and also point-to-point protocols (PPP), connecting a laptop or other device and connection sharing.

Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution - EDGE


Even though is it technically part of the 2G league of technologies (dating back to 2001), EDGE is still lumped with the third generation (3G) of technologies. Due to its backwards compatibility and progression away from GSM standards to provide better wireless data transfer, EDGE provided a better connection than standard GPRS through better software, not hardware. Though not the fastest connection currently available, the data rate of EDGE is up to 384 kilobits per second and the technology enjoyed moderate success until it was replaced by the Wideband Code-Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) 3G technology.

Third Generation - 3G
Following on from 2G and 2.5G, 3G represents the third generation of mobile connectivity protocols for digital wireless networks, such as High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) which supports video calls and simultaneous data and call

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Mobile Marketing 101: Chapter 4: Mobile Technologies: SMS, MMS, USSD & Bluetooth/Wireless/Infrared

transfers. Fancy, huh? With a 14.4 megabit per second broadband transfer rates, 3G technologies (like HSDPA and even High-Speed Uplink Packet Access) are the current mobile Internet connectivity standard for mobile phones.

Wireless Fidelity - WiFi


Gone are the days of using rolls of cables leading to massive, cumbersome hubs and routers WiFi connects more points, more types of hardware and is the leading traditional networking standard at the moment. Like Bluetooth, WiFi also uses radio signals to transmit data but over a much greater area. A WiFi hotspot is a wireless network provider, and normally, a node on a much wider grid of connections.
Nielsen Mobile reports that the release of the When put to the test, EDGE connectivity uses more battery power than 3G, but less than WiFi.

The idea is that WiFi hotspots in close proximity share the strain of providing the service, with more hotspots being created all the time to fill in the blanks. More and more laptops and phones are coming out with the IEEE 802.11b wireless networking specification (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) making for endless connection possibilities. An open WiFi hotspot means anyone can connect to the network (and usually the Internet) without the need for a password. An evolved version of GPRS, mobile WiFi currently has a maximum speed of 236.8 kilobits per second (where GPRS was only 80 kilobits per second). Wireless uses much more battery power than Bluetooth, making it limiting for a mobile device. But with a range of over ten times that of Bluetooth, theres no denying the future of wireless as a mobile technology standard. Though only currently available on a limited number of mobile phones and not always supported by the service provider, WiFi technology (good ol IEE 802.11b) is by far the fastest and most stable mobile protocol.

3G-enabled version of the iPhone lead to a 97% increase in AT&T subscriptions between June and July, 2008.

Advantages Increased range Simultaneous call/Internet connectivity Location specific hotspots Even outdated dial up connections can be linked to a wireless router, increasing the accessibility Disadvantage Not yet a common mobile standard (selected smartphones only) Increased power consumption

Quirk eMarketing is the largest full service online marketing agency in Africa with 10 years of experience in providing holistic eMarketing solutions. From our Cape Town, Johannesburg and London offices, Quirk provides exceptional client service to a wide range of clients including: Google, Sun International, South African Tourism, First National Bank and Warner Bros.

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Mobile Marketing 101: Chapter 4: Mobile Technologies: SMS, MMS, USSD & Bluetooth/Wireless/Infrared

Case Study
Kommando, an innovative marketing company based in Glasgow needed a thought provoking strategy to increase the awareness of Know Your Limits, a National Health Service (NHS) anti-drinking campaign. Launched in the city of Weston, the campaign aimed to curb binge drinking in the UK, a dangerous pastime which is all too popular with the younger crowd (specifically those between the ages of 18-24). Kommando needed to get the message across and stimulate PR on a rather modest budget. The result was an interactive campaign which used mobile projectors (with sound), Bluetooth SMS messaging and digital vouchers to send a warning to binge drinkers specifically while out and about and at the point-of-binge. A video compilation was projected onto the side of buildings in the pub and club areas of Weston and Bluetooth messages were broadcasted to geo-target partygoers. A limited number of flyers and glow sticks were also handed out. Free to download, the Bluetooth messages raised awareness and could be redeemed for free non-alcoholic drinks, coffees, shakes and reduced entry at participating bars and clubs. With plenty of co-operation and support from the police and other concerned parties, the messages were downloaded 563 times over the 2 evenings of broadcast, sparking plenty off media attention (TV, radio, newspapers and online). On a tight budget and spanning only 48 hours, the campaign was successful in reaching the goals of increasing awareness and publicity thanks to the availability, immediacy and interactivity of the mobile technology and the Kommando strategy.

Further Discussion
Using the younger, tech-savvy generation, how can you reach an older audience? Discuss how a USSD system can be used as a low-tech alternative to a mobile website or payment system. Can you segment mobile web users between various connection speeds/types? How can physical wireless hot spots be used in an interactive Mobile Marketing campaign? How can you use multiple P2P connections (Infrared, WiFi etc.) in an interactive campaign?

Quirk eMarketing is the largest full service online marketing agency in Africa with 10 years of experience in providing holistic eMarketing solutions. From our Cape Town, Johannesburg and London offices, Quirk provides exceptional client service to a wide range of clients including: Google, Sun International, South African Tourism, First National Bank and Warner Bros.

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Mobile Marketing 101: Chapter 4: Mobile Technologies: SMS, MMS, USSD & Bluetooth/Wireless/Infrared

Whats Up Next?
Mobile 101: Chapter 5 Mobile Technologies: Popular Mobile Operating Systems and Applications In the next chapter of the Mobile 101 series, we will be looking at the advancement of Operating Systems, Mobile development, as well as what applications are popular on Mobile phones and why.

References:
Bailey [16 May 2009] Online SMS Usage Is Poised To Explode http://www.articlesbase.com/business-articles/online-sms-usage-is-poised-toexplode-919914.html [Accessed May 18, 2009] Covey, Nic. Nielsen provides iPhone 3G and smartphone statistics http://www.nielsenmobile.com/html/press%20releases/ iPhone3GandSmartphoneStats.html [Accessed May 13, 2009] Covey, Nic. Nielsen: Texting now more popular than calling http://www.nielsenmobile.com/html/press%20releases/TextsVersusCalls.html [Accessed May 11, 2009] Culligan, Barry [13 May 2009] GSM/GPRS module includes GPS http://dataweek.co.za/news.aspx?pklNewsId=32404 [Accessed May 22, 2009] ESATO Forum [Ongoing discussion] http://www.esato.com/archive/t.php/t-117670,1.html [Accessed May 13, 2009] GSM World [Date unknown] GPRS http://www.gsmworld.com/technology/gprs.htm [Accessed May 18, 2009] Komarov, Ivan [20 May 2008] Define USSD. What Is It? http://www.eyeline.mobi/blog/2008/05/20/define-ussd-what-is-it/ [Accessed June 1, 2009]

Quirk eMarketing is the largest full service online marketing agency in Africa with 10 years of experience in providing holistic eMarketing solutions. From our Cape Town, Johannesburg and London offices, Quirk provides exceptional client service to a wide range of clients including: Google, Sun International, South African Tourism, First National Bank and Warner Bros.

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Mobile Marketing 101: Chapter 4: Mobile Technologies: SMS, MMS, USSD & Bluetooth/Wireless/Infrared

Komarov, Ivan [10 December 2008] USSD 1 + 2 http://www.eyeline.mobi/blog/2008/12/10/ussd-1-2/ [Accessed May 28, 2009] Mac, J [17 January 2009] SMS Statistics http://www.everysingleoneofus.com/no-way-back-from-here/1--lay-of-the-land/ statistics/sms-statistics [Accessed May 22, 2009] Mobile Phones UK [Date unknown] What is GPRS? http://www.mobile-phones-uk.org.uk/gprs.htm [Accessed May 28, 2009] MyITForum.com [Ongoing discussion] SMS Metrics http://www.myitforum.com/forums/m_72703/tm.htm [Accessed June 1, 2009] Nielson Wire [8 December 2008] The (Marketing) Revolution Will Be Texted? http://blog.nielsen.com/nielsenwire/consumer/the-marketing-revolution-willbetexted/ [Accessed May 13, 2009] Reporter Wireless and Mobile News [9 December 2008] Americans Should Expect More SMS Text Marketing Msgs, Says Nielsen http://www.wirelessandmobilenews.com/2008/12/american_should_expect_ moresms_text_marketing_msgs_says_nielsen.html [Accessed May 13, 2009] TechRepublic [May 2004] T-Mobile and CISCO Systems Join Forces to Offer Public Wireless LAN Services. http://whitepapers.techrepublic.com.com/abstract.aspx?docid=161231 [Accessed May 13, 2009]

Quirk eMarketing is the largest full service online marketing agency in Africa with 10 years of experience in providing holistic eMarketing solutions. From our Cape Town, Johannesburg and London offices, Quirk provides exceptional client service to a wide range of clients including: Google, Sun International, South African Tourism, First National Bank and Warner Bros.

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