You are on page 1of 8; Ostroumov S.A. Biological Effects of Surfactants. CRC Press. Taylor&Francis; Boca Raton, London, New York, 2006.

280 p. Abstract, Contents, Citation see below; D:\2011\List.Blog.Posts\Scribd\ KEY WORDS: ecology, ecotoxicology, surfactants, detergents, water, water quality, bioassay, pollutants, xenobiotics, new, methods, phytotoxicity, plant science, phytotest, bivalves, aquaculture, self-purification; ABSTRACT: Results of new experiments that discovered many new biological and toxic effects of synthetic surfactants and detergents on bacteria, algae, higher plants, and invertebrates, esp. molluscs and annelids. New methods and methodology for bioassay of chemicals was developed and presented. New types of environmental hazards from chemicals, esp. surfactants, detergents, and pesticides. First elements of new conceptualization of the natural ecological mechanisms for improving water quality (water self-purification). New data and conceptualization on extreme environmental hazards of sublethal effects of low concentrations of pollutants, e.g., on the rate of water filtration by filter-feeders. This is the first modern monograph to provide a broad in-depth analysis of the environmental hazards from surfactants and detergents. Innovations in environmental science, bioassay, water quality, ecotoxicology, environmental safety, sustainability. University level. ISBN 0-8493-2526-9; Further support to conclusions of book 'Biological Effects of Surfactants':; Citation of this and other works:;;;; Lists of relevant publications online free; Main Discoveries:; ECOLOGY, ENVIRONMENT: TEXTS AVAILABLE ONLINE FREE.; ecology, ecotoxicology, biogeochemistry, water, water quality, bioassay, pollutants, xenobiotics,; ecology, environment, biology, life, sciences, geoscience, LIST OF THE MOST CITED English and Russian publications
CONTENTS: Anthropogenic Impacts and Synthetic Surfactans as Pollutants of Aquatic Ecosystems * Criteria and Priorities in Assessing the Hazardous Impacts on Aquatic Biota * Ecological Hazard and Ecosystemic Consequences of the Effect of Anthropogenic Substances on Hydrobionts * Biological Effects of Substances and the Need of Refining the Arsenal of Biotesting Methods * Substantiating the Need for Further Research into Biological Effects of Synthetic Surfactants * Ambiguity of Biological Effects Caused by Surfactants

* Pollution of Aquatic Ecosystems by Synthetic Surfactants * Synthetic Surfactants and Self-Purification of Water Including its Filtration by Mollusks Organisms and Methods * Organisms: Substantiation of Choice and Aspects of Methods Used * Chemical Substances Used Biological Activity of waters Contains Anionic Surfactants * Biological Effects of Alkyl Sulfates. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) * Biological Effects of Alkyl Benzene Sulfonates (ABS) * Biological Effects of High-Polymer Synthetic Surfactants Biological Activity of Waters Containing Nonionogenic Surfactants * Biological effects of Nonionogenic Surfactants in a System With Bacteria * Biological Effects of Nonionogenic Surfactants on Phytoplankton Organisms * Biological Effects of Nonionogenic Surfactants on Higher Eukaryotes * Biological Effects of Nonionogenic Surfactants and Their Hazards to Aquatic Ecosystems Biological Activity of Waters Containing Cationic Surfactants * Biological Effects of Ethonium * Biological Effects of Tetradecyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (TDTMA) * Biological Effects of Benzethonium Chloride * Other Data on the Biological Activities of Cationic Surfactants Biological Effects of Surfactant-Containing Mixtures and Other Preparations * Impact of Aquatic Media with Surfactant-Containing Mixtures on Hydrobionts: Earlier Works * New results on the Impact of Surfactant-Containing Mixtures on Autotrophic Organisms * New results on the Impact of Surfactant-Containing Mixtures on Heterotrophic Organisms * Assessment of the Biological Activities of Other Preparations and Samples Biological Effects of Synthetic Surfactants and Participation of Hydrobionts in Water Purification * Self-purification of Water and the Role of Hydrobionts in Aquatic Ecosystems * Water Purification and Some Applied Problems * Anthropogenic Impact on Hydrobionts: Assessment of the Ecological Hazards Index; ** CONTENTS (in more detail): Foreword by M.E. Vinogradov and V.D. Fedorov vii Foreword by Steven C. McCutcheon ix Acknowledgments xi Abbreviations xiii Preface xv Introduction xvii Chapter 1 Anthropogenic Impacts and Synthetic Surfactants as Pollutants of Aquatic Ecosystems 1 1.1 Criteria and priorities in assessing the hazardous impacts on aquatic biota 1 1.2 Ecological hazard and ecosystemic consequences of the effect of anthropogenic substances on hydrobionts 3 1.3 Biological effects of substances and the need of refining

the arsenal of biotesting methods 6 1.4 Substantiating the need for further research into biological effects of synthetic surfactants 9 1.5 Ambiguity of biological effects caused by surfactants 12 1.6 Pollution of aquatic ecosystems by synthetic surfactants 16 1.7 Synthetic surfactants and self-purification of water including its filtration by mollusks 23 Chapter 2 Organisms and Methods 27 2.1 Organisms: Substantiation of choice and aspects of methods used 27 2.2 Chemical substances used 42 Chapter 3 Biological Activity of Waters Containing Anionic Surfactants 49 3.1 Biological effects of alkyl sulfates. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) 50 3.2 Biological effects of alkyl benzene sulfonates (ABS) 77 3.3 Biological effects of high-polymer synthetic surfactants 85 3.4 Concluding remarks 89 Chapter 4 Biological Activity of Waters Containing Nonionogenic Surfactants 93 4.1 Biological effects of nonionogenic surfactants in a system with bacteria 96; ** FOREWORD The book presents new results of research into the biological effects of surfactants on autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms. The author studied anionic, nonionogenic, cationic surfactants, and commercial surfactant-containing mixtures. Surfactants interact with membranes and pose a hazard to living organisms. Test organisms studied are the major blocks and trophic levels of aquatic ecosystems; they include bacteria, cyanobacteria, algae, flagellates, higher plants, and invertebrates. Support from various funds enabled the author to conduct his research in Russia, Ukraine, the U.S., and the U.K. and greatly expand the set of organisms studied and methods used. The results of experiments were analyzed in relation to the assessment of ecological hazard to organisms and aquatic ecosystems, water self-purification studies and nature preservation priorities. These issues are important, and collection of new information for their analysis is useful. The results of his work were reported by the author, who has become a leader in this field of biological, ecological, and environmental sciences, at representative forums in Russia and other countries, including the Joint Plenum of the Hydrobiological Society, Russian Academy of Sciences; the Scientific Council on Hydrobiology and Ichthyology, Russian Academy of Sciences; and Interdepartmental Ichthyological Commission of the Russian Federation; symposia of the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, and International Association for Theoretical and Applied Limnology; conferences in the U.K., Switzerland, Denmark, and Finland; and workshops in the U.S., Germany, the U.K., the Netherlands, and Belgium. Now the time has come to generalize the results of this valuable and useful work. The book is useful and interesting to research scientists in various fields, and also to postgraduate students and university teachers. M.E. Vinogradov Academician Russian Academy of Sciences Professor V.D. Fedorov DSc (Biology)

Chair of the Department of Hydrobiology, Moscow State University ** FOREWORD I have been in correspondence with Dr. Ostroumov since 1995 and have worked with him to organize two sessions of the annual meetings of the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography. He serves on the editorial board for the book, Phytoremediation: Transformation and Control, of which I am co-editor. I am but one of several scientists from Germany, the U.K., the U.S., and several other countries that Dr. Ostroumov has attracted and helped self-organize to focus on the ecological basis of the assimilative capacity of surface waters. This new book by Dr. Ostroumov sums up his specific contributions on the effects of surfactants and detergents on aquatic ecological systems, which are vital to understanding how this important class of compounds affects our environment. Without surfactants, including those found in common hand soap, modern societies would be hard pressed to function. Surfactants in soaps, detergents, and many other forms stop the spread of many diseases from hand-to-hand contact, are important in manufacturing for de-greasing metal surfaces and many other uses, have made possible many medical breakthroughs, and allow many other conveniences that are taken for granted. While our ecosystems have evolved in the presence of natural surfactants, man-made surfactants have many acutely toxic and subtle effects. These priceless ecosystems can only be protected and managed through understanding of the effects on individual organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems as a whole. As the dominance of man over the natural ecosystem will only increase in the short term, understanding of the effects of anthropogenic compounds becomes more important. The effect on waste assimilative capacity and the biological machinery or biogeochemical cycles of the planet must be known to preserve diversity and the intrinsic value of life on Earth. Dr. Ostroumovs work is exceptional in that it serves as a point of focus for those in many disciplines to have another look at (1) the traditional sanitary engineering idea of stream, lake or estuary waste assimilative capacity used in the U.S. and elsewhere, (2) the eastern European concept of hydrobiology, and (3) Russian concept of biogeochemical cycling in surface waters. Sergei Ostroumov is pioneering the application of ecological and biological principles to redefine assimilative capacity, especially beyond the effects of bacteria and other microbes and nutrient cycling. In particular, I am excited about developing concepts to explore the hazardous waste assimilative capacity in broad ranges of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. I look forward to developing rigorous protocols and designing methods for the emerging field of phytoremediation (using green plants, especially the plant metabolic system to degrade hazardous wastes) based on general concepts that I see Dr. Ostroumov developing in his recent work. I am pleased to have this opportunity to comment on the scientific leadership of Sergei A. Ostroumov. The book is highly recommended to those who are involved in studying ecology and solving environmental problems. Steven C. McCutcheon, PhD University of Georgia U.S. Environmental Protection Agency President, American Society of Ecological Engineering; ** Acknowledgments The author thanks Prof. V.D. Fedorov and many colleagues (Department of

Hydrobiology, Faculty of Biology, Moscow University; Russian Academy of Sciences; American Society of Limnology and Oceanography; and other institutions) for cooperation and criticism. The scientific conferences and seminars organized by ASLO, SIL, Moscow University, Russian Academy of Sciences, U.S. EPA, SETAC, ECOTOX, WHOI, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, SUNY, Columbia University, University of Maryland, EAWAG, TNO, UFZ, Institute of Freshwater Ecology (Berlin), and some other national and international institutions were instrumental in better viewing important scientific problems. The author is grateful to Prof. N. Fisher, Prof. Ronald Weiner, Prof. J. Waterbury, Prof. John Widdows, Dr. P. Donkin, Prof. S.S. Stavskaya, Dr. G.A. Filenko, and Prof. Dr. N. Walz for providing laboratory space and facilities for doing research; Prof. R. Wetzel, Prof. Rita Colwell, Prof. G. Likens and Academicians (Members of the Russian Academy of Sciences) Prof. M.E. Vinogradov, Prof. D.S. Pavlov, Prof. A.F. Alimov, Prof. M.V. Ivanov, Prof. V.N. Bolshakov, Prof. G.V. Dobrovolsky, Prof. G.A. Zavarzin, Prof. G.G. Matishov, Prof. V.P. Skulachev, Prof. L.P. Rysin, Prof. T.I. Moiseenko, Prof. A.V.Tsyban, Prof. A.V. Yablokov, Prof. D.A. Krivolutsky, Prof. V.V. Malakhov, Prof. E.A. Kriksunov, Prof. G.S. Rozenberg, and Prof. V.M. Zakharov for advice; Prof. J. Widdows, Prof. Dr. Christian Steinberg, Prof. Dr. Norbert Walz, Prof. Dr. Henri Dumont, Prof. Curtis J. Richardson, Prof. S.M. Adams, Prof. Nico M. van Straalen, Prof. R. Newell, Dr. Rita Triebskorn, Prof. B.A. Kurlyandsky, Prof. V.S. Petrosyan, Prof. R. Weiner, Dr. Steven McCutcheon, Dr. T. Feijtel, Dr. P.J. van den Brink, Dr. E. Kristensen, Prof. A.P. Melikian, Prof. V.D. Samuilov, Prof. O.F. Filenko, Dr. N.S. Zhmur, and Dr. M. Scholten for discussions; N.E. Zourabova, Prof. David Page, Dr. M. Marcus, Dr. N.N. Kolotilova, Dr. N.V. Revkova, Dr. M.P. Kolesnikov, Dr. A.V. Smurov, Dr. A.G. Dmitrieva, Prof. G.E. Shulman, Dr. G.A. Finenko, Dr. Z.A. Romanova, and other colleagues at the Institute of the Biology of Southern Seas, National Academy of Ukraine, for help. Some mollusks were provided by the Institute of the Biology of Southern Seas (Ukraine) and PML (U.K.). The author thanks Professor P.J. Wangersky, Dr. M. Caldwell, Mr. Allen Hill, Mr. Glenn Kempf, and Ms. E. Schuster for valuable comments and help in editing the text. This work was in part supported by the MacArthur Foundation (Research and Writing Initiative of the Program on Global Security and Sustainability), Research Support Scheme of the Open Society Support Foundation (Grant No. 1306/1999), EERO, IBG, and individual sponsors (Mr. V.Ya. Etin, Mr. J. Ostroumoff, and others). The author thanks Prof. D. Page, Mr. J. Kessler, Prof. Dr. O. Kinne, Prof. Dr. C. Steinberg, Prof. Dr. N. Walz, Prof. A. Hooke, Prof. M. Brody, Prof. R. Krueger, Dr. Peter Kuschk, Dr. Peter Donkin, Mr. F. Staff, and others for support. Profound gratitude is expressed to T.A. Ostroumova for her everlasting help. Special thanks are due to Dr. A. Schramm (University of Washington, U.S.); Dr. R.F. McMahon (The University of Texas at Arlington, U.S.); Prof. L. Mayer (University of Maine, U.S.); H.G. Dam (University of Connecticut, U.S.); Prof. N.G. Hairston, Jr. (Cornell University, U.S.); Prof. D. Pimentel (Cornell University); Prof. E. Laws (University of Hawaii, U.S.); Prof. L. Hekanson, Dr. C.M. Lindblom (Uppsala University, Sweden); Dr. B.W. Hansen (Roskilde University, Denmark); Dr. D. Hamilton (University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia); Dr. S.C. Maberly (Center for Ecology and Hydrology, Windermere, U.K.); Dr. W. Quayle (U.K.); Prof. D.M. Paterson (St. Andrews University, Scotland, U.K.); Dr. N. Bahamon (Centro de Estudios Avanzados de Blanes, Spain); Prof. E. Prepas (University of Alberta, Canada); Dr. M.A. Belmont (Trent University, Canada); Prof. Dr. Thomas Weisse, Executive Director (Institute for Limnology, Austria); Dr. J. Boenigk (Austria); Prof. G.J. Herndl, Head of Department of Biological Oceanography, Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ); Prof. K. Jazdzewski (Poland); Dr. Y.Z. Yacobi (Kinneret Limnological Laboratory, Israel); Dr. D. Angel (Israel); Dr. T. Moens (University of Gent, Belgium); Dr. T. Noji (Institute of Marine Research, Norway); Prof. Dr. M.A.H. Saad (Egypt); Prof. Wang Ziulin (The Ocean University

of Qingdao, China), and many others for discussions and support of the idea of publishing this book. The author thanks the translator of the book, Victor Selivanov, for his time and effort. 2006; Abbreviations: AAL apparent average length ABS alkyl benzene sulfonate AE alcohol ethoxylate AES alcohol ethoxysulfate AHC Avon Herbal Care AS alkyl sulfate ATM alkyl trimethyl ammonium BA biological activity BAS biologically active substance BCF bioconcentration factor BCO biochemical consumption of oxygen CHMA copolymer of hexene and maleic aldehyde CL confidence limit CMC critical micelle concentration CSSD change of the static state to the dynamic state CTAB cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide CV coefficient of variation DOM dissolved organic matter DNOC dinitroorthocresol DDA dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium bromide DDTMA dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide DTMAC dodecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride DW distilled water EC50 effective concentration, i.e., the concentration at which the biological effect is 50% of the maximum possible effect EER effect on the efficiency of removal EPA Environmental Protection Agency GIC germination inhibition coefficient HLB hydrophilic-lipophilic balance HPSS high-polymer synthetic surfactant LC50 concentration that induces the death of 50% of organisms LTMAC lauryl trimethyl ammonium chloride MBA minimum bacteriostatic activity MCPC multicatalytic proteinase complex MPC maximum permissible concentration NOEC no observed effect concentration NP nonylphenol NPE nonylphenolethoxylate NST nonspecific symptom of toxication OD optical density QAC quaternary ammonium compound SDS sodium dodecyl sulfate SFG scope for growth SML surface microlayer (of the sea) STW settled tap water TCP 2,4,6-trichlorophenol TDTMA tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide TX100 nonionogenic surfactant Triton X-100 ** Preface

For about 20 years now, I have been doing research into anthropogenic effects on hydrobionts. In experimental studies of the impacts of synthetic surfactants on hydrobionts and other organisms, the author arrived at the conclusion that these substances are greater potential ecological hazards than previously believed. This conclusion led me to focus on the fundamental problem of the criteria and principles of assessing the hazards. Deeper insight into the problem highlighted the need for a more profound analysis of the extent to which the self-purification potential of an aquatic ecosystem can be a target of pollutants. I attempted to answer this question in a series of papers published in 19972005 (Ostroumov et al. 1997, Ostroumov 2000, 2005a,b, etc.). In summing up the results of the entire work, it proved useful to return to the earlier published books (1983, 1985, 1991 coauthored by A.V. Yablokov) based upon the analysis of a broad range of material in accordance with the levels of living matter organization. That approach proved useful. In a concise form, the authors work was summed up in his book published in Russian in 2000 and in recent publications (Ostroumov 2005a,b). This book makes use of and is based upon all those publications. In the process of translating the book from Russian into English, I realized that some terms need to be commented upon. The term hydrobiont' that is used in the book is a synonym to aquatic organism. The term biogens is a synonym to nutrients, especially the dissolved phosphorus and nitrogen compounds that are easily available for algae and may lead to algal growth. Moreover, I realized that an addendum should be written to cover some recent literature which was not mentioned in the book, just because it was written some years ago. This addendum is presented in the English edition of the book. I would like to emphasize that the book is by no means a comprehensive review of literature on environmental aspects of surfactants. The book is based on my experimental work that used only a limited number of species and experimental approaches. I used only the most necessary literature to discuss my data. I tried to propose and substantiate some new elements in vision of the environmental hazards of surfactants and detergents. The book is only a contribution to the enormously broad area of research a contribution made by one individual who is by definition limited in his resources. I am grateful to the many people who helped in this work and participated in it directly or indirectly. Thanks are due to the coauthors and colleagues V.D. Fedorov, A.V. Yablokov, V.N. Maksimov, N.N. Kolotilova, M.P. Kolesnikov, S.V. Goryunova, T.N. Kovalyova, A.Ya. Kaplan, N.V. Kartashova, A.N. Tretyakova, N.A. Semykina, N.E. Zourabova, E.V. Borisova, V.S. Khoroshilov, and A.E. Golovko; the staff of Papanin Institute of Biology of Inland Waters, Russian Academy of Sciences; Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine; and many others, including H. Nagel, P. Donkin, R. Weiner, and N. Fisher. Important were helpful comments made by many colleagues, to whom the author is deeply grateful. Critical remarks by and advice of Prof. V.D. Fedorov were of great help. Thanks for critical remarks are also due to T.V. Koronelli, O.F. Filenko, and A.G. Dmitrieva. Unable to express here his gratitude to all he would like to acknowledge, the author does this in Acknowledgments. I did not even try to review the enormous amount of literature in the field; my aim was only to study some specific issues within a very vast area. I realize that, in a work touching upon many organisms and analyzing controversial and difficult issues of hydrobiology and ecology, it is impossible to avoid blunders and errors. I do not shift the burden of these shortcomings from myself onto those to whom I express my gratitude; the responsibility for the possible shortcomings

of the book is entirely mine. The book is dedicated to my parents and my friends, to those who helped me and will help in future. Sergei Ostroumov Faculty of Biology M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University Moscow, Russia; ** BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF SURFACTANTS lays an excellent foundation for scientists to explore how hazardous wastes are absorbed in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Features: * Publishes new results from the author's research and gleans the most important findings from over 20 years of research including 80 of his articles * Reveals new data on the biological effects of synthetic surfactants and detergents upon organisms in aquatic ecosystems * Obtains data useful for selecting relatively tolerant organisms for purposes of bioand phytoremediation and restoration of disturbed aquatic ecosystems; ** Additional info on the topic: surfactants, toxicity, environment:; Effects on HeLa cells:; [Ernst R, Arditti J. Biological effects of surfactants, IV. Effects of non-ionics and amphoterics on HeLa cells. Toxicology. 1980;15(3):233-242]. Effects on orchid seedlings:; Effects on callus cultures:; Additional relevant info: clean_water_and_to_remove_heavy_metals;