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1. Mention the project parameters that affect the quality of product Reliability Maintainability Usability 2.

Differentiate the terms .validity.and .reliability. Validity: Refers to whether the measurement or metric really measures what we intend it to measure. The measurement involves no higher level of abstraction. For example the measurements of body height and weight, validity are simply accuracy. Reliability: It refers to the consistency of a number of measurements taken using the same measurement method on the same subject. If repeated measurements are highly consistent then the measurement method has a high degree of reliability. 3. Define cost of quality There is a price to pay for quality. This total cost can be split into two fundamental areas:

a. Non Conformance. This area covers the price paid by not having quality systems or a

quality product. Examples of this are: (1) Rework. Doing the job over again because it wasn't right the first time. (2) Scrap. Throwing away the results of your work because it is not up to the required standard. (3) Waiting. Time wasted whilst waiting for other people. (4) Down Time. Not being able to do your job because a machine is broken.

b. Conformance. Conformance is an aim of quality assurance. This aim is achieved at a

price. Examples of this are: (1) Documentation. Writing work instructions, technical instructions and producing paperwork. (2) Training. On the job training, quality training, etc. (3) Auditing. Internal, external and extrinsic. (4) Planning. Prevention, do the right thing first time (5) Inspection. Vehicles, equipment, buildings and people. 4. Differentiate .Bugs., .Errors., and .Defects.. Bugs: Functional defects are called as bugs Errors: It is a human mistake that results in incorrect software

Defects: It is an anomaly in a product. 5. Write the formula to compute defect removal efficiency. Defects found by removal operation X 100% Defect removal Efficiency = Defects present at removal operation 6. Mention the criteria for evaluating the reliability model. Predictive validity, Simplicity Quality of assumptions, Order of importance. APRIL/MAY-.08/CS1020-Answerkey 3 7. Give the pictorial view of inspection effort/defect rate when the actual is compared with model. Defect Rate Higher Lower Inspection Higher Effort Lower 8. Define cyclomatic complexity. The measurement of cyclomatic complexity was designed to indicate a program.s testability and understandability. It is the classical graph theory cyclomatic number, indicating the number of regions in a graph. 9. Why quality standard are needed? It provides external validation to see whether the investment made in the QMS is being effective. It gives the supplier and their quality system external credibility It allows the supplier to sell to those customers who insist on accreditation as a condition of tender

It qualifies the supplier to be included in buyers guides compiled by the accreditation bodies and circulated to potential customers. 10. In which way CMM differs from CMMI? CMM (Capability Maturity Model): The basic premise underlying the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) maturity model is that the quality of a software product is largely determined by the quality of the software development and maintenance processes used to build it. The model is question-based. Questions are divided into .essentials. and .highly desirable.. The Capability Maturity Model® Integration (CMMI) is a process improvement approach that provides organizations with the essential elements of effective processes. It can be used to guide process improvement across a project, a division, or an entire organization. CMMI helps integrate traditionally separate organizational functions, set process improvement goals Not Bad / Good Best Case Worst Case Unsure APRIL/MAY-.08/CS1020-Answerkey 4 and priorities, provide guidance for quality processes, and provide a point of reference for appraising current processes. PART B-(5 x 16=80 marks) 11. (a) Explain briefly about the levels of quality measurement. (16) There are four levels of measurements are available. They are: Nominal Scale Ordinal Scale Interval Scale Ratio Scale Nominal Scale: The simplest operation in science and the lowest level of measurement is classification. In a nominal scale the two key requirements for the categories are jointly exhaustive and mutually exclusive. Mutually exclusive means a subject can be classified into one and only category. Jointly exhaustive means that all categories together should cover all possible categories of the attributes.

In a nominal scale, the names of the categories and their sequence bear no assumptions about relationships among categories. As long as the requirements of mutually exclusive and jointly exhaustive are met we have the minimal conditions necessary for the application of statistical analysis. Ordinal Scale: Ordinal scale refers to the measurement operations through which the subjects can be compared in order. For example, we may classify families according to socio economic status: upper class, middle class, and lower class. We may classify software development projects according to the SEI maturity levels or according to a process rigor scale. The ordinal measurement scale is at a higher level than the nominal scale in the measurement hierarchy. An ordinal scale is asymmetric in the sense that if A>B is true then B>A is false. Interval and Ratio scales: An interval scale indicates the exact differences between measurement points. The mathematical operations of addition and subtraction can be applied to interval scale data. For instance, assuming products A,B and C are developed in the same language, if the defect rate of software product A is 5 defects per KLOC and product B.s rate is 3.5 defects per KLOC, then we can say product A.S defect level is 1.5 defects per KLOC higher than product B.s defect level. APRIL/MAY-.08/CS1020-Answerkey 5 Ratio scale is the highest level of measurement and all mathematical operations can be applied to it, including division and multiplication. For example, we can say that product A.s defect rate is twice as much as product C.s because when the defect rate is zero, that means not a single defect exists in the product. For interval and ratio scales the measurement can be expressed in both integer and noninteger data. (OR) (b) Explain the concept of product quality metrics and process quality metrics by

considering an example on your own. (16) Product Quality Metrics: The metrics are Mean time to failure Defect density Customer problems Customer satisfaction Product quality: It is usually measured by the number of bugs in the software. In operational definitions the two metrics are defect density and mean to failure (MTTF). The MTTF metric is most often used with safety critical systems such as the airline traffic control systems, avionics and weapons. The two metrics are correlated but are different enough to merit close attention. First one measure the time between failures, the other measures the defects relative to the software size. Second although it is difficult to separate defects and failures in actual measurements and data tracking, failure and data tracking, failures and defects have different meanings. In-process quality metrics: In-process quality metrics are less formally defined than end product metrics and their practices vary greatly among software developers. On the other hand, in-process quality metrics simply means tracking defect arrival during formal machine testing for some organizations. On the other hand some software organizations with well established ware metrics programs cover various parameters in each phase of the development cycle. Defect Density During Machine Testing: Higher defect rate found during testing is an indicator that the software has experienced higher error injection during its development process. The simple metric of defects per KLOC or function point, therefore is a good indicator of quality while the software is still being tested. E.g: If the defect rate during testing is the same or lower than that of the previous release, then

ask: Does the testing for the current release deteriorate? APRIL/MAY-.08/CS1020-Answerkey 6 If the answer is no, the quality perspective is positive. If the answer is yes, you should need to do extra testing. 12. (a) List the constituency and their tasks to conduct software quality assurance. Also enlist the activities conducted by SQA group for attaining high quality end product. (16) Definition of SQA: .The function assures that the standards, processes, and procedures are appropriate for the project and are correctly implemented. Activities 1. Build awareness of need and opportunities for improvement 2. Set goals for improvement 3. Organize to reach the goals 4. Provide training 5. Carry out projects to solve problems 6. Report progress 7. Give recognition 8. Communicate results 9. Keep score 10. Maintain momentum by making annual improvement. (OR) (b) Explain how software engineers perform software quality control activity in detail Quality means the degree of user satisfaction. In order to achieve user satisfaction it is necessary to have a high-quality product that conforms to a standard either national, in-house, or as defined by the customer within the specification. This is referred to as program quality. However it is also necessary for the design specification to the user requirements. This is also known as design quality. Quality control emphasizes the following aspects: Quality must be the highest priority, since this brings long-term benefits. All personnel must be involved

Quality control must be oriented towards the customer Quality control is applied in practice in a number of ways arising from the factory production approach to software. Within this approach, the design and implementation functions are kept separate, with a further distinct process control function. The control process of quality assurance is built around three key stages: Design review and document inspection. Intermediate quality audit APRIL/MAY-.08/CS1020-Answerkey 7 Product and system inspection Design review and documentation inspection Design review including specified dates for the review, a comprehensive design review checklist, a record of previous errors, adequate preparation and thorough investigation of the review findings. Documents are viewed as products of the software development process alongside the code itself. Documents may be considered as internal or external. An example of external documentation would be the manuals for distribution to the users. Intermediate quality audit a) To forecast submerged errors, allowing an estimate of the number of errors to be detected. b) To compare target and actual numbers of errors. c) To analyze and investigate errors. Product and system inspection This is the final inspection stage before delivery. The procedures employed are similar to those employed during the intermediate quality audit. Again use is made of computerized statistical methods. Fig: The software factory approach to building in quality Initial Design Design review Documents inspected Implementation Intermediate

quality audit Testing Delivery Final product check Reject APRIL/MAY-.08/CS1020-Answerkey 8 13. (a) Write about the basic tools for quality control suggested by Ishikawa (16) Ishikawa.s seven basic tools for quality control are checklist (or Check sheet), Pareto Diagram, Histogram, Scatter Diagram, Run Chart, Control chart and Cause-sand-effect diagram Check Sheet: A check sheet is also known as tally sheet, is a form for systematic data gathering and registering to get a clear view of the facts. Another type of checksheet is the check-up confirmation sheet. It is concerned with the quality characteristics of a process or a product. The form of the checksheet is tailored for each situation. Use: A checklist is used to indicate the frequency of a certain occurrence. Used in manufacturing production Problems Frequency 1. Delivery 2. Packaging 3. Quality 4. Invoicing ││││ │││ │ ││││ │││ │ 8 3

1 6 Histogram A Histogram is a graphic representation of frequency counts of a sample or a population. The X .axis lists the unit intervals of a parameter, ranked in ascending order from left to right, and the Y axis contains the frequency counts. It is a bar chart showing a distribution of variable quantities characteristics. USE: It is a tool for determining the process results. Cause and Effect DIAGRAM or Fish bone Diagram The cause and effect diagram is a graphical tabular chart to list and analyze the potential causes of a given problem. The cause and effect diagram is also called the fishbone diagram because of its appearance and this is also known as Ishikawa diagram. Pareto Diagram A Pareto diagram is a diagnostic tool commonly used for separating the vital few causes that account for a dominant share of quality loss. A Pareto diagram is based on the Pareto principle which states that a few of the defects accounts for most of the effects. APRIL/MAY-.08/CS1020-Answerkey 9 Satisfaction Analysis Satisfaction analysis is a method of analysis of data by grouping it in different ways. This is a simple, very effective quality control tool for improving the quality. Scatter Diagram: The scatter diagram is a simple graphical device to depict the relationship between two variables. A scatter diagram is composed of a horizontal axis containing the measured values of one variable and a vertical axis represents the measurements of another variable. Control chart: A control chart is the most widely used tool in statistical process control. It is a graph that displays data taken overtime and the variations of this data. The chart consists of three horizontal lines, a centre, lower control limit and upper

control limit. (OR) (b). Explain briefly about the dynamic software reliability models. (16) Dynamic software reliability models in turn, can be classified into two categories: those that the entire development process and those that model the back-end testing phase. The former is represented by the Raleigh model. The latter is represented by the exponential model and other reliability growth model. The Rayleigh model The Raleigh model is a member of the family of the Weibull distribution. The weibull distribution has been used for decades in various fields of engineering for reliability analysis, ranging from the fatigue life of deep-groove ball bearings to electron tube failures and the overall incident of rivers. It cumulative distribution function(CDF) and Probability density function (PDF) are: CDF:F(t)=1-e-(t/c)m PDF:f(t)=m/t(t/c)me-(t/c)m The Exponential model The exponential model is another special case of the Weibull family, with the shape parameter m equal to 1. It is best used for statistical processes that decline monotonically to m asymptote. Its cumulative distribution function(CDF) and probability distribution function(PDF) are CDF:F(t)=1-e-(t/c) = 1-e-ë t APRIL/MAY-.08/CS1020-Answerkey 10 PDF:f(t)=1/c e-(t/c) = 1-ëe-ë t Where c is the scale parameter, t is time and ë = 1/c. The exponential distribution is the simplest and most important distribution in reliability and survival studies.

Reliability Growth Models (RGM) Reliability growth models are meant for reliability assessment. They are also useful for quality management at the back end of the development process. A special quality improvement program (QIP) was then proposed, evaluated, approved and swiftly implemented. 1. Blitz testing- .artistic testing. in stressful environments. 2. Customer Evaluation- customers conducting testing in the development laboratory. 3. Code inspections- additional inspections of error phone modules especially routines that are difficult to test such as the error recovery exception handling routines. 4. Design reviews- review of designs of suspect components and modules 5. Extension of system test-improvement of test suites and extension of testing schedules to allow thorough final test execution. 14. (a). Why nonparametric PTR model is used for defect tracking? How is it used? (16) A simple nonparametric PTR sub model for testing defect tracking. It is called a PTR model. Many development organizations testing defects are tracked via some kind of problem tracking report (PTR), which is a part of the change control process during testing. Valid PTRs are therefore valid code defects. It is a submodel because it is part of the overall defect removal model. PTR submodel spreads over time the number of defects that are expected to be removed during the machine-testing phase. It is a function of three variables: 1. Planned or actual lines of code integrated overtime 2. Expected overall PTR rate 3. PTR surfacing pattern after the code is integrated. To derive PTR model curve, the following steps can be used: 1. Determine the code integration plan; plot the lines of code to be integrated over time. APRIL/MAY-.08/CS1020-Answerkey 11 2. For each code integration, multiply the expected PTR rate by the KLOC for each

planned integration to get the expected number of PTRs for each integration 3. Spread over time the number of PTRs for each integration based on the PTR spread pattern and sum the number of PTRs for each time point to get the model curve. 4. Update the model when the integration plan changes or actual integration data become available. 5. Plot the curve and track the current project in terms of months from the product.s general availability (GA) date. A calculator or a simple spreadsheet program is sufficient for the calculations involved in this model. Model is updated periodically. (OR) (b). Brief the five point satisfaction scale used in customer satisfaction surveys. (16). Customer satisfaction is the Ultimate validation of quality. Product quality and customer satisfaction together form the total meaning of quality. In this modern day quality era, enhancing customer satisfaction is the bottom line of business success. As a result of TQM more and more companies are conducting surveys to measure their customers satisfaction. Customer satisfaction surveys: Customer complaint data Direct customer visits Customer advisory councils User conferences Methods of survey data collection There are three common methods to gather survey data 1. Face-to-face interviews 2. Telephone interviews 3. Mailed questionnaires 1. Face-to-face interview: It requires the interviewer to ask questions based on a prestructured questionnaire and to record the answers. Advantage: High degree of validity of the data APRIL/MAY-.08/CS1020-Answerkey 12

2. Telephone interview: It is less expensive. It is monitored by the research team to ensure that the specified interview procedure is followed. The computer aided approach can further reduce costs and increase efficiency. 3. Mailed questionnaire method: It does not require interviews. Less expensive Questionnaire must be carefully constructed, validated and protested before final use. It requires professional knowledge and experience. 4. Sampling method: Estimating the satisfaction level of the entire customer population through a representative sample is more efficient. There are four types of probability sampling. Simple random sampling Systematic sampling Stratified sampling Cluster Sampling 15. (a). Write a note on CMMI developed by software engineering institute. (16). The Capability Maturity Model® Integration (CMMI) is a process improvement approach that provides organizations with the essential elements of effective processes. It can be used to guide process improvement across a project, a division, or an entire organization. CMMI helps integrate traditionally separate organizational functions, set process improvement goals and priorities, provide guidance for quality processes, and provide a point of reference for appraising current processes. Unfortunately, many well-intentioned organizations fail to achieve their stated improvement goals. In many organizations, the goal is stated interms of attaining a CMMI level, rather than in terms linked directly linked to project performance. Measuring Process Maturity CMMI provides five levels of process maturity:

Maturity level1: Initial Maturity level 2 : Managed Maturity level 3: Defined Maturity level 4 : Quantitatively Managed APRIL/MAY-.08/CS1020-Answerkey 13 Maturity level5: Optimizing The maturity level 2 process areas are: 1. Requirements Management 2. Project planning 3. Project Monitoring 4. Supplier Agreement Management 5. Measurement and analysis 6. Process and Product Quality Assurance 7. Configuration Management The standard CMMI Appraisal Method for Process Improvement(SCAMPI) is designed to provide benchmark quality ratings relative to Capability Maturity Model Integration(CMMI) models. It is applicable to a wide range of appraisal usage models, including both internal process improvement and external capability determination. Measuring Process Capability Capability level 0 : Incomplete Capability level 1: Performed Capability level 2: Managed Capability level 3: Defined Capability level 4: Quantitatively Managed Capability level 5: Optimizing (OR) (b).Narrate a suitable situation for the application of six sigma concepts and ISO 9000 series(16). Six sigma concepts Six Sigma is a set of practices originally developed by Motorola to systematically

improve processes by eliminating defects. A defect is defined as nonconformity of a product or service to its specifications. It includes 1. Continuous efforts to reduce variation in process outputs is key to business success 2. Manufacturing and business processes can be measured, analyzed, improved and controlled 3. Succeeding at achieving sustained quality improvement requires commitment from the entire organization, particularly from top-level management APRIL/MAY-.08/CS1020-Answerkey 14 The term "Six Sigma" refers to the ability of highly capable processes to produce output within specification. In particular, processes that operate with six sigma quality produce at defect levels below 3.4 defects per million opportunities (DPMO). Six Sigma's implicit goal is to improve all processes to that level of quality or better.
• •

A performance goal, representing 3.4 defects for every million opportunities to make one. A series of tools and methods used to improve or design products, processes, and/or A statistical measure indicating the number of standard deviations within customer A disciplined, fact-based approach to managing a business and its processes. A means to promote greater awareness of customer needs, performance measurement,

services.

expectations.
• •

and business improvement. Methodology Six Sigma has two key methodologies: DMAIC & DMADV DMAIC is used to improve an existing business process, and DMADV is used to create new product or process designs for predictable, defect-free performance. DMAIC Basic methodology consists of the following five steps:

Define the process improvement goals that are consistent with customer demands and

enterprise strategy.
• •

Measure the current process and collect relevant data for future comparison. Analyze to verify relationship and causality of factors. Determine what the relationship is, Improve or optimize the process based upon the analysis using techniques like Design of Control to ensure that any variances are corrected before they result in defects. Set up

and attempt to ensure that all factors have been considered.

Experiments.

pilot runs to establish process capability, transition to production and thereafter continuously measure the process and institute control mechanisms. APRIL/MAY-.08/CS1020-Answerkey 15 DMADV Basic methodology consists of the following five steps:

Define the goals of the design activity that are consistent with customer demands and Measure and identify CTQs (critical to qualities), product capabilities, production Analyze to develop and design alternatives, create high-level design and evaluate design Design details, optimize the design, and plan for design verification. This phase may Verify the design, set up pilot runs, implement production process and handover to

enterprise strategy.

process capability, and risk assessments.

capability to select the best design.

require simulations.

process owners. Some people have used DMAICR (Realize). Others contend that focusing on the financial gains realized through Six Sigma is counter-productive and that said financial gains are simply byproducts of a good process improvement Implementation roles Six Sigma identifies several key roles for its successful implementation. Executive Leadership
1. Includes 2. They are

CEO and other key top management team members. responsible for setting up a vision for Six Sigma implementation.

3. They also empower

the other role holders with the freedom and resources to explore new

ideas for breakthrough improvements. Champions
1. are

responsible for the Six Sigma implementation across the organization in an integrated Executive Leadership draws them from the upper management. Champions also act

manner.
2. The

as mentors to Black Belts.
3. At

GE this level of certification is now called "Quality Leader".