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Verb phrase Aspect Progressive aspect Perfect aspect Modality Modal verbs Semi-modals Extrinsic modality Intrinsic modality

Voice Inflection Function Mood

Tense Complement Gist Intensive Reading Extensive Reading Subvocalize Discourse patterns Sequences Skimming Scanning Developing skills Testing skills Atomistic approach to reading Holistic approach to reading Schematic knowledge Systemic reading Aspect Modal Verbs Semi Modal Verbs Extrinsic modality Intrinsic Modality Learner problems with modals Form of the passive

In traditional grammar, the auxiliary and main verbs in way the speaker's "view" together, as is "I It is the a sentence that function of an event in have been by the verb phrase, regardless of the expressed studying English" in "I have been studying English for ten It concerns the internal time of the event itself. years" . Some grammarians event, e.g, whether it has in a wider nature of the use the term verb phrase duration sense to includeit is completed +follows the verb. any object be or not, whether it oris formed by the auxiliary that presentparticiple It not, whether to both the lexical+ past have and Modality refers is repetitive or not. participle of main verb, e.g: The birth rate is their of main verb,ways when I arrived he'd already left; e.g: speakers/writers express going grammatical down; I was taking by are saying.and then I'll send door I will have finished thetomorrowa walk when... attitude to behave in similar for Lexical: modal Verbs that what they ways to core Maybe it in. pass (adverb).show the speaker's/writer's she'll butverbs that Grammatical: She might Auxiliary share some characteristics with lexical verbs pass (modal combine with additional verbs to judgement about howverb). or desirable a verbs. They auxiliary likely situationmodal meaning. Examples: need to likely express the Refers to is. speaker's/writer's view of how / have(got)the/speaker's/writer's view /of howto the situation ought to / be going to (= meaning Refers to to is. Example: She may goused she is likely to go) desirablethe necessary the situation is.subject and The way or relationship between the She may go (= meaning she has permission to go) root of the objectputthe verb can be changed without When we of something on the end of the changing eg., basic person "s" orin context, e.g, the actual use of a verb phrase "ed" in past The verb, the third meaning of the sentence. simple.for permission or apologising. Or, any asking communicativeterm used for language item. A grammatical purpose of a the imperative, infinitive and subjetive forms of the verb. The way that verbs are inflected (ie, have different forms) to express a relation with time. For example, a verb phrase but it refers vs the subject; It follows happen vs happened; run to ran. The relation between tense and time is not an exact it can be an adjective (eg I'm happy), a noun match. (eg That was a lovely form may in fact phrase A present tense verb meal), a pronoun referIs this yours?),or the past, (The busbe 50 next ( eg to the future a number(eg She'll leaves tomorrow at 8 also follow the object of the month). Itacan a.m). Focus on shorter text in a variety of ways sentencegeneral impression of variety of reasons Overall / (eg Walking makes me hungry). (skimming and scanning) for a the writer's opinion or an understanding of what theis an activity (specific information, gist). This writer is saying. which usually happens inthe class time. Reading Usually happens outside the classroom. longer texts for pleasure. Read aconnectionsunder your breath.the text Those text aloud complete partsquickly in order Involves reading a between text of above/beyond individual sentence level. whole How sentences in orderthe extract salient details to gain on text or paragraphs indicate the Reading a overview of to meaning of relationships between information and while text piece, the teacher shows the students of a book to but not necessarily an the back of the ideas. When such as reading overview cover how to read extract It do when we look for us. item on text infor what we may involve them toan better. whether it appeals to process a a list, a example.getting the students to provide answers particular way and then to reflect on what they did Involves and how (say) comprehension questions from the based oneffective it was. reading can be broken Approachknowledge of that wider world and of Reader's which views the text in order to assess their which can in reading. down into discrete sub-skillsproficiency -and how different the speaker's 'view' and genres, is The way situations, contexts of an event and should-be likely to influencereading cannot be (and Approach which views that the development these are developed separately. expressed by the verb phrase, regardless of the fragmented (Catherine Wallace). grammarfor toplanguage knowledge in a text. This is vital which Learner's employed) of lexisconcerned with the time of the event itself. It is and down processing. the event .e.g. imperative helps them interpret a text and iswhether it isin internal nature of Show the speaker's/writer's judgement about how bottom-up or not,awhether is Refers to both completed interpretation. it is. completed or not, likely a desirable situation whetherin similar ways or not. speakers/writers lexical andis repetitive to core modal verbs but Behave it grammatical ways express their attitude to what they are verbs. share some characteristics with lexical saying. Usually formed with he auxiliary 'be' and the past need (to),the speaker's/writer's view of how likely have (got) to and ought (to). Refers to when to of meanings to do with howones Deciding a range useverb. It is the auxiliary which participle of a lexical them / choosing which the situation desirable the speaker's/writer's the necessary foris. to use /constructing Only transitive verbs can is marked or tense. questions and negative form situation. structure. The modal is only expressed forms / confusion that 1 agent verb may have a passive several meanings or to say who or what something when it is important functions. is done by.

The form can be very complex / They confuse the passive with the active progressive forms since The infinitive is the simplest form of the verb and both use auxiliary 'be'.present simple form after I, looks the same as the / Confuse with the active perfect forms since both use pastThis is also called you, we and they (go, take, eat). participles / Find it difficultform, theuse the relationship between the the base which to bare L1 interference /infinitive Deciding to interpret / infinitive or the overusing Learner problems with passive subject andavoiding infinitives 'to' is calleding full without 'to'. the recipient of the/ action. infinitives / The infinitive with overusing the The infinitive infinitive (e,g,full go). forms / using to infinitive instead of bare Learner problems with bare infinitives infinitive / spelling issues with ing forms. Students canPresent / If clause:the use of the past be confused with The zero conditional Main clause: Future / If clause: IfIf + present. + present (real / tense to refer to the future / students may find it Type 1 conditional likely). Main clause: Would + base formrefer to the If + / If clause: confusing thatis what people actually say e.g. I'm Direct speech both types 1 & 2 Type 2 conditional past clause:to L1 interference, lower level Main simple (unreal / unlikely).past participle / If Would + have + future / due tired. Reported speech (also called indirect Type 2 conditional clause: Ifsometimes do not understandchanges to learners is how we report this, making the speech) + past pefect. Learner problems with conditionals wordsputmeaning between end ofused root of difference that the speaker the 'if' andthe e.g. the When we in something at originally 'when'. Reported Speech She said (that) she was tired. the verb e.g. third person 's' or 'ed' ending in the Inflection past simple. The actual use of the verb in context e.g asking Function for permission or apologizing.the imperative, A grammatical term used for Mood infinitive and subjective forms of the verb. Normally follows a verb phrase (often the verb 'to be, seem or appear) and can be an adjective (eg. I'm happy), a noun phrase (eg. That was a lovely meal), a pronoun (eg. Is this yours?), a number (eg She'll be 50 next month). It can also follow the object of the sentence (eg. walking makes me Complement hungry). consider: The material / The learners / Things to Evaluating course books The teacher / The teaching-learning context.a A term for grammar, lexis and phonology in Language work course book. A term for writing, reading, oral interaction, Skills work expended speaking, listening in a course book. Subject matter A term fortables lines & topics in a course book. Grammar story & explanations, Vocabulary Lists, summaries, indices and tables lists/glossaries, Index to grammar & skills items. Homework & self-access mats Allows learners to use course book on their own. Supplementary Materials CDs, DVDs,of aims, labeling of language, Statement CD-ROMs, Workbook, Resource books. Rubric Instructions. Tests: How often? Do they really test what the Tests students have learned. Appeal to learners, cultural content Revision General recycling of language. Lesson plans, Grammar analysis, Transcripts, Key (American/British/Neutral), Visual presentation, Teacher's book to exercises, Additional practice material. Format, Syllabus (functionally based/structurally Other points to consider in course term for focus in the classroom on particular based) A book Language focus features of specifically language focus which is To describelanguage systems. Presentation done in a teacher-centered way. Atomistic Term for viewing each small part separately. Holistic Term for viewing everything as a whole. For a time it was believed that an overt focus on form was not useful for students. This belief was overturned by Richard Schmidt and Sylvia Fronta in Brazil when they spent an extended time in Brazil. They concluded that students need plenty of opportunities for communication : Can beand, in Function is notPractice apparent from form, as lots Presentation / always / Production as well Overt focus on form of clear to a traditional classroom just ascan be to fact, theovert ,formalized work language it can applied function of a piece of on language. Function and form multiple. a humanistic, learner-centered and PPP communicative classroom.

Once called referred to as TTT and frowned on is now seen as a virtue in the classroom. It what A teacher establishes a situation in which the exponents to the Natural Approach (such as language implicit and the target language can Teacher talk krashen) call comprehensible input. naturally be drawn. involves giving students An approach which Once the bases for of many a UTT Unnecessary teacher talk. teacher training course, getting them them a out language are testedthen being referred to as task Students data and usually by giving to work QTT Quality teacherpresentation. It could Well talk. situationalised this data clarify any be seen as the rules by teaching to themselves. followed from Through a situation an elaborate application finally PPPcourse books established approach which many paradigm. misunderstandings, and of the another test to Guided Discovery use to draw conclusions from language period check understanding after a reasonabledata. of Test / Teach / Test time. An approach based on the successful completion of a communicative task. Pure proponents of this approach argue that this should not beviews Coined by Diane Larsen-Freeman who considered as language teaching methodology at all. language more as a process or skill to acquire, Language focus can be made, before or after rather than as a body of knowledge to learn. Task Based Lesson though grammar to an utterance means students Adding this is not always felt to be essential. Grammaticisation (grammaring), and Noticing can express themselves with more meaning. Teacher reads a text at natural speed. Students try to reconstruct individually and then in pairs/groups. Emphasis not on accurate spelling, morphology and syntax, but on focusing on gist and having to grammaticise it. Effective technique Dictogloss for cooperative and collaborative language work. The learner (age, educational culture, gender, Criteria for choice of Language Focus Method / The level / The language item. learning style) hypothesise (presentation) / Lewis: Observe, Scrivener: Clarification (presentation) / Restricted OHE Experiment (production). Use 1 (practice) / Restricted Use 2 (production) / ARC Authentic Use. / encourages the teacher to pick Harmer: Engage An approach that Study (presentation) / Activate ESA (practice, production). from a wide range of and choose judiciously Principled eclecticism methodologies. application of the ideas of A listening-based The listening approach Krashen to the classroom. An approach in which learners do a task, using such language as they can naturally, possibly having previously seen or heard by native speakers. Language focus can be made, before or after, though this is not always felt to be essential. Can be seen as an extension to the Task-based learning communicative Approach. A method of FL teaching which makes use of gesture, mime, visual aids and in particular Cuisenaire Rods that the teacher uses to help the learners to talk. The teacher is busy throughout, but not talkative. Many of the principles of the Communicative Approach can be found on this The silent way approach. of communicativeL2 using the L1 to An approach to teaches the language teaching aspect Grammar-transalation explain and understandlanguage as lexical units which focuses more on the L2. The lexical approach rather than grammatical units. It uses techniques developed in group counselling. The method makes use of group learning. Learners say FL teaching they want to talk about, A method of things that developed by the in their native language, withteacher translates Bulgarian, Lazanov.used the use of dialogues, Teaching materials It makes this approach teach the learner's sentences into the foreign language, situations, and translation to present understand the language needed to express and and practise and the learnerof particular, such asuse of music. language, and in functions, makes requesting, different kinds then repeats this to the other Community language learning members students from on the processes of Dissuade ofEmphasis is thinking that language describing. the group. Suggestopaedia learning is difficult. communication. Reflects the Cognitive-Mentalist The communicative approach model of language acquisition.

A method of foreign language teaching which has A language teaching method in target terms are the following features: only the which language presented used in the class and there orders, should be in the foreignproposed by is a firm A term for an approach language as Total physical response commands andwhich emphasizes a, the normal emphasis on speaking. Reflects a behaviorists Terell/Krashen instructions. Direct method account of language acquisition. tolerance of acquisition of language rules. b, Methods in which the following principles are The natural approach learners' errors. c, natural communication. human An approach which uses computers to aid considered important: the development of Computer assisted language learning active learneracquired behaviour. Process: language learning. is involvement in learning and values, Skinner: Langauge Humanistic approaches in the wayrepetition, positive and negative takes place. Imitation, learning Language is innate, but not Piaget / Vygostsky: Behaviourist reinforcement other developments. Process: Chomsky: Language is innate. Process: separate from Innatist Hypothesising, Trial and error, Creativity. use, Language acquisition grows from language Cognitive-developmentalist embedded in the experiences of its users. Oral practice based on specific grammatical forms. Role of teacher is to direct and control students' behavior, provide a model, and reinforce correct responses. Weakness: limits exposure to the target culture and"languages will take care of Natural approach fails to emphasize selfAcquisition is rough-tuned and unconscious, and motivated languagenatural approach, learners are acquisition. Reflects themselves". In there is an orderIt iswhicha usedstates that the message. in not This to communicateof language acquisition. Audiolingualism behaviorists acquire the necessary grammar to of account Swiss psychologist remembered for his studies expected to attended to. Learning, however, is of consciously structures are acquired by learners, irrespective Piaget cognitive development in children communicative make themselves understoodain a (1896-1980) very fine-tunedage (learners learn '-ing' as a L1, aptitude or and refers to learners' Krashen situation. form, then their ability 'to be' and so knowledge of rules and plurals, then to talk about progressive The Acquisition-Learning Hypothesiswhich is at odds with the valuesof language them. The Natural Approach order the former. on) The Natural Order Hypothesis presented in course books. Sometimes when we communicate spontaneously in L2, we want to get our message accuracy is sacrificed. At other times, we may wish to be much more accurate (writing a formal letter, for example).notthe latter case, we everything is This does In necessarily mean employ our Monitor (a kind of accuracy-focus device) to comprehended, but the learner should be scrutinise our output and makeand listening and constantly exposed to reading it as accurate as The Monitor Hypothesis possible. is most beneficial if it is a notch or two that this The Input Hypothesis above the learner's 'level'. The student will learn better if s/he well disposed to the language and to the learning process. In such cases his Affective Filter is low, and so more input can wash over him. If the filter is high (negative attitudeduring a course, aiming at It is administered to the language, stress, linguistic difficulties), the filter will be high and so finding out how well the beginning of a course to It is administered at students have grasped what The Affective Filter Hypothesis littlebeen taught in the course so far.to. - if any - input the end of the course, aiming has administered students attended don'tcontent It is out what the atwill be know and Test know. It find Progress or formative test is basedfinely if students have achieved the The content. atfocuses outwhat student are able to do in a is more on teachingthan a placement test. It finding on tuned Final achievement or summativeobjectives set out regardless ofknowteaching test content language, by the syllabus. or will need foreign reflects what students any Diagnostic test tois used to find out whatassess whether a is programme. It is used to level. It know at this particular a learner's level student Proficiency test meets the general standard. or is supposed to before deciding which course it level s/he should It refers to a test testing what Placement or entry test follow. nothing else range or a representative test,and test being it either a e.g: if reading the Content validity selection os requires skills above learner's level, instructions skills, structures, etc to be tested. It refers to the test giving consistent results, e.g.: Construct validity the test may test appearing validity. test onis It refers to student takes the test if the samea lack construct tosamewhat it Face validity supposedoccasions,receiving the same level, he different the test being in the same marks It refers toto test in the eyes ol the learner. from Test reliability should get the same scores..e.g.: multiple choice, different markers or results. Objective - quick to mark and don't even need to Scorer reliability cloze tests. be marked by a teacher; Subjective - are easier to Practicality It meansto the effect the carrywill havetest. as it refers it is possible marked by the on the design but have to be to test outa teacher, Backwash or washback effect teaching a assess knowlodge of individual quality involves -programme thatmaking about the Discrete lot of decision leads up to it. Objective and subjective testing language items; Integrative - includes various and acceptability of answers. techniques in terms of marking Discrete item test and integrative test components of the skill

Holistic and analytic scoring Direct and indirect test Can do statements Opening and Closing Turn taking Topic initiation and shift. Adjacency pairs Repair strategies Conversation routines Back channel signals

Discourse markers Phatic Language Contrastive Analysis Error Mistake / Slip Pre-systematic error Systematic error Post-systematic error Global errors Local errors error mistake slip attempt fossilisation interlanguage covert error global/local systematic systemic Sound Phoneme Allophones Vowel Consonant Diphthong

Holistic - when a single score is assigned to writing or speaking samples on the basis of a global impressionistic assessment of learners performances; Analytic - a method of scoring where writing or speaking skills is divided into different components and marks aswarded to Direct - designed to approximate authentic Descriptors of language ability which reflect each one. target use situation; Indirectuse language competencies (i.e. ability to - example: How and when speakers take turns in a gap fill to test one of conversation by know about writing. language) rather aspect of learners which one Language featurethan interrupting, holding the conversation, such as what the language. another is it going?) or bring a can initiate (e.g.: How person to speak. floor, allowing topic within a conversation and Starting a new conversation to an end.(e.g.: uselet you know). (e.g.:intonation, throughdifferent of high and low signalling a chance to a the I'll one (e.g.: Have key, heard, by the way, anyway -"If Ipredictable you semi-fixed phrases such as thiscan just....") Two turn exchanges which the type ofone has two A predictable structure for follow a functions: closing and shifting Yes, I'm looking pattern, e.g. : e.g., Iahelp you? topic). such as conversation. Can service encounter for.... a pain killer would be: sale initiation, sale Correcting yourself, rephrasing, repeating, asking buying for clarification. e.g: What sale, purchase, request, a listener to show Itheysaying is... Used by sale compliance, am are following purchase closure. take a turn, e.g.: uh - huh, I without wishing to know, I see. (also called pragmatic markers) are words or expressions like well, anyway, I mean, right, actually,smooth social relations.the beginning of Used to that normally come at Unlike an utterance, language it has an two the listener to transactional and function to orient linguistic Comparison and contrast of the interpersonal what willof two languages,indicating somehas an function. Unlike transactional language it kind of systems follow, either by for example, the change of direction in the talk, or by appealing to interpersonal or grammatical characteristic of what phonological function. It's a results from a gap in Compentence-based fault. It systems of French the listener in some Plays an important role in is called small talk. way. in other words, it is made and learner's Its basic premise is that the main the English. knowledge, forming/keeping socialnew language stem from difficulty in learning a groups when a learner produces incorrect language interference caused fault - the learner knows the because s/he does not yet know or has not yet Performance-based by such differences. met the correct form. a cognitive level but s/he piece of information at does not produce it accurately. is ignorant of the rule. The learner has found a rule but is applying it wrongly. The learner has lapses in his/her use of the correct rule. a breakdown in communication or it Cause adversely affects it. May sound or read unnatural but do not cause a breakdown in communication. do not know the rule (systematic) not apply it although you know the rule you do correctly learners developing second language knowledge. mistake made patterns express not change even when a learnerthroughinterlanguage which they be interlanguage other tiredness some L1 L2 andtries to that do something cna have not come exposure to or extended evolving after extended also contactsurface but isstructure systematic but into on the with yet error that looks fine dynamic continually actually on learners ireceive more3 weeks but they thier as the e.g. am here for input and reivse mean wrong target language hypothese about the elementlanguage ive been here for 3 weeks overt a sentence global local affects a single second in deviation is apparent on the surface affects the overall sentence organisation (ellis) e.g. haphazard, characterized by order and start not spagetti writing hard to know where to planning The smallest unit of sound in a language which affecting an entire system / Any of the individual can distinguish two words. One of of of phonemes -athe different alterered sounds theaphonemes which cannot be ways in Variations language of particular language without changing meaning. which a phoneme can be said (/l/ in little) / Different articulations of the same phoneme. A speech sound produced with the VOCAL CORDS when the airflow from vibrating the lungs is obstructed in some way by the articulators A phoneme formed of two monothong sounds joining together in a glide, e.g.: /au/ or /ia/

Ability to distinguish between two sounds when both are heard together. /Component of teaching pronunciation in which leaners learn to Stage at teaching of pronunciation in which discriminate identify a two sounds, that are or student can between particular sound, word Division of the teaching of sounds Discrimation / Recognition ofFor example: /i/ and phonologically ratherpronunciation in which sentenceteachingfeatures / Production speech Stage at stress , of close. connected Discrimination or Differentiation /i:/ or intonation without able help of constrastive and students are more easily the to produce the Recognition correspondingword or sentence stress, features of ones. target phonological features which are deemed to Those sound, Production connected conveyingintonation. when just one Two items speed or a clear, unambiguous meaning alter be vitalwe whose describe the prominent syllable A term in use to Minimal pairs phoneme to other users, especially in NNS - NNS is in pin/bin, or pear/bear message or changed; as We can talk about word of a word a sentence. Lingua Franca Core or Phonological Core which is articulatedis when a syllable is communication. stress. It by vibrating the vocal A sound sentence stress or The process of "compressing" unstressed Voicing cords. louder or longer, as result there is a greater made A speech rhythm in whichsqueezing together the syllables./ The process of the stressed syllables Stress expulsionthat occur between stressed syllables, so recur at of air. syllablesequal intervals of time, and syllables are Stress Timed Language not assigned the same stress. that each segment of the utterance takes the Accomodation same time to produce. A speech rhythm in which all syllables are said to Syllable Timed Language recur at equal intervals of time. A feature of connected speech in which a speech sound is modifyied by a neighbouring sound, such as when the final /n/ of green is followed by a /p/ and is pronounced /m/ as in Green Park. / A phonological phenomenon whereby a sound alters due to the influece of a preceding or following Assimilation sound. A feature of connected speech in which a sound is introduced at word boundaries, especially after words ending in a vowel, as in law and order, where a /r/ sound (called an intrusive r) is inserted between law and and, or as in pie and chips, where there is a little /j/ coming in after pie. These Catenation /r/ and /j/ are like links in a chain. A feature of connected speech in which a syllable present in the written form disappears in speech, as in suppose, generally pronounced as /spauz/./The omission of sounds or syllables because a similar sound occurs immediately after, The meaningful use that speakers make of e.g.: the ed in walked disappeares in I walked to changes in their voice pitch. It is a Ellision work. Unstressed words. The weaking to schwa is one of suprasegmental feature of pronunciation, meaning Weak forms the mosta property of whole stretches of speech A unit is common weak forms. that it in pronunciation which is usually longer Syllable than a than ofbut usually segments,asuch as rather sound individual less than word. Intonation phonemes. Grammatical functions: indicating difference between statements and questions; Attitudinal function, such as indicating interest, suprise, boredom, and so on; Discoursal function, such as contrasting new information with information that is already known, and hence shared between Functions of intonation speakers. Pitch: the relative level of speech sounds perceived by the listener: "high-pitched"; "lowpitched". Pitch range is the distance between a speaker's customary top and bottom contains a A sub-division of an utterance which note. Some languages have a wide pitch range (English,by tonic syllable. They are usually represented Brazilian Portuguese); She got here // just after 8 two slated lines, as in some have a narrower pitch Pitch and Range range (German, pitch: Rise, Fall, Fall-Rise, RiseA movement utterance comprises two tone groups. o'clock. This of Italian). Tone Fall. In each tone unit there is one tonic syllable and Tone Unit (or Tone Groups) pitch movement.

The stressed or prominent syllable where the main syllable before the tonic syllable. Tonic syllable pitch movement in ain LONDON. (LIVES is the Example: She LIVES an utterance takes place. Onset syllable onset syllable; LON is the tonic syllable). Rhythm A pattern of pulses of air pressures. Acculturation The process of adapting to aresearch focusing on Teacher-initiated classroom different culture. Action research a specific classroom issue . Affect Emotion or in which the intended meaning is not A situation feeling. Ambiguity clear. about the naturethat focuses on language Beliefs of psychology of language and A branch human Approach learning based on well-known theories. observable and learning, in contrast with perception actions, particularly stimulus-response Behavioral psychology methods. to communicate infocuses onor foreign behavioral psychology which a second The ability Cognitive psychology observable behaviorknowledge of social, cultural, . language, requiring which integrates psychological A school of thought Communicative competence and pragmatic rules. An approach that emphasizes interactionsocial and linguistic principles and emphasizes is taught When a subject, such as math or history, as both Communicative language teachinga secondand the discovery, or construction, of a means and the goal or when textsnew language. interaction language of learning a from such in Constructivism meaning. the are people learning a in content areaswaysused forparticipate second Studying Content-based instruction language. conversations and how conversation works in Conversation analysis different settings. in which learners work A learning process Cooperative learning together. Learning that starts with that reflects learning The organizing principle learning language rules Deductive learning such as grammar, objectives, teacher and student theories, teaching before practicing those rules. Design roles, textbooks, and materials. of speech and Language used in particular kinds Discourse writing. The ability to connect longer sentences coherently Discourse competence and to produce practicing language, writing. A technique for long pieces of talk or involving Drill guided repetition. To ask careful questions in order to get students Elicit tomistake learners make when trying to say or A give a specific answer. Error write something above their level of language. The language used at home, usually in the country Extrinsic motivation Motivation that that not come from the learner. or region wheredoes language is spoken; also First language known as the mother the same native language. Multiple exposures to tongue or language form Flooding (such as the simple past tense) within a text. Fluency-first instruction An approach to teaching that stresses speaking . A language learned in an environment where a Foreign language different language is spoken . Explicit or implicit teaching which is designed to Form-focused instruction draw the student does not show Whenstudents' attention to form. signs of progress Fossilization and continues to make the same mistakes . a set A writing of thought that the focus is on flow of school activity where views language as Free writing ideas without that can be used to create an . of fixed rules concern for language accuracy Generative linguistics unlimited number of sentences. The main idea or meaning of a written or spoken Gist text.ability to use the grammar, syntax, and The Grammatical competence vocabulary of a language . Avoiding directness in communication in an Hedge attempt to lessen a negative effectrespond A learner who has the tendency to Illocutionary force The speaker's intended meaning. quickly, responses sometimes involve risk-taking Impulsive learner or guessing.on-the-spot feedback and correction Unplanned, Incidental feedback of errors . learning or patterns to form ongeneral Using known facts approaches based a the belief Language Inductive learning rule all mistakes in the language being language that . communication supports secondlearned by Making Informed approaches acquisition . using the same grammatical pattern from the first When a language learner applies a rule from the Interference language . first language to the second language, first such When a learner applies a rule to all situation Interlingual transfer language interference. of all verbs to for the as putting -ed at the end Intralingual transfer simple past . Intrinsic motivation Self-motivation. The first language, also known as the mother L1 tongue or native language. L2 The second or additional language that one the identity people develop in reference to learns. Language ego language they speak.

Language function Learning strategy Learning style Metalinguistic feedback Method Motivation The Natural Approach Noticing Overgeneralization Paralinguistic features Pattern practice Politeness Pragmalinguistic competence Pragmatics Proficiency Recast Reflective learner Reflective style Register Repair Response Role-play School of thought Second language Second Language Acquisition Slip Sociolinguistics Sociolinguistic competence Sociopragmatic competence Stimulus Strategic competence Structural linguistics Sustained content Syllabus Syntax Target language Task-based instruction Theme-based instruction Total Physical Response Variability Whole language Behaviourism Articulator Alveolar ridge Assessment Evaluation Acculturation

The reason or purposeconsciouslysomething. A technique a learner for saying uses when learning or using language. naturally prefers to The way an individual learner learn. comments or questions used to prompt Teacher the students to self-correct. a set of principles A systematic plan based on used in presenting material for instruction . Desire toa student's something. A language teaching focused attention to Bringing learn or do method based on principles of first language as a grammar or pronunciation something such acquisition. point. When a learner communication, such as Non-word-basedapplies a rule to all situations. intonation or stress. An exercise based on practicing the same pattern; a drill. of pragmatics that focuses on expressing An area in a manner thatuse of grammatical structures to . The appropriate is correct for the social situation respond to a speaker. The study of how meaning is expressed and understood in interactions. A student's general ability to carefullyincomplete When a teacher saysto think use a or before . A learner who tends an ill-formed language sentence correctly. responding, making a decision, or solving a problem. The tendency to thinkof strategies to keep a a Any one of a number carefully before making decision or solving a problem. conversation going after communication has The level of formality in speaking or of a broken down, for example, because writing. misunderstanding. In psychology, any behavior that is caused by a stimulus. A classroom activity in which students act out roles in athinking that is based on a particular A way of given situation. theory. A language one learns other than one's first, or native, language: target language. A collection of theories and principles about how foreign languages are learned . A language mistake that students can correct on theirability to use and respond toon the A school of thought that focuses language The own . relationship between language and culture. appropriately with specific topics, people, and situations. The culturally appropriate use of the social rules of language . In psychology, an agent that directly causes a behavior; stimuli, pl. The ability to accomplish something, such as a A school of thought popular in the 1940s and request, through language . 1950s that focused on structural characteristics of human language. When students study the same subject matter throughout shows students what they will be A plan that the course. studying words are arranged toor subject. The way in a particular course form sentences or phrases. An approach in which the focus is on the The language meaningful tasks rather completion of that is being learned . than on the language. When students studywhich the themes or topics A way of teaching in different teacher presents throughout a course. language items as instructions and the students have to in exactly what at different tells them. Change do language use the teacher times and in different situations. A teaching approach without explicit focus on language rules or forms . Habit formation, drills, focus on accuracy, audiolingualmouth, throat and nose use to make Parts of the method speech between teeth and hard palate (roof) of mouth Collecting information about student knowledge to measure progress Effectiveness of overall course or program into a The degree to which somebody integrates culture

Proficiency Test Achievement Test Gradable adjectives Adverbial Adjuncts Disjunct Linker Advising Affect Affective filter Affordance Agency Appraisal Appropriacy Appropriation Definite article Indefinite article Automaticity Causative Clause Finite clause Non-finite clause Co-ordinate clause Main clause Subordinate clause Relative clause Reported clause Cleft sentence Cloze test Gap Fill Cognates False Friends Coherent Cohesion parallelism anaphoric reference cataphoric reference substitution Pragmatics Contrastive analysis back chanelling Co-operative principle Critical pedagogy Declarative Deduction Induction deixis

Measures overall ability learned in a given period Tests what learners have of time Adjectives which can have different degrees quite good(Generally speaking), Circumstance (In Comment winter), Link (As functions as pipes burst) Adverbial which a result the internal structure of sentence which stands Adverbial (As soon as) apart from sentence (attitude Not surprisingly) Adverbial- which connects clauses, sentences or paragraphs (on the other hand) Should, You'd better, If I were you, in humanistic Emotions or feelings, key principle ought to teaching Krashen - controls amount and quality of input leaners receive Language learning opportunities that exist in the learner's environment To be in control of your learning Expressing feeling, judgement context and Using language to suit cultural and appreciation meeting lsteners expectations Making something your own - Key in socio-cultural learning theory. E.g. Dictogloss The a, perform a task without having to pay to much Tosome attentionwhen someone performs a service for Passive, to it someonewhere Johnverb is marked for tense and Largest grammatical had his car fixed the whole A clause else - the unit smaller than sentence agree with the subject. When the door opens, you can go which has a participle or infnitive as its Clause in verb; Toor more clauses of equal ranks are linked When 2 open the door use the key by a conjuncton Contains the main idea of a sentence Is outranked by the main clause nouns. A woman Provides more information aboutin a sentence who had been sittng to foreground one element Sentence split in two at her desk I don't remember what she said gave Toto the of a sentence; It was Dorothy who bone Where every nth word is removed and replaced by a space. Not the same as are fill Test where chosen words gap removed and replaced wthhave the same or very similar in Words which blanks for students to fill in form and function like cognates but have different Words which look in 2 languages meanings Connectedness of elements in a text achieved A text ellipsis, substitution, depending on context using which makes sense linkers, parallelism, back reference Sentences that echo to a other (cohesive device) pronoun which referseach previously mentioned noun pronoun which refers to a noun mentioned later in the discourseof a noun phrase or clause by a replacement single word Study of language and it's context of use Comparison of 2 language listener verbal signals given by thesystems to show interest, surprise,(quantity, quality, relation. Grice - 4 Maxims attention manner) form of education based on dialogue, Liberating equality and hope Statement such as Richard has great teeth A rule is taught to the learner which they then apply Learner works out the rules for themselves The way language points to a spatial and temporal features of context: See you then, come here now

determiners Direct Method Discourse marker Display question Dogme ELT Ellipsis Mentalism Formulaic language Genre Homonym Humanism Hyponym Meronymy Immersion Interlanguage phonemes Inversion Priming Linking Verb Inflection Morpheme Scaffolding Behaviourism Articulator Alveolar ridge Assessment Evaluation Acculturation Proficiency Test Achievement Test Gradable adjectives Adverbial Adjuncts Disjunct Linker Advising Affect Affective filter Affordance Agency Appraisal Appropriacy Appropriation Definite article Indefinite article Automaticity Causative

a, this, that, my, some, few, what, which Method - No translation, realia used, questionanswer exercises Well, anyway, I mean, actually. Orient the listener to what question used by teacher to find out what Type of will follow learner can say coursebooks. Leraner-centred Reaction against instruction Leaving actively working things out for Learnersout elements ofwords that operate as a sequences of 2 or more a sentence themselves spoken or written discoursediomdiis single unit (collocations, phrasal verbs, which Any type of (experiential learning) discourse recognized by members of a particular used and markers) culture Word which are written and pronounced the same way but approaches that assert Learninghave dfferent meaningsthe central role of the 'whole person' n the learning process Describes thechildren are taught type of Y all of Objects that are all part of X is a some or (e.g. When school relationship another object face eyes, ears, language that is not their their -subjects in anose) mother tongue system that the learner creates The grammatical when learning a new language Individual segments elements When 2 grammaticalof speech are reversed (Kim is having lunch - Is Kim having lunch?) Co-occurence of words by grammar and habits of associationtake an obligatory compliment (be, Verbs that look, seem, fee) form of a word (spoke, speak, Alteration of the speaks) to agree with tense, person and number Smallest meaningful unit in written language The temporary support given to learners while they are learningdrills, focus on accuracy, Habit formation, audiolingualmouth, throat and nose use to make Parts of the method speech between teeth and hard palate (roof) of mouth Collecting information about student knowledge to measure progress Effectiveness of overall course or program into a The degree to which somebody integrates culture Measures overall ability Tests what learners have learned in a given period of time Adjectives which can have different degrees quite good(Generally speaking), Circumstance (In Comment winter), Link (As a result the internal structure of Adverbial which functions as pipes burst) sentence (As soon as) apart from sentence Adverbial which stands (attitude - which connects clauses, sentences or Adverbial Not surprisingly) paragraphs (on the other hand) Should, You'd better, key principle ought to Emotions or feelings, If I were you, in humanistic teaching - controls amount and quality of input Krashen leaners receive Language learning opportunities that exist in the learner's environment To be in control of your learning Expressing feeling,suit cultural and appreciation Using language to judgement context and meeting lsteners expectations Making something your own - Key in socio-cultural learning theory. E.g. Dictogloss The a, some To perform a task without having to pay to much attentionwhen someone performs a service for Passive, to it someone else - John had his car fixed

Clause Finite clause Non-finite clause Co-ordinate clause Main clause Subordinate clause Relative clause Reported clause Cleft sentence Cloze test Gap Fill Cognates False Friends Coherent Cohesion parallelism anaphoric reference cataphoric reference substitution Pragmatics Contrastive analysis back chanelling Co-operative principle Critical pedagogy Declarative Deduction Induction deixis determiners Direct Method Discourse marker Display question Dogme ELT Ellipsis Mentalism Formulaic language Genre Homonym Humanism Hyponym Meronymy Immersion Interlanguage phonemes Inversion Priming Linking Verb

Largest grammatical unitis marked for tense and A clause where the verb smaller than the whole sentence the subject. When the door opens, you agree with can go in Clause which has a participle or infnitive as its verb; Toor more clauses of equal ranks are linked When 2 open the door use the key by a conjuncton Contains the main idea of a sentence Is outranked by the main clause nouns. A woman Provides more information aboutin a sentence who had been sittng to foreground one element Sentence split in two at her desk I don't remember what she said gave Toto the of a sentence; It was Dorothy who bone Where every nth word is removed and replaced by a space. Not the same as are fill Test where chosen words gap removed and replaced wthhave the same or very similar in Words which blanks for students to fill in form and function like cognates but have different Words which look in 2 languages meanings Connectedness of elements in a text achieved A text ellipsis, substitution, depending on context using which makes sense linkers, parallelism, back reference Sentences that echo to a other (cohesive device) pronoun which referseach previously mentioned noun pronoun which refers to a noun mentioned later in the discourseof a noun phrase or clause by a replacement single word Study of language and it's context of use Comparison of 2 language listener verbal signals given by thesystems to show interest, surprise,(quantity, quality, relation. Grice - 4 Maxims attention manner) form of education based on dialogue, Liberating equality and hope Statement such as Richard has great teeth A rule is taught to the learner which they then apply Learner works out the rules for themselves The way language points to a spatial and temporal features of context: See you then, come here now a, this, - No translation, realia used, questionMethodthat, my, some, few, what, which answer exercises Well, anyway, I mean, actually. Orient the listener to what question used by teacher to find out what Type of will follow learner can say Reaction against coursebooks. Leraner-centred instruction Leaving out elements ofwords that operate as a Learners actively working things out for sequences of 2 or more a sentence themselves spoken or written discourse which single unit (collocations, phrasal verbs, diomdiis Any type of (experiential learning) discourse markers) used and recognized by members of a particular culture Word which are written and pronounced the same way but have dfferent meaningsthe central role of Learning approaches that assert the 'whole person' n the learning process Describes thechildren are X is a some or (e.g. Objects that are all part oftaught type of Y all of When school relationship another object face -subjects in anose) their eyes, ears, language that is not their mother tongue system that the learner creates The grammatical when learning a new language Individual segments elements When 2 grammaticalof speech are reversed (Kim is having lunch - words by grammar and habits of Co-occurence of Is Kim having lunch?) associationtake an obligatory compliment (be, Verbs that look, seem, fee)

Inflection Morpheme Scaffolding Behaviourism Articulator Alveolar ridge Assessment Evaluation Acculturation Proficiency Test Achievement Test Gradable adjectives Adverbial Adjuncts Disjunct Linker Advising Affect Affective filter Affordance Agency Appraisal Appropriacy Appropriation Definite article Indefinite article Automaticity Causative Clause Finite clause Non-finite clause Co-ordinate clause Main clause Subordinate clause Relative clause Reported clause Cleft sentence Cloze test Gap Fill Cognates False Friends Coherent Cohesion parallelism anaphoric reference cataphoric reference substitution

Alteration of the form of a word (spoke, speak, speaks) to agree with tense, person and number Smallest meaningful unit in written language The temporary support given to learners while they are learningdrills, focus on accuracy, Habit formation, audiolingualmouth, throat and nose use to make Parts of the method speech between teeth and hard palate (roof) of mouth Collecting information about student knowledge to measure progress Effectiveness of overall course or program into a The degree to which somebody integrates culture Measures overall ability Tests what learners have learned in a given period of time Adjectives which can have different degrees quite good(Generally speaking), Circumstance (In Comment winter), Link (As a result the internal structure of Adverbial which functions as pipes burst) sentence (As soon as) apart from sentence Adverbial which stands (attitude - which connects clauses, sentences or Adverbial Not surprisingly) paragraphs (on the other hand) Should, You'd better, key principle ought to Emotions or feelings, If I were you, in humanistic teaching - controls amount and quality of input Krashen leaners receive Language learning opportunities that exist in the learner's environment To be in control of your learning Expressing feeling,suit cultural and appreciation Using language to judgement context and meeting lsteners expectations Making something your own - Key in socio-cultural learning theory. E.g. Dictogloss The a, some To perform a task without having to pay to much attentionwhen someone performs a service for Passive, to it someonewhere Johnverb his car fixed the whole Largest grammatical had is marked for tense and A clause else - the unit smaller than sentence agree with the subject. When the door opens, you can go in Clause which has a participle or infnitive as its verb; Toor more clauses of equal ranks are linked When 2 open the door use the key by a conjuncton Contains the main idea of a sentence Is outranked by the main clause in a sentence Provides more information about nouns. A woman who had been sittng to foreground one element Sentence split in two at her desk I don't remember what she said of a sentence; It was Dorothy who gave Toto the bone every nth word is removed and replaced by Where a space. Not the same as gap removed and Test where chosen words are fill replaced wth blanks for students to fill in Words which have the same or very similar in form and function in 2 languages Words which look like cognates but have different meanings Connectedness of elements in a text achieved A text ellipsis, substitution, depending on context using which makes sense linkers, parallelism, back reference Sentences that echo to a other (cohesive device) pronoun which referseach previously mentioned noun pronoun which refers to a noun mentioned later in the discourseof a noun phrase or clause by a replacement single word

Pragmatics Contrastive analysis back chanelling Co-operative principle Critical pedagogy Declarative Deduction Induction deixis determiners Direct Method Discourse marker Display question Dogme ELT Ellipsis Mentalism Formulaic language Genre Homonym Humanism Hyponym Meronymy Immersion Interlanguage phonemes Inversion Priming Linking Verb Inflection Morpheme Scaffolding

Study of language and it's context of use Comparison of 2 language listener verbal signals given by thesystems to show interest, surprise,(quantity, quality, relation. Grice - 4 Maxims attention manner) form of education based on dialogue, Liberating equality and hope Statement such as Richard has great teeth A rule is taught to the learner which they then apply Learner works out the rules for themselves The way language points to a spatial and temporal features of context: See you then, come here now a, this, - No translation, realia used, questionMethodthat, my, some, few, what, which answer exercises Well, anyway, I mean, actually. Orient the listener to what question used by teacher to find out what Type of will follow learner can say Reaction against coursebooks. Leraner-centred instruction Leaving out elements ofwords that operate as a Learners actively working things out for sequences of 2 or more a sentence themselves spoken or written discourse which single unit (collocations, phrasal verbs, diomdiis Any type of (experiential learning) discourse markers) used and recognized by members of a particular culture Word which are written and pronounced the same way but have dfferent meaningsthe central role of Learning approaches that assert the 'whole person' n the learning process Describes thechildren are X is a some or (e.g. Objects that are all part oftaught type of Y all of When school relationship another object face -subjects in anose) their eyes, ears, language that is not their mother tongue system that the learner creates The grammatical when learning a new language Individual segments elements When 2 grammaticalof speech are reversed (Kim is having lunch - words by grammar and habits of Co-occurence of Is Kim having lunch?) associationtake an obligatory compliment (be, Verbs that look, seem, the Alteration offee) form of a word (spoke, speak, speaks) to agree with tense, person and number Smallest meaningful unit in written language The temporary support given to learners while they are learning

Grammar Grammar Grammar Grammar Grammar Grammar Grammar Grammar Grammar Grammar Grammar Grammar Grammar

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Grammar Grammar Grammar Grammar Grammar Grammar Grammar Grammar Grammar Grammar Grammar Grammar

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Grammar 2 Materials 1 Materials 1 Materials 1 Materials 1 Materials 1 Materials 1 Materials 1 Materials 1 Materials 1 Materials 1 Materials 1 Materials 1 Materials 1 Materials 1 ELT Terms 1 ELT Terms 1

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ELT Terms 1 Assessment 1 Assessment 1 Assessment 1 Assessment 1 Assessment 1 Assessment 1 Assessment 1 Assessment 1 Assessment 1 Assessment 1 Assessment 1 Assessment 1 Assessment 1 Assessment 1

Assessment 1 Assessment 1 Speaking 1 Speaking 1 Speaking 1 Speaking 1 Speaking 1 Speaking 1 Speaking 1 Speaking 1

Speaking 1 Speaking 1 Speaking 1 Errors 1 Errors 1 Errors 1 Errors 1 Errors 1 Errors 1 Errors 1 Errors 1 Errors 1 Errors 1 Errors 1 Errors 1 Errors 1 Errors 1 Errors 1 Errors 1 Errors 1 Pronunciation Pronunciation Pronunciation Pronunciation Pronunciation Pronunciation

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Terms Terms Terms Terms Terms Terms Terms Terms Terms Terms Terms Terms Terms Terms Terms Terms Terms Terms Terms Terms Terms Terms Terms Terms Terms Terms Terms Terms Terms Terms Terms Terms Terms Terms Terms Terms Terms Terms Terms Terms Terms Terms Terms Terms Terms Terms

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